ELTE 1402

Frequency and Period:
1 T= f where: T = time of one period [s] f = frequency [hertz Hz]

DC Component of Rectified AC is the average value of
the Voltage.

E avg =

Angular Velocity: Wavelength:


ω = 2π f

E max π 2Emax = π

half-wave rectifier full-wave rectifier



v f


λ = wavelength [m] v = velocity [m/s] f = frequency [Hz]

A coil has an inductive reactance in ohms of:

The velocity of radio waves is 3 × 108 m/s. The velocity of sound waves is 1130 m/s

X L = 2πfL = ωL
(L = Henrys)

A capacitor has a capacitive reactance in ohms of: The resonant frequency of an inductor and capacitor in series or parallel:

XC =
f =

1 2πfC

Average Value of a Sine Wave: 2 eavg = 0.637 E max = E max π Average Current of a Sine Wave: 2 i avg = 0.637 I max = I max π


1 2π LC


Power Power in a Resistive Circuit:
Pavg P = ei E max I max = = E rms I rms 2
instantaneous power power dissipated

Effective or rms Value of a Sine Wave:

[volts] The value of alternating current that produces the same heating effect as the corresponding value of direct current.

erms = E max sin 45


erms = 0. 707 E max

1 = E max 2

Power Factor is the ratio of
true power to apparent power. Multiply by 100 to express as a percent. A power factor of 1 is desirable to keep the size of power transformers and wiring to a minimum. This is done by adding capacitance to an inductive circuit True Power is the product of voltage and current and power factor; the actual power consumed in a purely resistive ac circuit.

= cos θ =

R P = r= T Z V PA

Emax is peak voltage Emax × 2 = Epp (peak to peak)
AC voltage values will assumed rms unless otherwise specified.

Reactive Power VAR
nt are pp A

r we Po

Instantaneous Sinusoidal Voltage:
e = E max sin ϖt


True Power

e = E max sin θ

(radian mode) or


(degree mode)

ω = angular velocity [rad/s] or 2πf t = time in motion [sec.] θ = angle [degrees]

PT = VI × PF
PT = vR = EI cos θ R

The resultant instantaneous voltage of two waveforms can be found by expressing in the above form and adding the two together.

Apparent Power is the product of voltage
and current when they are not in phase.

PA = EI PR = EI sin θ

Volt-Ampere Reactive (VAR) Power Vector:
A straight line representing the magnitude and direction of a quantity. Phasor: A quantity that has magnitude and direction in the time domain. i.e. a vector that changes with time.

is the the vertical component of product of E and I in a reactive ac circuit:

Tom Penick


Parallel RC and RL Circuits IT = I R2 + I X 2 tan θ = IX IR I∠ − θ = V∠0° Z∠θ Tom Penick tomzap@eden. Q parallel-resonant circuit: The frequency range between the points where the impedance is . the amperage is the reference (horizontal) vector. a division will take place requiring the use of polar notation and resulting in a change of sign for the angle since it will be divided into (subtracted from) an angle of zero. By converting the result to polar notation.Voltage-Ratio Parallel RCL Circuits formula. If XL is larger than XC. Circuit Q is the quality of the circuit. total each resistance and reactance before using the above www.707 of the maximum. reactance. A Q of 10 or greater is considered high Q. In series circuits. then the circuit is inductive and X is a vector in the upward direction. find I for each path and add vectorally. IT IT IT = IC − I L Bandwidth series-resonant circuit: The frequency range between the two points on the fr frequency response curve that are BW = . the ratio of inductive reactance of a coil to its resistance. To find total current and phase angle in multielement circuits.707 of the maximum current. Equivalent Series Circuit: Given the Z in polar notation of a parallel circuit. Note that when converting between current and resistance. the opposite is true. Q can I L IC = Q= be expressed as: Line Current in a parallel-resonant circuit: For multielement circuits. the resistance and reactance of the equivalent series circuit is as follows: R = ZT cosθ X = ZT sinθ XL R I XC VL VR I VC Resonant Circuits Resonant Frequency: The frequency at which XL = XC. Q= R cos θ X L E capacitor = rs E applied rs is the series resistance (applies to a coil or resonant LC circuit) a Impedance: Z 2 = R2 + ( X L − X C )2 Z= Impedance may be found by adding the components using vector algebra. the Q remains the same. This is observed on the oscilloscope by looking at the voltage across the resistor. by the throughout a series circuit. The two vector diagrams at right illustrate the phase relationship between voltage. For a parallel-resonant circuit. If a capacitor is added to form a series-resonant circuit. In a parallel resonant circuit. resistance. The resonant frequency fr is at the center of the bandwidth. the phase angle is also found. In a series-resonant 1 fR = 06/12/98 . the impedance is at its 2π LC minimum and the current is at its maximum.teicontrols. and amperage. where X X or X : X = VR =I IT = I R + ( IC − I L ) 2 2 IC IR V IL Phase Angle: (θ would be negative in a capacitive circuit) tan θ = X VX = R VR cos θ = VR R = V Z tan θ = IC − I L IR Impedance: Z 2 = R2 + X 2 V 2 = VR 2 + VX 2 E = IZ Z XC R = = V VC V R In rectangular notation: Z = R ± jX Series RCL Circuits The Resultant Phasor X = X L − X C is in the direction of the larger reactance and determines whether the circuit is inductive or capacitive.

For example. Consider the load to be an open circuit and the AC power source to be a short circuit. impedance is used as an example. calculate the voltage present at the load terminals (called the Thévenin voltage. Rectangular and Polar Notation can also be used to express amperage. Conductance (G): The reciprocal of resistance in siemens (S). Polar Notation: Z = M ∠θ. Susceptance Tom Penick tomzap@eden. Use polar notation for multiplication and division. If the result is greater than 180°.com/notes 06/12/98 . For example. with ETH as the voltage and ZTH as the Thévenin Equivalent Circuit impedance of a reactance in series. the j value will have the same sign as the θ value for angles having a magnitude < 180°. ZTH).teicontrols. Z TH The voltage and current across RL may now be ETH RL calculated using the Voltage Divider theorem. B Y Susceptance (B.Vector Algebra Rectangular Notation: Using Thévenin’s Theorem Consider the load to be an open circuit. Z = R ± jX where +j represents inductive reactance and -j represents capacitive reactance. you must add 180° after taking the inverse tangent. and power. a X resistor of 4Ω in series with a capacitor with a reactance of 3Ω would be expressed as 5 ∠-36. In the descriptions above.9° Ω. Use rectangular notation when adding and subtracting. Consider the new circuit below. Under this condition. voltage.jY (careful with the sign before the ”j”) Magnitude: Angle: X 2 + Y2 = M (negative sign carried over −Y from rectangular notation tan θ = X in this example) Note: Due to the way the calculator works. Z = 8 + j6Ω means that a resistor of 8Ω is in series with an inductive reactance of 6Ω. BL. Now calculate the impedance seen at the load terminals (called the Thévenin www. Divide in polar notation by dividing the magnitudes and subtracting the denominator angle from the numerator angle. To convert from polar to rectangular (j) notation: Given: M ∠θ X Value: M cosθ Y (j) Value: M sinθ In conversions. BC): The reciprocal of reactance in e nc tta siemens (S). To convert from rectangular to polar notation: Given: X . you may optionally subtract 360° to obtain the value closest to the reference angle. ETH). Multiply in polar notation by multiplying the magnitudes and adding the angles. mi Ad Admittance (Y): The reciprocal G of impedance in siemens Conductance (S). where M is the magnitude of de itu M Y agn the reactance and θ is the M direction with respect to the θ horizontal (pure resistance) axis. if X is negative.

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