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Earthquake engineering is the ultimate challenge for structural engineers. Even if natural phenomena involve great uncertainties, structural engineers need to design buildings, bridges, and dams capable of resisting the destructive forces produced by them. These disasters have created a new awareness about the disaster preparedness and mitigation. Before a building, utility system, or transportation structure is built, engineers spend a great deal of time analyzing those structures to make sure they will perform reliably under seismic and other loads.An understanding of the behavior of structural systems must be acquired before engineers can effectively design a complex building system. Wind and Earthquake Resistant Buildings describes the typical process of designing a building, from the determination of design loads to the evaluation of its behavior for unusual effects


Building designed to prevent total collapse, preserve life, and minimize damage in case of an earthquake or tremor. Earthquakes exert lateralas well as vertical forces, and a structure¶s response to their random, often sudden motions is a complex task that is just beginning to be understood. Earthquakeresistant structures absorb and dissipate -

seismically induced motion through a combination o means: damping decreases the f amplitude of oscillations of a vibrating structure, while ductile materials (e.g., steel) can withstand considerable inelastic deformation. If a skyscraper has too flexible a structure,

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then tremendous swaying in its upper fl oors can develop during an earthquake. Care must be taken to provide builtin tolerance for some structural damage, resist lateral loading through stiffeners (diagonal sway bracing), and allow areas of the building to move somewhat independently. Building Planning | Earthquake Resistant Buildings

The behavior of building during earthquakes depends critically on its overall shape, size geometry. Hence, at and planning stage itself, architects and structural engineers must work together to ensure that the unavorable features f are avoided and a good buildingconfiguration is chosen. If both shape and structural system work together to make the structure a marvel. Size of Buildings

In tall buildings with large weightto-base size ratio the horizontal movementof the floors during ground shaking is large. In short but very long buildings, the damaging effects during earthquake shaking are many. And, in buildings with large plan area, the horizontal seismic forces can be excessive to be carried by columns and wa lls.

Horizontal Layout of Buildings

Buildings with simple geometry in plan perform well during strong earthquakes. Buildings with re-entrant corners, like U, V, H and + shaped in plan sustain significant damage. The bad effects of these interiorcorners in the plan of buildings are avoided by making the buildings in two parts by using a separation joint at the junction.

Vertical Layout of Buildings

Earthquake forces developed at different floor levels in a building need to be brought down along the height to the ground by the shortest path, any deviation or discontinuity

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in this load transfer path results in poor performance of building. Buildings with vertical setbacks cause a sudden jump in earthquake forces at the level of discontinuity. Buildi ngs that have fewer columns or walls in a particular storey or with unusually tall storey tend to damage or collapse which is initiated in that storey. Buildings on sloppy ground have unequal height columns along the slope, which causes twisting and damage shorter in columns that hang or float on beams have discontinuity in load transfer. Buildings in which RC walls do not go all the way to the ground but stop at upper levels get severely damaged Adjacency of Buildings

When two buildings are close to eachother, they may pound on each other during strong shaking. When building heights do not match the roof of the shorter building may pound the mid- height of the column of the taller one; at this can be very dangerous. Building Construction Materials for Eathquake Resistance r

In India, most non -urban buildings are made in masonry. In the plains, masonry is generally made of burnt clay bricks and cement mortar. However in hilly areas, stone masonry with mud mortar is more prevalent. But now a day we are very familiar with R.C.C. buildings, and a variety of new composite constructions materials.

Construction Materials I. Masonry

Masonry is made up of burnt clay bricks and cement or mud mortar. Masonry can carry loads that cause compression (i.e. pressingtogether) but can hardly take load that causes tension (i.e. pulling apart). Masonry is a brittle material, these walls develop cracks once their ability to carry horizontal load is exceeded. Thus infill walls act like sacrificial fusesin buildings: theydevelop cracks under severe ground shaking but they share the load of the beams and columns until cracking.

II. Concrete

Concrete is another material that has been popularly used in building construction particularly over the last four decades. Cement concrete is made of crushed stone pieces(called aggregate), sand, cement and water mixed in

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appropriate proportions. Concrete is much stronger than masonry under compressive loads, but again its behavior in tension is poor. The properties of concrete criticlly depend on the amount of water used in makingconcrete, too a much and too little water both can cause havoc. III. Steel

Steel is used in masonry and concrete buildings as reinforcement bars of diameter ranging from 6mm to 40mm. reinforcing steel can carry both tensile and compressiveloads. Moreover steel is a ductile material. This important property of ductility enablessteel bars to undergo large elongation before breaking. Concrete is used with steel reinforcement bars. This composite material is called as reinforced cement concrete. Theamount and location of steel in a member should be such that the failure of the member is steel reaching its strength in tension before by concrete reaches its strength incompression. This type of failure is ductie failure, and is preferred over a failure l where concrete fails first in compression. Therefore, providing more steel in R.C. buildings can harmful even!! be

Concept of Earthquake Resistant Engineering SHARE

If two bars of same length and same cros-sectional area ± one made of ductile material and another of a brittle s material. And a pull is applied on both bars until they break, then notice that the ductile bar elongates by a large we amount before it breaks, while thebrittle bar breaks suddenlyon reaching its maximum strength at a relative small elongation. Amongst the materials used in building construction, steel is ductile, while masonry and concrete are brittle. Comparison of Brittle and Ductile Building materials

The correct building com ponents need to be made ductile. The failure of columns can affect the stability of building, but failure of a beam causes localized effect. Therefore, it better to make beams to be ductile weak links then is

columns. This method of designingRC buildings is called the strong -column weak-beam design method. Special design provisions from IS: 13920 -1993 for RC structures ensures that adequate ductility is provided in the members where damage is expected.

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Quality Control in Construction

The capacity design concept in earthquake resistant design of buildings will fail if the strengths of the brittle links fall below their minimum assured values. The strength of brittle construction materials, like masonry and concrete is highly sensitive to the qualityof construction materials. Workmanship, supervision, and construction methods. Similarly, special care is needed in construction to ensure that the elements meant to be ductile are indeed provided with features that give adequate ductility. Thus, strict adherence to prescribed standards, of construction materials and processes is essential inassuring an earthquake resistant building. Regular testing of materials to laboratories, periodic training of workmen at professional training houses, and on evaluation of the technical work are -site elements of good quality control. Popular Earthquake Resistant Technique

Conventional seismic design attempts to make buildings that do not collapse under strong earthquake shaking, but may sustain damage to non -structural elements (like glassfacades) and to some structural members in the building. This may render the buildingnon-functional after the earthquake, which may be problematic in some structures, like hospitals, which need to remain functional in the aftermath of earthquake. Special techniques are required to design buildings such that they remain practically undamaged even in a severe earthquake. Buildings with such improved seismic performance usually cost more than the normal buildings do.

Two basic technologi s are used to protect buildings from damaging earthquake effects. e These are Base Isolation Devices and Seismic Dampers. The idea behind base isolation is detach (isolate) the building from the ground in to such a way that earthquake motionsare not transm itted up through the building or at least greatly reduced. Seismic dampers are special devices introduced in the buildings to absorb the energy provided by the ground motion to the building (much like the way shock absorbers in motor vehicles absorb due to undulations of the road) Seismic Base Isolation Technique for Building Earthquake Resistance

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is rested on the exib e pads that

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o er resistanc e against atera

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moveme nts, then some e ect o

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the ground shaking ill be

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transferre d to the building above. If

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the flexible pads are properly

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chosen, the forces induced

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by ground shaking can be a

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fe times smaller than that

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experien ced by the building

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built directly on ground,

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namely a fixed base building.

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The flexible pads are called

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baseisolators, hereas the

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structure s protected by means

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of these devices are called base-

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isolated buildings . The main

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feature of the base isolation technolo

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gy is that it introduce s

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flexibilit y in the structure.

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As a result, a robust medium-

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rise masonry or reinforce

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d concrete building becomes

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extremel y flexible. The

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isolators are often designed, to absorb

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energy and thus add damping

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to the system. This helps in

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further reducing the seismic

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response of the building. any of

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the base isolators look like

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large rubber pads, although

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there are other types that are based

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on sliding of one part of the

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building relative to other. Also,

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base isolation is not suitable

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for all buildings . ostly lo to

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medium rise buildings rested on

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hard soil undernea th highrise

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buildings or buildings rested on

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soft soil are not suitable

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for base isolation.

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Concept of ase Isolation

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Leadrubber bearings are the

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frequentl y-used types of base

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isolation bearings. A lead rubber

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bearing is made from layers of

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rubber sandwich ed together

Comment [S1]:

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with layers of steel. In the

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middle of the solid lead ³plug´.

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On top and bottom, the

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bearing is fitted with steel plates

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which are used to attach the

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bearing to the building and

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foundatio n. The bearing is very

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stiff and strong in the vertical

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direction, but flexible in the

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horizonta l direction.

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How it Works To get a basic

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idea of how base isolation works,

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first examine the above diagram.

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This shows an earthqua ke acting

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on base isolated building and a

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conventi onal, fixedbase,

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building. As a result of an

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earthqua ke, the ground beneath

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each building begins to move. .

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Each building responds with

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moveme nt which tends towards

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the right. The buildings

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