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Antonio Flores T. ∗ Departmento de Ingenier´ Qu´ ıa ımica Universidad Iberoamericana Prolongaci´n Paseo de la Reforma 880 o M´xico DF, 01210, MEXICO e October 4, 2007

E-mail: 2674279

∗

antonio.ﬂores@uia.mx, http://200.13.98.241˜ntonio, phone/fax: a

(+52)5

1

will be similar to that depicted in Figure 1(b). In fact. Initially. 2 . When we reach this closed-loop plant response pattern the oscillation period (Pu ) and the amplitude (A) of the plant response can be measured and used for PID controller tuning. +h u 0 −h (a) Pu Time y 0 A (b) Time Figure 1: The closed-loop response of the plant.1 Introduction For a certain class of process plants. Such a procedure is based on the idea of using an on/oﬀ controller (called a relay controller) whose dynamic behaviour resembles to that shown in Figure 1(a). Starting from its nominal bias value (denoted as 0 in the Figure) the control action is increased by an amount denoted by h and later on decreased until a value denoted by −h. the so-called “auto tuning” procedure for the automatic tuning of PID controllers can be used. subject to the above described actions of the relay controller. the plant oscillates without a deﬁnite pattern around the nominal output value (denoted as 0 in the Figure) until a deﬁnite and repeated output response can be easily identiﬁed.

In Figure 3 the dynamic behaviour of both the manipulated (u) and controlled (y) variables is shown. The value of the controller gain should be large enough so that the value of the manipulated variable will lie between the bounds as represented by h.2 Pu /2 Pu /8 Example Let us consider a process system given by the following transfer function: Gp = 48s3 6 + 44s2 + 12s + 1 and assume that the plant will be controlled by a PI feedback control system. There are some decisions that ought to be taken before testing the relay auto tuning procedure: • Pure gain controller value (Kc ). The implementation of the relay auto tuning procedure is depicted in Figure 2. • Size of the manipulated variable deviation from the bias value (h).6Kcu τI τD Pu /1.1. From both plots the following values can be easily read: Pu = 12.45Kcu PID 0.5Kcu PI 0.the ultimate gain can be computed as: Kcu = 4h πA (1) Having determined the ultimate gain Kcu and the oscillation period Pu the PID controller tuning parameters can be obtained from the following table: Kc P 0. Design the control system using the relay auto tuning method.5 A = 0. Therefore after some trials Kc = 100.07785 3 . By the time being let us pick up a small deviation of the manipulated variable from the bias value: h = ±0.

6355 and the tuning parameters of the PI controller will given by: Kc = 0.4167 Similar results are also obtained by using the relay function available in Simulink whose closed-loop implementation is shown in Figure 4. Kcu = 1. Example The dynamic mathematical model of a reaction train of 3 series connected CSTRs k (see Figure 5) where the reaction 2A → B takes place reads as follows: dCA1 Q 2 = (CAo − CA1 ) − kCA1 dt V Q dCA2 2 = (CA1 − CA2 ) − kCA2 dt V dCA3 Q 2 = (CA2 − CA3 ) − kCA3 dt V using the following values of the design parameters: 4 .7360 τi = 10.Scope 1 Scope 2 100 Step Gain Saturation 6 48s3 +44s2 +12s+1 Transfer Fcn Scope Figure 2: hence.

15 −0.05 0 −0.2 0.1 0 10 20 30 40 (b) 50 Time 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 3: Scope 7 Scope 8 Scope 9 6 48s3 +44s2 +12s+1 Step 4 Relay Transfer Fcn 2 Scope 6 Figure 4: 5 .05 0 u −0.2 0 10 20 30 40 (a) 0.1 −0.05 −0.1 0.15 0.0.2 0.1 y 0.05 −0.15 0.25 50 Time 60 70 80 90 100 0.

Using the relay auto tuning procedure design and implement a closed-loop PI control system capable of raising the reaction train conversion from 67% up to 80% (which is equivalent to CA3 = 20 mol/L). whereas the controlled variable is the reactant A concentration leaving the third reactor CA3 .3603 e−4. The manipulated variable is the reactant A feed stream volumetric ﬂow rate sent to the ﬁrst reactor (Q).2875s2 + 0.478 6 .789s + 0.1722 18. Parameter Value k 5x10−4 CAo 100 Qi 50 1000 Vj Units L/(mol-min) mol/L L/min L the conversion degree of reactant A coming out from the third reactor is around 67% which corresponds to CA3 = 32. which happens to be the same along the reaction train.5641 mol/L. The transfer function between the controlled and manipulated variables reads as follows: Gp (s) = CA3 (s) 0.02734s + 0.Q Q1 C A1 Q2 C A2 Q 0 3 C A0 C A3 V1 V2 V3 Figure 5: Flowsheet of the 3 CSTRs isothermal reaction train.1845 G(s) = 18.0106s2 + 0.0003101 = 3 Q(s) s + 0.39s2 + 9.00086 which can be approximated by the following ﬁrst order plus time delay transfer function: 0.389s + 1 using a Pad´ ﬁrst order approximation for the representation of the delay: e G(s) = −0.003105s + 0.3603s + 0.

The Simulink implementation of the relay auto tuning procedure is shown in Figure 6.1722 18 .2 0 10 20 30 40 (a) 8 x 10 −3 50 Time 60 70 80 90 100 6 4 2 y 0 −2 −4 −6 0 10 20 30 40 (b) 50 Time 60 70 80 90 100 Figure 7: 7 .789 s+0.1 −0.15 0.3603 s+0.2 0.05 0 u −0.15 −0. whereas the closed-loop response obtained from the application of this automatic tuning procedure is depicted in Figure 7.1 0.478 Transfer Fcn 1 Scope 3 y To Workspace3 Figure 6: 0. time Clock To Workspace1 u To Workspace4 Scope 4 Scope 5 100 Step 1 Gain 1 Saturation 1 − 0.39 s2 +9.05 −0.

003105 s+0.1 5. time Clock To Workspace1 u To Workspace4 50 Scope 5 PID Step 1 PID Controller Saturation Constant1 Scope 4 0.Hence. the PI controller tuning parameters are given as follows: Kc = 11.0184 τi = 11.0003101 s3 +0.2x10−3 13.4 24.5641 To Workspace3 Constant Scope 3 Figure 8: 50 34 45 32 40 30 35 28 30 26 Q [L/min] 25 C [mol/L] 0 20 40 60 80 100 Time 120 140 160 180 200 24 20 22 15 20 10 18 5 16 0 14 0 20 40 60 80 (a) (b) 100 Time 120 140 160 180 200 Figure 9: 8 .0106 s2 +0.02734 s+0.00086 Transfer Fcn 1 y 32.1667 The Simulink implementation of the closed-loop feedback control system is shown in Figure 8. whereas the closed-loop response obtained using a PI control system is depicted in Figure 9.2875 s2 +0.4854 therefore. h A Pu Kcu = = = = 0.

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