Tea

Tea is the agricultural product of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodes of the Camellia sinensis plant, prepared and cured by various methods. After water, tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world.[3] It has a cooling, slightly bitter, astringent flavour which many enjoy.[4] There are at least six varieties of tea: white, yellow, green, oolong, black, and pu-erh[5] of which the most commonly found on the market are white, green, oolong, and black. All teas are made from the same species of plant, though different varieties may be used, and the leaves are processed differently, and, in the case of fine white tea, grown differently. Pu-erh tea, a post-fermented tea, is also often used medicinally.[5] Camellia sinensis is an evergreen plant that grows mainly in tropical and sub-tropical climates. Nevertheless, some varieties can also tolerate marine climates and are cultivated as far north as Pembrokeshire in the British mainland[7] and Washington in the United States.[8]

Leaves of Camellia sinensis, the tea plant. In addition to a zone 8 climate or warmer, tea plants require at least 127 cm. (50 inches) of rainfall a year and prefer acidic soils.[9] Traditional Chinese Tea Cultivation and Studies believes that high-quality tea plants are cultivated at elevations of up to 1,500 metres (4,900 ft): at these heights, the plants grow more slowly and acquire a better flavour.[10] Only the top 1-2 inches of the mature plant are picked. These buds and leaves are called flushes.[11] A plant will grow a new flush every seven to ten days during the growing season. A tea plant will grow into a tree if left undisturbed, but cultivated plants are pruned to waist height for ease of plucking.[12] Two principal varieties are used: the China plant (C. sinensis sinensis), used for most Chinese, Formosan and Japanese teas (but not Pu-erh); and the clonal Assam plant (C. sinensis assamica), used in most Indian and other teas (but not Darjeeling). Within these botanical varieties, there are many strains and modern Indian clonal varieties. Leaf size is the chief criterion for the classification of tea plants:[13] tea is classified into (1) Assam type, characterized by the largest leaves; (2) China type, characterized by the smallest leaves; and (3) Cambod, characterized by leaves of intermediate size.[13] Tea contains catechins, a type of antioxidant. In a freshly picked tea leaf, catechins can compose up to 30% of the dry weight. Catechins are highest in concentration in white and green teas, while black tea has substantially fewer due to its oxidative preparation.[15][16] Research by the U.S. Department of Agriculture has suggested that levels of antioxidants in green and black tea do not differ greatly, with green tea having an Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) of 1253 and black tea an ORAC of 1128 (measured in μmolTE/100g).[17] Tea also contains theanine and the stimulant caffeine at about 3% of its dry weight, translating to between 30 mg and 90 mg per 8 oz (250 ml) cup depending on type, brand[18] and brewing method.[19] Tea also contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline.[20] Due to modern day environmental pollution fluoride and alluminum have also been found to occur in tea, with certain types of brick tea made from old leaves and stems having the highest levels. This occurs due to the tea plants high sensitivity to and absorption of environmental pollutants.[21][22] Dry tea has more caffeine by weight than coffee; nevertheless, more dried coffee is used than dry tea in preparing the beverage,[23]

Although tales exist in regards to the beginnings of tea being used as a beverage. Lenore Arab. anti-mutagenic and anti-tumoric properties. Mass cultivation and trade of tea was begun by the Chinese. mainly catechins that have anti-carcinogenic. Two pronunciations have made their way into other languages around the world. UCLA[25]) Etymology and cognates in other languages The Chinese character for tea is 茶. Through Buddhism the beverage was spread to Korea and Japan. tea does not contain tannic acid". In 2010 researchers found that people who consumed tea had significantly less cognitive decline than non-tea drinkers. Both green and black tea infusions contain a number of antioxidants. vitamins (C. Tea also possesses germicidal and germistatic activities against various gram-positive and gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Tea also prevents dental caries due to the presence of fluorine. Although tea contains various types of polyphenols. among which the compounds closely related to human health are flavanoides. Through genetic studies of tea plants the geographic origins of species is believed to be located around the point of confluence of the lands of northeast India. The study used data on more than 4. spoken around the port of Xiamen (Amoy).[27] One common pronunciation is tê. It reached the West particularly from the Amoy Min Nan dialect. Trade of tea by the Chinese to Western nations in the 1800s spread tea and the tea plant to numerous locations around the world. Moreover. Taiwan and by expatriate Chinese in Philippines. Indonesia. southwest China and Tibet. ca. Tea has negligible carbohydrates. caffeine and polysaccharides. but it is pronounced differently in the various Chinese dialects. once a major point of . Origin and history QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 1905-15. which comes from the Hokkien dialect. spoken in Fujian Province. or protein. spreading across multiple cultures over the span of thousands of years. prevention of coronary heart diseases and diabetes by reducing the blood-glucose activity. as well as providing immunity against intestinal disorders and in protecting cell membranes from oxidative damage. E and K). "contrary to widespread belief. Tea plays an important role in improving beneficial intestinal microflora. Health effects Tea leaves contain more than 700 chemicals.which means that a cup of brewed tea contains significantly less caffeine than a cup of coffee of the same size. The History of Tea is long and complex. Tea harvest on the eastern shores of the Black Sea. PhD. tea drinking has recently proven to be associated with cellmediated immune function of the human body.800 men and women aged 65 and older to examine change in cognitive function over time. amino acids. no one is sure of its exact origins. The role of tea is well established in normalizing blood pressure. north Burma. Study participants were followed for up to 14 years for naturally-occurring cognitive decline. fat. Malaysia and Singapore. (AAICAD 2010. lipid depressing activity.

which is more polite. and in overseas Chinese communities. The words for tea in Korea and Japan are 차 and 茶 (ちゃ). Macau. Since roughly second half of 20th century. čaj is used for "tea" in Czech language. Both are transliterated as cha. see (4) [edit] Derivatives from cha or chai Langua Langua Languag Nam Langua Name Name Name ge ge e e ge pronounced ሻይ ‫شاي‬ Albanian çaj Amharic Arabic Aramaic shai shāy chai Azerbaija Bulgaria çay Bangla চা cha Bosnian čaj чай chai ni n Cebuano tsa Croatian čaj Czech čaj (2) English cha. (2) 차 (cha) is an alternative word for "tea" in Korean. but this term is considered archaic and literary expression.ch Scots á Gaelic teh Malayala േതയില Theyila m Spanish té Scots tea [tiː] Sundanese ~ [teː] Telugu • (1) తనళుళ tēnīru Welsh te Khmer tì. This pronunciation is believed to come from the old words for tea 梌 (tú) or 荼 (tú). Hong Kong. Yet another different pronunciation is zu. The other common pronunciation is chá.다 scientific da [ta] thea Latvian Latin (2) Leonese té Norwegia te n Tee Low [tʰɛˑɪ] Saxon[disambiguat Malay or Tei ion needed] [tʰaˑɪ] Sesotho tea. Sinhales teath ේතේ thé e a ேதநீர thenīr (nīr = water) "theyila te or i" entèh Swedish the Tamil means [tʰeː] "tea leaf" (ilai=le af) Vietname chè ែតtae se [cɛ] Notes: té or thé. as well as in the Mandarin dialect of northern China.) [edit] Derivatives from tê Langua Langua Nam Name Language ge ge e Armenia թեյ Afrikaans tee Catalan n tey Dutch thee English tea Esperanto Finnish tee French thé West Frisian Hungaria Hebrew ‫ . used in the Wu dialect spoken around Shanghai. see the following table (3). chai or Language Assamese Nam e চাহ chah Capampang cha an Persian ‫چای‬ . it is sometimes お茶 (おちゃ) or ocha. respectively.contact with Western European traders. This term was used in ancient times to describe the first flush harvest of tea. used by the Cantonese dialect spoken around the ports of Guangzhou (Canton).תה‬te tea Icelandic n Italian tè or thè Javanese tèh Limburgi tiè sh Occitan tè Korean Name te teo tee te Languag Nam Langua e e ge té or Czech Danish thé (1) Estonian tee Faroese Galician té German Indonesia teh Irish n Name te te Tee tae tēja 茶. (In Japanese.

チ Japanese Kannada Chah Kazakh ャ. traditional Chinese: 茶葉. Konkani चा cha Korean Kurdish cha ചായ. The Portuguese. took the Cantonese form "chá. especially Macau. the first tea to reach Britain was traded by the Dutch from Fujian. which could be derived directly from cha or from the cognate Russian word. was derived from the Latin herba thea. whereas the Russians got theirs from the northern Mandarin speakers. Char was a common slang term for tea throughout British Empire and Commonwealth military forces in the 19th and 20th centuries. which uses te. which uses cha. (5) The Polish word for a tea-kettle is czajnik. In Ireland. tea in Polish is herbata. Malayala "chaay m a" Tagalog tsaa Georgian Marathi Persian Mongolia цай. pinyin: chá yè). In North America. . čaj Serbian чај. The forms with this ending in many Eurasian languages come from the Chinese compound word denoting "tea leaves" (simplified Chinese: 茶叶. chai chai ཇ་ ja чай chai cai kikuy u *ெதயேனர Kenyan /ேட theyneer language and tee चहा Marathi chaha a They are both direct derivatives of the Chinese 茶.차. cha çay Pashto Russian Swahili Tibetan Ukrainian ‫چای‬ chai чай." It is tempting to correlate these names with the route that was used to deliver tea to these cultures.char ჩაი. the latter term is used mainly in the north and describes a tea made with freshly picked leaves. the Fujianese pronunciation continued to be the more popular. other Western Europeans who copied the Min articulation "teh" probably traded with the Hokkienese while in Southeast Asia. Cantonese and other non-Min Chinese dialects) reveals the particular Chinese local cultures where non-Chinese nations acquired their tea and "tea cultures. the term cha is sometimes used for "tea. the word chai is used to refer almost exclusively to the Indian masala chai (spiced tea) beverage. although the relation is far from simple at times. saa Hindi Khasi Macedonian chaa y चाय chai sha чај. as well as Lithuanian arbata. or at least in Dublin. and although later most British trade went through Canton. However. चहा chahaa n tsai ‫ چای‬chai Punjabi ‫ چا‬ਚਾਹ chah čaj saah chaay a choy Nepali τσάι Gujarati ચા cha tsái шай Kyrgyz shai ça Lao чай. The original pronunciation "cha" in the Cantonese and Mandarin languages has no [j] ending." India and the Arab world most likely got their tea cultures from the Cantonese or the Southwestern Mandarin speakers. čaj Slovak Swedish chai Sylheti Tlingit Urdu Khmer • cháayu Telugu ‫چا ٔے‬chai Uzbek ែត tae chiy Oriya a िचया Portugues Romani chá e an Slovene čaj Somali Tagalog tsaa Thai Turkme Turkish çay n *trà Vietname and Tamil se chè cha ceai shaah ชา." as is pre-vowel-shift pronunciation "tay" (from which the Irish Gaelic word "tae" is derived). cha a 茶. the first Europeans to import the herb in large amounts. The British English slang word "char" for "tea" arose from its Cantonese Chinese pronunciation "cha" with its spelling affected by the fact that ar is a more common way of representing the phoneme /ɑː/ in British English. chai ชา. which. As an example. crossing over into civilian usage.[citation needed] The different articulations of the word for tea into the two main groups: "teh-derived" (Min Chinese dialects) and "cha-derived" (Mandarin. Conversely." as used in their trading posts in the south of China. Greek chai ಚಹ 茶. meaning "tea herb.

to be drunk with milk are often prepared with more leaves. Tea culture In many cultures. although some types of tea require as much as ten. Most green teas should be allowed to steep for about two minutes. not by changing the steeping time. Stronger teas. One form of Chinese tea ceremony is the Gongfu tea ceremony. One source cites: "the first thing you will be offered when a guest at an Iranian household is tea. either directly. was consumed there long before tea arrived. and others as little as thirty seconds. "ash-shay" means "generic. In many cultures such as Arab culture tea is a focal point for social gatherings. The strength of the tea should be varied by changing the amount of tea leaves used. such as Moroccan colloquial Arabic (Darija): in the case of Moroccan Arabic. a tea-fancier. such as Assam. it contains theophylline and bound caffeine[4] (sometimes called "theine"). and more delicate high grown teas such as a Darjeeling are prepared with a little less (as the stronger mid-flavors can overwhelm the champagne notes)." See Moroccan tea culture Perhaps the only place in which a word unrelated to tea is used to describe the beverage is South America (particularly Andean countries). Moreover. which typically uses small Yixing clay teapots and oolong tea. tea is often had at high class social events. is credited by Eleanor Cook with a "delicately implicit trope of drinking tea as a metaphor for reading (ingesting a drink from leaves). Other examples are the Chinese tea ceremony which uses some traditional ways of brewing tea. no earlier than 1980.in the Persian culture. yerba mate. . the history of tea in Iran . such as afternoon tea and the tea party. The Moroccans are said to have acquired a unique penchant in the Arab world for East Chinese green tea after the ruler Mulay Hassan exchanged some European hostages captured by the Barbary Pirates for a whole ship of Chinese tea. The amount of tea to be used per amount of water differs from tea to tea but one basic recipe may be one slightly heaped teaspoon of tea (about 5 ml) for each teacup of water (200 ml) (8 oz) prepared as above. "chai" entered North American English with a particular meaning: Indian masala black tea.is another to explore. where "chai" usually just means black tea (as people traditionally drink more black tea than green outside of East Asia). It may be consumed early in the day to heighten alertness. After a couple of minutes the leaves are usually removed again. or in a tea infuser. or by straining the tea while serving. because a similar stimulant beverage.see mention of 'char' above). Japan's complex.Recently."[29] See for instance his "Tea". or black Middle Eastern tea" whereas "atay" refers particularly to Zhejiang or Fujian green tea with fresh mint leaves. although there are also decaffeinated teas. They have thus acquired a word for this special tea different from the generic "ash-shay. English is thus one of the few languages that allow for the dual articulations of "tea" into a "teh-derived" word and a "cha-derived" one (though this was already the case . formal and serene one being one of the most well known. into a tea pot or teacup and pour hot water over the leaves. either by removing the infuser. The American poet Wallace Stevens. Of course this is not the case in other languages."[28] There are tea ceremonies which have arisen in different cultures. Preparation Korean tea kettle over hot coal The traditional method of making a cup of tea is to place loose tea leaves.

The best temperature for brewing tea depends on its type. easily done by adding a small amount of boiling water to the pot. Since boiling point drops with increasing altitude. is to add hot water to a cup containing the leaves and after about 30 seconds to taste the tea. swirling briefly. before discarding. The most common fault when making black tea is to use water at too low a temperature. although boiling the water reduces the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water. It is also recommended that the teapot be warmed before preparing tea. Black teas are usually brewed for about 4 minutes and should not be allowed to steep for less than 30 seconds or more than about five minutes (a process known as brewing or mashing . As the tea leaves unfold (known as "The Agony of the Leaves") they give up various parts of themselves to the water and thus the taste evolves. Teas that have little or no oxidation period. while teas with longer oxidation periods should be brewed at higher temperatures around 100 °C (212 °F). The first infusion is immediately poured out to wash the tea. such as a green or white tea. flavorful phenolic molecules found in fermented tea. Many of the active substances in black tea do not develop at temperatures lower than 90°C (195°F). The higher temperatures are required to extract the large. throughout its entire process. in China. it is difficult to brew black tea properly in mountainous areas. between 65 and 85 °C (149 and 185 °F). tea is divided into a number of infusions. For some more delicate teas lower temperatures are recommended. are best brewed at lower temperatures. Historically. although different teas open up differently and may require more infusions of hot water to bring them to life. 65 to 70 158 °F) 70 to 75 167 °F) 75 to 80 176 °F) 80 to 85 185 °F) °C (149 to °C (158 to °C (167 to °C (176 to Black Tea 99 °C (210 °F) Pu-erh Tea Herbal Tea 95 to 100 °C (203 to 212 °F) 99 °C (210 °F) Steep Time 1–2 minutes 1–2 minutes 1–2 minutes 2–3 minutes 2–3 minutes Limitless 3–6 minutes Infusio ns 3 3 4-6 4-6 2-3 Several Varied Some tea sorts are often brewed several times using the same tea leaves.[30] One way to taste a tea. The temperature will have as large an effect on the final flavor as the type of tea used.[31] Black tea infusion Black tea The water for black teas should be added near boiling point 99 °C (210 °F). and then the second and further infusions are drunk. Type White Tea Yellow Tea Green Tea Oolong Tea Water Temp. The third through fifth are nearly always considered the best infusions of tea. complex. Continuing this from the very first flavours to the time beyond which the tea is quite stewed will allow an appreciation of the tea throughout its entire length.

but is likely to bring the tannins out in the same way that brewing too long will do. Using a tea strainer separates the leaves from the water at the end of the brewing time if a tea bag is not being used. if stronger tea is desired. or not at all even after prolonged steeping. such as the type of tea and the water quality. according to most accounts. It is common to brew the same leaves three to five times. Preferably. and again the brewing vessel should be warmed before pouring in the water. Darjeeling tea. and unlike green tea it improves with reuse. Green tea Water for green tea. The popular varieties of black (red) tea include Assam tea. Elevation and time of harvest offer varying taste profiles. it should be strained while serving. the third steeping usually being the best. High-quality green and white teas can have new water added as many as five or more times. and allow to steep for 30 seconds or up to five minutes. but in reality the precise time depends on a number of factors. a second teapot may be used. It is commonly said that a steeping time above five minutes makes the tea bitter (at this point it is referred to as being stewed in Britain). Nilgiri tea. the mug. Oolong tea Oolong teas should be brewed around 90 to 100 °C (194 to 212 °F). depending on variety. Experienced tea-drinkers often insist that the tea should not be stirred around while it is steeping (sometimes called winding in the UK). Serving In order to preserve the pre-tannin tea without requiring it all to be poured into cups. Yixing pots are the best known of these.in Britain). Yixing purple clay teapots are the traditional brewing vessel for oolong tea. sometimes less than 30 seconds. Larger teapots are a post-19th century invention. black Darjeeling tea. at increasingly high temperatures. the container in which the tea is steeped. the lower the temperature. Pu-erh teas require boiling water for infusion. as tea before this time was very rare and very expensive. the premium Indian tea. Nepal tea. should be around 80 to 85 °C (176 to 185 °F). Hotter water will burn green-tea leaves. more tea leaves should be used. they say. High quality oolong can be brewed multiple times from the same leaves. However. Turkish tea and Ceylon tea. famed for the high quality clay from which they are made. the higher the quality of the leaves. proper storage and water quality also have a large impact on taste. and bitterness can occur as early as three minutes. producing a bitter taste. The steeping pot is best unglazed earthenware. especially green teas and delicate Oolong teas. This. For the same reason one should not squeeze the last drops out of a teabag. will do little to strengthen the tea. which retains the heat better. or teapot should also be warmed beforehand so that the tea does not immediately cool down. . When the tea has brewed long enough to suit the tastes of the drinker. needs a longer than average steeping time. For best results use spring water. Some prefer to quickly rinse pu-erh for several seconds with boiling water to remove tea dust which accumulates from the aging process. Premium or delicate tea A strainer is often used when tea is made with tea-leaves in a teapot Some teas. The serving pot is generally porcelain. are steeped for shorter periods. as the minerals in spring water tend to bring out more flavor in the tea. Infuse pu-erh at the boiling point (100 °C or 212 °F). Pu-erh tea Pu-erh tea is also called Pu'er tea.

The order of steps in preparing a cup of tea is a much-debated topic. such as Assams. or the East Friesian blend.[citation needed] Moroccan tea being served.Additives Tea is sometimes taken with milk The addition of milk to tea in Europe was first mentioned in 1680 by the epistolist Madame de Sévigné. . similar to the change in taste of UHT milk. Milk is thought to neutralize remaining tannins and reduce acidity. It is poured from a distance to produce a foam on the tea. resulting in an inferior tasting beverage. and British tea blends. Some say that it is preferable to add the milk before the tea. By adding the milk afterwards. The addition of milk chills the beverage during the crucial brewing phase. as most teas need to be brewed as close to boiling as possible. Tibetans and other Himalayan peoples traditionally drink tea with milk or yak butter and salt. These include Indian masala chai. meaning that the delicate flavor of a good tea cannot be fully appreciated.[35] Others insist that it is better to add the milk after brewing the tea.[32] Many teas are traditionally drunk with milk in cultures where dairy products are consumed. and the elite of the Qing Dynasty of the Chinese Empire continued to do so. as the color of the tea can be observed. These teas tend to be very hearty varieties of black tea which can be tasted through the milk. it is easier to dissolve sugar in the tea and also to ensure that the desired amount of milk is added. as the high temperature of freshly brewed tea can denature the proteins found in fresh milk. if brewing in a cup rather than using a pot.[33][34] The Chinese (Hans) do not usually drink milk with tea (or indeed use milk at all) but the Manchurians do. Hong Kong-style milk tea is based on British colonial habits.

soft drinks. literally. The same may be said for salt tea. This beverage. Mali. is the world's greatest per capita consumer. which is consumed in some cultures in the Hindu Kush region of northern Pakistan. which is then churned vigorously in a cylindrical vessel closely resembling a butter churn. The dance must be choreographed to allow anyone who has both pots full to empty them and refill whoever has no tea at any one point.A 2007 study published in the European Heart Journal found that certain beneficial effects of tea may be lost through the addition of milk. poured from a height from one cup to another several times in alternating fashion and in quick succession. "pulled tea. Among the best known are Chinese Jasmine tea. In colder regions such as Mongolia. extending late in the night. one full of tea. A great range of modern flavours have been added to these traditional ones. the "Grin. and mint. starting with the highest oxidization or strongest. world tea production reached over 4. Turkey. Economics Tea is the most popular drink in the world in terms of consumption. and alcohol — put together.In eastern India people also drink lemon tea or lemon masala tea. starting in front of family compound gates in the afternoons. gunpowder tea is served in series of three. In China sweetening tea was traditionally regarded as a feminine practice. Morocco and Libya). that produce highly sought-after teas prized by gourmets. which contains oil of bergamot. each holding two containers.[39] In 2008." informal social gathering that cuts across social and economic lines. and is destined to be sold to large businesses. where the same tea leaves are boiled again with some sugar added ("pleasant as life").[38] Production In 2003.lemon juice. Other popular additives to tea by the tea-brewer or drinker include sugar. Senegal) and can positively alter the flavor of the tea.[39] The largest producers of tea are the People's Republic of China. The participants. with 2." Follows a second serving.g.5 kg of tea consumed per person per year. . such as whisky or brandy." sometimes minuscule plantations.black salt and sugar which gives it tangy. Sri Lanka. world tea production was 3. In certain cultures the tea is given different names depending on the height it is poured from. butter is added to provide necessary calories. Green tea is the central ingredient of a distinctly Malian custom. Tibet and Nepal. Masala lemon tea contains hot tea with roasted cumin seed powder. but also in West Africa (e. In Mali. Tea pouring in Malaysia has been further developed into an art form in which a dance is done by people pouring tea from one container to another." has a creamier taste than flat milk tea and is extremely popular in the region. They stand in lines and squares and pour the tea into each others' pots. to create a tea with entrapped air bubbles creating a frothy "head" in the cup. and can be compared to some of the most expensive wines in this respect. locally referred to as "bitter as death. pour it from one to another. the practice of pouring tea from a height has been refined further using black tea to which condensed milk is added. and a third one. Tibetan butter tea contains rock salt and dre (yak) butter. India. Guinea. resulting in varying degrees of oxidization. Kenya. but it is more likely a technique to cool the beverage destined to be consumed immediately. spicy taste. Its consumption equals all other manufactured drinks in the world — including coffee. lemon (traditional in Russia and Italy).g. teh tarik. fruit jams. and widely popular in Bamako and other large urban areas.[36] Many flavourings are added to varieties of tea during processing. India is the world's largest tea-drinking nation[37] although the per capita consumption of tea remains a modest 750 grams per person every year. Opposite this large-scale industrial production there are many small "gardens.73 million tonnes. liquid honey or a solid Honey Drop. Lemon tea simply contains hot tea with lemon juice and sugar. which in any case takes skill and precision.21 million tonnes annually. where the same tea leaves are boiled for the third time with yet more sugar added ("sweet as love"). The art of high-altitude pouring is used principally by people in Northern Africa (e. unsweetened tea (cooked from fresh leaves). In Southeast Asia. Alcohol may also be added to tea. the spices in Indian Masala chai and Earl Grey tea.[3] Most tea consumed outside East Asia is produced on large plantations in India or Sri Lanka. These teas are both rare and expensive. with jasmine oil or flowers. and Turkey. The flavor of the tea can also be altered by pouring it from different heights. chocolate. particularly in Malaysia.

551 193.000 58.Percentage of total tea production in 2008 0.3 1.000 164.000 174.129 76.580 369.808 Uganda Other 189.000 949.000 46.100 94.858 150.851 91.180 60.000 60.009 46.100 Japan Argentin a Iran Banglade sh Malawi 72. .5% or non-significant quantities From 10 to 20%.800 305.3 Availabl Total 52 08 e see (*) below Certification Workers who pick and pack tea in developing countries can face harsh working conditions and can earn below the living wage[40].180 India 0 310.046 Turkey Vietnam 151.500 45.047.334 44.470 201.4 3.00 928.5 to 1%.220 318.800 94.646.211 countries Total Not 3.[39] Country 2006 2007 2008 2009 1.0 1.000 58.224 150. Data is generated by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations as of January 2010.923 42.000 59.600 345. Less than 0.866 206.000 34.887.257.38 China 45 02 4 979.000 76.183.800 Kenya Sri Lanka 310.900 Indonesia 146.160 198.220 805. From 1 to 5%.000 59. More than 20% From Percentage of total global tea production by country in 2007 The follow table shows the amount of tea production (in tonnes) by leading countries in recent years. From 5 to 10%.782 205.

The use of tea bags is easy and convenient. In 1953 (after rationing in the UK ended). Australia and the US. The paper used for the bag can also be tasted by many. which can detract from the tea's flavor. high quality teas now available in bag form. and the United States. Loose tea leaves are likely to be in larger pieces. During World War II.[42][43] Packaging Tea bags Tea Bags In 1907. UTZ Certified. the potential of this distribution/packaging method would not be fully realized until later on. 193459 and 190203 tonnes respectively). However. or to be entirely intact. Most bag teas (although not all) contain leaves broken into small pieces.There are a number of bodies that independently certify the production of tea. and therefore causes them to go stale faster. Pakistan. tea was rationed. Japan. while the largest producer (and consumer) of black tea in the world is India. The most important certification schemes are Rainforest Alliance. especially in the case of many specialty. The majority of this tea (about 75%) is sold in France. in 2007 the largest importer of tea. Consumers noticed that they could simply leave the tea in the bag and re-use it with fresh tea. Tea leaves are packed into a small envelope (usually composed of paper) known as a tea bag. Fairtrade. the tea used in tea bags has an industry name—it is called fannings or "dust" and is the waste product produced from the sorting of higher quality loose leaf tea.500 tonnes of organic tea were grown in 2003. Additional reasons why bag tea is considered less well-flavored include: • • • • Dried tea loses its flavor quickly on exposure to air. by weight. the United Kingdom and the United States. Production of organic tea is rising. the great surface area to volume ratio of the leaves in tea bags exposes them to more air. 292199. Some tea bags are made using a wet paper strength-reinforcing coating using epichlorohydrin. Breaking up the leaves for bags extracts flavored oils. The small size of the bag does not allow leaves to diffuse and steep properly. UTZ Certified announce a partnership in 2008 with Sara Lee brand Pickwick tea. was the Russian Federation. Fairtrade certified tea is sold by a large number of suppliers around the world. Germany. the tea found in tea bags is less finicky when it comes to brewing time and temperature.[41] Kenya. India and Sri-Lanka were the largest exporters of tea in 2007 (with exports of: 374229.[citation needed] It is commonly held among tea aficionados that this method provides an inferior taste and experience.[41][42] The largest exporter of black tea in the world is Kenya. All these schemes certify other crops (like coffee. Tetley launched the tea bag to the UK and it was an immediate success. However. followed by the United Kingdom. China.[44][45] . 3. and Organic. cocoa and fruit) as well. a known carcinogen. Trade According to the FAO. making tea bags popular for many people today. Rainforest Alliance certified tea is sold by Unilever brands Lipton and PG Tips in Western Europe. Because fannings and dust are a lower quality of the tea to begin with. although this certainly is not true for all brands of tea. American tea merchant Thomas Sullivan began distributing samples of his tea in small bags of Chinese silk with a drawstring. Tea from certified estates can be sold with a certification label on pack.

Canned tea Canned tea was first launched in 1981 in Japan. but not commercialized until later. while Redi-Tea introduced the first instant iced tea in 1953. letting the consumer brew weaker or stronger tea as desired. Instant tea In recent times. and it has mostly benefits in marketing.[48] Loose tea The tea leaves are packaged loosely in a canister or other container. and aging convenience. "instant teas" are becoming popular. A more traditional. Instant tea was developed in the 1930s. This allows greater flexibility. Compressed tea Some teas (particularly Pu-erh tea) are still compressed for transport. Similar products also exist for instant iced tea." introduced by Lipton[46] and PG Tips in 1996. some types of pyramid tea bags have been criticized as being environmentally unfriendly. or teapot. The lid of the gaiwan can be tilted to decant the leaves while pouring the tea into a different cup for consumption. it is a fairly recent innovation. These products often come with added flavors. Compressed teas can usually be stored for longer periods of time without spoilage when compared with loose leaf tea. similar to freeze dried instant coffee. Strainers. called a gaiwan. since their synthetic material does not break down in landfills as loose tea leaves and paper tea bags do. storage. such as vanilla. and infusion bags are available commercially to avoid having to drink the floating loose leaves and to prevent over-brewing. The portions must be individually measured by the consumer for use in a cup. honey or fruit. mug. Nestea introduced the first instant tea in 1946. Rolled gunpowder tea leaves. and may also contain powdered milk." filtered teapots. due to the convenience of not requiring boiling water. As such. are commonly vacuum packed for freshness in aluminized packaging for storage and retail. "tea presses. yet perhaps more effective way around this problem is to use a three-piece lidded teacup. but convenience is sacrificed. The tea brick remains in use in the Himalayan countries.[47] has a unique design that addresses one of connoisseurs' arguments against paper tea bags.Pyramid tea bags The "pyramid tea bag. which resist crumbling. The tea is prepared and steeped by first loosening leaves off the compressed cake using a small knife. However. Tea connoisseurs tend to criticize these products for sacrificing the delicacies of tea flavor in exchange for convenience. because its three-dimensional tetrahedron shape allows more room for tea leaves to expand while steeping. .

Prior to that. its leaves being tightly rolled. usually in less than a year. a type of white tea compressed raw pu-erh Huoshan Huangya tea. cool.Made with careful skill ("gongfu") to produce thin. a Green Pu-erh tuo cha. When storing green tea. An exception. and by vacuum sealing. Black tea has a longer shelf life than green tea. Pu-erh tea improves with age. and became the most prominent ingredient of the English Breakfast tea blend. only green tea was made in Anhui. tight strips without breaking the leaves. Tea stays freshest when stored in a dry. acquire disagreeable flavors or odors from other foods. Yu Quianchen. In particular. It was first produced in 1875 by a failed civil servant. dried plum and floweriness (but not at all as floral as Darjeeling tea) which creates the very distinctive and balanced taste. after he traveled to Fujian province to learn the secrets of black tea production. dark place in an air-tight container. discreet use of refrigeration or freezing is recommended. Varieties • • Keemun Gongfu or Congou (祁門功夫) . where Mao Feng means Fur Peak.A variety. Da Hong Pao tea an Oolong tea Fuding Bai Hao Yinzhen tea. which is made of only slightly twisted leaf buds and is sometimes noted for a . Tasting and brewing The aroma of Keemun is fruity. with hints of pine. Black tea stored in a bag inside a sealed opaque canister may keep for two years. It also displays a hint of orchid fragrance and the so-called 'China tea sweetness. Storage life for all teas can be extended by using desiccant packets or oxygen absorbing packets. and the excellent Keemun tea quickly gained popularity in England. Keemun is typically drunk without milk or sugar. The result exceeded his expectations. Green tea loses its freshness more quickly. keeps longer than the more open-leafed Chun Mee tea. outside China it may also be taken with milk. drinkers need to take precautions against temperature variation.Storage Tea has a shelf life that varies[vague] with storage conditions and type of tea. or become moldy. Gunpowder tea. The tea can have a more bitter taste and the smokiness can be more defined depending on the variety and how it was processed. a Yellow tea Loose dried tea leaves Keemun tea Keemun has a relatively short history.[49] Improperly stored tea may lose flavor. Keemun Mao Feng (祁門毛峰) .

Robert Bruce died shortly thereafter. Many people prefer to brew a smaller quantity of this tea for a longer time than usual. However. such references are often confusing due to the other varieties of teas produced in Yunnan as well as the ambiguous nature of the color classifications. It was not until the early 1830s that Robert’s brother. rose and longan. in India.A variety known for its fine buds." present in the dried tea. said to have similar qualities to the Anhui Keemun. The recurring colonial myth of "discovery" informs the history of the Assam tea bush and is attributed to one Robert Bruce. The word "Diān" (滇) is the short name for the Yunnan region while "hóng" (紅) means "red (tea)". Hao Ya is sometimes graded into A and B. said to have less bitterness.Not a true Keemun. The main difference between Dian hong and other Chinese black teas is the amount of fine leaf buds. Historically. lying on either side of the Brahmaputra River. up to 7 minutes. which he planned to have scientifically examined. gentle aroma and no astringency. a variety that comes from the Hubei Province west of Anhui. Bruce reportedly found the plant growing "wild" in Assam while trading in the region. . as such. Assam tea Assam is a black tea named after the region of its production. Hubei Keemun (湖北祁門) . a Scottish adventurer. "Yunnan Red". the plant was finally identified as a variety of tea. is a Chinese black tea which is used as a relatively high end gourmet black tea and is sometimes used in various tea blends. but different from the Chinese version (Camellia sinensis var. pinyin: Diānhóng). and generally the highest grade. sometimes showing prominent amounts of silver tips. arranged for a few leaves from the Assam tea bush to be sent to the botanical gardens in Calcutta for proper examination. yielded a different kind of tea. The daytime temperature rises to about 103F (40 °C). Assam is the second commercial tea production region after southern China. Assam tea revolutionized tea drinking habits in the 19th century since the tea. Cheaper varieties of Dian hong produce a darker brownish brew that can be very bitter. The state of Assam is the world's largest tea-growing region. traditional: 滇紅. Fermented with lychee. without having seen the plant properly classified. Teas grown in the Yunnan Province of China prior to the Han dynasty were typically exported in a compressed form similar to modern pu-erh tea.The early bud variety. He noticed local tribesmen (the Singhpos) brewing tea from the leaves of the bush and arranged with the tribal chiefs to provide him with samples of the leaves and seeds. This part of India experiences high precipitation. and bordering Bangladesh and Burma (Myanmar). This tropical climate contributes to Assam's unique malty taste. produced from a different variety of the tea plant.• • • smoother and different flavor. Dian hong is a relatively new product from Yunnan that began production in the early 20th century. There. where A is the better grade. Dian hong tea Dian hong (simplified: 滇红. Keemun Xin Ya (祁門新芽) . or "golden tips. during the monsoon period as much as 10 to 12 inches (250-300 mm) of rain per day. or Camellia sinensis. these teas are sometimes simply referred to as Yunnan red or Yunnan black. Charles. Southern China and Assam are the only two regions in the world with native tea plants. Assam. who apparently encountered it in the year 1823. Keemun Hao Ya (祁門毫芽) . creating greenhouse-like conditions of extreme humidity and heat. to bring out more interesting tones in the tea. Dian hong teas produces a brew that is brassy golden orange in colour with a sweet. sinensis). a feature for which this tea is well known.

Pu'er tea. Classified in Orange pekoe grading as BOP. which are usually covered in fine hairs.[1] Pu-erh tea is available as loose leaf or as cakes of compacted tea (see Tea brick). and are suitable for multiple infusions. and is priced similarly. Unlike other teas that should ideally be consumed shortly after production. Indeed. Pu-erh tea can be purchased as either raw/green (sheng) or ripened/cooked (shu). pu-erh teas are often now classified by year and region of production much like wine vintages. Due to the scarcity of old wild tea trees. upwards of thousands of dollars per cake. dà yè) or Camellia sinensis var. Yunnan. Yunnan Gold (滇紅工夫茶 or 滇紅. The taste can sometimes be as strong as cooked pu-erh tea. The shoots and young leaves from this varietal are often covered with fine hairs. while more and more connoisseurs are seeking pu-erh with leaves taken from a single tea mountain's wild forests. Puer tea or Bolay tea is a type of tea made from a "large leaf" variety of the tea plant Camellia sinensis and named after Pu'er county near Simao. Vietnam. and the shou or aged-green variants as postfermented tea. The history of pu-erh tea can be traced back to the Eastern Han Dynasty. but makes teas with slightly different characteristics. pinyin:diānhóng suì chá): A cheap tea used for blending which contains very few golden buds and is generally bitter on its own. Pu-erh tea Pu-erh. especially the cheaper varieties. The leaves are reddish brown after being brewed. with the pekoe (two leaves and a bud) larger than other tea varietals. it is still possible to find pu-erh that is 10 to 50 years old. The tea liquor is bright red in colour and exhibits a gentle aroma and a sweet taste. assamica. Laos. The fact that pu-erh fits in more than one tea type poses some problems for classification. For this reason. as well as its desirability for aging. and the very eastern parts of India. You can spot this tea easily as the dried leaves are largely black in color with only a few bursts of golden tips. the "green tea" aspect of pu-erh is sometimes ignored. China. ntroduction and history Pu-erh tea is traditionally made with leaves from old wild tea trees of a variety known as "broad leaf tea" (Traditional: 大葉 Simplified: 大叶. which alter the taste and aroma of the brewed tea. It contains only golden tips. The brew a brassy red color different from other black teas and a vivid sweetness not quite as intense as "Yunnan pure gold". and the tea is regarded solely as a post-fermented product. pu-erh can be drunk immediately or aged for many years. pinyin: jīnyá diānhóng): Considered the best type of Dian hong tea. as well as a few from the late Qing dynasty (1644–1912). which is found in southwest China as well as the bordering tropical regions in Burma. When viewed from a distance. While there are many counterfeit pu-erhs on the market and real aged pu-erh is difficult to find and identify. Sheng pu-erh can be roughly classified on the tea oxidation scale as a green tea.[edit] Tasting and brewing Dian hong teas are best brewed with porcelain gaiwan or yixing teaware using freshly boiled water at 90°C (194°F) to 100°C (212°F). The brew is dark and not brassy but reddishbrown. It is important not to overbrew the teas as they will easily go bitter or exhibit astringency. tea connoisseurs and speculators are willing to pay high prices for older pu-erh. pu-erh made using such trees blended from different tea mountains of Yunnan are highly valued. pinyin: diānhóng gōngfū chá): A Dian hong with fewer golden buds and more dark tea leaves. [edit] Varieties • • • Broken Yunnan (滇紅碎茶. the dried tea appears bright orange in colour. The leaves are also slightly different in chemical composition. Yunnan Pure Gold (金芽滇紅. depending on processing method or aging. Classified in Orange pekoe grading from TGFOP to SFTGFOP. It is on par with the pure gold. Classified in Orange pekoe grading from OP to TGFOP.[citation needed] .

Water is brought to a boil in the larger lower kettle and then some of the water is used to fill the smaller kettle on top and steep several spoons of loose tea leaves. similar to the smell of a campfire or of Latakia pipe tobacco. Turkish tea tends to be more popular than Turkish coffee among the younger generation. the tea typically takes on a darker colour and mellower flavour characteristics. Minnan: l a̍p-pho·-san sió-chéng. producing a very strong tea. Classification and primary process of the two main types of Puerh As of 2008 only large-leaf variety from Yunnan can be called a Puerh.Pu-erh is well known for the fact that it is a compressed tea and also that it typically ages well to produce a pleasant drink. Tea connoisseurs often note that Formosan lapsang souchong typically has a stronger flavour and aroma. as Wuyi is a small area and there is increasing interest in this variety of tea. Lapsang is distinct from all other types of tea because lapsang leaves are traditionally smoke-dried over pinewood fires. Lapsang souchong from the original source is increasingly expensive. called çay. In Turkey. Specific primary processes required: Puerh needs sun fixation and sun drying. High grade lapsang souchong possesses a taste of dried Longan for the first few brews. The flavour of the pine smoke is meant to complement the natural taste of the black tea. Many of the compounds making up the aroma of lapsang souchong. and sunlight help to mature the tea. literally Small variety from mountain Lap. and are not found in other kinds of tea. the tea producers sped up the drying process by having their workers dry the tea leaves over fires made from local pines. including longifolene. Turkish tea Turkish tea (Turkish: çay) is a type of tea that is popular mainly in the Turkish-speaking countries. heat. the most extreme being tarry souchong (smoked. over burning pine tar). taking on a distinctive smoky flavour. which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil. Turkish tea. Lapsang souchong Lapsang souchong (拉普山小種/正山小种. which when stored away from excessive moisture. Eager to satisfy demand. Lapsang souchong's flavour is strong and smoky.[2] Compression of the tea into dense bulky objects likely eased horseback transport and reduced damage to the tea. is produced on the eastern Black Sea coast. as the name implies. When served. Turkish tea is typically prepared using two stacked kettles (çaydanlık) especially designed for tea preparation. The name in Fukienese means "smoky sub-variety. Cantonese: làaipóusàan síujúng) is a black tea originally from the Wuyi region of the Chinese province of Fujian. • • green/raw Puerh 青普: sun fixation 曬青 > rolling 揉捻 > sun drying 曬乾 dark/ripe Puerh 熟普: sun fixation 曬青 > rolling 揉捻 > piling 渥堆 > sun drying 曬 乾 Added processes: green Puerh and dark Puerh can be compressed into cakes and aged. The story goes that the tea was created during the Qing era when the passage of armies delayed the annual drying of the tea leaves in the Wuyi hills. The two most abundant constituents of the aroma are longifolene and α-terpineol. originate only in the pine smoke. and are wrapped in various materials. The longan is a tropical tree native to South and Southeast Asia[1] known for its edible fruit. but should not overwhelm it. Often pu-erh leaves are compressed into tea cakes or bricks. It is sometimes referred to as smoked tea (熏茶). The unique aroma of lapsang souchong is due to a variety of chemical compounds. Pressing of pu-erh into cakes and aging the tea cakes possibly originated from the natural aging process that happened in the storerooms of tea drinkers and merchants. pinyin: chámǎ gǔdaò) that was used in ancient Yunnan to trade tea to Tibet and more northern parts of China. pinyin: lāpǔshān xiǎozhǒng. the remaining water is used to dilute the . Through storage. as well as on horseback caravans on the Ancient tea route (茶馬古道. a form of black tea." Lapsang souchong is a member of the Wuyi Bohea family of teas.

silver. tea replaces both alcohol and coffee as the social beverage. brass. A traditional samovar consists of a large metal container with a faucet near the bottom and a metal pipe running vertically through the middle. and in the Middle-East. usually at a ratio of about 10 parts water to one part tea concentrate. pronounced [səmɐˈvar]. literally "self-boiler". many newer samovars use electricity and heat water in a similar manner as an electric water boiler. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Produced in Rize Province on the eastern Black Sea coast of Turkey which has a mild climate with high precipitation and fertile soil. Furthermore. bronze.500 tonnes of tea (6. it is served in Turkish cafés by a çaycı (tea-waiter). It was initially encouraged as an alternative to coffee. and coffee became an expensive import. which made it one of the largest tea markets in the world. Eastern European countries.tea on an individual basis. In addition to being consumed at home. literally "light"). The teapot is used to brew the заварка (zavarka). in order to save the drinker's fingertips from being burned. Since the heated water is usually used for making tea. coffee became an expensive import.1 kg per person). as the tea is served boiling hot. To a lesser extent than in other Muslim countries. Turkish tea is traditionally offered in small tulip-shaped glasses which are usually held by the rim. A small (6 to 8 inches) smoke-stack is put on the top to ensure draft. and is traditionally accompanied by two or three lumps of beetroot sugar. as well as in other Central. although tastes vary. a strong concentrate of tea. narrow-waisted glasses. The tea is served by diluting this concentrate with (кипяток) kipyatok (boiled water) from the main container. bazaars and restaurants. The pipe is filled with solid fuel to heat the water in the surrounding container. Rize tea or çay is the black tea used for Turkish tea. QuickTimeª and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. In 2004 Turkey produced 205. at homes. When the Ottoman Empire collapsed in 1923. Samovar A samovar (Russian: самовар. Though traditionally heated with coal or charcoal. when brewed it is mahogany in color.5 kg per person-followed by the United Kingdom (2. Turkey had the highest per capita tea consumption in the world.[2] Tea is an important part of the Turkish culture. the tea is usually known as Rize tea.4% of the world's total tea production). at 2. Tea is drunk from small glasses to enjoy it hot in addition to show its colour. Virtually all of the tea is produced in the Rize province. tin or nickel. Samovars are typically crafted out of copper. in small. Atatürk. gold. literally "dark" or demli) or weak (Turkish: açık. giving each consumer the choice between strong (Turkish: koyu. Within Turkey. Persian: ‫ )سماور‬is a heated metal container traditionally used to heat and boil water in and around Russia. South-Eastern. After the fire is off a teapot could be placed on top to be kept heated with the passing hot air. the Turks lost Mocha in Yemen. before or after a meal. Despite its popularity. People throughout Turkey may drink tea at any time of the day.At the urging of the nation's founder. tea became the widely consumed beverage of choice in Turkey only in the 20th century. Offering tea or coffee is considered to be a sign of friendship and hospitality. a Turkish province on the Black Sea coast. . Upon the loss of territories after the fall of the Ottoman Empire. which had become expensive and at times unavailable in the aftermath of World War I. in 2004. many samovars have an attachment on the tops of their lids to hold and heat a teapot filled with tea concentrate. Turks turned more to tea as it was easily sustainable by domestic sources.

Various slow-burning items could be used for fuel. Today electric samovars are available. the fire in the samovar pipe was faintly smouldering. from cylindrical to spherical. In everyday use it was an economical permanent source of hot water in older times. it was quickly rekindled with the help of bellows. In modern times. though they are also quite popular with Iranian immigrants and their descendants. Samovars may be purchased in Europe. . such as New York's East Village or Coney Island in Brooklyn. such as charcoal or dry pinecones. and in the US they may be found in neighborhoods with heavily Slavic populations. The samovar was an important attribute of a Russian household. The Russian expression "to have a sit by samovar" means to have a leisurely talk while drinking tea from samovar. from plain iron to polished brass to gilt. there were bellows manufactured specifically for use on samovars. When necessary. Turkish nargile culture or (superficially) with the Japanese tea ceremony. This compares with the German Kaffeeklatsch. California. or in areas with large Iranian populations like Los Angeles. When not in use. Sizes and designs varied. Although a Russian jackboot сапог (sapog) could be used for this purpose.It is particularly well-suited to tea-drinking in a communal setting over a protracted period. the samovar is mostly associated with Russian exotica and nostalgia[citation needed]. from "40-pail" ones of 400 litres (100 US gallons) to 1 litre (1 US quart) size.

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