618-906 900

Philippine contact begins with Tang-dynasty, China. Political and social hierarchies are indicated by the Laguna copperplate inscription. Ma-i, probably Mindoro, brings goods directly to Canton for the first time. Butuan, a gold mining and trading center in northeastern Mindanao, sends its first tribute mission to Sung, China. First Malays from Borneo settle in Manila/Tondo and intermarry with native Tagalogs. Arab missionaries and Chinese traders bring Islam to the Sulu archipelago. Yuan-dynasty trade proliferates with Visayan settlementsof Butuan, Tanjay, and Cebu. Sulu sends six missions to China during the period of Ming tribute trade. Sayyid Abu Bakr establishes the Sulu sultanate. Ferdinand Magellan arrives to the Philippines. Sharif Muhammad Kabungsuwan arrives in southern Mindanao and Buayan ruling families to Islam. A Spanish expedition to the archipelago bestows the name Felipinas in honor of Prince (later King) Philip II of Spain. Philip II empowers Miguel Lopez de Legazpi to establish cities and towns and grants his followers encomiendas.







c.1450 1521 c.1525



with 50 vessels and 3. King Philip grants the new settlement. total casualties are estimated at 15. The polos y servicios (conscript labor) edict is decreed to ensure manpower for public works projects and naval battles against the Dutch. The first mass uprising by Chinese follows the misinterpretation of Spanish war preparations. After Spanish reprisals. The first tensions arise between civil officials and the religious orders. and 1. Charges and countercharges of abusing natives are exchanged. with Manila as transshipment point.1571 Legazpi conquers Maynilad.500 indios. 1572 1578 1581 1591 1594 1595 1596 1599 1600 1603 1609 1611 1619-1671 . losing a flagship and 300 men.. Philip II decrees Manila the Capital of the Philippine Islands. which continue up to 1648. The galleon trade begins between Mexico and China. an outpost of the Brunei sultanate. The first Franciscan missionaries arrive. A papal bull of Pope Gregory VIII formalizes establishment of diocesan authority in Manila and the construction of Manila Cathedral. Maguindanao datus. 200 Spaniards. The Universidad de Santo Tomas is founded. Manila. 000. attack the central Philippines and return to southern Mindanao with 800 captives. mobilizing 50 ships. The first Jesuit missionaries arrive. The first expedition is launched to pacify Mindanao. Sultan Kudarat rules Maguindanao. Philip II partitions the Philippines among religious orders. 000-20. but forcing the Dutch to withdraw. the royal title of city. The Spanish fleet battles Dutch warships near Manila.000 warriors.

A Chinese revolt rocks Manila.1621 1622 Revolts occur in the Visayas. and Brunei. Muslim raids on the central Visayas prompt a Spanish counterattack. Spanish forces defeat the Maguindanaos and expeditions are launched into the Lanao region. Spain abandons the Zamboanga garrison and moves troops to Manila to await attack by the Chinese pirate Koxinga. King Charles II temporarily proscribes the practice. and Bohol and to Camarines and Albay in southern Luzon. Brunei. A peace treaty is signed between Sultan Kudarat and the Spanish. Revolt spreads to areas south of Manila. King Philip IV prohibits Dominican friars from interfering in colonial affairs. Another major revolt spreads to the Visayan islands of Leyte. Cebu. Revolts erupt in the provinces north of Manila to protest abuse of concript labor. The first military garrison is established in Zamboanga in southwestern Mindanao to deter Muslim raids and Dutch forays. He never arrives. Masbate. sulu archipelago. Sultan Kudarat declares war against the Spanish and seeks support from Sulu. but an uprising and massacre of the Chinese occurs. 1635 1637-1639 1639 1642 1645 1648 1649 1656-1658 1660-1661 1662-1663 1697 . Tensions escalate between bishops and religious orders over parish visitation (inspection by diocesan officials). Ternate. The Spanish sign a peace treaty with the Dutch at Westphalia. The Dutch aid Sulu in attacking the Spanish garrison. led by Christian converts who protest the conscript labor policy. Sultan Kudarat defeats a Spanish force and captures its leader. recognizing Dutch independence and ending all attacks in the Philippines. and Makassar.

1719 1737 1739 1743 1744 1745 1747-1756 1754 1755 1757 1762 1763 . Their occupation sparks revolts in Pampanga. The first viable road system from Manila to northern Luzon opens. A friar-led mob executes reformists Governor-General Fernando Bustamante. The British step up attacks on Spanish galleons plying the Acapulco-Manila route. Spain and England sign a peace treaty returning the Philippines to Spain the following year. Pangasinan. It would be quelled only in 1829. Governor-General Manuel de Arandia orders unconverted Chinese to leave the Philippines. An early revolt over access and control of hacienda lands occur in Cavite municipality and Batangas province. Iranun and Maranao Muslims increase attacks on Spanish camps in Mindanao and launch raids on the Visayas. including an uprising by 900 Pampanga Chinese allied with Manila Chinese. Spain signs a peace treaty with the sultan of Sulu. and Ilocos Sur provinces north of Manila. The British invade Manila.1700 The Sulu and Magindanao sultanates fight to control trade in the region. A peace treaty favoring the Spanish is signed. Spanish bombardment of Jolo in 1752 leads to the defeat of Sulu and the imprisonment of the sultan. Diego Silang leads a revolt in Ilocos Sur in alliance with the British. the sultan is exiled from Jolo until 1764. Francisco Dagohoy leads a revolt in Bohol after Jesuits refuse to give his brother a Christian burial. King Ferdinand VI decrees the compulsory teaching of Spanish in all schools to boys and girls. The Zamboanga garrison is reoccupied.

A royal decree orders indios to engage in the production of cotton and other fibers. Governor-General Basco y Vargas implements the tobacco monopoly. The Philippine remits 150. 000 pesos to Madrid. The Jesuits are expelled from the Spanish empire. The office of cabeza de barangay is placed under the authority of the alcalde mayor to reduce the influence of the friars. King Charles III reaffirms secularization policy by a royal decree ordering the secularization of parishes as they fall vacant. and sugar for export. The office of cabeza de Barangay becomes elective. loads indigo. It is privatized in 1805. The Astrea. Chinese who sided with the British are expelled. the first remittance since the establishment of Spanish rule. The Royal Company of the Philippines is established tp promote economic development. Governor-General Simon de Anda encounters resistance from the religious orders and uses troops to enforce secularization.1764 1766 1768 The Spanish retaliate against the rebels. limiting production to areas designated by the government. A customhouse is established in Manila by royal decree. The first shipment of indigo is sent to Europe. spices. hemp. The archbishop of Manila supports the secularization of parishes (transfer from religious order to diocesan control) and the ordination of indio priests. 1771 1774 1777 1781 1784 1785 1786 1789 1796 1803 . A royal decree orders the secularization of more parishes. the first US ship to trade to the Philippines. The Ordinances of Good Government are issued by Madrid.

A Spanish attack in Jolo is repulsed. The colony s first newspaper.1805 The governor of Zamboanga signs a peace treaty with the Sultan of Sulu. The galleon trade ends. the government-owned Del Superior Gobierno. Spanish revolutionaries establish the Cortes and grant colonies the right to representation. Ferdinand VII reestablishes the Cortes and restores the 1812 Constitution. begins publication. Three Philippine representatives are sent to Madrid in 1822. A monarchist counteroffensive ends further secularization of parishes. Spain attacks Jolo. Spanish deserters revolt in Ilocos to protest the government wine monopoly and prohibition on the production of basi (rice wine). Spanish raiding parties establish a presense in the Gran Cordillera. King Ferdinand again defeats the Spanish liberals and restores absolutist rule. King Ferdinand VII abrogates the Constitution and dissolves the Cortes. A royal decree declares Manila open to international trade. 1807 1810 1811 1813 1814 1815 1820 1824 1826 1827 1829 1834 1835 . The Royal Company of the Philippines is abolished. The Liberal Constitution of Cadiz is implemented in Manila with provisions including individual liberties. giving the governor the right to vet foreign residents in the archipelago. The Philippines sends a delegate to the Cortes. Constitutionalist forces win in Spain and restore Philippines representation to the Cortes. Americans establish two commercial houses in Manila.

whose workers would be instrumental in founding the Katipunan. The Educational Decree mandates the establishment of a public school system. The Spanish attack Balangigi in the Sulu archipelago to free 300 captives. Alcaldes mayores lose the right to the trade while in office. begins publication. and his 13-year residence helps transform the island into a major sugar-producing area. Tariff regulations are implemented for the first time.1836 1837 Spain signs a commercial treaty with the Sultan of Sulu. Father Jose Burgos publishes a Manifesto Addressed by the Loyal Filipinos to the Noble Spanish Nation. followed by the Diaryo de Manila (Manila Newspaper). A second newspaper. 1844 1847 1848-1851 1849-1850 1853 1856 1859 1861 1863 1864 . The Jesuits return to the Philippines and accept missions on Muslim areas. criticizing spanish discrimination against secular priests. The British firm Smith. The Sulu sultanate signs an agreement recognizing Spanish authority. Bell and Company is established in Manila and becomes a major trader of sugar and hemp. Negros. La Estrella de Manila (The Star of Manila). A British consul arrives in Iloilo. The office of the Gobernadorcillo becomes elective. Philippine representation to the Cortes is revoked by the 1837 Constitution. which mandates that overseas possessions be governed under special laws. Separation of executive and judicial functions is mandated at the alcalde mayor and governor-general levels. Governor-General Narciso Claveria decrees that indios be given Spanish surnames. The first steam-engine war vessel arrives in Manila.

1865 The Jesuits establish the Escuela Normal (Normal School) and the secondary school Ateneo Municipal de Manila. Combined Spanish and indio forces overrun Jolo. subversive of public order and offensive to the government of Spain. Germany. Spanish forces invade Sulu and set up a naval station and garrison. calling the invasion a violation of the 1877 agreement. anti-patriotic. Sultan Jamal ul-Azam of Sulu signs a treaty of peace and capitulation with Spain. A three-man committee reports to the archbishop of Manila that the novel is heretical. His family is removed from the friar estates they lease. Rizal publishes Noli Me Tangere. Sultan Bada ud-Din II sends a letter to protest to the British. impious and scandalous . Rizal publishes El Filibusterismo. The Guardia Civil is established to suppress crime and insurections. England ang Germany recognize Spain s sovereignty over Sulu. More Philippine ports are opened to world trade. 1868 1872 1873 1876 1877 1878 1880 1882 1883 1887 1888 1891 . . The tobacco monopoly is abolished. Diariong Tagalog (Tagalog Newspaper). Mariano Gomez. the first Spanish-Tagalog newspaper. and Jacinto Zamora are executed. begins publication. and Spain sign a new protocol reiterating recognition of Spanish sovereignty over Sulu and guaranteeing freedom of navigation and trade in the region. In the aftermath of a mutiny at the Cavite naval arsenal. . Britain. Magindanao datus of Cotabato recognize Spanish authority after Governor-General Valeriano Weyler s military success in adjoining Lanao. the last treaty signed between the two. Jose Rizal leaves for Europe. Father Jose Burgos.

Rizal is executed on December 30. 1894 1895 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 1900 1901 . Cuba launches a revolution against Spain. The United States declares war on Spain. Aguinaldo is captured and Filipinos shift to guerilla warfare. separating executive and judicial functions. McKinley declares a civil government in the Philippines with William H. Taft as the first governor-general. Bonifacio is arrested and executed. La Solidaridad newspaper closes due to lack of funds. The Katipunan network expands and elects Bonifacio its supremo. Aguinaldo and his leadership go into exile in Hong Kong. Aguinaldo returns to the Philippines and declares independence on June 12. The Katipunan is discovered and begins an uprising. Former members surrender to the Americans and form the Federal party in support of American rule. The United States signs a peace treaty with Spain on December 10. Emilio Aguinaldo replaces Bonifacio as president of the Katipunan. In December. organizes La Liga Filipina. Rizal returns to Manila. but the revolution continues. Aguinaldo proclaims the Philippine Republic in January and is sworn in as president. The Philippine-American War begins. Municipal government is reorganized. President William McKinley issues the Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation. War continues and the Aguinaldo government begins to unravel. The first Philippine Commission arrives in Manila. and is exiled to northern Mindanao. Andres Bonifacio establishes the Katipunan.1892 A railroad line connects Manila with Pangasinan province for the first time. purchasing the Philippines for $20 million.

1903 1905 1907 1908 1909 1911 1912-1915 1916 1917 . Elections to the first Philippine Assembly are held. delineating the structure of the colonial state. The US Congress passes the Payne-Aldrich Act. President Theodore Roosevelt declares the Philippine insurrection over. Sakay is hanged on charges of sedition and baditry. The University of the Philippines is established. beginning Nacionalista Party dominance. The Philippine Commission establishes a Moro province to govern Muslim Mindanao under the US Army. The American-dominated Philippine Commission and Filipinocontrolled Philippine Assembly clash repeatedly over appointments. Harrison vows to hasten Filipinization of the colonial state. The first national convention of provincial governors is held in Manila and Nacionalista Party members Manuel L. General Simeon Ola surrenders to American forces in Albay province.1902 The US Congress passes the Philippine Bill of 1902. Wilson signs the Jones Law. granting Philippine Independence as soon as a stable government is established. The Partido Democrata is formed as a main opposition party to the dominant Nacionalista Party. allowing partial free trade between the Philippines and the United States. The Philippine Commission is replaced by a Senate and a House of Representatives. General elections are held for delegates to the second Philippine Assembly. Quezon and Sergio Osmena enter the national political arena. Democrat Woodrow Wilson is elected president and appoints Francis Burton Harrison governor-general of the Philippines. Americans arrest Macario Sakay and members of the New Katipunan.

vowing to roll back Filipinization. former governor of Moro province. Filipinos send another independence mission to Washington under the leadership of Osmena and House Speaker Manuel Roxas. The Sakdal movement accuses Filipino politicians of misgovernance and compromising independence. Osmena and Quezon end factional battles and reunite the Nacionalista Party. Conflict between Filipino leaders and Governor Wood reaches a high point. The Nacionalista and Democrata Parties form a Supreme National Council to coordinate a campaign for independence. General Leonard Wood. Filipinos elect representatives to a convention to draft a constitution. Wood abolishes the Board of Controls. 1919 1921 1922 1923 1924 1926 1927 1930 1931 1934 . The first Philippine independence mission is sent to the United States to negotiate with US officials on the terms of independence. The Tydings-McDuffie Law approves independence after a tenyear transition. The Colorums. attack Constabulary units. Both houses issue a resolution calling for Wood s recall and a mission is sent to the United States but President Calvin Coolidge supports Wood. The Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP) is established. Tensions between Quezon and Osmena lead to a split in the Nacionalista Party. replaces Harrison. and the heads of different departments. a supervisory body of state corporations used by Filipino politicians to control the Manila Railroad Company and the Philiippine National Bank.1918 Governor Harrison sets up the Council of State. Wood dies in surgery. Henry Stimson replaces him a year later. which includes Quezon and Osmena. a millenarian movement in the Central Philippines.

PKP organizes the Hukbong Bayan Laban sa Hapon (People s Anti-Japanese Army. Quezon takes the oath of office as reelected Commonwealth president. Roosevelt and by Filipino people in a plebiscite. Japanese forces invade the Philippines and defeat American and Filipino military units of the United States Armed Forces in the Far East (USAFFE). The PKP merges with the Philippine Socialist Party. Manila is destroyed. Roxas splits from the Nacionalistas and creates the Liberal Party.1935 The new constitution is approved by President Franklin D. The Japan-sponsores Philippine Republic is inaugurated with Jose P. or Hukbalahap). Quezon dies in New York from tuberculosis as US forces return to the Philippines and defeat the Japanese. General Douglas McArthur turns the government over to President Osmena. Women are granted suffrage in a plebiscite. In US exile. 1937 1938 1939 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 . Japanese forces enter Manila and General Homma Masaharu declares the end of the American occupation. and the Philippine Congress creates a People s Court to try collaborators. Quezon is elected being president and Osmena vice president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines. Quezon and Osmena are reelected just as war breaks out. The United States grants Philippine independence but imposes a number of unequal economic and military treaties: The Bell Trade Act grants US businesses parity rights to Philippine land ownership and natural resource exploitation. and a Military Bases Agreement grants the United States the right to mainatain bases in the country. Laurel as president. The National Assembly creates a Department of National Defense in responce to the expansion of Japanese military power. Roxas defeats Osmena to become the first president of the (third) republic.

Quirino is elected president as the Huks launch an offensive. President Magsaysay dies in a plane crash. Congress passes the Anti-Subversion Law. He dies of a heart attack and is succeeded by Elpidio Quirino. The National Movement for Free Elections (NAMFREL) is established. His report is met with resistance from Congress. joins the Nacionalistas. The Huk offensive is stopped. The Philippines is a founding member of the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO). President Roxas issues a blanket pardon of all who collaborated with the Japanese but declares the Huks and associated peasant organizations illegal. The Philippine Congress makes the teaching of Jose Rizal s life and works compulsory at the college and university levels. Vice President Carlos P. Land reform specialist Robert Hardie recommends a comprehensive and radical land reform program. Huk supreme commander Luis Taruc surrenders. but gives US companies full access to all sectors of the Philippine economy. The LaurelLangley trade agreement with the United States allows the Philippines to unpeg the peso from the US dollar and impose export tariffs. Garcia serves out his term and wins the subsequent election. Ramon Magsaysay defects from the Liberal Party. The Central Bank of the Philippines is established as the government imposes import and exchange controls to halt the drain of foreign reserves. who issues a general amnesty to the Huks. 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1956 1957 . Lieutenant Colonel (and CIA agent) Edward Lansdale arrives to oversee the anti-Huk campaign. and is elected president with CIA assistance.1947 1948 The treaties are ratified by plebiscite. outlawing the PKP and the Huks. President Harry Truman s economic mission recommends diversification and improved production to raise incomes.

which abolishes share tenancy and replaces it with the leasehold system. PKP leaders revive the party and recruit students from the University of the Philippines and the Lyceum of the Philippines. and Indonesia sign the Manila Accord to assert their common racial heritage. with the mission to develop high-yielding varieties of rice. Diosdado Macapagal defeats Garcia in the November presidential election. civil libertarians.1958 President Garcia launches import-substitution industrialization with the Filipino First Policy. reducing the 99-year lease to 25 years subject to renewal or termination. 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 . and radicals form the Movement for the Advancement of Nationalism to protest American intervention in Vietnam. The Philippines becomes a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). President Macapagal lifts import and exchange controls. Macapagal signs into the law The Agricultural Land Reform Code. The Philippines. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) is established with funding from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations. the Federation of Malaya. He changes Independence Day from July 4 to June 12. The Asian Development Bank sets up headquarters in Manila. President Marcos dispatches a military engineering batallion in Vietnam in violation of a campaign pledge. Nationalists. Ferdinand Marcos defeats Macapagal to become the sixth president of the republic. Government troops massacre members of a peasant religous sect as they approach the presidential palace. The Philippines and the United States renegotiate the military bases agreement.

Nur Misuari establishes the Moro National Liberation Front (MNLF). and the Sulu archipelago from the Philippines and the creation of a Bangsa Moro Rebublic. A new constitution is ratified by citizens assemblies . anti-imperialist. Jose Maria Sison forms the Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP). The CPPNPA froms the Preparatory Commission of the National Democratic Front to create a broad anti-fascist. killing nine and wounding most of the candidates. which calls for the separation of Mindanao. 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 . A grenade is thhrown at a campaign rally of the anti-Marcos Liberal Party. The Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines petitions Marcos to end martial law. Marcos blames the Communists and suspends the writ of habeas corpus. Palawan. The Laurel-Langley trade agreement expires. anti-feudal force against the Marcos dictatorship. The Philippines and the People s Republic of China formalize diplomatic relations. Marcos jailed political opponent.. The CPP establishes the New People s Army (NPA). begins a hunger strike to protest military jurisdiction over his case. Benigno Aquino Jr. Lieutenant Victor Corpuz. MNLF forces engage the military in conventional warfare in southern Mindanao. Radicalized students battle police in the streets of Manila in the First Quarter Storm. Marcos becomes the first postwar president to win a second term in an election marred by massive cheating and looting of national treasury. Marcos declares martial law to save the Republic and reform society. a young Constabulary officer.1968 The killing of 28 Muslim trainees in a secret camp exposes a government plan to infiltrate the Malaysian state of Sabah in support of the Philippines claim of ownership. raids the Philippine Military Academy and defects to the CPP-NPA.

workers. the first since 1972. His death sparks massive protests. Aquino leads an opposition party that loses to Marcos Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (New Society Movement). Aquino is released from prison and flown to the United States for heart bypass surgery. requiring US bases to fly the Philippine flag in recognition of Philippine sovereignty. The first open opposition newspapers. Elections for an interim National Assembly are held.1976 The CPP-NPA suffers a setback with the arrest of its two top military commanders. Anti-Marcos politicians form the United Nationalist Democratic Opposition. From prison. Businessman Dewey Dee flees the Philippines. and priests. Business and professional groups revive NAMFREL. are ordered closed by the government. nuns. Aquino is assassinated upon his return to the Philippines. leaving a $100 million debt. The Philippine government and the MNLF sign a cease-fire agreement and open discussions on Muslim autonomy. A military commission finds Aquino and the CPPA-NPA guilty of subversion and sentences them to death. CPP-NPA chairman Sison is captured. The first urban protests against martial law are led by students. The military bases agreement is amended. We Forum and Malaya (Freedom). while antiMarcos politicians win 53 of the 183 seats in the National Assembly. and the Catholic Church become more vocal in its criticism of the dictatorship. The CPP-NPA establishes the Kilusang Mayo Uno (May First Movement) in urban areas and launches people s strikes and mass uprisings in the provinces. Noncommunist anti-Marcos groups bomb selected sites in Manila to destabilize the dictatorship. Marcos formally lifts martial law and is elected to another sixyear term. The commission investigating the Aquino assassination 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 . cracks in the economy become even more apparent.

The Philippine Senate rejects the new 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 . The June 15 eruption of Mount Pinatubo effectively closes the US air base at Clark Field. Marcos wins the February 8 poll through fraud and intimidation. a massive mobilization leading to the downfall of Marcos and ascention of Aquino to presidency. The bases negotiations continue as the United States withdraws its Peace Corps personnel and upgrades base security against increased CPP-NPA attacks. The CPP-NPA is weakened by internal dissension. RAM launches a coup that is saved by people power. The CPP-NPA announces it will boycott the election. Late in the year.concludes that it was military conspiracy and indicts Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) chief of staff and Marcos aide Fabian Ver. the economy sputter[s] almost to a halt. Aquino s government is buffeted by RAM coup anttemps and renewed confrontation with the CPP-NPA. President Aquino s allies win control of Congress and many local and provincial governments. Marcos dies in exile. Marcos calls for a snap presidential election. In the aftermath of the 1989 RAM coup attempt. A RAM coup on the verge of success is thwarted by the flyover of American fighter jets over Manila. The discovery of mass graves in Mindanao and southern Luzon provides evidence that CPP-NPA killed its own cadres and guerilla fighters as suspected military spies. Corazon Aquino declares her candidacy. Filipinos overwhelmingly approve a new constitution that restores bicameral legislature. Negotiations with the United States begin over a new military bases treaty. 1985 Junior officers organize the Reform the AFP Movement (RAM). in the ensuing election. to everyone s surprise. The Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) replaces the MNLF as the advocate of Islamic separatism.

a population control program (despite opposition from the Catholic Church).NPA. signs a peace agreement with RAM. Ramos mends fences with Ramos loyalists. Overseas Filipino Worker (OFW) Flor Contemplacion is convicted of murder and sentenced to death in Singapore. The Asian financial crisis ends Ramos dream of making the Philippines the next tiger economy. including anti-corruption reforms in the police force. President Ramos achieves a number of breakthroughs. while kidnapping continue to afflict major urban centers.military bases treaty that would have extended the US presence for another ten years. 1992 Fidel Ramos succeeds Aquino as president. The total ransom paid to kidnappers since 1992 reaches 189 million pesos. 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 . The government signs a peace pact with the MNLF and appoints its chairman as governor of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and chair of the Southern Philippines Development Authority (SPDA). while the CPP-NPA shows signs of recovery. Ramos strengthens ties with ASEAN and the economy shows signs of a major turnaround. and opens indirect channels to the CPP. National anger over her execution leads to a diplomatic row with the Singaporian government. The kidnapping of wealthy Chinese-Filipinos becomes alarmingly frequent. His attempt at constitutional reform to gain a second term fails in the face of popular opposition. The Abu Sayyaf Group joins forces with breakaway factions of the MILF to attack a town in southwestern Mindanao. The repeal of the AntiSubversion Law allows CPP participation in electoral politics. The MILF displays the force of its reputedly million-strong military. and deregulation of the strategic communications and travel industries.

The Abu Sayyaf Group kidnaps 21 tourists at a Malaysian resort in Borneo. Arroyo issues an executive order approving a visiting forces agreement with the United States. struggles to establish the legitimacy of her government. 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 . Malaysia agrees to host peace talks between the government and the MILF.1998 Former movie star-turned-politician and man of the poor Joseph Estrada becomes president of the republic in a landslide election. but a subsequent lower-class revolt by his supporters unsettles Vice President Gloria Arroyo s succession to the presidency. The US military continues to train and advise the Philippine military in the pursuit of Abu Sayyaf militants in southern Mindanao. but conviction is blocked by his allies in the Senate.. an action-movie star and friend of deposed president Estrada. announces his candidacy for president. President Arroyo pledges support for the US war on terror. Arroyo wins a full term in the may election after a protracted tabulation process. The first annual US-Philippine joint military exercises are held in the Philippines. and declares her commitment to build a Strong Republic. Another people power mobilization unseats Estrada. Fernando Poe Jr. The revelation that President Estrada received payoffs from a national illegal lottery leads to his impeachment (the first of a Philippine President).