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# Golden ratio

In mathematics and the arts, two quantities are in the golden ratio if the ratio of the sum of the quantities to the larger quantity is equal to the ratio of the larger quantity to the smaller one. The golden ratio is an irrational mathematical constant, approximately 1.6180339887. Other names frequently used for the golden ratio are the golden section (Latin: sectio aurea) and golden mean.Other terms encountered include extreme and mean ratio,[5] medial section, divine proportion, divine section (Latin: sectio divina), golden proportion, golden cut,[6] golden number, and mean of Phidias.The golden ratio is often denoted by the Greek letter phi, usually lower case (φ).

The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship that defines this constant.

At least since the Renaissance, many artists and architects have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio— believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing. Mathematicians have studied the golden ratio because of its unique and interesting properties.

History The golden ratio has fascinated Western intellectuals of diverse interests for at least 2,400 years. According to Mario Livio: Some of the greatest mathematical minds of all ages, from Pythagoras and Euclid in ancient Greece, through the medieval Italian mathematician Leonardo of Pisa and the Renaissance astronomer Johannes Kepler, to present-day scientific figures such as Oxford physicist Roger Penrose, have spent endless hours over this simple ratio and its properties. But the fascination with the Golden Ratio is not confined just to mathematicians. Biologists, artists, musicians, historians, architects, psychologists, and even mystics have pondered and debated the basis of its ubiquity and appeal. In fact, it is probably fair to say that the Golden Ratio has inspired thinkers of all disciplines like no other number in the history of mathematics.

Throughout the Elements. which has a regular pentagon inscribed within it.Some of these propositions show that the golden ratio is an irrational number.Ancient Greek mathematicians first studied what we now call the golden ratio because of its frequent appearance in geometry. the first letter of the ancient Greek root τομή—meaning cut). The regular pentagram. Michael Maestlin of the University of Tübingen in a letter to his former student Johannes Kepler. as the whole line is to the greater segment.6180340. which captured the imagination of artists. the golden ratio. after Phidias. The division of a line into "extreme and mean ratio" (the golden section) is important in the geometry of regular pentagrams and pentagons. a sculptor who is said to have employed it) or less commonly by τ (tau. mathematical and otherwise. was the Pythagoreans' symbol. The Greeks usually attributed discovery of this concept to Pythagoras or his followers. The name "extreme and mean ratio" was the principal term used from the 3rd century BC[5] until about the 18th century. and mystics with the properties. Euclid's Elements (Greek: Στοιχεῖα) provides the first known written definition of what is now called the golden ratio: "A straight line is said to have been cut in extreme and mean ratio when." Euclid explains a construction for cutting (sectioning) a line "in extreme and mean ratio". i. several propositions (theorems in modern terminology) and their proofs employ the golden ratio. architects." was written in 1597 by Prof.e. scientists. stated as "about 0. . so is the greater to the less. the golden ratio has been represented by the Greek letter Φ or φ (phi. The first known approximation of the (inverse) golden ratio by a decimal fraction. of the golden ratio. The modern history of the golden ratio starts with Luca Pacioli's De divina proportione of 1509. Since the twentieth century.

describes five possible regular solids (the Platonic solids: the tetrahedron. and the other the division of a line into extreme and mean ratio. the first we may compare to a measure of gold. dodecahedron and icosahedron). 265 BC). the ratio of sequential elements of the Fibonacci sequence approaches the golden ratio asymptotically. in his Timaeus. in his Elements. . "extreme and mean ratio" (Greek:ἄκρος καὶ μέσος λόγος). Martin Ohm (1792–1872) is believed to be the first to use the term goldener Schnitt (golden section) to describe this ratio. the second we may name a precious jewel. Mark Barr (20th century) suggests the Greek letter phi (φ). Charles Bonnet (1720–1793) points out that in the spiral phyllotaxis of plants going clockwise and counter-clockwise were frequently two successive Fibonacci series.[17] Euclid (c. some of which are related to the golden ratio. Johannes Kepler (1571–1630) proves that the golden ratio is the limit of the ratio of consecutive Fibonacci numbers.[5] Fibonacci (1170–1250) mentioned the numerical series now named after him in his Liber Abaci. as a symbol for the golden ratio. which led to new discoveries about quasicrystals. octahedron. Edouard Lucas (1842–1891) gives the numerical sequence now known as the Fibonacci sequence its present name. cube.Timeline according to Priya Hemenway[16]. 325–c. Plato (427–347 BC)." These two treasures are combined in the Kepler triangle. Luca Pacioli (1445–1517) defines the golden ratio as the "divine proportion" in his Divina Proportione. Phidias (490–430 BC) made the Parthenon statues that seem to embody the golden ratio.1931) discovered a symmetrical pattern that uses the golden ratio in the field of aperiodic tilings. which he called. in 1835. gave the first recorded definition of the golden ratio.[18] and describes the golden ratio as a "precious jewel": "Geometry has two great treasures: one is the Theorem of Pythagoras. as translated into English. the initial letter of Greek sculptor Phidias's name. Roger Penrose (b.

Midhat J. Some scholars deny that the Greeks had any aesthetic association with golden ratio. A geometrical analysis of the Great Mosque of Kairouan reveals a consistent application of the golden ratio throughout the design. Gazalé says. however. in connection with the middle and extreme ratios. in his famous textbook Elements. and that this led to some proportions that closely approximate the golden ratio. On the other hand. contrary to generations of mystics who followed. would soberly treat that number for what it is. In the Elements (308 BC) the Greek mathematician merely regarded that number as an interesting irrational number. the entire story about the Greeks and golden ratio seems to be without foundation. and the minaret.[21] To the extent that classical buildings or their elements are proportioned according to the golden ratio. such retrospective analyses can always be questioned on the ground that the investigator chooses the points from which measurements are made or where to superimpose golden rectangles. and that these choices affect the proportions observed. without attaching to it other than its factual properties. For example. Boussora and Mazouz also examined earlier archaeological theories about the mosque.e. the court.Architecture Many of the proportions of the Parthenon are alleged to exhibit the golden ratio.[citation needed] The Parthenon's facade as well as elements of its facade and elsewhere are said to be circumscribed by golden rectangles. commensurate as opposed to irrational proportions. conclude that many of its proportions approximate the golden ratio. written around 300 BC. that the golden ratio's mathematical properties were studied. i. Its occurrence in regular pentagons and decagons was duly observed. according to Boussora and Mazouz. as well as in the dodecahedron (a regular polyhedron whose twelve faces are regular pentagons). and demonstrate the . Alternatively. In fact. It is found in the overall proportion of the plan and in the dimensioning of the prayer space." And Keith Devlin says. it is possible that the architects used their own sense of good proportion. It is indeed exemplary that the great Euclid. Near-contemporary sources like Vitruvius exclusively discuss proportions that can be expressed in whole numbers. "It was not until Euclid. Some studies of the Acropolis. showed how to calculate its value. the oft repeated assertion that the Parthenon in Athens is based on the golden ratio is not supported by actual measurements. including the Parthenon. this might indicate that their architects were aware of the golden ratio and consciously employed it in their designs. "Certainly. The one thing we know for sure is that Euclid.

which he described as "rhythms apparent to the eye and clear in their relations with one another. elevation. Mario Botta.Le Corbusier explicitly used the golden ratio in his Modulor system for the scale of architectural proportion. And these rhythms are at the very root of human activities. Le Corbusier's 1927 Villa Stein in Garches exemplified the Modulor system's application. 2010 . famous for his contributions to the modern international style. In a house he designed in Origlio. Leonardo da Vinci's "Vitruvian Man". old men. and the double unit. and inner structure closely approximate golden rectanglesAnother Swiss architect. the golden ratio is the proportion between the central section and the side sections of the house. Le Corbusier's faith in the mathematical order of the universe was closely bound to the golden ratio and the Fibonacci series. savages and the learned. Several private houses he designed in Switzerland are composed of squares and circles. the same fine inevitability which causes the tracing out of the Golden Section by children. Eylül 11. The villa's rectangular ground plan. The Swiss architect Le Corbusier. he used these golden ratio proportions in the Modulor system. He took Leonardo's suggestion of the golden ratio in human proportions to an extreme: he sectioned his model human body's height at the navel with the two sections in golden ratio. They resound in man by an organic inevitability. the work of Leon Battista Alberti. then subdivided those sections in golden ratio at the knees and throat. Le Corbusier based the system on human measurements. bases many of his designs on geometric figures. and others who used the proportions of the human body to improve the appearance and function of architecture. Fibonacci numbers. In addition to the golden ratio.geometric constructions based on the golden ratio by applying these constructions to the plan of the mosque to test their hypothesis. Gönderen Ferrux Aliyarov zaman: Cumartesi. centered his design philosophy on systems of harmony and proportion. cubes and cylinders. He saw this system as a continuation of the long tradition of Vitruvius.