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Process charts determines the critical operations in the process and when inspection might be needed. Because there are some part of operations, which, if performed incorrectly can lead to defective output. It also determines the critical product or process, which are attribute of the product that will result in good on poor function of process.

X bar chart X bar chart is a process chart used to monitor the average of the characteristic being measured.

R bar chart R bar chart is used to monitor the variability or dispersion of the process. Note:-- It is used in combination of X bar chart when the process characteristics are is variable

P chart The p chart is used to graph the proportion of items in a sample that are defective

np chart np chart is a graph of the number of defectives in a sub group. The np chart requires that the sample size of each subgroup be the same each time the sample is drawn.

C chart C chart is a graph which shows the actual no of defects per standardized unit. C chart is for detect the nonrandom events in the life of a production process. Example is no of flaws in a std typed letters, and number of incorrect responses on a std test.

U chart C chart is used same as the C chart

S chart S chart is also called stand ard deviat ion chart. This is used in place of R chart when more sensit ive data is requir ed

X bar bar charts tracks the process mean

Range charts tracks the process variation

P charts are used to determine the when there has been a shift in the proportion defective for a particular product or service

Np charts are easier to use because it reflects integer numbers rather than proportions . The uses for the np chart are essentially the same as the p chart

C chart is for attribute data{an attribute is the result of a binomial process that result in an either or situation

X bar chart is for data which is measurable in units like cm, kg or km etc.

R bar chart is for data which is measurable in units like cm, kg or km etc

P charts is for proportions of items in a sample, which are defective like no of late deliveries, incomplete orders and clerical errors on

Chart is a graph of the number of defects per unit. The units must be of the same sample space i.e this includes size, height, length, volume and so on. The

C chart is graph of the avera ge no of defect s per unit Chart allows for the

**Rolled Throughput Yield - RTY
**

Rolled Throughput Yield (RTY) is the probability that a single unit can pass through a series of process steps free of defects. Next we will turn our attention to a Rolled Throughput Yield example. If you will remember, the First Time Yield calculation we did (FTY) considered only what went into a process step and what went out. Rolled Throughput Yield adds the consideration of rework. Using the previous example: Process A = 100 units in and 90 out Process B = 90 in and 80 out Process C = 80 in and 75 out Process D = 75 in and 70 out. If in order to get the yield out of each step we had to do some rework (which we probably did) then it really looks more like this: Process A = 100 units, 10 scrapped and 5 reworked to get the 90. The calculation becomes [100-(10+5)]/100 = 85/100 = .85 This is the true yield when you consider rework and scrap. Process B = 90 units in, 10 scrapped and 7 reworked to get the 80. [90-(10+7)]/90 = .81 Process C = 80 units in, 5 scrapped and 3 reworked to get the 75. [80-(5+3)]/80 = .9 Process D = 75 units in, 5 scrapped and 10 reworked to get the 70. [75-(5+10)]/75 = .8 Now to get the true Rolled Throughput Yield (Considering BOTH scrap and the rework necessary to attain what we thought was first time throughput yield) we find that the true yield has gone down significantly: .85*.81*.9*.8 = .49572 or Rounded to the nearest digit, 50% yield. A substantially worse and

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substantially truer measurement of the process capability. An Assumption is made in the preceeding example that there are no spilled opportunities after each process step

**Sigma to DPMO to Yield to Cpk Table
**

Sigma 1.5 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 DPMO 500,000 66,800 22,700 6,210 1,350 230 Yield 50% 93.320% 97.730% 99.3790% 99.8650% 99.9770% Cpk 0.50 1.00 1.17 1.33 1.50 1.67

6.00

3.4

99.99966%

2.00

Assumptions No analysis would be complete without properly noting the assumptions made. In the above table, we have assumed that the standard sigma shift of 1.5 is appropriate (the calculator allows you to specify another value), the data is normally distributed, and the process is stable. In addition, the calculations are made with using one-tail values of the normal distribution. Related > How to Calculate Process Sigma Related > Sigma To Cpk Conversion Table Discussion If you are starting with DPMO, convert it to a decimal value by dividing by 1,000,000. If you multiply that decimal by 100, that is your Yield (%). If you take the decimal and look it up in a standard normal curve (Z table), you can determine the corresponding Z which is the long term Z. To convert to short term Z, which is the Sigma level, use the following formula: Z(short term) = Z(long term) + 1.5 Then you can determine Cpk using the following formula: Cpk = Z(short-term) / 3

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**Sigma To Cpk Conversion Table
**

Sigma 1.5 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 6.00 Cpk 0.50 1.00 1.17 1.33 1.50 1.67 2.00

Assumptions No analysis would be complete without properly noting the assumptions made. In the above

table, we have assumed that the standard sigma shift of 1.5 is appropriate (the calculator allows you to specify another value), the data is normally distributed, and the process is stable. In addition, the calculations are made with using one-tail values of the normal distribution.

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