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You can think about the Internet as a physical collection of routers and circuits as a set of shared resources or even as an attitude about interconnecting and intercommunication. Some common definitions given in the past include:
• • •
A network of networks based on the TCP/IP communications protocol. A community of people who use and develop those networks. A community of people who use and develop those networks.
Internet Based Services: Some of the basic services available to Internet users are:
• • •
Email: A fast, easy, and inexpensive way to communicate with other Internet users around the world. Telnet: Allows a user to log into a remote computer as though it were a local system. FTP: Allows a user to transfer virtually every kind of file that can be stored on a computer from one Internet-connected computer to another. Usenetnews: A distributed bulletin board that offers a combination news and discussion service on thousands of topics. World Wide Web (WWW): A hypertext interface to Internet information resources.
What is WWW? This stands for World Wide Web. A technical definition of the World Wide Web is : all the resources and users on the Internet that are using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). A broader definition comes from the organization that Web inventor Tim Berners-Lee helped found, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C): The World Wide Web is the universe of network-accessible information, an embodiment of human knowledge.
You can refer www.w3schools.com for further notes and examples
yahoo. What is Website? Currently you are on our website http://www.tutorialspoint. A URL is the fundamental network identification for any resource connected to the web (e.g.com/ is called a URL and here the prefix http indicates its protocol What is URL? URL stands for Uniform Resource Locator.com which is a collection of various pages written in HTML markup language.In simple terms. The protocol is followed by a colon. tying them together into a vast collection of interactive multimedia resources.com for further notes and examples . hypertext pages. This is a location on the web where people can find tutorials on latest technologies. and sound files)..w3schools. What is HTTP? This stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol. Links to particular files or subdirectories may be further specified after the domain name. A standard web address such as http://www. and is used to specify addresses on the World Wide Web. Other protocols compatible with most web browsers include FTP. Similar way there are millions of websites available on the web. This is the protocol being used to transfer hypertext documents thats makes the World World Wide possible. The directory names are separated by single forward slashes. The domain name is the computer on which the resource is located. and Gopher. A URL will have the following format: protocol://hostname/other_information The protocol specifies how information from the link is transferred. images. and then the domain name. The World Wide Web is a way of exchanging information between computers on the Internet. telnet. newsgroups. You can refer www. The protocol used for web resources is HyperText Transfer Protocol (HTTP). two slashes.
35. We will see different type of Web servers in a separate chapter. Currently you must be using any sort of Web browser while you are naviating through my site tutorialspoint. We will see different type of Web browsers in a separate chapter.com. Microsoft Internet Explorer or Mozilla Firefox. Every Web server that is connected to the Internet is given a unique address made up of a series of four numbers between 0 and 256 separated by periods. To access the Web you need a web browsers. When you register a Web address. On the Web.157.for example. This server takes care of delivering emails from one server to another server. such as tutorialspoint.122.132 ro 68. You can refer www. This server is always connected to the internet.com you have to specify the IP address of the Web server that will host the site. What is Web Server? Every Web site sits on a computer known as a Web server. What is SMTP Server? This stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Server.Each page available on the Website is called a web page and first page of any web site is called home page for that site. What is ISP? This stands for Internet Service Provider. 68. also known as a domain name.127. When you send an email to an email address. They are the companies who provide you service in terms of internet connection to connect to the internet. What is Web Browser? Web Browsers are software installed on your PC. when you navigate through pages of information this is commonly known as browsing or surfing.w3schools.178. such as Netscape Navigator. it is delivered to its recipient by a SMTP Server.com for further notes and examples .
You will buy space on a Web Server from any Internet Service Provider. (See also: FTP and Protocols) supports mail. Now merging with CSNET and running the RSCS protocol over TCP/IP protocol (BITNET II). Familiar hyperlinks include buttons. mailing lists. as an anonymous or guest user.com for further notes and examples . The W3C is the chief standards Anonymous FTP (Anonymous File Transfer Protocol) The procedure of connecting to a remote computer. What is Hyperlink? A hyperlink or simply a link is a selectable element in an electronic document that serves as an access point to other electronic resources. image maps. the original architect of the World Wide Web.w3schools. This space will be used to host your Web site. The computer providing the services is a server. The W3C was founded in 1994 by Tim Berners-Lee. and file transfer. Even the page you are reading right now is written in HTML. What is W3C? This stands for World Wide Web Consortium which is an international consortium of companies involved with the Internet and the Web. DNS (Domain Name System) You can refer www. The organization's purpose is to develop open standards so that the Web evolves in a single direction rather than being splintered among competing factions. the specific standard used for the World Wide Web. and clickable text links. in order to transfer public files back to your local computer. icons. See also Web client program. you click the hyperlink to access the linked resource. Browser A program which sends requests for information across the Internet and displays the information when it is received. This is the language in which we write web pages for any Website. This is a subset of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML) for electronic publishing. Typically. the network will be called Computer Research and Education Network (CREN). What is HTML? This stands for HyperText Markup Language. Client A computer that has access to services over a computer network.
separated by dots.w3schools. FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) This is the acronym for Frequently Asked Questions.com for further notes and examples . FAQs are a common feature on the Internet.edu. Home Page A hypertext document which is intended as the primary starting point for exploring the World Wide Web.utoledo. Saves you from receiving flames. or nic.utoledo. Search Engine You can refer www. downloading is most generally from a remote host computer (of unknown type or size) to your local microcomputer. which provides services to a user through an intermediary host computer. http (hypertext teleprocessing protocol) The method used to access an information resource (document) on the World Wide Web which was created using HTML. FTP (File Transfer Protocol) The File Transfer Protocol allows a user to transfer files electronically from remote computers back to the user's computer. they are files of answers to commonly asked questions.mil. Hyperlink A text or image link to addional information resources. The content of a particular home page depends upon its author and its intended use. Host Computer In the context of networks. for example strong>uoft02.edu. (See also: IP address) Downloading The electronic transfer of information from one computer to another. a computer that directly provides service to a user.The Internet naming scheme which consists of a hierarchical sequence of names. Usually activated by clicking the mouse pointer on the text or image itself. E-Mail (electronic mail) A system that enables the exchange of messages between network users or groups of network users. Links These are the hypertext connections between Web pages. As the name indicates. Hypertext Text on an HTML document which has been organized to provide links between other elements of the same document or other documents on the World Wide Web. In contrast to a network server.sp. baddog. Read FAQs before wasting electrons asking obvious questions. from the most specific to the most general (left to right). Selecting a hypertext link (usually by clicking the mouse pointer on the text itself) will summon up additional information. This is a synonym for hotlinks or hyperlinks. On the Internet.ddn. Part of the TCP/IP/TELNET software suite.
Your computer is the client and the remote computers that store electronic files are the servers." Web . Routers & Switches .This is provided by an ISP and connects you to the internet to reach to any Web site.They are the combination of software and hardware who take your request and pass to appropriate Web server. The Web is known as a client-server system. Webmaster This term is often used to refer to the person in charge of administrating a World Wide Web site.How it works? On the simplest level. Here's how web works: You can refer www. A Web server . Among other functions. for which the author of the software expects to receive compensation (if you use it. Shareware Computer software (usually for the microcomputer).This term refers to a program that helps users find information in textoriented databases.com for further notes and examples . A Web browser . Also called W3 or simply "the Web.A software installed on your PC which helps you to browse the Web. A portion of the TCP/IP suite of software protocols that handles terminals. Web Browser A program which uses a graphical approach to finding and displaying the information on the Internet. World Wide Web (WWW) A hypertext-based. and browse hypertext documents. the Web physically consists of following components: • • • • • Your personal computer . edit. you are expected to send in some money). An internet connection . distributed through public domain channels (you can give away copies). distributed information system in which users may create. it allows a user to log in to a remote computer from the user's local computer.w3schools.This is the computer on which a web site is hosted.This is the PC at which you sit to see the web.
The browser then sends a request to that server for the page you want. using a standard called Hypertext Transfer Protocol or HTTP. The server should constantly be connected to the Internet. which identifies the computers that serve the Google Web site to you. 68. http://www.When you enter something like http://www. The Web server returns the page to the IP address specified by the browser requesting the page. The browser requests the page from the Web server using the IP address specified by the domain name server.com). An average Web page actually requires the Web browser to request more than one file from the Web server and not just the HTML / XHTML page. but also any images. and other resources used in the web page. it gets translated into a number.com for further notes and examples . you must initiate the activity by requesting a page using your browser. The page may also contain You can refer www. style sheets.132). This information varies server to server. the server usually logs the client's IP address.com. When you want to view any page on the Web. The domain name server returns an IP address for the server that hosts the Web site (for example. so when you type in http://www. When a request is made. This request is passed to a domain name server.google. We can summaries these steps as follows: • • • • A user enters a URL into a browser (for example.w3schools.178. the request goes to one of many special computers on the Internet known as Domain Name Servers (DNS). and the date and time it was requested. The browser asks a domain name server to translate the domain name you requested into an IP address.server interaction happens. Each of these files including the main page needs a URL to identify each item. When it receives a request.157. the document requested. In short: We have seen how a Web client .google. it looks for the requested document and returns it to the Web browser. Then each item is sent by the Web server to the Web browser and Web browser collects all this information and displays them in the form of Web page.google. The domain name servers keep tables of machine names and their IP addresses.ready to serve pages to visitors.com. All these requests are routed through various routers and switches.
Website planning has various steps: Purpose of Website Why are your building this site? The first step of website planning should be deciding on the purpose of the website.• links to other files on the same server.w3schools. such as images. The style should be professional. Determine Target Audience What is your target audience? Ask yourself. The appearance: the graphics and text should include a single style that flows throughout. appealing and relevant. "Who is going to be looking at my site?" Now ask. For the typical web sites. which the browser will also request. Determine what it is that you wish to accomplish with the website. to show consistency. with the interface and navigation simple and reliable. "What technologies will your visitors have?" You can refer www. the basic aspects of design are: The content: The substance and information on the site should be relevant to the site and should target the area of the public that the website is concerned with. Taking the time to clearly define the purpose of the website will affect how successfully you reach the goals you set for the project. The browser collects all the information and displays to your computer in the form of Web page.com for further notes and examples . II-Website Planning When you decide to have a website for your business or personal interest there are a number of things you have to consider before you start actually building your website. The structure: of the web site as a whole. The usability: the site should be user-friendly.
the type of website features you need and what the target audience is looking for.com for further notes and examples . Have your list of website technologies required ready before you move to the next step. Your hosting costs are influenced by all of the above. what technologies their systems will have and what their computer experience before you can decide on your website technologies. securing hosting. When planning a website be sure that the web host has room to grow with your site. Are there features included with a slightly more expensive hosting package that you will need in the future? Website Budget Ask yourself. "What technologies do I need?" The website technologies you will require will depend on the type of website you are building and what type of audience you have decided to target and accommodate. Website Technical Considerations Ask yourself. "What is my budget?" When planning a website. It is the framework that shapes your site and defines your navigation You can refer www. Determing your target audience during the website planning stage will give you a wealth of information that can be used as the website is further developed. budget can be a determining factor as to what features the website will have. Seriously assessing what you can do yourself and what you need help with will affect the website budget Website Structure The structure of your site is composed of the different sections of your website and navigation within those sections.w3schools.When planning a website you need to assess what the target audience will be. This information can be used when deciding on which website technologies to incorporate. Website Hosting Costs Website hosting costs influenced by website planning.
scheme. So should a website be connected through a network of links into something that provides form and function to your site.com for further notes and examples . If you develop a sound website structure everything else will fall into place. Basic website structure As the diagram below shows a website is composed of three main areas: The homepage. Example Layout of a Basic Website You can refer www. Every joint or synapse is connected together into a network of mechanical or electrical links. the main sections and the subsections The structure of a website is like the skeleton or nervous system in the human body.w3schools. which in turn makes us who and what we are. The website basic layout shown below is a simplified example of such a network.
<b> means the same as <B> Basic HTML Tags The most important tags in HTML are tags that define headings. From the homepage to the main sections (click 1) and then to the subsections (click 2) is a simple and intuitive path.Navigation and website structure The key to the success of your website's structure is the ease with which your visitors can navigate the site. paragraphs and line breaks.w3schools. You can refer www. If necessary you can add a third tier of data but more than that will not only begin to confuse your visitors but also impedes the deep access of search engine spiders. In the example above there are three tiers of content which can be accessed in two clicks.com for further notes and examples . III-HTML What is an HTML File? • • • • • HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language An HTML file is a text file containing small markup tags The markup tags tell the Web browser how to display the page An HTML file must have an htm or html file extension An HTML file can be created using a simple text editor HTML Tags • • • • • • • HTML tags are used to mark-up HTML elements HTML tags are surrounded by the two characters < and > The surrounding characters are called angle brackets HTML tags normally come in pairs like <b> and </b> The first tag in a pair is the start tag. A general rule of thumb is that it should take no more than three clicks for a visitor to find what they are looking for. the second tag is the end tag The text between the start and end tags is the element content HTML tags are not case sensitive.
Useful Tips When you write HTML text. <p>This <br> is a para<br>graph with line breaks</p> The <br> tag is an empty tag. With this editor.com for further notes and examples . Headings Headings are defined with the <h1> to <h6> tags. The <br> tag forces a line break wherever you place it. It has no closing tag. you can never be sure how the text is displayed in another browser. <p>This is a paragraph</p> <p>This is another paragraph</p> HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a paragraph. <h1> defines the largest heading. you can edit the HTML source code if you like. <h6> defines the smallest heading. <h1>This <h2>This <h3>This <h4>This <h5>This <h6>This is is is is is is a a a a a a heading</h1> heading</h2> heading</h3> heading</h4> heading</h5> heading</h6> HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after a heading. Paragraphs Paragraphs are defined with the <p> tag. and click on a test button to view the result. Some people have large computer You can refer www. Basic Notes . We have created a very nice HTML editor for you. Line Breaks The <br> tag is used when you want to end a line.The best way to learn HTML is to work with examples. but don't want to start a new paragraph.w3schools.
We use a horizontal rule (the <hr> tag). HTML automatically adds an extra blank line before and after some elements. The text will be reformatted every time the user resizes his window. Don't rely on it.) You might have noticed that paragraphs can be written without the closing tag </p>. Using empty paragraphs <p> to insert blank lines is a bad habit.displays.<u>underlined</ul> . HTML will truncate the spaces in your text. You can refer www.w3schools. .<tt>teletype text</tt> (typewriter text) .<i>italics</i> . Any number of spaces counts as one. like before and after a paragraph. The next version of HTML will not allow you to skip ANY closing tags.<b>bold</b> . Never try to format the text in your editor by adding empty lines and spaces to the text.<blockquotes>blockquotes</blockquotes> (how this looks will depend on your CSS template but it usually indents your paragraph) Links . Wait until you have learned about HTML lists. Here are some of the more common tags and what they mean Basic Formatting Tags .<center>This centers text on the page</center> .<strike>strike through</strike> .com for further notes and examples . and before and after a heading.Email Link <a href=”mailto:EMAIL”></a> (where ‘EMAIL’ is the email address you want to be a link). to separate the sections in our tutorials.<em>emphasis</em> (usually italics) .Basic Link <a href=”url”>link title</a> (where ‘url’ is the page you want to link to and ‘link title’ is the word/s that you want the link to say. Some extra information: In HTML a new line counts as one space. some have small.<strong>strong</strong> (usually bold) . (But don't use the <br> tag to create lists. Use the <br> tag instead.
cell 2</td> You can refer www. and each row is divided into data cells (with the <td> tag). links. Table Example <table border="1"> <tr> <td>row 1.w3schools. td stands for "table data. A <td> tag can contain text. images. A table is divided into rows (with the <tr> tag). forms. etc. other tables." and holds the content of a data cell.Image with sizing <img src=”url” width=”200″ height=”150″> . lists.com for further notes and examples .Heading Tags (vary according to CSS) <h1>An important heading</h1> <h2>A slightly less important heading</h2> <h3>A less important heading again</h3> <h6>The smallest heading</h6> Image Tags .Align image left – <img src=”name” align=left> (substitute ‘left’ Unordered Lists (usually bullet point type lists) <ul> <li>the first list item</li> <li>the second list item</li> <li>the third list item</li> </ul> Ordered Lists (usually numbered lists) <ol> <li>the first list item</li> <li>the second list item</li> <li>the third list item</li> </ol> HTML Tables Tables are defined with the <table> tag.Basic Image tag – <img src=”url”> (where url = the url of the image you want to show) . cell 1</td> <td>row 1.
we want the borders to show. cell 1</td> <td>Row 1. cell 1 row 1. the table will be displayed without borders. cell 1 row 2. but most of the time. To display a table with borders. cell 2</td> </tr> </table> How the HTML code above looks in a browser: row 1. cell 2 row 2. cell 2</td> </tr> </table> HTML Table Headers Header information in a table are defined with the <th> tag. cell 1</td> <td>row 1. cell 1</td> <td>row 2.w3schools. Sometimes this can be useful. specify the border attribute: <table border="1"> <tr> <td>Row 1.</tr> <tr> <td>row 2. cell 2</td> </tr> You can refer www. <table border="1"> <tr> <th>Header 1</th> <th>Header 2</th> </tr> <tr> <td>row 1. cell 2 HTML Tables and the Border Attribute If you do not specify a border attribute. The text in a th element will be bold and centered.com for further notes and examples .
<tr> <td>row 2.w3schools. cell 2</td> </tr> </table> How the HTML code above looks in a browser: Header 1 Header 2 row 1. cell 2 row 2.com for further notes and examples . cell 2 You can refer www. cell 1 row 1. cell 1</td> <td>row 2. cell 1 row 2.
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