Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172 www.elsevier.
Seamless geological map generation using ASTER in the Broken Hill-Curnamona province of Australia
R.D. Hewson a,*, T.J. Cudahy a, S. Mizuhiko b, K. Ueda c, A.J. Mauger d
CSIRO Exploration and Mining, ARRC, Western Australia b ERSDAC, Tokyo, Japan c Sumiko Consultants Co., Tokyo, Japan d PIRSA Geological Survey of SA, South Australia
Received 20 September 2004; received in revised form 11 April 2005; accepted 28 April 2005
Abstract The availability of multiple ASTER image acquisitions enables regional-scale geological mapping, though instrument, irradiance, atmospheric and surface scattering effects can cause problems in generating seamless mosaics of geological information products. These issues, including shortwave infrared (SWIR) crosstalk, were addressed in producing seamless ASTER geological maps over the Curnamona Province, associated with the world class Pb – Zn – Ag Broken Hill deposit. Over 35 ASTER scenes covering an area of approximately 52,000 km2 from 14 different overpass dates were acquired. Maps of Al – OH and Mg – OH/carbonate were generated from ASTER SWIR data as well as a map of quartz content from the thermal infrared (TIR) data. Maps of ferrous iron content were also generated from the SWIR data of individual ASTER scenes. The SWIR bands also enabled qualitative mapping of the Al – OH composition though garnet and feldspar – rich units were not well mapped using the TIR. Field sampling and spectral measurements, together with detailed 1 : 25,000 mapping and largescale HyMap surveying, constrained the accuracy of the ASTER-derived geological products. Crown Copyright D 2005 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Keywords: ASTER; Geological mapping; Broken Hill; Curnamona; Multispectral
1. Introduction The accessibility of inexpensive, satellite-borne, multispectral ASTER data has created new opportunities for the regional mapping of geological structure and rock types including alteration products, and regolith. These data have been used enthusiastically by the minerals industry around the world. The ASTER sensor was developed by Japan and launched onboard NASA’s Terra satellite platform. ASTER acquires imagery within a 60 Â 60 km scene area from 14 different spectral bands with a pixel resolution of between 15 to 90 m, depending on wavelength (Fujisada et al., 1998; Thome et al., 1998; Yamaguchi et al., 2001). Of particular interest for remote sensing geoscientists are the inclusion in ASTER of detectors covering the visible-near infreared
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 8 64368 689; fax: +61 8 64368 555. E-mail address: firstname.lastname@example.org (R.D. Hewson).
(VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) wavelength regions offering the potential for discriminating phyllosillicates and also other silicates. Several examples of generating mineralogical maps using single ASTER scenes have proved successful (Rowan & Mars, 2003; Hewson et al., 2001). The area of study encompasses approximately 52,000 km2 of the Curnamona Province from Broken Hill in western New South Wales to Olary in South Australia and the surrounding regolith-dominated terrain (Fig. 1). This study examined the pre-processing issues involved with handling over 30 ASTER scenes acquired on 14 different dates within the Curnamona Province (Fig. 1). These preprocessing issues included SWIR crosstalk (Iwasaki et al., 2001), which has a significant detrimental effect on SWIR spectral signatures. Following pre-processing, a number of quality-control issues for the ASTER-derived geological maps were also examined with the aid of field measure-
0034-4257/$ - see front matter. Crown Copyright D 2005 Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.rse.2005.04.025
. amphibolite and granulite lithologies (Stevens et al. 7. The main objective of this study was to generate new. atmospheric effects (scattering and transmission). Characterising of cloud/cloud shadows and strategies for their masking. level 1B (L1B) ASTER
2. Hewson et al. 3. Characterising of the SWIR crosstalk effect and assessment/development of methods that can effectively remove this instrument problem. accurate and seamless geological/mineralogical information from ASTER images acquired within the Curnamona Province. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. Validating the derived information products using field/ airborne data and scene-based methods.e. Blue boundary marks project study area..000 geological mapping of the Broken Hill Domain. either associated associated with the Broken Hill type syngenetic or epigenetic fluids. psammite. Devising suitable algorithms for mapping such mineral groups over multiple mosaiced ASTER scenes. 1994). Generating a method for generating seamless geological products. Characterising of the effects of the atmosphere. 1. ASTER scenes acquired from fourteen different dates (each colour corresponding to different acquisitions). soil conditions and anthropogenic effects. A variety of tightly folded and high-grade metamorphic units form well-exposed outcrops. 9. The world-class Broken Hill Pb – Zn – Ag orebody within the eastern part of the study area is associated with high-grade metamorphic rocks.D. Rowan and Mars (2003) have shown that ASTER can map AlOH abundance and possibly changes related to AlOH chemistry (Duke. pelite. An equivalent suite of classified geological units belonging to the Curnamona Province is also found in the Olary Domain of South Australia (Conor & Fanning. 2. Specific objectives include: 1. especially water vapor.
3. 4. In this study for the most part. 8. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. Identifying the diagnostic spectral features that can be targeted for mapping mineral groups within outcropping geological units and regolith of the Curnamona Province.
its potential economic Broken Hill-style deposits of Pb– Zn base metals and possible Cu – Au systems associated with hydrothermal alteration. Pre-processing issues and strategies for mosaicing ASTER imagery The generation of multi-scene ASTER image ‘‘seamless’’ products requires consideration of sensor characteristics (i. associated with metamorphism. 2003). 5. in the SWIR. including gneiss.)
ments and airborne hyperspectral HyMap data (Robson et al. 2001) although this area lacks the detailed 1 : 25. crosstalk). 6. schist. Establishing the credibility or otherwise of the generated maps by comparison with published geology from the New South Wales and South Australian Geological Surveys in conjunction with field observations and spectral measurements. Previous studies have shown retrograde alteration associated with the development of muscovite/ sericite and chlorite (Corbet & Phillips. Geological setting The study area for this project encompasses the Curnamona Province that continues to attract interest for
R. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
SA NSW Vic
Fig. Contributing more geological mapping detail to the Olary Domain of the Curnamona Province. 1981). Chief amongst these issues for the ASTER SWIR bands are instrumental crosstalk effects and atmospheric transmission. Of interest for exploration in the Broken Hill area is the mapping of regional prograde and retrograde metamorphism and possible metasomatic alteration. 1988).
GDA94. À 2.+ 2. Thus towards the deep atmospheric absorptions at wavelengths longer than 2. used for geological mapping and results presented in this study.15 rx 42 31 29 31 42 ry 39 40 30 40 39
staggered timing of acquisition for each of the spectral bands for a given row/pixel. Version 3.g. Hewson et al. This software was applied to the Curnamona L1B data to generate corrected ASTER Hierarchal Data Files (HDF) files using input parameters listed in Table 1.430 Am). because of the possibility of inaccurate atmospheric correction in the surface reflectance standard product. A comparison of the ASTER L1B SWIR data to the 1 : 25.R.m.or. was applied to all L1B data acquired for this study. courtesy of ERSDAC. GDS have made this software publicly available for users to correct their existing ASTER L1B data of crosstalk effects (http://www. The Level 2 (L2) ASTER surface emissivity data used in this study were derived from the L1B radiance data after atmospheric correction (Thome et al.04 0. The calibration to spectral radiance units of the L1B ASTER data were then obtained using the equation. Such offsets between SWIR images can generate artifacts along the east-west boundaries of mosaicked band ratio images.e.4 m. particularly for ASTER band 9 (e. however. To maximise the dynamic range of the 8-bit SWIR data and process the L1B data into calibrated radiance at the sensor (W/m2/sr/Am). At the latitude of the Curnamona study area (¨32. This offset of the SWIR image boundaries can be of the order of 20 pixels (i.html)..gds. AST_07. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
radiance-at-sensor images were used for the SWIR bands 4 to 9. (2001) and has since been incorporated by the Japanese ASTER Ground Data System (GDS) as a part of its L1B pre-processing. a.06 0. The overall geometric accuracy from 25 ground control points over the seven ASTER scenes was 63.88.D.06 0. at the time of this study the SWIR crosstalk software correction was not routinely applied to L1B archived data obtained from either the Earth Remote Sensing Data Applications Centre (ERSDAC) or LPDAAC. For very dark pixels adjacent to bright pixels.).jp/ gds_www2002/service_e/u. 2002). These input parameters include the amplitude.
. 1998). the size (pixels) of the applied Gaussian filter function in the across track direction. 3. 34. 2. a set of gains (unit conversion coefficients) were applied after the crosstalk correction (Abrams et al.ersdac. WGS 84. 3. L2 surface reflectance data are prone to errors. the crosstalk effect will approach 100% of the input radiance signal. producing almost a twofold change in spectral irradiance.3 m and 98.87-.8 m.57-.g. Another major issue involved with processing mosaicked ASTER SWIR data into seamless maps is the variability of atmospheric water vapor between different acquisitions..tools_e/set_u. 2003). available from the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Centre (LPDAAC) (Rowan & Mars. An analysis of the spatial accuracy for seven ASTER scenes (SWIR bands) acquired at four different pointing angles of À 8.000 mapping available in the Broken Hill area.15 0. Corrections were applied to each ASTER scene of SWIR images using simple conditional algorithms to test for the presence of the full complement of pixel spectral data. The lack of ASTER spectral bands over key water absorption bands and the situation where atmospheric information from other Terra atmosphere instruments were not used routinely for ASTER corrections at the time of this study.1. Most importantly.aster. Variable illumination conditions of the ASTER radiance data resulting from different solar angles can also be a significant seasonal effect related to the cosine of the solar incident angle (Schowengerdt. Radiance = (DN – 1) * Gain... but it affects all SWIR bands. SWIR Pre-processing SWIR crosstalk is an offset or additive error in radiance due to the leakage of photons from one detector element to another (Iwasaki et al. 600 m) although there is no apparent corresponding spatial offset between bands within the actual image. However this effect is cancelled if spectral normalisation (e..58-.2 m. 1998) and separation of the emissivity component from the kinetic temperature component (Gillespie et al.. indicated that the image data spatial accuracy was better than 100 m. 2001). respectively. of the amount of incident light leaked from band 4 (% units).7 m and regarded as sufficiently accurate for this study.tool_ecross.S) and for the ASTER acquisition time (¨10:30 a. An apparent east-west offset between the different georeferenced SWIR bands along the scene boundaries results from the inclined descending orbital path and the
Table 1 Input parameters for ERSDAC Crosstalk Software (v.5 Am. band ratios) is employed in the information-extraction strategy (Abrams et al. This cross-detector leakage is most pronounced from band 4 to bands 5 and 9.0 beta SWIR crosstalk software.. A spatially dependent software correction for crosstalk has been developed by Iwasaki et al. 70.and + 8. the range of solar incidence angles for flat ground varies from 60 to 23 degrees (from winter to summer solstice). ASTER’s default projection datum. jx . revealed average residual error distances of 45. 1997). means that standard climate models have been used for ASTER atmospheric corrections. the size (pixels) of the Gaussian filter function in the along track direction. is effectively identical to the Australian datum.360 –2. and jy . 1983).0) applied in Curnamona Study ASTER Band 5 6 7 8 9 a 0.
the shape of the ASTER SWIR signatures. collected at the Broken Hill Airport and resampled to ASTER spectral resolution (Fig. a) ASTER acquisitions for seven different dates for the eastern Broken Hill portion of the Curnamona study area (blue). 2. Although path radiance is predominantly occurring within VNIR wavelengths. using MODTRAN4 (Berk et al.. MODTRAN 4 atmospheric radiative transfer model results at ASTER SWIR spectral resolution (bands 4 to 9) indicating effects of variable climates and associated water vapor on radiation. Hewson et al. any significant additive aerosol scattering effect within the SWIR would likely to show up within the b4 / b7 mosaic. 4). The effects of the changes in the atmospheric water vapor during different ASTER L1B data acquisitions from the Curnamona region become obvious for mosaicked ASTER band ratios b4 / b7 and b7 / b9 using L1B data within the Broken Hill region (Fig. different shades). appear effectively multiplicative in nature. If ASTER SWIR responses to variable atmospheric conditions are predominantly multiplicative. In addition. 3c). Fig. under varying atmospheric and solar illumination conditions.162
R. This atmospheric modeling indicated that radiance measurements by ASTER bands 4 and 7 are insensitive to changes in water vapor associated with different modeled climatic conditions (Fig. the reader is referred to the web version of this article.
Fig. 2). Broken Hill Domain outcrop in red. Bands 8 and 9 are the most affected by water vapor absorption (Fig. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
Fig. Broken Hill Domain outcrop boundary in red. 3a shows the different acquisitions of ASTER at different dates (i. 3b). A mosaic of ASTER radiance data as a simple ratio of bands 4 and 7 yields
a seamless mosaic of overlapping imagery (Fig. The importance of these results is that differences between ASTER_s SWIR radiance data acquired at different dates. 3a.) VNIR –SWIR spectral measurements. The large contrast between the field reflectance measurements of the gravel and bitumen runways is not reproduced by the ASTER L2 data (Fig. 2).c).e. By comparison. path radiance and atmospheric scattering effects should be near zero. In this study ASTER L1B radiance data were mosaicked assuming linear gain factors to adjust for variable acquisition conditions. The significance of the combined errors associated with crosstalk and inaccurate atmospheric correction can be demonstrated by the comparison between the ASTER L2 surface reflectance signature and ASD (Analytical Spectral Devices Inc.
The variation of atmospheric transmissivity at ASTER SWIR spectral resolution was estimated. c) ASTER L1b band ratio b7 / b9.D. 3.b. the ratio of bands 7 and 9 show major differences across different acquisition dates (Fig. 1999). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. b) ASTER L1b band ratio b4 / b7.)
. Further MODTRAN modeling in the future could usefully also be undertaken to derive aerosol scattering effects and path radiance.. 4).
Crosstalk-corrected L1B SWIR images were processed to generate AlOH (including muscovite) abundance maps using band combination [(b5+b7)/b6] (Rowan & Mars. TIR Pre-processing A comparison between ASTER emissivity data and the average of TIR spectral field measurements using Design
. This simple method effectively yielded seamless images across 14 different ASTER acquisition dates for each SWIR band. shows a significant difference compared with the field measurements. For most scenes. Gains were subsequently calculated relative to a chosen reference image (e. having adjusted the L1B data into ‘‘apparent’’ radiance units relative to a reference scene. Broken Hill ASTER scene) from the ratio of band means and applied to each scene acquired from the same orbit and date. An algorithm for masking clouds and their shadows was developed in this study using thresholded ASTER L1B bands 10 and 3 radiance data.. uses an automatic cloud identification algorithm that attempts to screen all Level 1A scenes with greater than 20% cloud cover. It was found. Although the ASTER operator. 2003). and especially within their shadows (Fig. 4. Hence. due largely to the uncorrected crosstalk effect (Iwasaki et al. 5e). However. band means were derived automatically from overlapping areas using image-derived statistics. 3. that manual rather than automated histogram thresholding was required to limit the masking to cloud-related features instead of possible geological or topographic-related effects (i. such as in the Curnamona Province. It was also observed that residual crosstalk effects could still be present in high. however. Comparison between ASD field VNIR-SWIR measurements and ASTER L2 surface reflectances for Airfield 1 and Airfield 2 validation sites at Broken Hill.and low-albedo areas.e.
particularly at bands 5 and 9. This is predominantly the result of uncorrected residual crosstalk additively contributing to the ASTER signal.. 5c) to the AlOH abundance image produces an improved map result. 5a – e). 2001). shadowed areas from sharp relief). GDS. Firstly. The low albedo observed from cloud shadows in VNIR band 3 images. 5d). 5c). areas with clouds and associated shadows required manual definition of the overlapping scene areas to extract reliable band-mean statistics. Gain factors used for mosaicking Level 1B SWIR radiance-at-sensor data in this study.b) were thresholded to produce a mask (Fig. however shadowed areas are falsely highlighting high AlOH content (Fig. clouds can affect those mosaicking procedures that rely on scene statistics. removing most of the cloud-induced artifacts but still highlighting small outcrops in the extreme south east of the scene (Fig. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
Fig. although an exception was observed for ASTER acquisition straddling the Barrier Ranges at Broken Hill with likely localized water vapor variations.g.R. band 3 and band 10 (Fig. clouds should first be identified and then masked out. both clouds and their shadows can obscure the underlying surface. Secondly. and the low radiant temperatures of thick cloud tops observed from TIR band 10 images. Hewson et al. The same set of SWIR gains could generally be used for all ASTER scenes collected along the same orbit for most cases. Application of the cloud mask (Fig. this process is still undergoing improvements and can sometimes be problematic in areas of limited outcrop. These residual effects produced ‘‘false
anomalies’’ in SWIR ratio image products. including those associated with clouds. Clouds represent a potential problem for seamless geological mapping for several reasons. In the example shown. These results emphasize the importance of correcting crosstalk in ASTER SWIR radiance data. 5a. enabled the successful mask development of this ASTER data. respectively. were empirically derived from the band means of overlapping ASTER scene areas acquired during different satellite orbits.2.D..
d) ASTER L1B generated AlOH abundance anomalies. 1996). 6a). These steps are time-consuming and automation of this methodology is needed. accurate. Note the interpreted AlOH anomalies that were associated in Fig. essentially showed similar signatures though small spectral variations can be observed in detail.164
R. was apparent. b) ASTER L1B thermal band 10 highlighting cloud.D.. 5. Light areas indicate interpreted high AlOH abundance. despite the relatively low signal to noise of these TIR data. Strategies for generating ASTER seamless geologic maps An overview of the various pre-processing steps devised for this study dealing with the issues described above is illustrated in Fig. 6b).3 Am) (Fig. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
4. geological information products derived from ASTER L2 TIR surface emissivity data yielded images that showed no
apparent residual temperature. particularly
. Overall the ASTER derived emissivities. 7. c) cloud mask generated from thresholded bands 3 and 10. Initial attempts at generating seamless. e) ASTER L1B generated AlOH abundance imagery masked for clouds and associated shadows. Some discontinuous linestriping.
and Prototypes’s microFTIR 101 (Hook & Kahle. indicated that the final geological products were not severely compromised by this problem. under different conditions. showed similar signatures for several validation sites including the currently unused North Broken Hill Mine dump (Fig. The consistency of the ASTER-derived surface emissivity signatures for different acquisition dates (i. 5d with cloud covered areas. related to systematic drift in instrument response. however the minor nature of this problem. especially in band 14 (¨11. resampled to ASTER spectral resolution. Hewson et al. a) ASTER L1B band 3 highlighting cloud and associated shadow. 6b). acquired at different temperatures and/or atmospheric conditions) was also examined using two ASTER overpasses (Fig.
b) repeatability of ASTER L2 surface emissivity signatures for two different acquisitions (solid vs dashed lines) at Broken Hill. phengite) display a AlOH absorption feature with a longer wavelength than Al-rich micas.. 7. 1988). spessartine) are common high-grade metamorphic minerals within certain units at Broken Hill are important indicators of Broken Hill-style base metal mineralisation (Spry & Wonder. Salisbury & D’Aria.g. Resampling of VNIR-SWIR and TIR mineral library spectra (Clark et al. 6. Resampling of muscovite library spectra into ASTER equivalent spectra suggested that a high b5/b6 and low b7/b6 can represent a longer wavelength mica absorption feature compared to the converse situation of a low b5/b6
. 1990.2 Am. SWIR and TIR spectroscopy to measure and enable identification of minerals and mineral groups has already been established for several decades (Hunt & Ashley.g. 8a and b). In particular OH-bearing minerals and other silicates have been shown to display diagnostic spectral features within the SWIR and TIR wavelength regions. renders feldspar mapping difficult at ASTER spectral resolution. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
Fig. Overview of pre-processing strategies for mosaicking ASTER imagery at Curnamona.. Garnets display broad VNIR and TIR features at ASTER spectral resolution..b). anorthite) are common and important for indicating alteration associated with albitisation in the Curnamona Province. 8a).. have limited diagnostic SWIR spectral
Fig. can be inferred by the wavelength of its 2. particularly its Al content. Grove et al. respectively (Clark et al. 1992. phengite). especially from bands 3 to 4 and 12 to 13. 1992) to ASTER spectral resolution provides a basis for understanding the potential limit of extracting mineral (group) information from ASTER (Fig.6 Am region.. Vincent et al. MgOH minerals such as chlorite and hornblende.. Salisbury & D’Aria.2 Am absorption feature.g. The modeled ASTER SWIR spectra of AlOH minerals (e. observed by ASTER bands 5. In particular.
absorption features at ASTER resolution that can be potentially confused with carbonate (Fig. though possible confusion with the spectral features of green vegetation at VNIR wavelengths and some mafic silicates at TIR wavelengths needs to be considered (Fig. 1963. 1990.g.g. Hewson et al. an estimate of AlOH abundance was estimated by the ASTER band combination. Grove et al.
5. However. Garnets (e. Previous work by Duke (1994) has shown that white mica chemistry (e. 1979. 1975. 1972).
involving the calculation of gain factors for the adjustment of variable illumination and atmospheric conditions between different acquisitions. the lack of a spectral band in the 9.R. Duke (1994) showed that Al poor micas (e. 2003). Al-poor and Al-rich mica) displayed in Fig. almandine. and inferred white mica composition by band ratio indexes b5/b6. 8a. a) Comparison between field mFTIR and ASTER L2 emissivity signatures at Broken Hill Pit Dump... b7/b6 and b7/b5. Mineral group spectroscopy at ASTER spectral resolution The ability of laboratory-based VNIR. On the basis of this absorption feature. 1992. (b5+b7)/b6 (Rowan & Mars. albite. 6 and 7. muscovite/illite.D. 8a indicate changes in the symmetry of the AlOH absorption feature centered at 2.. or ASTER band 6. Feldspars (e. kaolinite. 1992). because of strong atmospheric ozone absorption experienced from a satellite platform. Lyon & Burns. Vincent & Thomson..
The presence of ferrous iron in MgOH silicates can also display a steady rise in the SWIR spectral reflectance signature approximately from 1. 1981). 8b).35 Am (band 8) absorption feature.. chlorite. This trend can be preserved at ASTER spectral resolution as indicated for the chlorite and hornblende spectra (Fig. In particular. It is also interesting to note that the Broken Hill type deposits are located in areas relatively poor in muscovite. There is also a correspondence between the ASTER derived AlOH abundance image and the radiometric potassium concentration obtained from airborne geophysical surveying (Fig. The ASTER and HyMap derived AlOH abundance (inverted) maps both show that the northerly and northeasterly AlOH-rich units (dark areas) decrease in white mica abundance towards the southwest (Fig. respectively) while quartz-rich areas tend to be associated with alluvial outwash and accumulations within the Lake Frome Basin (‘‘C’’) (Fig.. brighter areas represent surface materials with deeper absorption features which are assumed to be associated with higher abundances of AlOH. b) laboratory and ASTER equivalent resampled TIR mineral library emissivity signatures. the brightest areas highlighted in Fig.2 Am region producing a diagnostic emissivity signature that can be also observed by ASTER bands 10 to 12 (Fig. 10a. calcite) group minerals were estimated by the ASTER band parameter.
9a– d). Hewson et al.33– 2. 8a). muscovite. In a similar way. amphibolite-rich units within the Broken Hill Domain (Fig. a) Laboratory (solid lines) and ASTER equivalent resampled (dashed) VNIR – SWIR mineral library reflectance signatures.0 to 2.
6. Estimates of the ferrous iron content using the ASTER band ratio b5 / b4 were also examined in this study. In these images. Mg – OH/carbonate and quartz abundances (Fig. 10a. 8b).g. Consequently in this study ASTER band ratio b13 / b10 was used to map quartz-rich units and regolith (Fig. hornblende) and carbonate (e. ASTER seamless geologic maps for the Curnamona Province Seamless images were generated from the ASTER L1B SWIR radiance data to map major geological units rich in Al – OH. Quartz has a pronounced reststrahlen TIR spectral feature within the 8 to 9. 9b correlate with the mica-rich outcrops and associated colluvium within the Broken Hill and Olary Domains (‘‘A’’ and ‘‘B’’.g.. (b6+b9)/b8. It is also suggested by these resampled spectra. Comparisons between HyMap (Robson et al. The MgOH-carbonate abundance image product highlights Adelaidean carbonate-rich units south of the Olary Domain (‘‘D’’) and to a lesser extent.166
R. MgOH-carbonate and quartz. 8.6 to 9. b). 9d). 2002) and ASTER data for the AlOH abundance image. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
Fig. show the accuracy of the mosaicked ASTER SWIR data product (Fig. Fig. 9c). 9a). No explanation is available as yet for these spatial patterns of K-mica abundance although it appears to be associated with trends also associated with metamorphic retrograde alteration at Broken Hill (Corbet & Phillips.6 Am or ASTER bands 11 and 12. kaolinite) by comparison generally display longer TIR wavelength spectral features between 8. [(b5+b7)/b6] in the Broken Hill Domain (Area I and Area II. Phyllosilicates (e.b).
.. that kaolinite may be discriminated from white mica using b7/b5. abundances of MgOH (e.
and high b7/b6 result. 1997).g.D. based on their 2.0 Am. 10c) (Robson & Spencer.
D. a) Study area for the ASTER Curnamona Project (cyan) showing the geological outcrops (grey) (AGSO. 9. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. Hewson et al. b) HyMap derived AlOH abundance.000 map sheets encompassing the Curnamona Province. 2000) and 1 : 250. 9 a) Broken Hill Mine indicated by ‘‘X’’ . / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
C A B
Fig. b) ASTER derived AlOH abundance imagery. a) ASTER derived AlOH abundance within the Broken Hill Domain and surrounding regolith areas (Area I—Fig.
. d) ASTERderived quartz abundance imagery. c) Airborne geophysics derived radiometric potassium concentration. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. c) ASTER derived MgOH-carbonate abundance imagery.
b) ASTER-derived MgOH/carbonate abundance. 11b). / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
Further investigation is required to investigate its relevance for the alteration history of the Broken Hill deposit. dark green Fig. 11c) containing several MgOH/ carbonate anomalies (Fig. 2 and 3 of ASTER TIR surface emissivity data. In particular amphibolite/ calcalbite units (396000E. e) MNF bands 2. 6434800N. The ability of ASTER band ratio b5 / b4 to map lithologies rich in ferrous iron silicates was examined and
studied in Area III (Figs. c) ASTERderived ferrous iron silicate index. 3. Hewson et al. 11.168
R. 9 a) (PIRSA. 9a and 11a) within the units of the Olary Domain (Fig.
. 2000). d) MNF bands 1. 11a)
Fig. and 4 of ASTER TIR surface emissivity data.D. a) Olary Domain geological outcrop boundaries (Area II—Fig.
whereas the Skillogalee and Auburn Dolomites. Fig.c). A comparison between the AlOH absorption wavelength measured using the hyperspectral airborne data (Fig. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
are discriminated by both the ferrous iron silicate (Fig. In particular this product would be more sensitive to crosstalk.207 Am) wavelength. Spectral profiles of the hyperspectral HyMap imagery reveals that areas of blue (‘‘A’’).e). d) HyMap-derived AlOH wavelength index from short (blue: 2. Attempts at generating ASTERderived mosaics. the processed ASTER results wrongly highlighted areas of high-abundance Al-poor mica (Fig. 11b) products. 6437200N are highlighted in both image products (Fig. However the emissivity data proved noisy with limited dimensionality and produced no clear discrimination of the carbonate and MgOHrich units (Fig. the reader is referred to the web version of this article. ‘‘D’’.)
. 10 a). 11a). 12d) and the ASTER RGB band ratio AlOH imagery (Fig. the amphibolite-rich units at 399500E. 11c) and the MgOH/carbonate image (Fig. proved problematic and showed significant differences between image acquisition dates.. Also in some areas mapped by the HyMap data as AlOH poor (e.R.g. 12a). 12c). 11b.c). 11b). Using both of these products appears to offer the potential to discriminate between MgOH group minerals and some carbonate minerals. 12e). 12d correspond to a measurable increase in the wavelength of the main AlOH spectral feature (Fig. 1988) applied to the L2 surface emissivity TIR product. 12c) was undertaken along the north-western margins of the Broken Hill Domain (Area IV.. green (‘‘B’’) and red (‘‘C’’) shown in Fig. This is likely to be the result of residual crosstalk contributions for bands 4 and 5 used in the ratio product b5 / b4.D. Hewson et al. are highlighted only by the MgOH/ carbonate product (Fig. In this region. The ASTER RGB AlOH image on the other hand shows a qualitative similarity only to the HyMap results (Fig. Figs. c) ASTER derived AlOH composition. Attempts were also made to discriminate these MgOH and carbonate units using the Minimum Noise
Fraction transformation (Green et al. 12d). (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. 12. 6437600N. ankerite. 9a and 12a). within the Burra Group (401800E.. representing ferrous iron content across the Curnamona. b) ASTER derived AlOH abundance.195 Am) to long (red: 2.g. burgundy.
Fig. Fig. a) Geology of the Broken Hill Domain – Mundi Mundi Escarpment (Area III—Fig. The area straddles the Mundi Mundi fault line and associated escarpment where an apron of alluvium and colluvium flanks the uplifted Broken Hill Domain to the southeast (Fig. 12b. Note that this interpretation and discrimination could be complicated by ferrous-bearing carbonates (e. e) HyMap SWIR spectral signatures. reducing band 4 and increasing band 5 in a non-linear manner related to average radiance levels present at each acquisition. siderite and ferroan dolomite) in other geological settings. 11d.
Spectral reflectance measurements of soil and rock outcrop were measured along these transects with the ASD Fieldspec Pro VNIR-SWIR spectrometer to compare with ASTER spectral signatures.e. a) Darling Creek field traverse with geology (Area IV—Fig. 9 a) and ASD measurements (white squares) along traverse. the reader is referred to the web version of this article.000 geology (Fig. 13c) within the SWIR wavelength region.2 Am) absorption features for the mica-rich schists and psammite/ psammopelite units (Fig. green and blue spectra respectively (Fig. 13b) were shown to compare favourably with the HyMap image signatures (Fig. These transects involved a series of closely spaced measurements at 1-m intervals for approximately 150 m across the geological strike of contrasting Broken Hill outcropping units..170
R. The ASD and HyMap signatures also identified the MgOH’s spectral feature
Fig. The ASD and HyMap signatures corresponding to retrograde shear schists. d) HyMap-derived AlOH wavelength index (blue = 2. 13a) and the ASD and HyMap signatures were reasonable. 13a). c) HyMap SWIR sample signatures corresponding to traverse.202 Am). amphibolites. The ASD field spectral
measurements (Fig. b) ASD SWIR signatures acquired from traverse. 13b and c).)
. 2. f) Calibrated ASTER SWIR spectral signatures (* = ASTER band centers) for intervals along field traverse listed. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
A series of field transects were conducted as part of the validation of ASTER image products at Broken Hill. red = 2. Comparisons between the New South Wales Geological Surveys published 1 : 25. Hewson et al.D. Along one of the transects. 13. 13b and c). retrograde schist and psammite units (Fig. showing AlOH (i. e) AlOH composition interpreted from ASTER SWIR log residuals. ASD field measurements and samples were collected across several narrow (~20 –50 m) amphibolite. (For interpretation of the references to colour in this figure legend. and psammite units are highlighted by grey.197 Am.
Discrepancies between some of the geological boundaries and field/image signatures were apparent. field spectral measurements revealed that ASTER’s SWIR crosstalk effect was a significant factor for the ASTER L2 surface reflectance data.33 Am associated with the amphibolite units. This wavelength index represents possible changes in the white mica chemistry as suggested by Duke (1994) where blue areas indicate shorter wavelength (i. from red to yellow. artifacts were still apparent.202 Am) (Fig. / Remote Sensing of Environment 99 (2005) 159 – 172
between 2. 13f). masking for clouds (and water) is a critical pre-processing step.
Acknowledgement This work was financially supported and encouraged by the Geological Survey of South Australia within the Department of Primary Industries (PIRSA). The resulting ASTER data produced SWIR reasonable signatures with no obvious distortion of bands 5 and 9 (Fig. Although ERSDAC’s crosstalk correction software (Version 3.197 Am) Al-rich mica compared to red areas representing longer wavelength Al-poor mica (i. particularly within PIRSA. ASTER emissivity data were mosaicked and processed to generate quartzabundance images and were found to highlight regolith accumulations of alluvial quartz and some units of quartzites and sandstones. ASD field measurements along the transect shown (Fig. ASTER TIR L2 surface emissivity data compared favourably with field spectral measurements and also produced reasonably consistent signatures.3 to 2. especially for areas of low albedo (e.2 Am feature (Fig. A wavelength index image was generated from the HyMap data to represent shifts in the wavelength position of the AlOH 2. However the spectral resolution of ASTER SWIR bands precludes accurate estimation of the AlOH 2. These steps included correction for additive SWIR crosstalk effects.0) alleviated much of the crosstalk problem for ASTER L1B data. Japan’s ERSDAC provided ASTER data.e.D. 13e). There is the suggestion of a shift to more left symmetric AlOH absorption feature (i.e. however this may also possibly be a result of inaccuracies within the 1 : 25.. it was also found that discrimination between MgOH. SWIR band image offsets and also gain adjustments for variable atmospheric/illumination conditions during different acquisitions. and Stuart Robertson and others within the Curnamona Team.R. 30 m) limited ASTER’s discrimination and usefulness for mapping these narrow geological units (Fig. played a key part in this project including Paul Heithersay.203 Am to 2. As part of validation studies undertaken for this study. Successive mosaicking of ASTER SWIR data was subsequently derived by the application of gains upon overlapping ASTER SWIR L1B images from 14 different acquisitions.000 mapping or the presence of colluvial float material.and carbonate-rich units was possible using ASTER if ferrous iron products were generated to assist the discrimination of MgOH group minerals. Conclusions Several pre-processing steps were required to generate seamless imagery before band combination processing was applied to target specific mineral absorption features. its reliability was significantly reduced in areas of low albedo and in the presence of chlorite-rich units. However. 2.. Several individuals.199 Am northwards as suggested by the HyMap derived AlOH wavelength index image (Fig. providing confidence in the application of multiplicative gains to adjust ASTER scenes acquired on different dates. ASTER derived AlOH abundance imagery compared well with large-scale airborne hyperspectral HyMap survey results.e. 13e) corresponding to possibly shorter wavelength mica chemistry north along the traverse (Fig. 2. The effects of variable atmospheric conditions and from variable solar illumination conditions appeared to be multiplicative from band ratio results of different ASTER acquisitions. is a significant issue for the ASTER L1B SWIR data. Atmospheric radiative-transfer modeling revealed that variable water vapor associated with different climatic models.. Partial success was also achieved in generating seamless maps qualitatively representing AlOH composition from ASTER SWIR images.e. Despite the application of crosstalk correction software. Hewson et al. 13d). even assuming well-calibrated SWIR radiance data. parti-
cularly for bands 5 and 9. 13a). independent of acquisition conditions. These ASTER transect results and their comparison with field and hyperspectral data indicate that ASTER has limited potential to provide compositional information for small changes in AlOH chemistry as observed in Broken Hill. as part of PMD*CRC activities.2 Am absorption feature’s wavelength (Fig..
7. The ASTER derived AlOH composition RGB imagery was also compared with the ASD signatures and geology along the Darling Creek Traverse.
. 13d). As a consequence. Fig. Crosstalk-corrected ASTER L1B radiance data encompassing this area were calibrated using ASD field spectral measurements and processed into log residuals (Green & Craig. 13d). 13b) indicate a change for the AlOH absorption feature from 2. particularly for bands 8 and 9. cloud shadows) and but also for areas of high albedo. some residual crosstalk effects still proved problematic. 1985) for comparison with ASD and HyMap spectra.g. As a consequence. However it was clear that the coarser spatial nature of the SWIR data (i. During this study. The resulting mosaicked ASTER L1B SWIR images were successfully processed using band ratios to measure the abundance of mineral groups including AlOH and MgOH/ carbonate within outcropping and/or regolith units of the Broken Hill-Curnamona Province. 13f).
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