Course

: BCA

Semester

: IV

Subject Code

: BC 0048

Subject Name

: Computer Networks

Unit number

:7

Unit Title

: Medium Access Control Sub Layer

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Medium Access Control Sub Layer
Objectives

After going through the presentation, you should be able to:

‡ Describe static and dynamic channel allocations.

‡ Discuss Multiple access protocols

‡ Describe IEEE standards

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Medium Access Control Sub Layer
Lecture outline
‡ Introduction

‡

The channel allocation problem

‡

Multiple access protocols

‡

IEEE standards

‡

Summary

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Introduction
The data link layer is overloaded, it is split into MAC and LLC sub layers. MAC sub-layer is the bottom part of the data link layer.

Medium access control is often used as a synonym to multiple access protocol, since the MAC sub layer provides the protocol and control mechanisms that are required for a certain channel access method.

The MAC layer is essentially important in local area networks (LAN¶s), many of which use a multi-access channel as the basis for

communication. WAN¶s in contrast use a point to point networks.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

The channel allocation problem
We can classify the channels as static and dynamic. The static channel is where the number of users are stable and the traffic is not bursty. When the number of users using the channel keeps on varying the channel is considered as a dynamic channel. The traffic on these dynamic channels also keeps on varying.

Static channels allocation : The usual way of allocating a single channel among the multiple users is frequency division multiplexing (FDM). If there are N users, the bandwidth allocated is split into N equal sized portions. FDM is simple and efficient technique for small number of users.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

The channel allocation problem
Dynamic channels allocation in LAN¶s and MAN¶s :

When the number of users using the channel keeps on varying the channel is considered as a dynamic channel. The traffic on these dynamic channels also keeps on varying. For example:

In most computer systems, the data traffic is extremely bursty. We see that in this system, the peak traffic to mean traffic ratios of 1000:1 are common.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
There are many protocolsfor allocating a multiple access channel. They are 1. 2. 3. 4. Pure or Unslotted Aloha Slotted or Impure ALOHA CSMA Protocol CSMA/CD Protocol

1.

Pure or Unslotted Aloha :

The ALOHA network was created at the University of Hawaii in 1970 under the leadership of Norman Abramson. The Aloha protocol is an OSI layer 2 protocol for LAN networks with broadcast topology.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
1. Pure or Unslotted Aloha : ( CONTINUED..)

Figure : Vulnerable period for the node: frame

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
1.Pure or Unslotted Aloha : ( CONTINUED..)

The Aloha protocol is an OSI layer 2 protocol used for LAN. A user is assumed to be always in two states: typing or waiting. The station transmits a frame and checks the channel to see f it was successful. If so the user sees the reply and continues to type. If the frame transmission is not successful, the user waits and retransmits the frame over and over until it has been successfully sent.

The throughput is

S ! G.P0 ! G.e 2G

We get for G = 0.5 resulting in a maximum throughput of 0.184, i.e. 18.4%.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
2. Slotted or Impure ALOHA :

An improvement to the original Aloha protocol was Slotted Aloha. It is in 1972, Roberts published a method to double the throughput of an pure ALOHA by uses discrete timeslots.

His proposal was to divide the time into discrete slots corresponding to one frame time. This approach requires the users to agree to the frame boundaries.

To achieve synchronization one special station emits a pip at the start of each interval similar to a clock. Thus the capacity of slotted ALOHA increased to the maximum throughput of 36.8%.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
2. Slotted or Impure ALOHA :( continued«) In slotted aloha a station can send only at the beginning of a timeslot, and thus collisions are reduced. In this case, the average number of aggregate arrivals is G arrivals per 2X seconds. This leverages the lambda parameter to be G. The maximum throughput is reached for G = 1.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
3. CSMA Protocol :

Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) is a probabilistic Media Access Control(MAC) protocol in which a node verifies the absence of other traffic before transmitting on a shared physical medium, such as an electrical bus, or a band of electromagnetic spectrum.

Different CSMA protocols are 1. ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Non-Persistent CSMA : Non-persistent CSMA is less greedy. The algorithm is given below: Sense the channel. IF the channel is idle, THEN transmit. If the channel is busy, THEN wait a random amount of time and start over.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
3. CSMA Protocol : ( continued..) 2. 1-Persistent CSMA : 1-Persistent CSMA is selfish. The algorithm is given below: Sense the channel. IF the channel is idle, THEN transmit. IF the channel is busy, THEN continue to listen until channel is idle. Now transmit immediately. 3. P ± Persistent CSMA : p ± persistent CSMA is a slotted approximation. The algorithm is given below: Sense the channel. IF the channel is idle, THEN with probability p transmit and with

probability (1-p) delay for one time slot and start over. IF the channel is busy, THEN delay one time-slot and start over.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
4. CSMA/CD Protocol :

In computer networking, Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) is a network control protocol in which a carrier sensing scheme is used.

A transmitting data station that detects another signal while transmitting a frame, stops transmitting that frame, transmits a jam signal, and then waits for a random time interval.

The random time interval also known as "backoff delay" is determined using the truncated binary exponential backoff algorithm. This delay is used before trying to send that frame again. CSMA/CD is a modification of pure Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA).

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Multiple access protocols
4. CSMA/CD Protocol : ( continued..) Collision detection is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected, and reducing the probability of a second collision on retry. CSMA/CD can be in anyone of the following three states as shown in figure. 1. Contention period 2. transmission period 3. Idle period

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

IEEE standards
IEEE has standardized a number of LAN¶s and MAN¶s under the name of IEEE 802. Few of the standards are given below

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

IEEE standards
Ethernets : Ethernet was originally based on the idea of computers communicating over a shared coaxial cable acting as a broadcast transmission medium. The methods used show some similarities to radio systems, although there are major differences, such as the fact that it is much easier to detect collisions in a cable broadcast system than a radio broadcast. The common cable providing the communication channel was likened to the ether and it was from this reference that the name "Ethernet" was derived. The most kinds of Ethernets used were with the data rate of 10Mbps.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

IEEE standards
Fast Ethernet : Fast Ethernet was introduced in 1995 and remained the fastest version of Ethernet for three years before being superseded by gigabit Ethernet. Fast Ethernet is a collective term for a number of Ethernet standards that carry traffic at the nominal rate of 100 Mbit/s, against the original Ethernet speed of 10 Mbit/s.

Ex : ‡ 100BASE-T is any of several Fast Ethernet standards for twisted pair cables. ‡ 100BASE-TX (100 Mbit/s over two-pair Cat5 or better cable), ‡ 100BASE-T4 (100 Mbit/s over four-pair Cat3 or better cable, defunct), ‡ 100BASE-T2 (100 Mbit/s over two-pair Cat3 or better cable, also defunct).

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

IEEE standards
Gigabit Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet

:
(GbE or 1 GigE) is a term describing various

technologies for transmitting Ethernet packets at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802.3-2005 standard. Gigabit Ethernet was the next iteration, increasing the speed to 1000 Mbit/s. Different gigabits Ethernet are
Name 1000BASE-T 1000BASE-SX 1000BASE-LX 1000BASE-CX 1000BASE-ZX medium unshielded twisted pair multi-mode fiber single-mode fiber balanced copper cabling single-mode fiber

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

IEEE standards
IEEE 802.3 Frame format

:

The frame format of IEEE 802.3 is shown below

‡

Preamble field : Each frame starts with a preamble of 8 bytes. Each containing bit patterns ³10101010´.

‡

Address field The frame contains two addresses, one for the destination and for the sender. The length of address field is 6 bytes.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

IEEE standards
IEEE 802.3 Frame format : ( continued«) ‡ SOF: This field is 1 byte long and is used to indicate the start of the frame. ‡ Length: This field is of 2 bytes long. It is used to specify the length of the data in terms of bytes that is present in the frame. ‡ Data : The length of this field ranges from zero to a maximum of 1500 bytes. This is the place where the actual message bits are to be placed. Pad: If the data field is less than 46 bytes then the pad field comes into picture. Such that total data and pad field must be equal to 46bytes minimum. If the data field is greater than 46 bytes then pad field is not used.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

IEEE standards
IEEE 802.3 Frame format : ( continued«) ‡ Checksum:

It is 4 byte long. It uses a 32-bit hash code of the data. If some data bits are in error, then the checksum will be wrong and the error will be detected. It uses CRC method and it is used only for error detection and not forward error correction.

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Unit-7 Medium Access Control Sub Layer

Summary
The data link layer split into MAC and LLC sub layers. MAC sub-layer is the bottom part of the data link layer. MAC sub layer provides the protocol and control mechanisms that are required for a certain channel access method.

There are many algorithms for allocating a multiple access channel which are Pure or Unslotted Aloha , Slotted or Impure ALOHA , CSMA Protocol , CSMA/CD Protocol

There are standards defined for the LAN and MAN called as IEEE 802 standards. The most important standards are Ethernet, token bus, token ring Wireless local are network, wireless personal area network, wireless sensor networks etc.

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