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Power Quality Seminars

Power Quality Education and Training

One of the fundamental challenges facing utility and • Adjustable Speed Drive Application
power customer personnel is the need to become Considerations
familiar with and stay informed about issues dealing • Efficient Motor and Drive Application
with power quality. As the utility industry undergoes Considerations
restructuring and as customers find their service needs
changing with increased use of equipment and • Monitoring Power Quality and Solving
processes more susceptible to power system Problems
disturbances, power suppliers and customers alike will • Using Computers to Solve Power Quality
find a solid background in power quality not only Problems
useful, but also necessary for continued productivity • Developing a Power Quality Program
and competitiveness.
• Establishing Benchmarks for Utility Power
Electrotek Concepts® offers a number of seminars Quality Performance
focusing on various aspects of power system
disturbances, monitoring, mitigation technologies, • Power Quality Assurance for High Reliability
simulation and modeling, and power quality program Facilities
development and administration. Aimed at engineers, • Building a Web-based Power Quality
managers, and other technical professionals, these Monitoring System
seminars can either provide you with a base of
knowledge on the subject, or serve as a refresher for We also offer in-house and off-site training for the
new concepts and technologies. SuperHarm®, EMTP, and PSCAD® software packages.
Our training is designed to allow you to progress at
The seminars are designed to be presented at your your own speed, and consists of two or more days of
facility, one of our offices, or off-site at a location of case study analysis and practical applications.
your choosing. These seminars present both a Semiannual workshops can be arranged for continuous
theoretical as well as practical approach. While the training.
seminars feature a set format and agenda, we can
customize them to emphasize certain topics or include Pricing for these seminars varies according to the
additional material. number of days for presentation, number of expected
attendees, and instructor travel costs, if any. Please
Available seminar topics include send e-mail to for information on
• Overview of Power Quality pricing, scheduling, and availability.
• Electric Power Systems Quality Full descriptions for all seminars can be found on the
Internet at
• Distribution Power Quality
Also check our web site for information on seminars
• Contemporary Topics in Power System sponsored by utilities and other organizations.
Notes for selected seminars are available for purchase.
• Utility Capacitor Applications and Concerns
Please visit
• Power Quality in the Industrial Environment for more information.

“Electrotek Concepts” is a registered service mark and “SuperHarm” is a registered trademark of Electrotek Concepts, Inc.
“PSCAD” is a registered trademark of Manitoba HVDC Research Centre.

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Overview of Power Quality
Power quality is a growing concern for a wide range of Wiring and Grounding
customers. Industrial customers can experience Definitions and Terminology
interruptions to important processes during momentary
Wiring and Grounding for Power Quality
voltage sags associated with remote faults on the utility Typical Problems
system. Power factor correction procedures are Problem - Local Area Networks
complicated by harmonics in the plants from adjustable- Problem - High Neutral-Ground Voltages
speed drives (ASDs) and other electronic loads.
Commercial customers are installing high efficiency Harmonics
What are Harmonics?
lighting and electronic office equipment, resulting in Harmonic Producing Loads (ASDs, etc.)
higher harmonic levels in the buildings. These System Response Characteristics
harmonic sources cause excessive neutral currents and Effect of Capacitor Banks
Harmonic Filter Design
transformer overheating. Even residential customers
Impact on Transformer Heating
are concerned about surge protection for sensitive Commercial Building Harmonic Concerns
electronics in the home and the impact of momentary Industrial System Harmonic Concerns
interruptions on their electronic equipment. Harmonic Standards (IEEE 519)
Problem - Capacitors Magnify Harmonics
Problem - Excessive Neutral Currents
Electric utilities are dealing with these problems in a
variety of ways. One of the most important is better Voltage Sags and Interruption Concerns
education of customer service representatives and Voltage Sags vs. Outages
customers themselves. This one-day seminar provides Faults on the Transmission System
Faults on the Distribution System
an overview of the most important industrial and
Motor Starting Events
commercial facility power quality concerns. The Equipment Sensitivity (ASDs, Controls)
seminar is appropriate for customers interested in Utility / Customer / Equipment Solutions
power quality concerns, utility representatives that deal Problem - Process Controller Tripping During Voltage Sags
Problem - Voltage Variations Caused by Variable Load
directly with these customers, and utility engineers.
Transient Overvoltage Concerns
Attendees at this seminar will develop a basic What are Transients and Where Do They Come From?
understanding of important power quality concerns. Capacitor Switching Transients
They will learn about the different categories of power Basic Principles of Overvoltage Protection
Arresters and Surge Suppressors
quality problems being experienced by customers,
Effect of Chokes and Isolation Transformers
methods for analyzing these problems, and possible Problem - Nuisance Tripping of ASDs
solutions. The seminar also provides an overview of Problem - Capacitor Switching Transient Magnification
important standards relating to power quality. Problem - Voltage Notching
Problem - Transients from PWM Inverters
Power Quality Overview Power Quality Monitoring and Site Surveys
What is Power Quality and Why is it Important? Monitoring Objectives
Symptoms of Wiring and Grounding Problems Initial Site Survey
Symptoms of Voltage Sag and Interruption Problems Monitoring Equipment
Symptoms of Harmonic Problems Selection Monitoring Locations
Symptoms of Transient Problems Data Collection
General Approach Data Analysis

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Distribution Power Quality
Electric distribution system power quality is a growing Introduction
concern. Customers require higher quality service due What is Power Quality and Why is it Important?
to more sensitive electronic and computer-controlled What is a Power Quality Problem?
loads. Capacitor switching events and voltage sags Whose Problem is it?
associated with remote faults that never caused Power Quality vs. Reliability
Categories of Variations
problems in the past now cause equipment tripping and
Performing a Site Survey
even failures within customer facilities. Also, customer Symptoms of Power Quality Problems
loads are generating increasing amounts of harmonic
currents that can be magnified on the distribution Impact of System Protection on Power Quality
system due to resonance conditions. Overcurrent Protection
Reclosing Schemes
Electric utilities have addressed these concerns by Voltage Sags vs. Interruptions vs. Outages
establishing programs that can help customers evaluate PQ Aspects of Fault Clearing Practices
problems and develop solutions. However, the solutions Feeder Design for Power Quality
are often not simple because the problems involve
interactions between the power system and the customer Major Distribution System Power Quality Concerns
electrical system and equipment. Lightning Protection
Capacitor Switching Transients
Utility personnel dealing with distribution system Magnification at Customer Buses
design and power quality need to develop an Nuisance Tripping of ASDs
understanding of how events on the distribution system Solutions to Capacitor Switching Problems
can impact customer operations. Key issues include: Voltage Sags & Momentary Interruptions
• How do capacitor switching transients get Voltage Sag Characteristics
Impact of System Protection Practices
magnified in customer plants?
Transmission & Distribution System Analysis
• How can I apply IEEE 519 to evaluate the impact Equipment Sensitivity (ASDs, Controls)
Utility / Customer / Equipment Solutions
of customer loads on distribution system harmonic
levels? Harmonic Distortion Concerns
Harmonic Generation (ASDs, etc.)
• Why is customer equipment so sensitive to voltage System Response Characteristics
sags during remote faults on the power system? Effect of Capacitor Banks
Impact on Transformer Heating
• How do lightning transients get into customer Harmonic Filter Design
facilities? Harmonic Standards (IEEE 519)

• How do I develop a monitoring program for Voltage Regulation

determining power quality levels on my Voltage Flicker
distribution systems?
Seminar attendees will develop a basic understanding of Power Quality Monitoring and Site Surveys
important distribution power quality concerns. They Monitoring Objectives
will learn about the different types of power quality Monitoring Equipment
Transducer Requirements
problems being experienced by customers, methods for
Selecting Monitoring Locations
analyzing these problems, and possible solutions. The Monitor Installation
seminar also provides an overview of important power
quality standards. Summary

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Utility Capacitor Applications
and Concerns
The analysis of utility capacitor switching events often Introduction
requires the use of sophisticated digital simulation Reasons for Capacitor Bank Installations
tools. Simulations provide a convenient means to System Benefits
characterize transient events, determine resulting power Voltage Improvement
quality problems, and evaluate possible mitigation Loss Reduction
Increased System Capacity
methods. Quite often. simulations are performed in
Control of Capacitor Banks
conjunction with system monitoring for verification of Standards for Capacitor Applications
models and identification of important power quality Impact on Power Quality / Customers
concerns. Application considerations include capacitor
bank configurations, insulation withstand levels, Capacitor Bank Design and Protection
switchgear capabilities, grounding, overcurrent Capacitor Ratings
protection, overvoltage protection, energy duties of Capacitor Bank Connections
protective devices, and unbalance detection. Grounding of Capacitor Banks
Capacitor Bank Calculations
There are a number of important transient-related Overcurrent Protection
Back-to-Back Switching / Outrush
concerns when transmission voltage level capacitor
Overvoltage Protection
banks are applied. Transmission system concerns Application of MOV Arresters
include insulation withstand level, switchgear Unbalance Detection
capabilities, energy duties of protective devices, and Example Problems
system harmonic considerations. The considerations
must also be extended to include distribution systems Harmonic Concerns
and sensitive customers. Harmonic Generation (ASDs, etc.)
System Response Characteristics
The capacitor energizing transient is important because Effect of Capacitor Banks
it is one of the most frequent utility switching Effect of Harmonics on Equipment
Harmonic Filter Design
operations. It can produce a high phase-to-phase
Harmonic Standards (IEEE 519)
overvoltage on a terminating transformer, excite circuit Case Studies / Example Problems
resonances resulting in transient voltage magnification
in the secondary voltage networks, or cause problems Transient Disturbances
with sensitive electronic equipment in customer Capacitor Switching Transients
facilities. Control of Switching Transients
Synchronous Closing
Attendees will develop a basic understanding of Preinsertion Devices
important capacitor protection considerations and Prestrike / Restrike Transients
power quality concerns. They will learn about the Phase-to-Phase Transients
different categories of power quality problems being
Case Studies / Example Problems
experienced by customers, methods for analyzing these
problems, and possible solutions. The seminar also Impact of Capacitors on Power Quality
provides an overview of important standards relating to Magnification at Customer Buses
the application of capacitor banks. Controlling Transients with Harmonic Filters
Nuisance Tripping of ASDs
Effect of Chokes and Isolation Transformers
Case Studies / Example Problems


Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Electric Power Systems Quality
This two-day seminar is based on the McGraw-Hill book Transient Overvoltages
Electric Power Systems Quality, coauthored by Roger Sources of Transient Overvoltages
Dugan, Surya Santoso, Mark McGranaghan, and Wayne Principles of Overvoltage Protection
Devices for Overvoltage Protection
Beatty. Utility Capacitor Switching Transients
Utility Lightning Protection
Increased awareness of power quality issues has created Load-Switching Transient Problems
a need for utilities and their customers to become better Computer Tools for Transients Analysis
informed. Power quality concepts, causes, and
solutions are explored during this in-depth overview of Harmonic Distortion
power quality. Voltage vs. Current Distortion
Harmonics vs. Transients
As technology becomes more advanced, equipment has Total Harmonic Distortion and rms Value
Power and Power Factor
become more sensitive to fluctuations in voltage along Triplen Harmonics
the distribution line. New equipment that increases Single-Phase Power Supplies
productivity for a plant may also cause power quality Three-Phase Power Converters
problems for other equipment down the line. Power Arcing Devices
Saturable Devices
quality is now viewed from a systems perspective rather Effects of Harmonic Distortion
than as an isolated instrument problem. Understanding System Response Characteristics
the entire scope of the problem helps in identifying the Principles for Controlling Harmonics
Locating Sources of Harmonics
solution and preventing future occurrences.
Devices for Filtering Harmonic Distortion
Harmonic Study Procedure
This seminar is targeted toward electric utility customer Symmetrical Components
Modeling Harmonic Sources
account managers and technical staff, industrial plant Harmonic Filter Design
engineers, and other key stakeholders. Telecommunications Interference
Computer Tools for Harmonics Analysis
What is Power Quality?
Long-Duration Voltage Variations
Why are We Concerned about Power Quality? Principles of Regulating the Voltage
Devices for Voltage Regulation
Utility Voltage Regulator Application
Terms and Definitions Capacitors for Voltage Regulation
Transients End-User Capacitor Application
Long-Duration/Short-Duration Voltage Variations Regulating Utility Voltage with Dispersed Sources
Voltage Imbalance
Waveform Distortion
Voltage Fluctuation
Wiring and Grounding
Power Frequency Variations Definitions
Power Quality Terms and Ambiguous Terms Reasons for Grounding
CBEMA Curve Typical Wiring and Grounding Problems
Solutions to Wiring and Grounding Problems
Voltage Sags and Interruptions
Sources of Sags and Interruptions Monitoring Power Quality
Areas of Vulnerability Site Survey
Fundamental Principles of Protection Detailed Power Quality Monitoring
End-User Issues Power Quality Measurement Equipment
Motor Starting Sags Summary of Equipment Capabilities
Utility System Fault-Clearing Issues

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Power Quality in the
Industrial Environment
Power quality is increasingly important to industrial Introduction
customers as process operations and facilities depend Why is Power Quality Important?
What are Power Quality Problems?
upon sensitive electronic equipment. Momentary
Whose Problem is it?
voltage sags caused by remote faults on the utility Power Quality Definitions
system result in equipment dropouts that affect entire
processes. Increasing application of adjustable speed Characteristics of Industrial Loads
drives is resulting in higher harmonic distortion levels Motors
and an increased potential exists for resonances with
Process and Machine Controls
power factor correction capacitors. Transient Harmonic Generation
overvoltages caused by capacitor switching and Sensitivity to Disturbances
switching operations within the plant can cause Power Factor Correction
component failures and misoperation in sensitive
equipment. Voltage Sag Concerns
Voltage Sags vs. Outages
Faults on the Transmission System
This seminar provides a basic level of understanding for Faults on the Distribution System
critical power quality problems being experienced by Effect of Fault Location
Equipment Sensitivity (ASDs, Controls)
industrial customers. Key characteristics of industrial
Area of Vulnerability
loads (sensitivity to disturbances, harmonic generation) Improving Voltage Sag Ride Through
are described, along with the impacts of utility
operations. Harmonics Concerns
Harmonic Generation (ASDs, etc.)
System Response Characteristics
Most importantly, this seminar covers approaches for
Effect of Capacitor Banks
solving power quality problems. Equipment sensitivity Impact on Transformer Heating
to voltage sags and momentary interruptions can often Harmonic Filter Design
be improved with proper protection of control circuits. Harmonic Standards (IEEE 519)
This seminar presents harmonic filter design
procedures for power factor correction and harmonic Transient Overvoltage Concerns
Capacitor Switching Transients
control and describes methods for controlling transient Magnification at Customer Buses
voltages both on the utility system and at sensitive Nuisance Tripping of ASDs
loads. Controlling Transients with Harmonic Filters
Arresters and Surge Suppressors
Voltage Notching
This seminar is ideal for industrial customers, as well Effect of Chokes and Isolation Transformers
as utility engineers and customer representatives that
must deal with compatibility between the utility power Power Quality Measurements/Monitoring
system and modern day industrial loads. Attendees will Monitoring Instruments
Site Survey Procedures
learn how to identify problems using measurements and
Analyzing and Reporting Survey Results
analytical methods, and will learn key techniques for Maintaining a Power Quality Database
solving the problems.
Example Case Study - ASD Applications
Sensitivity to Voltage Sags
Controlling Harmonic Levels
Power Factor Correction
Capacitor Switching/Magnification Concerns
Nuisance Tripping Concerns

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Adjustable Speed Drive
Application Considerations
Applications for adjustable speed motor drives (ASDs) ASD Applications
are dramatically increasingly at all customer levels. Fans
The applications in industrial facilities for process Compressors
controls and improved efficiencies are particularly Process Controls
important. The power quality implications associated Other
with these devices must be carefully considered. Since
they use power electronics for the power conversion, Types and Characteristics of Adjustable Speed
they are significant sources of disturbances and Drives
DC Motor Drives
harmonic distortion on the system. Also, the controls Synchronous Motor Drives
and the power electronic components for the ASD can Induction Motor Drives (CSI, VSI, PWM)
be particularly sensitive to power quality variations.
Economic Considerations
The application of ASDs is one of the major reasons for Energy Efficiency
Equipment Reliability
increased customer concern over power quality. This Product Quality/Process Control
one day seminar was developed to introduce the major
application considerations for adjustable speed drives so ASD Power Quality Requirements
that power quality requirements for these devices can be Component Ratings
intelligently evaluated. ASD characteristics will be Surge Protection
Control System Requirements
described and important considerations for transients,
voltage sags, interruptions, and harmonic distortion Impact of ASDs on Power Quality
levels will be discussed. Many ASD problems are Harmonic Generation
localized within customer facilities. However, some of Voltage Notching Due to Power Electronics
the problems can be associated with utility switching Starting Characteristics
operations or harmonic distortion levels. These must be
Interface Considerations
understood and carefully evaluated. Lightning Transients from the Utility System
Capacitor Switching on the Utility System
This seminar is targeted towards utility personnel Customer Capacitor Applications
dealing with customer power quality problems or Voltage Sags/ Motor Starting
Harmonic Control
customers involved with the application of adjustable
speed motor drives. Attendees will gain an Power Quality Problem Solutions
understanding of the different types of adjustable speed Isolation Transformers
drives and their interface requirements. Concerns for Surge Protection
utility/customer system interaction will be covered in Switching Control
Component Ratings
detail. Methods for solving power quality problems, Harmonic Filters
including isolation transformers, surge protection, Voltage Regulation
switching procedures, filters, and appropriate ASD
components, will also be presented. ASD Application Case Studies

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Efficient Motor and Drive
Application Considerations
Energy-efficient motor and drive systems are being Introduction
applied in increasing numbers. Often these Motor Applications
Motor Types
technologies are applied for energy conservation and
Motor Sales
cost reduction reasons, but many industries are Technologies for Improved Efficiency
recognizing the benefits of improved process Energy Efficient Motors
performance, better interface with microprocessor ASDs
controllers, and superior system characteristics which
accompany many energy-efficient motor systems Energy Efficient Motor Performance
Efficiency Definition
installations. Motor Losses
Purchase Price vs. Running Cost
Energy-efficient motors typically cost 15 to 30 percent Motor Efficiency Comparison
Motor Efficiency Testing
more than standard efficiency motors, but this
Motor Rewinding
difference in purchase price can usually be recouped in Abnormal Operating Conditions
less than two years for new installations. In addition,
energy-efficient motors can be economically justified for ASD Performance
replacement of failed standard motors which would Types of ASDs
ASD Efficiency
otherwise have to be rewound.
Proper Application of ASDs
Power Quality Considerations
In applications with varying load conditions, even more
significant savings can be obtained through application Economics
of electronic variable-speed technologies. These Utility Rate Structure
Load Factor Calculations
technologies must be carefully applied, taking into
Energy Savings due to Efficient Motors
account possible power quality problems and control Energy Savings due to ASDs
system requirements. Economic Analysis of Alternatives
Motor Surveys
This one-day seminar serves as an introduction to
motor and drive applications for increasing energy System Considerations
Selecting Motors for Application
efficiency and improve process performance. Selecting Drives for Application
Experienced instructors present an overview of the
types of technologies that can be used, along with Case Studies
specific characteristics and application considerations
of each technology. Particular emphasis is placed on
economic evaluations and power quality enhancements.

This seminar is targeted towards utility engineers and

marketing representatives, building and industrial
designers, plant maintenance and production personnel,
commercial customers, electrical contractors, and motor
and drive vendors and manufacturers. Attendees will
learn how to assess economic benefits of motor and
drive technologies and how to apply motor systems and
drives effectively and efficiently.

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Contemporary Topics in
Power System Harmonics
Harmonic distortion on the utility power system and Fundamentals
within customer facilities is a growing concern. The Increasing Concerns from Harmonics
increasing application of power electronic equipment Voltage Distortion vs. Current Distortion
with the potential to generate harmonic current Characteristics of Various Sources
components, combined with changing power system
characteristics, is creating higher distortion levels Effects on Equipment
Neutral Wiring Concerns
throughout the system. Harmonic distortion problems
Effects on Power Factor
include equipment overheating, motor failures,
Effects on Metering Equipment
capacitor fuse blowings, excessive neutral currents
K-Factor and Transformer Derating
within buildings, and inaccurate power metering. Cable and Motor Derating

The past few years have seen an explosion of new ideas Application of IEEE 519-1992
for dealing with these concerns. An IEEE committee The Intent of the Current Limits
has been discussing how to apply the new current limits Measurement Criteria
of IEEE-519. The National Electric Code has revised Industrial Plant Case Study
the standards for neutral wiring due to switch mode Survey of Various Utility Company Practices
computer power supplies. The industry now markets
"K-Factor" transformers. European standards lead the European Standards for Harmonics
way for imposing limits on individual electrical devices. IEC 555
New computer software techniques allow for easier IEC 1000-2-2
analysis of harmonics problems. And, active power line
Cenelec (BTTF 68-6) EuroNorm
conditioners have become available.
Methods for Reducing Harmonics
This seminar is offered for anyone who has an interest 6-Pulse and 12-Pulse
in the topic of harmonics. Electrotek personnel Harmonic Filters
participate in IEEE, IAS, IEC, and other standards Active Power Line Conditioners
committees, and are on the "front line" of new thinking
and technology in this area. Harmonics Analysis
Modelling Harmonic Sources
Hand Calculations
Computer Methods
Total Plant 5th Harmonic Current

(% of Max Plant Load Current)

Type 1 Current Waveform

Type 2 Current Waveform


IEEE 519 Limit (7%)

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0% 100.0%

ASD Loading as % of Max Plant Load

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Monitoring Power Quality
and Solving Problems
Electric power quality has become a strategic concern Introduction
for electric utilities and their customers. Sensitive What is Power Quality?
electronic equipment places new requirements on What Causes Power Quality Disturbances?
customer power systems. Due to restructuring of the
electric power industry, many utilities are recognizing Types of Power Quality Problems
the need to provide improved services to their key Voltage Sags
customers. This seminar presents an overview on Interruptions
identifying and solving end user power quality Harmonics
Switching and Lightning Transients

The seminar provides practical measures for providing Site Survey Procedures
power quality services to end users. It includes site What to Look For
surveys, monitoring power quality, analyzing How to Set Monitoring Thresholds
Where to Monitor
measurement results, and solving power quality
Case Histories
problems. It describes the processes that many utilities
and customers are employing to prevent, identify, and Monitoring Equipment
solve these problems. Types of Equipment Available
Guidelines for Using Monitoring Equipment

The seminar includes several case histories. This Monitoring PQ on a Utility System
seminar is targeted towards utility personnel, including Selecting Sites
management, customer account managers, and Statistical Analysis of Data
Providing Data to Customers
technical staff who want a better understanding of
Using the Internet
power quality. Customers will also find this seminar
beneficial. Solving Wiring and Grounding Problems
Characteristics of Voltage Sags
Equipment Sensitivity to Voltage Sags
Power Conditioning for Voltage Sags
Case Histories

Solving Overvoltage Transient Problems

Causes of Overvoltage Transients
Transient Voltage Surge Suppressors
Case Histories

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Using Computers to Solve
Power Quality Problems
Simulation tools are a powerful way to analyze power Introduction:
quality problems, and explore "what if" scenarios. Overview of Power Quality Concerns
Installing a capacitor bank in the field, only to find out Power Quality Analysis Using PCs
Overview of Software Tools / Solution Methods
that it causes major problems, can be an expensive
exercise. Simulations can determine problems before Solving Harmonic Problems:
any action is taken. Sources of Harmonic Disturbances
System Response Characteristics
This course provide an overview of using computer Minimizing Harmonic Disturbances
Impact of IEEE Standard 519-1992
simulations to understand and study power quality
Computer Software (SuperHarm®) Discussion / Lab Exercises
phenomena. It focuses on two different types of
computer simulation studies: harmonics and transients. Solving Transient Problems:
Sources of Transient Disturbances
Harmonic studies are performed to evaluate resonances Developing an Appropriate System Model
Conversion of Power System Data to EMTP Format
caused by power factor correction banks, to compute
Examples of Transient Disturbances - Case Studies
the additive effects of various harmonic loads, and to Computer Software (EMTP) Discussion / Lab Exercises
perform IEEE-519 compliance calculations. This
seminar will show how harmonic loads are represented,
how power delivery systems are modeled, and how this
process is used for IEEE-519 evaluations. Example
case histories are presented showing harmonic
resonance caused by power factor correction capacitors,
the effect of phase angle cancellation using delta-wye
transformers, and the design of harmonic filters.

Transient studies are performed to study the response of

power systems to switching operations, load rejection,
power electronic modeling, and control system
dynamics. Emphasis is placed on the use of the
Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP), with
several case histories showing how capacitor bank
switching, breaker restriking, and power electronic
devices can be simulated.

Together, these studies provide important tools for the

power quality engineer to evaluate What happened?
What can be done about preventing it? and What is the
best solution?

"SuperHarm" is a registered trademark of Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Developing a Power
Quality Program
A growing number of utilities are recognizing that Introduction
customer satisfaction and productivity depend on an Importance of Power Quality
electric supply reliable enough to operate the new types Changing Nature of Customer Loads
of microprocessor-controlled equipment being installed. Consequences for the Utility
In order to support these customer, many utilities have Available Utility Responses
initiated programs to help evaluate and solve power
Program Scope
quality problems in customer facilities.
Program Objectives (Service, Load Growth, Profit)
Customer Interface
Developing a power quality program involves many Education and Training
important decisions regarding structure, funding, Monitoring and Site Surveys
personnel and customer interaction. Different Solutions to Power Quality Problems
alternatives must be evaluated and important questions
related to program options, types of services, Organizational Analysis
organizational structure, market needs, program costs, Overall Structure
staffing, training needs, equipment requirements, and Customer Service Functions
performance measuring must be answered. The Marketing Functions
Engineering Functions
answers to these questions must be developed through
Legal/Regulatory Considerations
market analysis, customer surveys, analysis of technical
and training requirements, analysis of existing Market Research
organizational structure, and company preferences. Market Size
Market Structure
This seminar is designed to provide the background so Customer Characteristics
that these decisions can be made in an intelligent Competitive Position
manner. This seminar is also valuable for utility Other Factors
personnel responsible for existing power quality Marketing Strategies
programs who are interested in revising or expanding
their programs. Ideal attendees include supervisor- or Developing a Business Plan
Need for the Program
managerial-level personnel who will be responsible for
Program Objectives
directing and implementing power quality programs. Market Analysis/Marketing Strategy
Attendance is limited in size so that a workshop Description of Products and Services
atmosphere can be used to arrive at answers to these Organizational Structure
important questions for individual utility situations. Financial Projections

Getting Started
Personnel Requirements
Equipment Requirements
Training Requirements
Program Review

Case Studies of Existing Power Quality Programs

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Establishing Benchmarks for
Utility Power Quality Performance
Deregulation of the electric industry is creating a This seminar provides background and basic
greater need to define the quality of power being methodology and tools required to benchmark your
provided at all levels of the utility power system. power quality performance.
Transmission companies must define the quality of
power being delivered at points of common coupling It should be of interest to utility engineers and
with distributors. Distribution companies must define managers evaluating the role of the utility organization
the quality of power at points of common coupling with in the deregulated marketplace. The seminar will also
customers. Customers must understand the expected be of interest to customers that may need to evaluate
levels of power quality, along with the characteristics of power quality levels as part of supply contract
the equipment used within their own facility. negotiations or site selection.

Once the power quality characteristics are understood, Monitoring Requirements

contracts for premium power services, power Where to Monitor
conditioning technologies, and performance monitoring Monitoring Duration and Methodology
can be developed. End users can evaluate the Data Collection and Analysis Systems
economics of different alternatives for achieving the Indices for Describing Performance
quality of power required to optimize their operations. Results from Benchmarking Efforts from
Around the World
Initial benchmarking studies were performed by EPRI Standards for Expected Power Quality Levels
for distribution system power quality. Efforts are Other Benefits Associated with Benchmarking
currently under way to understand transmission system Power Quality
power quality. Standards continue to be developed that
specify required equipment performance (the
semiconductor industry is the latest example).

What are the indices being used to characterize power

quality levels? What is required to benchmark power
quality levels? What monitoring systems are available
to characterize power quality and also provide
information to improve system performance? What are
the economics of different alternatives for improving
power quality? How can contracts be structured to
avoid conflicts associated with power quality levels?
What standards are in place around the world related to
expected power quality levels?

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Building a Web-Based Power
Quality Monitoring System
Monitoring power system performance and assessing This seminar provides the background information and
power quality continues to grow in importance as the basic methodology to design, implement, and
electric utility industry moves towards deregulation. administer web-based power quality monitoring
With the global economy increasingly based on systems. It should be of interest to utility and customer
computers and other technology sensitive to power personnel considering or undertaking power quality
interruptions, there is a renewed emphasis on reliable monitoring programs.
power, spurring further interest in power quality
monitoring. There are many important reasons for
tracking power quality levels, including.
Power Quality Monitoring Basics
· Event notification
Requirements for Development of a Web-based
· Identifying problem conditions on the power
Monitoring System
· Prioritizing and setting maintenance and Communication Systems
reinforcement priorities Data Collection and Management
· Marketing and delivering enhanced power quality
Data Analysis
· Administering power quality (“premium power”) Presentation of Information and Analyses
contracts Case Studies

The Internet and the World Wide Web have emerged as

the primary means of sharing information between
businesses, and company intranets have become the
norm in information exchange within the organization.
Sharing and viewing information about the power
quality on the utility system or within a facility is no
exception to this trend. More and more options are
emerging for access to power quality information
through a simple Web browser. Ranging from
relatively simple installations of instruments with web-
interface capability to complex systems with large
numbers of instruments and extensive data-processing
functionality, these options provide a number of choices
for utilities and power customers seeking to use the
Internet to monitor power quality.

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Power Quality Assurance for
High Reliability Facilities
In the world of high reliability, an outage begins after 4 Introduction
milliseconds and it can cost as much as $6 million/hour Defining power quality and reliability – high reliability vs. other
in downtime. It is now estimated that power quality loads
The nature and impact of power quality events – high
and reliability breakdowns could account for $100 reliability vs. other loads
billion/year in losses in the U.S. alone. In short, high
reliability facilities must operate 24 x 7 x forever, Site Selection and Evaluation of Power
attaining higher and higher degrees of reliability (five Requirements
nines and above) and produce “perfect” sine waves to Quality of supply from the grid
Power density requirements
maintain operations.
Demand and energy costs

Achieving high power quality and reliability in today’s Designing Facilities for High Reliability
energy-constrained climate is a growing challenge. Single point of failure analysis for power systems
Risk assessment – Mean time between failure vs. mean time
This is especially true for data centers that are now
to repair
requiring power densities in the 100-200 watts/ft2 Power quality and reliability assessments
range. Complicating this situation is the reality that
power providers must meet this demand with Power Conditioning, Storage and Backup
infrastructure that is exceeding capacity. To help Generating Systems
ensure reliable power, facility operators are Technology options
Redundancy configurations
implementing power storage and backup generation
Economic analysis
technologies, often in redundant configurations. This
can help ensure power reliability, but can impact both Some Power Quality Concerns to Consider
facility and utility power systems. Harmonic interactions of loads within the facility – do you
need filters?
Transient interactions within the facility – optimum surge
Achieving high power quality and reliability in today's suppression strategies
energy-constrained climate is a growing challenge. Capacitor switching transients and variable speed drives
Electrotek Concepts, in partnership with Dranetz-BMI, Voltage regulation, undervoltage and unbalance
Motor starting voltages and currents – facility impacts
a leading supplier of power monitoring solutions, and
Bruns-Pak, a data center design/build firm, has Monitoring and Managing High Reliability
developed this seminar to address the most important Facilities
power quality and reliability concerns for facilities Tools and instrumentation for problem solving
Monitoring systems
where downtime is not an option.
Where to monitor?
System benchmarking and ongoing performance monitoring
This one-day seminar is targeted towards managers and Expert systems to identify possible problems
engineers of data centers and other facilities with high
reliability requirements. Typically, this seminar is Case Studies
offered in partnership with a utility or other
organization for presentation to customers, employees,
and other interested groups. For more information or to
schedule a presentation, contact Electrotek today.

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223
Power Quality Workbook Workshop
Based on “The Power Quality Workbook for Utility and Industrial Applications”

Power quality is an increasing concern for electric utilities

and customers alike. Power quality issues are complex
and can rapidly change, requiring utility and customer
personnel to continually keep up to date. EPRI®,
Bonneville Power Administration, and Electrotek
Concepts® developed the Power Quality Workbook
Workshop, based on The Power Quality Workbook for
Utility and Industrial Applications. This workbook and
workshop help utilities and customers understand power
quality disturbances and prepare them to analyze and
resolve these problems. The workbook and workshop
also address transmission and distribution
interconnection agreements, power system design and
construction specifications, and power quality contracts
for customers.
We offer this workshop on a cooperative basis with
electric power utilities and other companies and
organizations around the U.S. and the world. You
schedule the workshop at a time and place of your
choosing and invite employees and customers to attend.
We provide the instructors, all workshop materials, and
customized materials to help promote the seminar to
prospective attendees. Costs can be borne by you or
shared with your customers.
Seminar Scope
This seminar is targeted towards power quality engineers and customer service representatives at electric utilities, as
well as industrial facility managers. The seminar covers the most important power quality concerns affecting
industrial facilities, especially concerns that involve interaction with the electric utility network.
Easy-to-use worksheets are provided for evaluating these concerns. The seminar emphasizes preventing power
quality problems before they occur. It describes analytical tools for more detailed investigations, and covers
monitoring requirements to characterize problems and system performance, with a special focus on energy-efficient
devices such as adjustable speed drives. The seminar describes a full range of solutions for each type of problem,
and covers the economic aspects of applying these solutions.
Finally, attendees are provided examples of contract agreements and equipment specifications that focus on defining
the quality of power requirements in order to avoid problems.
The Outline
Introduction Equipment Sensitivity to Voltage Sags and
• Objectives of the course Momentary Interruptions
• Why power quality keeps growing in • Causes of voltage sags and voltage sag
importance characteristics
• Using the course material to prevent power • Characterizing equipment sensitivity - when
quality problems before they occur sags cause problems
Power Quality Definitions • Finding the most economical solution
• IEEE definitions for different types of PQ Controlling Transient Overvoltage Problems
variations • Transient overvoltages caused by lightning
• Monitoring Power Quality • Transients caused by capacitor switching
• Examples of the different types of problems • Surge protection procedures
The Power Quality Evaluation Procedure Evaluating Voltage Regulation and Voltage
• Standardizing the investigation of PQ Unbalance Concerns
problems • Causes of voltage variations and unbalance
• Role of measurements, monitoring projects • Motor heating due to unbalanced voltages
• Role of simulations, analytical tools. • Power conditioning for voltage regulation
• Who needs to be involved Some Wiring and Grounding Problems to Watch
Identifying and Solving Harmonic Problems For
• Sources of harmonic distortion to watch out • A general site survey procedure - identifying
for wiring and grounding problems
• Evaluation with respect to IEEE 519 limits • Grounding for safety vs. grounding for noise
• Rules for identifying possible problem control
situations • The most common problems and how to
• Solutions to harmonic distortion problems avoid them
Example Cases

For more information on scheduling or pricing, please contact Electrotek Concepts

“EPRI” is a registered service mark of the Electric Power Research Institute

“Electrotek Concepts” is a registered service mark of Electrotek Concepts, Inc.

Electrotek Concepts • 9040 Executive Park Drive, Suite 222 • Knoxville, TN 37923
Phone: 865•470•9222 Fax: 865•470•9223