assemblers, especially Bumiputera, to enter the market, thus reducing the price of IBS components.

MC will facilitate open industrialization.

(iii) A screening and selection program based in IBS standard components will ensure that low quality products are not marketed in the country and this prevents the dumping of foreign IBS products in Malaysia. This aspect is important to avoid failures in IBS projects

(iv) By reducing wet-trades through IBS, the dependency on foreign workers will also diminish, thus gaining the billions of Ringgit currently being transferred out by the foreign workers to their home countries and reducing inherent social problems involving these foreign workers. 2.11 IBS CONTENT SCORING SYSTEM (IBS SCORE)

As regulatory requirements such as ³minimum percentage of utilisation of IBS in government building projects´ and encouragements such as ³CIDB Levy exemptions for a minimum percentage IBS utilisation´ have been put forward, a system for IBS content assessment is needed.

The IBS Content Scoring System (IBS Score) is a systematic and structured assessment system that can be used to measure the usage of Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) in a consistent way. The IBS Scoring System emphasizes on the following attributes:

i) The use of prefabricated and precast components ii) Off-site production of components iii) The use standardized components iv) Repeatability v) Design using Modular Coordination concept Higher IBS Score is a reflection of a more reduction of site labour, lower wastage, less site materials, cleaner environment, better quality, neater and safer construction sites,

faster project completion as well as lower total construction costs. The detail information about IBS Score, methods of calculating IBS Score as well as sample calculation are included in Manual for IBS Content Scoring System (IBS Score) published by CIDB. 2.12 BARRIERS TO THE ADOPTION OF IBS IN MALAYSIA

A survey undertaken by CIDB in 2003 found that only mere 15% used IBS in the local construction industry. According to Waleed A.M. Thanoon et al. (2003) the reasons of slow adoption of IBS in Malaysia are:

vii) Many architects and engineers still unaware of the basis element of IBS such as modular co-ordination. contractors and engineers still lack of scientific information about the economic benefits of IBS. These factors are very important in implementing the Ninth Malaysia Plan. high interest rate and cheap labour cost make it hard to justify large capital investment and it is easier to lay off workers during slack period. The main reason to recommend the use of IBS in Malaysia is that the raw materials used in the IBS have to be produced locally in order to overcome the shortages that are being faced by the IBS construction industry. ii) A high degree of precision is required in fully prefabricated construction system while Malaysia still lack of skilled workers. . precast frame. precast floor and hollow core slab. speed of construction. The main disadvantages of the IBS in Malaysia are that they are highly capital intensive and there is a need for experts at the construction site for some of them. This make the agreement on the utilisation of IBS during planning stage difficult to be achieved. and cost savings are the main advantages of these systems. Utilisation of IBS in Japan and Sweden are so successful due to projects constructed with IBS are high quality and high productivity. iv) Majorities of IBS in Malaysia are imported from developed countries and thus drive up the cost. Quality. v) The economic benefits of IBS are not well documented in Malaysia. sandwich panel. The owners. iii) Too many parties involve in construction industries.i) Inconsistent of houses demand. CONCLUSION There are many types of IBS existing in Malaysia: formwork precast load bearing wall panel. block panel. vi) Most projects constructed with IBS in Malaysia were low quality and high construction cost. These IBS represent most of the IBS that exist worldwide. and steel frame.

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