Computer Networks UNIT-6 | Network Packet | Error Detection And Correction

Course Semester Subject Code Subject Name Unit number Unit Title

: BCA : IV : BC 0048 : Computer Networks :6 : Data Link Layer

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Data Link Layer

Objectives

After going through the presentation, you should be able to:

‡ Describe Design issues of data link layer. ‡ Discuss Error Detection and correction ‡ Describe data link layer protocols.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Data Link Layer

Lecture outline
‡ Introduction

‡

Design issues of DLL

‡

Error Detection and Correction

‡

Data Link Layer Protocols

‡

Summary

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Introduction

‡ The data link layer is the second layer from bottom of the seven-layer OSI model

‡ It responds to service requests from the network layer. It issues service requests to the physical layer. This is the layer, which transfers data between adjacent network nodes in a wide area network or between nodes on the same local area network segment.

‡ The data link layer provides the functional and procedural means to transfer data between network entities and might provide the means to detect and possibly correct errors that may occur in the Physical layer. ‡ The data link layer is split into MAC and LLC sub layers.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

‡ The data link layer takes the packets from the network layer and encapsulates bit stream into units called frames for transmission.

‡ Each frame contains a frame header, a payload field for holding the packet, and a frame trailer.

‡ The DLL design issues are listed below:

‡ In general, provide service to the network layer. The network layer wants to be able to send packets to its neighbors without worrying about the details of getting it there in one piece.

‡ Framing: Encapsulating the packets

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

‡

Sender checksums the frame and sends checksum together with data. The checksum allows the receiver to determine when a frame has been damaged in transit.

‡

Receiver recomputes the checksum and compares it with the received value. If they differ, an error has occurred and the frame is discarded.

‡

Perhaps return a positive or negative acknowledgment to the sender. A positive acknowledgment indicates the frame was received without errors, while a negative acknowledgment indicates the opposite.

‡

Flow control

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Services provided to the network layer :
The function of the data link layer is to provide services to the network layer. The principal service is transferring data from the network layer on the source machine to the network layer on the destination machine.

Other services provided to the network layer are ‡ The network layer is interested in getting messages to the corresponding network layer module on an adjacent machine. ‡ The remote Network Layer peer should receive the identical message generated by the sender . ‡ The Network Layer wants to be sure that all messages it sends, will be delivered correctly (e.g., none lost, no corruption).

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Services provided to the network layer :
The DLL provides three types of services

1. 2. 3.

Unacknowledged connectionless service Acknowledged connectionless service Acknowledged connection-oriented service

4.

Unacknowledged connectionless service :

This service consists of having the source machine send independent frames to the destination machine without having the destination machine acknowledge them. No logical connection is established

beforehand or released afterward. If a frame is lost due to noise on the line, no attempt is made to detect the loss or recover from it in the DLL.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Services provided to the network layer :
2. Acknowledged connectionless service : Here no logical connections are used, but each frame is individually

acknowledged.

Thus the sender knows whether a frame is been delivered to the destination or not. If the acknowledgement has not arrived within a specified period then the frame is retransmitted.

This service is useful over unreliable channels, such as wireless system.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Services provided to the network layer :
3. Acknowledged connection-oriented service : This service is the most sophisticated service of DLL. With this service the source and destination machines establish a connection before any data are transferred. Each frame sent is indeed received. Each frame sent over the connection is numbered. It guarantees that each frame sent is received. Again this services calls for the three phases:
±Connection establishment: where source and destination stations initializes variables and counters or buffers required for the data transfer or to keep track of received frames etc. ±Data transfer: frames are actually transmitted Connection termination: where a connection is released.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Framing :
The DLL translates the physical layer's raw bit stream into discrete units (messages) called frames. That is because the physical layer just accepts a raw bit stream and to deliver it to the destination. This bit stream is not guaranteed to be error free. The number of bits received may be less than, equal to, or more than the number of bits transmitted. They may also have different values. It is up to DLL to detect and if necessary correct errors. If not correct at least detect errors and take proper action like ask for retransmission etc. The usual approach of DLL is to break the bit stream up into discrete frames and then for the purpose of error detection or correction, it uses some coding technique

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Error control :

Error control is concerned with insuring that all frames are eventually delivered and possibly in order to a destination as they are sent from the source. Reliable delivery is achieved using the ``acknowledgments with

retransmission¶¶. Here the receiver returns a special acknowledgment (ACK) frame to the sender indicating the correct receipt of a frame. In some systems, the receiver also returns a negative acknowledgment (NACK) for incorrectly-received frames. This is nothing more than a hint to the sender so that it can retransmit a frame right away without waiting for a timer to expire.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Flow control :

Flow control deals with throttling the speed of the sender to match that of the receiver. Usually, this is a dynamic process, as the receiving speed depends on such changing factors as the load, and availability of buffer space.

There are two approaches 1. feedback-based flow control 2. rate based flow control

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Design issues of DLL

Flow control : ( continued«)

1.

Feedback-based flow control : in this

the receiver sends back

information to the sender giving it permission to send more data or at least telling the sender how the receiver is doing.

‡

2. Rate based flow control: In this

the protocol has a built in

mechanism that limits the rate at which senders may transmit the data without using feedback from the receiver.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Error Detection and Correction
There are two types of attacks against errors: Error Detecting Codes: Include enough redundancy bits to detect errors and use ACKs and retransmissions to recover from the errors. Error Correcting Codes: Include enough redundancy to detect and correct errors. To understand and deal with errors, we consider the following some of the terms and conventions used: 1. Messages (frames) consist of m data (message) bits and r redundancy bits, yielding an n = (m+r)-bit codeword. Hamming Distance: Given any two codewords, we can determine how many of the bits differ. Simply exclusive or (XOR) the two words, and count the number of 1 bits in the result.

2.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Error Detection and Correction

3. Significance? If two codewords are d bits apart, d errors are required to convert one to the other.

4. A code's Hamming Distance is defined as the minimum Hamming Distance between any two of its legal codewords (from all possible codewords).

5. n general, all

possible data words are legal. However, by choosing

check bits carefully, the resulting codewords will have a large Hamming Distance. The larger the Hamming distance, the better able the code can detect errors.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Error Detection and Correction

Parity Bits : parity: A single parity bit is appended to each data block (e.g. each character in ASCII systems) so that the number of 1 bits always adds up to an even (odd) number. If the total number of bits including the appended bit is even, the parity bit appended is called even parity. Similarly, If the total number of bits including the appended bit is odd, the parity bit appended is called odd parity of even parity: Data is 1000000 After using even parity the code becomes 10000001 Data is 1111101 After using even parity the code becomes 11111010

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Data Link Layer Protocols

Various transmission control protocol are ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Asynchronous DLC protocols (ADLC) Binary Synchronous protocol (Bisync or BSC) Synchronous DLC (SDLC) High Level DLC (HDLC)

‡

Asynchronous DLC protocols :

An asynchronous DLC protocol is primarily used for low speed data communication. Framing is done at byte level. Framing start bit a µ0¶ bit & Stop µ1¶ bit. Often parity is used for each character.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Data Link Layer Protocols

‡

Binary Synchronous protocol (Bisync or BSC) :

Binary Synchronous protocol (Bisync or BSC) is developed by IBM in 1966, and is also a byte oriented protocol.

It organizes data into block of 512 characters. Receiver transmits positive acknowledgement (ACK) or Negative acknowledgement (NAK).

It supports error checking on block checking character (BCC). Receiver calculates BCC independently and compares the block for error.

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Data Link Layer Protocols

‡

Synchronous Data Link control (SDLC) Protocol :

SDLC developed again by IBM in mid of 1970¶s to supports high speed transmission. It is a Bit oriented protocol & can support either half duplex or Full duplex modes of transmission.] It uses Cyclic Redundant Code, known as FCS for error detection.

‡

High-level Data Link Control(HDLC) Protocol

HDLC is adopted as part of X.25. It is Bit oriented that is it uses bit stuffing and bit delimiters. It uses 3-bit sequence numbers and up to 7 unacknowledged frames can be outstanding at any time

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Unit-6 Data link Layer

Summary
‡ The data link layer is the second layer from bottom of the sevenlayer OSI model. ‡ ‡ The data link layer is split into MAC and LLC sub layers. The data link layer takes the packets from the network layer and encapsulates bit stream into units called frames for transmission. ‡ If the total number of bits including the appended bit is even, the parity bit appended is called even parity. ‡ The most popular error detection code is polynomial codes or cyclic redundancy codes (CRCs). ‡ Most common Data Link Layer Protocols are

Asynchronous DLC protocols(ADLC), Binary Synchronous protocol (Bisync or BSC), Synchronous DLC (SDLC) and High Level DLC (HDLC)

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