& Its implications

by Isha Tagra
Roll No.-4390

"We are responsible for what we are, and whatever we wish ourselves to be, we have the power to make ourselves. If what we are now has been the result of our own past actions, it certainly follows that whatever we wish to be in future can be produced by our present actions; so we have to know how to act. "
- Swami Vivekananda

It was not possible for me to acknowledge all of them individually. . Finally I thank Mam Mandeep Kaur for her support and encouragement. The population burdens the environment.PREFACE The aim of the project is to make the reader aware of the population problem in India. with its implications and the ways to curb the same. I hope this report can easily be understood by all. I am also beholden to my friends and others who gave me a valuable advice and were good enough to find time for fruitful discussion. I take this opportunity to express my gratittude to them. I am greatful to my teachers and my beloved companions for helping me in the research and giving their valuable suggestions. which I have incorporated in this work.


At the beginning of the century.INTRODUCTION Throughout the twentieth century. By the mid-1990s. 8). India's population is likely to exceed the 1 billion mark before the 2001 census. The increasing impact of curative and preventive medicine (especially mass inoculations) brought a steady decline in the death rate.000. and famines kept the death rate high enough to balance out the high birth rate. Clearly. Between 1911 and 1920. endemic disease. periodic epidemics. the estimated birth rate had fallen to twenty-eight per 1.000 before the year 2000.000. . and the estimated death rate had fallen to ten per 1.000 population. Even the most optimistic projections do not suggest that the birth rate could drop below twenty per 1. the birth and death rates were virtually equal--about forty-eight births and forty-eight deaths per 1. the future configuration of India's population (indeed the future of India itself) depends on what happens to the birth rate (see fig. India has been in the midst of a demographic transition.

Though the relationship is complex.14 billion in mid 2001 and projected 7. Contribution of India alone to this population was estimated to be 1033 millions in mid 2001 which has been projected 1363 millions and 1628 millions in 2025 and 2050 respectively. environmental pollution not only leads to deteriorating environmental conditions but also have adverse effects on the health of people.82 billion and 9. more than 350 million Indians will live in cities. air and water pollution and increased pressure on arable land. industrialization and urbanization in country are adversely affecting the environment.5 billion people live exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution. one-third lack potable water. According to the provisional results of the Census of India 2001. According to the World Development Indicators report in 1997. Delhi. If the world population continues to multiply. According to this research. Rapid population growth. The increase of population has been tending towards alarming situation. 1. Two-thirds of city dwellers lack sewerage. 1/3 will be slum dwellers and squatters .04 billion in the year 2025 and 2050 respectively. India is one of the most degraded environment countries in the world and it is paying heavy health and economic price for it. (2001 World Population Data Sheet). Mumbai and Chennai are three of the world's ten most populated cities. All these in turn lead to an increase in the pollution levels. India grows equivalent of another New York City every year in its urban population. India is the world's sixth largest and second fastest growing producer of greenhouse gases. However. more than half of Indians will be urban dwellers. By the year 2000. the population of India on 1st March 2001 is 1027 millions. environmental pollution is one of the serious problems faced by the people in the country. 1 billion live without clean water and 2 billion live without sanitation. population size and growth tend to expand and accelerate these human impacts on the environment. The world's population was estimated to be 6. Population impacts on the environment primarily through the use of natural resources and production of wastes and is associated with environmental stresses like biodiversity. the impact on environment could be devastating.POPULATION GROWTH AND ENVIRONMENT A research paper has outlined the effect of population on the environment. In 15 years.

34 % between 1991 .640 babies are born in India everyday.000 men .015.38%. " "In the last several decades. Nirman Bhavan. Total literacy rate was returned as 65.a statistic that the UN says reflects the lower status of women in India. "Census of India-2001 Report: The total population of India as at 0:00 hours on 1st March 2001 stood at 1.India will beat China by 2025. now ticks at the rate of 31 persons per minute.Population control . education and health services." "The population clock in the Union Health Ministry. New Delhi." "At district level the North East district in Union territory Delhi has the highest population density in the country with 29395 persons per square kilometer. By targeting women instead of men. number of females per thousand males) of population was 933.. the government inadvertently opts for the more hazardous means of birth control. The clock shows that about 44. " "The prominence of female sterilization indicates another flaw in the India population control strategies. " .2001. The sex ratio (i. The population of the country rose by 21. fertility control policies in India have failed to promote a sustainable solution to the problem of overpopulation.e. rising from 927 as at the 1991 Census. What factors have caused these efforts to fall short? " "Currently the sex ratio is 960 women for every 1. India became only the second country in the world after China to cross the one billion mark. who are more likely to be deprived of food.027. With this. Information collected from research articles and newspapers.247 persons.

has no more than 2. " "The fast rate of growth of population has affected the quality of life of the people.5% of global land but is the home of 1/6th of the world's population." FAMILY WELFARE PROGRAMME IN INDIA India. People started migrating to cities where they can get some water and work. Lack of basic education and poor economic conditions are. Living in a resource poor country with high population density. the Planners recognised in the census figures of 1951. the second most populous country in the world. the potential threat posed by population explosion and the . promotive and curative primary health care services preceded the Alma Ata declaration by over three decades. the infant republic took stock of the existing situation in the country and initiated the first Five Year Development Plan. childhood morbidity and mortality. The time has come when future citizens while in educational institutions should understand various issues related to the population problem. In 1951. The Bhore Committee Report (1946) which laid the foundation for health service planning in India. The prevailing high maternal. water and place to live. Population has remained a problem because EDUCATION continues to be a problem. Your assumption that people have no access to family planning methods is only partly true and in any case is not the root of the problem. If this trend continues. India will beat up China by 2025." "In some places there is no drinking water.D. You cannot solve the population problem by clinics." "The birth rate in India (31 per thousand people) is greater than that of China (20 per thousand people)."Population in itself is NOT the problem. low life expectancy and high fertility and associated high morbidity had been a source of concern for public health professionals right from the pre-independence period. gave high priority to provision of maternal and child health services and improving their nutritional and health status. Under the Constitution of India elimination of poverty. People will start fighting for food. ignorance and ill health are three important goals. It is noteworthy that this report which emphasized the importance of providing integrated preventive. infant.A.

the key elements of health care to women and children and provision of contraceptive services have been the focus of India¶s health services right from the time of India¶s independence. A careful choice has to be made among the current available methods. suitable for everybody. It was recognised that population stabilisation is an essential prerequisite for sustainability of development process so that the benefits of economic development result in enhancement of the well being of the people and improvement in quality of life. vasectomy in the case of the male. Considering the seriousness of the situation it is appropriate to introspect and ascertain as to what went wrong. and tubectomy in the case of the female. though very complex. Successive Five Year Plans have been providing the policy framework and funding for planned development of nationwide health care infrastructure and manpower. country. The problem. FAILURE OF POPULATION CONTROL POLICIES India is first among the countries which adopted an official family planning programme. can be discussed under two headings: (i) (ii) the available methods for contraception and the users. with the objective of "reducing birth rate to the extent necessary to stabilise the population at a level consistent with requirement of national economy".need to take steps to avert it. depending on the gender. The Centrally Sponsored and 100% centrally funded Family Welfare Programme provides additional infrastructure. The next most commonly used methods are the barrier methods. socio-religious and cultural practices. still popular . It is obvious that despite good intentions and concerted efforts we have failed in controlling our population. Thus. manpower and drugs. These are methods of choice for all those who have completed their family size and to use them is a conscious decision made by the couple. It is obvious now that there cannot be an ideal contraceptive. vaccines contraceptives and other consumables needed for improving health status of women and children and to meet all the felt needs for fertility regulation. as early as 1950. fifty years later this has not prevented the population touching the one billion mark. India became the first country in the world to formulate a National Family Planning Programme in 1952. However. According to available information the most accepted methods are the two terminal methods.

However. With population growth slowing now to about 1. All cities will be like fish markets with people everywhere. People are not realizing the problem. fighting over food. Does this mean that the available methods are not adequate for the requirements and this inadequacy is the reason for uncontrolled population growth? The answer is firmly in the negative. The users are both male and female. it will destroy the country. the majority are passive participants in the process with no decision-making capacity. during. a growth rate of the gross domestic product . namely reproductive health. and beyond child bearing age. It is for this reason that it was mentioned earlier that the issue of the user is a complex one. Traffic will move like the ants party. shout. One day the result will be roits. It is in this context that population control was given a new dimension. water. the entire burden of limiting the family is shouldered by the female. if continues to increase at the same rate. Who is responsible? Population.6 per cent per annum. but nobody will listen. The concept of reproductive health recognizes the diversity of the special health needs of women before. India will be the largest slums creater.in spite of a high failure rate. are responsible for this destructive problem. It is also evident that except for the barrier method and vasectomy there are no methods available for male contraception. The available methods are more than adequate but what is lacking is the will to use them. intrauterine devices and injectables are used by a relatively small percentage of the population. except for a miniscule percentage of the female population. This brings in the philosophical question as to what is meant by will and why the will is not there. as well as the needs of men and the quality of life of the people involved. The Challenges Ahead India¶s per capita income has doubled over the past 20 years. Lack of initiative by the government together with sleeping people of India. which to a large extent centres around the female. The other methods such as the use of contraceptive pills. in contrast to the variety of methods available and in use for the female. and with limited options available to the male. Everybody will scream.

Opinions on achievable rates of economic growth have a tendency to swing along with the short-term economic performances. The reality will depend on how effectively we seize the opportunity to do so. The dramatic rise of Japan and the East Asian tigers. the IT revolution and the all round optimism led many to believe that in the coming decade India could mimic the 9-10 per cent growth rates that China achieved over a twenty year period. higher rates of growth should be achievable for India in the coming years. will be present in greater abundance in the coming years than they had been in the past. Bihar 8679200 5. and most recently China. the global boom. global rates of development have been increasing for more than a century. This is not a prediction²it is a potential. Arunachal Pradesh 3. From a historical perspective. Gujarat 18899377 1343998 50596992 685617 26344053 658381 24252939 675129 31697615 668869 20795956 10452426 10343530 16620627 82878796 43153964 39724832 74199596 1091117 26638407 573951 13787799 517166 12850608 868429 23248994 222688 75727541 38286811 37440730 55223944 75727541 Male 38286811 Female 37440730 Rural 55223944 Urban .(GDP) of around 9 per cent per annum would be sufficient to quadruple the per capita income by 2020. Two years ago. Andhra Pradesh 20503597 2. But there is ample evidence showing that if we can adopt a longer term perspective that is not blinded by immediate circumstances and fluctuating moods. Goa 7. POPULATION OF INDIA ² 2001 Total INDIA 20503597 1. Assam 3389413 4. are illustrative of this point. Such optimism is out of fashion today. Chhatisgarh 4175329 6. An objective assessment reveals that all the major engines of economic growth that have accelerated growth up till now.

Uttaranchal 28. Tripura 26. Kerala 14. Uttar Pradesh 34512629 27. Nagaland 20. Chandigarh 21082989 6077248 11327658 3085256 5300574 13861277 26856343 15468664 31456873 9755331 2991992 4769343 13048151 25877615 16369955 28928245 14968850 5482367 7564608 20922731 34814100 23571484 44282528 8267135 594881 10. Karnataka 17919858 13. Meghalaya 18. Tamil Nadu 27241553 25. Dadra & Nagar Haveli 220451 . Punjab 22. West Bengal 22486481 Union Territories 1. Madhya Pradesh 16102590 15. Manipur 17. Orissa 21.8. Jammu & Kashmir 10069917 26909428 52733958 31838619 60385118 96752247 2388634 2306069 891058 1988636 36706920 24289296 56473122 540493 62110839 50334270 1207338 1167840 459783 1041686 18612340 12963362 29381657 288217 31268654 46417977 1181296 1138229 431275 946950 18094580 11325934 27091465 252276 30842185 55732513 1818224 1853457 450018 1635815 31210602 16043730 43267678 480488 34869286 60005 570410 452612 441040 352821 5496318 8245566 3191168 166052859 8479562 80221171 1636138 87466301 4316401 41487694 1555030 78586558 4163161 38733477 2648074 131540230 6309317 57734690 543094 2170245 356265 900914 192985 508224 121731 163280 392690 98720 239858 92118 169995 116407 808796 50456 3. Himachal Pradesh 2505309 11. Sikkim 24. Haryana 6114139 9. Mizoram 19. Rajasthan 13205444 23. Andaman & Nicobar Islands 2. Jharkhand 5986697 12. Maharashtra 41019734 16.

As a result the country was able to achieve a relatively gradual change in the population numbers and age structure.5 in 1991. Daman & Diu 5. Lakshadweep 7. The rate of decline in population growth is likely to be further accelerated during the next decade. The annual exponential population growth rate has been over 2% in the period 196190.4. The short and long term adverse consequences of too rapid decline in birth rates and change in age structure on the social and economic development were avoided and the country was able to adapt to these changes without massive disruptions of developmental efforts. the annual population growth rate has fallen below 2% (Figures 3 & 4).8 in 1951 to 29. steady and sustained.8 in 1991 and less steep decline in the Crude Birth Rate (CBR) from 40. The changes in the population growth rates have been relatively slow. During the nineties the decline in CBR has been steeper than that in the (CDR) and consequently. Pondicherry 158059 13782976 60595 973829 92478 7570890 31118 486705 65581 6212086 29477 487124 100740 963215 33647 325596 57319 26948 648233 DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION IN INDIA Over the last four decades there has been rapid fall in Crude Death Rate (CDR) from 25. .1 in 1951 to 9. Delhi 12819761 6.

These countries have been able to . the rate of decline was slower in some States like U. Bihar. in turn.P. The early Malthusian view was that population growth is likely to impede economic growth because it will put pressure on the available resources. IMR and CDR has occurred in all States. this. Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan) with high Infant Mortality Rate and Fertility Rates. there are substantial differences in the performance between States as assessed by IMR and CBR. Contrary to the Malthusian predictions. At the other end. result in reduction in per capita income and resources. IMPLICATIONS OF GROWING POPULATION IN INDIA Population growth and its relation to economic growth has been a matter of debate for over a century. there are four large northern States (Uttar Pradesh. several of the East Asian countries have been able to achieve economic prosperity and improvement in quality of life in spite of population growth. This has been attributed to the increase in productivity due to development and utilization of innovative technologies by the young educated population who formed the majority of the growing population.In spite of the uniform national norms set under the 100% Centrally Funded and Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) of Family Welfare . At one end of the spectrum is Kerala with mortality and fertility rates nearly similar to those in some of the developed countries. the rate of decline is slower in some States. will result in deterioration in quality of life. and Bihar. Though the decline in CBR and IMR has occurred in all States. There are substantial differences in CBR and IMR not only between States but also between the districts in the same state. Though the decline in CBR.

exploit the dynamics of demographic transition to achieve economic growth by using the human resources as the engine driving the economic development. Following are the adverse effects of population growth on the Indian Economy: 1. Promoting female education and employment. Following methods can be adopted fro the same: 1. unproductive investment 3. underutilization of labour 5. adverse effects on savings 2. growing pressure on land 6. Making available family planning methods through different outlets in every region. adverse social impact HOW TO COMBAT POPULATION GROWTH IN INDIA Rapid reduction in the population growth rate can be achieved by meeting all the felt-needs for contraception. 5. Financial assistance to the acceptors and motivators of the family planning methods. slow growth of Per Capita Income 4. CONCLUSION . improved employment with adequate emoluments has promoted saving and investment which in turn stimulated economic growth. And 6. 3. 4. Promotion of delayed marriages. 2. adverse effect on quality of population and 7. Using various means of communication to persuade people to adopt small family norms. Setting up the family planning centers to make available the services relating to family planning methods. and reducing the infant and maternal morbidity and mortality so that there is a reduction in the desired level of fertility.

The deforestation has led to the shrinking of forest cover. one of the most important being environment degradation. The study reveals that rapid population growth has led to the overexploitation of natural resources. which eventually affects human health.Rapid population growth continues to be a matter of concern for the country as it has manifold effects. as both ground water and surface water contamination leads to various water borne diseases. The outcomes of excessive population are industrialization and urbanization. . What is desired is the will of the people as well as the cooperation of the Government to promote family planning methods. The considerable magnitude of air pollution in the country also pulls up the number of people suffering from respiratory diseases and many a times leading to deaths and serious health hazards. there is now high time to give top priority to control pollution of all types for a healthy living. The situation is also similar for water pollution. it appears that if human beings wants to exist on earth. It can be said that even after fifty years of independence. India is unable to achieve the desirable standards of health for its population as consequences of environment degradation. discussed in this paper. From the various effects of environmental degradation on human beings.

V.).nic.org. I.in/reports/wrkpapers/wp_hwpaper.nic.popline.html http://www.pdf http://www.K..org/docs/1490/190029.india2020.C.in/es2001-02/chapt2002/tab91.in/category/india2020/report/ http://planningcommission.usaid. New Delhi    th URLs http://www.BIBLIOGRAPHY TEXTS y Dhingra. Garg. Sultan Chand & Sons.gov/in/ programareas/environm.. Economic Development and Planning in India.html http://indiabudget.pdf . (15 edn. 2002.

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