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P.G. Curriculum MD Biochemistry Index
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Goal Objectives Syllabus Teaching Programme Posting Thesis Assessment Job Responsibilities Suggested Books Model Test Papers
Curriculum M.D. (Biochemistry)
Demonstrate skills in documentation of reports. Goals The goal of MD course in Biochemistry is to produce a competent medical biochemist who Is able to demonstrate comprehensive understanding of biochemistry as well as applied disciplines. Demonstrate communication skills of a high order in explaining management and prognosis. (Biochemistry) . of PG residents will be as per MCI regulations. Practice the specialty of biochemistry in keeping with the principles of professional ethics. research and education. Design. Curriculum M. Has acquired the competence pertaining to basic instrumentation and procedures pertaining to biochemistry that are required to be practiced in community and at all levels of health care system. Organize and supervise the desired managerial and leadership skills.107 PG Curriculum MD Biochemistry The composition of the department in terms of units. recognize continuing educational needs.D. Is oriented to principles of research methodology. Function as a productive member of a team engaged in health care. providing counselling and giving health education message to patients. effectively & responsibly. 1. Facilitate learning of medical/nursing students. of beds. Has acquired skills effectively in interpreting all laboratory reports. Has acquired skills in educating medical & paramedical professionals. Has acquired skills effectively in communicating the diagnosis to the patients and families. faculty strength. Is able to organize and equip Biochemistry Lab. Should be able to demonstrate empathy and have a human approach towards patients & respect their sensibilities. other staff. use appropriate learning resources and critically analyze relevant published literature in order to practice evidence-based biochemistry. no. Objectives At the end of MD course the student should be able to: Develop skills as a self-directed learner. no. Play the assigned role in implementation of national health programs. Perform recent investigations and procedures for patients. 2. families & communities. practicing physicians & paramedics as Teacher-Trainee. Demonstrate competence in basic concepts of research methodology and epidemiology. Has the competence to perform relevant investigations which will help to diagnose important medical conditions. fabricate & use indigenous methods/gadgets for experimental purpose.
distribution & functions. Diagnostic enzymes).. mutarotation. genetic & evolutionary foundations. coenzymes. Peptides & protein Structure & bonds maintaining protein structure. diffusion. elastin. titration curve. Physical chemistry Water interactions in aqueous system. common derivatives of purines & pyrimidines. classification & properties of lipids (Phospholipids. kinetics. perturbations of protein conformation. physical. syntheic nucleotide analogues used in chemotherapy.monosaccharides.). classification. Zwitter ion & isoelectric pH. fibronectin. enzyme inhibition. Muscle diseases. Steroids (Structure of Cholesterol etc. solutions. Nucleic Acids Concept of nucleosides. functions. (Biochemistry) . functions of glycoproteins. biosynthesis. Enzymes General properties. functions of plasma proteins. mechanisms of action and regulation of activities Definition. functions. Application of enzymes (Therapeutic. Analytical. Glycoproteins Classification. dehydration. Protein Chemistry: Amino acids Classification. anomers. ethics & responsibilities. role of biochemistry in health care.108 3. globulin. Syllabus 3. laminin. liver diseases. enzyme regulation. properties of enzymes. structure & properties of amino acids. Curriculum M. Mucopolysaccharidoses. Reducing properties (oxidation & reduction). Lipid peroxidation (source of free radicals). transferrin. Chaperones. enantiomers). cerruloplasmin etc. cofactors. prosthetic groups. haemoglobin. Isoenzymes (Defination and Types).). concept of pH. osmosis. Units of Enzymes activity. Enzymes pattern in diseases (MI. Donnan’s membrane equilibrium. Carbohydrate Chemistry Introduction-Defination. O2 dissociation curves for myoglobin & haemoglobin. Isomers (Stereo & optical isomerism. haptoglobin. weak acids & weak bases. myoglobin. Types. peptides of biomedical importance. Protein folding. factors affecting release of O2. buffers. mutant haemoglobins Plasma proteins Albumin. Proteoglycans & Glycosaminoglycans Biosynthesis. Theory Introduction Introduction to medical biochemistry. ionization of water. Factors affecting enzymes activity in vitro. ester formation. X-ray crystallography. oligosaccharides & polysaccharides. structure. Lipid Chemistry Introduction-Definition. FFA. classification. chemical. synthetic derivatives of nucleotide triphosphate analogues as research tools. Glycosides.1. Henderson Hasselbach equation. Cancer etc. osazone formation. Structure of collagen. NMR spectroscopy. disaccharides.D. epimers. abnormalities in synthesis of glycoproteins. Foundation of Biochemistry Cellular. Triglycerides. Glycolipids. Structure of RNA & DNA.
Branch chain amino acid metabolism. over & under nutrition. Details of HMP (Bioenergetics. Glucose Tolerance Test. Uronic acid pathway with its biomedical importance. Diseases caused by deficiency & excess. electron transport chain (process & inhibitors). potassium. Intermediary metabolism of Carbohydrates. Specialized products and inborn errors of glycine. iodine. Recommended dietary allowances. atherosclerosis. Clinical disorders associated with metabolism of these minerals. Molecular Biology Curriculum M. exergonic & endergonic processes. Methionine. Details of Cholesterol Synthesis. Role of vitamins as anti-oxidants. synthesis. Transamidation. fatty liver. Lipids Details of fatty acid oxidation along with inborn errors. metabolism of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides. Cysteine. Urea cycle with inborn errors of metabolism. treatment. Zinc Molybdenum Manganese. Galactose and Fructose metabolism & their disorders.D. Transamination and decarboxylation. proteins. ketogenesis. TCA. Metabolism:Carbohydrates Regulation & process of Glycolysis. Metabolism and disorders of acylglycerols and sphingolipids. Creatine metabolism. Minerals Biochemical role of minerals (sodium. Polyamines. conversion of amino acids to specialized products Oxidative and nonoxidative deamination. Biomedical importance and metabolic disorder and regulation). calcium. Lipids and Proteins Nucleosies and Nucleotides Functions. PDH complex. Regulation. Bioenergetics & Biological Oxidation Free energy. Phenylalanine. sources. Redox potential High energy compounds. Gluconeogenesis. Transport and toxicity of ammonia. catabolism of proteins and amino acids nitrogen. Nutrition. Chemiosmotic theory. Lipid transport and storage disorders of lipids (hyperlipidemia. Uncouplers. Metabolism of carbohydrates in fed & fasting state. phosphorus. biochemical roles of various fat & water soluble vitamins. vitamins & minerals. copper & selenium etc. Details and disorders of lipoproteins. Protein and Amino acids Biosynthesis of the nutritionally nonessential amino acids. Hyperuricemia & other inborn errors. oxidative phosphorylation. magnesium. Tyrosine. Metabolism of unsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids.).109 Micronutrients Vitamins Structure. Energy balance. Regulation of blood sugar & biochemical basis of complications of diabetes. obesity). (Biochemistry) . Catabolism. Tryptophan. Glycogenolysis) Glycogen storage diseases. sources. Shuttles. Histidine. chloride. catabolism of carbon skeletons of amino acid. digestion & absorption Digestion & absorption of carbohydrates. Recommended dietary allowances. Hormonal regulation. lipids. Details of fatty acids synthesis and oxidation. fluorine. Glycogen metabolism (Glycogenesis. iron. enzymes involved. Sulphor.
Radioisotopes Introduction. Mechanism of action. Replication & Repair. Gastrointestinal & Gonadal hormones). Gene Therapy. Role of cytoskeleton in cellular functions. DNA Organization into Chromosomes. Genetic Code. Action of Growth Factors on cell cycle and mitosis. Cancer Chemotherapy. Properties. Flow of genetic information. Homeostasis of Thrombasis Intrinsic & Extrinsic pathways. types & technical considerations. Haemophilia. theory. Thyroid. Porphyrias Porphyrins and bile pigments. RNA Synthesis. Biochemical basis of metastsis. Extracellular Matrix Membrane Structure & Function. Adrenal Cortical and Medullary Hormones. Classification and their disorders. Pathways of signal transduction. pancreatic. Endocrinology Hormone Receptors. DNA Library. Gene Mapping.110 Metabolism of nucleotides. Cancer. qualitative & quantitative analysis. Posttranslational Processing. proto-oncogenes & tumor suppressor genes. Gene Knockout. Human Genome Project. Various mechanisms of Detoxification. description of techniques. resolution. Regulation of gene expression. ABO Blood group system. Function tests (Pituitary & Hypoothalamic. Protein Synthesis. separation. Hormone Metabolism & its regulation. Mutations affecting membrane proteins. Immunochemistry Curriculum M. myopathies. contraction of muscle. Definition. function of Nucleic acids (DNA & RNA). Role of calcium in contraction of muscles. Restriction FragmentLlength Polymorphism. Blotting Techniques. Biochemical changes in cancer cells. Pathophysiology. Transport processes. Detection of radiation. planar & column chromatography.D. Hazards. Mutations. Haemolytic Anemias. Genetic & Biochemical basis of diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders. (Biochemistry) . Antibiotics etc. Muscle and Cytoskeleton Concept of Actin & myosin. Evaluation of Tumor Markers in cancer management. Recombinant DNA Technology Restriction enzymes. mechanisms. Biochemical basis of action of anticancer drugs. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Cancer genes & Growth Factors Etiology of cancer. Diagnostic and Therapeutic applications. Electrophoresis Basic concepts & definitions. Organ Function Tests:Gastric function tests Liver function tests Kidney function tests Thyroid function tests Pancreatic function tests Detoxification of Xenobiotics Role of Cytochrome P450. Role of oncogenes. Separative Procedures Chromatography-Basic concepts. Processing and Modification. Role in metabolic processes. RBC & White cells.
Introduction to principles of Laboratory analysis Concept of solute & solvents. Structure & functions of immune system. Hotplates. Mechanical and thermal injuries. Nephelometry and Turbidimetry. preparation of reagents. Electrical apparatus (Centrifuges machines. Description of Technique. Curriculum M. characterization of diagnostic accuracy of tests. Statistics Sampling. Specimen collection & other pre-analytical variables Specimen collection. Antibodies. Disposal of specimens and contaminated materials. immune deficiency diseases. Chemical injuries. units of measurements. Spectrophotometers. Glass apparatus. definition. Low pressure systems (vacuum desiccators). Dispensers. Cardiac message. Flame Emission Spectrophotometry. Electrophoresis Basic Concepts and Definitions. distillation plant maintenance. First aid boxes.2. Immune response of the body. Theory of Electrophoresis. preservative & anticoagulants. hypersensitivity. Antigen. Obtaining help for Emergency drug supply. SD. CV.D. Mean. Safety measures & First aid Corrosive chemicals. normal biological variability. Special procedures common to several emergency conditions and taking care of treatment of shock. Flame photometers) etc. Complement system. Probability etc. other pre-analytical variables. Practical Introduction to Clinical Chemistry Concepts. Maintenance of Laboratory Records Electrochemistry and Chemical Sensors Potentiometry. Biosensors. Ag-Ab reaction. Artificial respiration. Carcinogens. immunology of transplantation & malignancy. Types of Electrophoresis. unconscious patients. Quality control of Clinical investigations External & internal quality control Automation in Clinical biochemistry Environmental biochemistry Bioinformatics Basic Concepts. Instrumentation. Explosive & inflammable chemicals. Technical Considerations. 3.111 Concept of immunity. autoimmunity. laboratory waste etc. Normal distribution. Radiation hazards. Weighing (use of mechanical & electronic balance). Toxic chemicals. basic techniques & procedures. Electrical injuries. Water baths. (Biochemistry) . Analytical Techniques and Instrumentation Optical Techniques Photometry and Spectrophotometry. handling of specimens. Waste Disposal Infectious material (Biological material) with special consideration for AIDS and Hepatitis B&C.
Basic Statistics. Curriculum M. Specific activity). Teaching Programme 4. Analytical Goals. Trace ability and Measurement Uncertainty. other Area of Automation. Separation Mechanisms. Quality Management Fundamentals of Total Quality Management. Fluid Biochemistry. LFT. Tumor markers. Trace Elements. Cardiac Markers. Antigen-Antibody Binding. Establishment and Use of Reference Values Establishment and use of Reference Values. Antioxidants. Special proteins like CRP. Point-of-Care Testing Analytical and Technological Considerations. method Comparison. Vitamins. Other Immunochemical Techniques. Selection and Analytical Evaluation of Methods-With Statistical Techniques Method Selection. Drugs Analysis Drug of Abuse and Therapeutic drugs. Implementation and Management Considerations. Anemia Profile. Urine CSF. Analytical Enzymology. Special Investigations Hormones. postgraduate training is skills oriented. Effect of Inhibitors on enzyme activity. Haptoglobin. Pancreatic Markers. Principles of Immunochemical Techniques Basic Concepts and Definitions. External Quality Assessment and Proficiency Testing Programs. Column Chromatography. Principles of Clinical Enzymology Basic Principles. RFT. Control of Analytical Variables.112 Chromatography Basic Concepts. Quantitative Methods. Qualitative and Quantitative Analyses. Laboratory Operations Routine Biochemistry Investigations Blood Glucose Estimation. Automation in the Clinical Laboratory Basic Concepts. Enzyme Kinetics (Effect of temperature on enzyme activity. Basic concepts in Relation to analytical Methods. Resolution. Practical Considerations. Blood gases. Troponins.D. Automation of the Analytical Processes. Use of Reference Values. Regulatory Demands and Accreditation. New Quality Initiatives. Control of Preanalytical Variables. Planar Chromatography. Lipid Profile. Monitoring Serial Results. The total testing process. Bone Markers. Effect of pH on enzyme activity.1 General Principles Acquisition of practical competencies being the keystone of postgraduate medical education. Integrated Automation for the Clinical Laboratory. 4. Guidelines. Km. Implementing TQM. Qualitative Methods. Software packages. (Biochemistry) . Ceruloplasmin etc.
Learning all basic biochemistry techniques like photometry. Attendance of the residents at various sessions has to be at least 75%. Journal Club Case discussion Stat meeting/Thesis work Inter departmental meeting or Mock examination Practical Central session on CPC. (Biochemistry) .Once a week --.Once a week --. Microbiology.Once a week --. medical ethics 5. biostatistics. All the teaching sessions are assessed by the consultants at the end of session and marks are considered for internal assessments. there are one hourly formal teaching sessions of PG per week. Undertake classes for nursing & paramedical staff. Standard calibration curves for all routine analytes. 4.1 Teaching i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) Attend all UG classes theory & teach as & when assigned & Practical classes.2 Teaching Sessions In addition to daily routine reporting with consultants in every section. Curriculum M. teaching on research methods. and Endocrinology.113 Learning in postgraduate programme is essentially self-directed and primarily emanating from clinical and academic work.Once a week. which they are required to attend to gain basic knowledge of biochemistry. Postings (1) Teaching (2) Clinical Lab Posting 5. In addition they also perform & demonstrate all UG practicals. Student seminar. Self study on all aspects of biochemistry mentioned in syllabus.3 Teaching Schedule The suggestive departmental teaching schedule is as follows:1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) etc. All sessions are attended by faculty members. guest lectures --. The formal sessions are merely meant to supplement this core effort.D. Pathology.Once a week --. flame photometry etc. Clinical case discussion Seminars/Journal Club Statistical meetings – monthly/weekly Inter departmental meetings Guest Lectures/Vertical Seminars or central stat meetings 4.Once a week --. This is in addition to UG teaching classes. Posted in allied departments like Transfusion medicines.
In addition. psychomotor and affective domains.114 5. Accreditation.2 Clinical Laboratory Posting Pre-Analytical Laboratory Collection Centre Analytical Lab: Semiautoanalyser/Autoanalyser Lab Immuno-chemical Lab Chemiluminescence Lab Chromatography Electrophoresis Blood gas analysis Point of care testing Lab Mass spectrometry Emergency Lab PCR Lab Post-Analytical Lab Selection & analytical evaluation of method with statistical techniques (Basic statistics. (vii) undertake a study according to the protocol. Method comparison. Assessment All the PG residents are to be assessed daily for their academic activities and also periodically. the project shall be written and submitted in the form of a Thesis. 7. (viii) analyze and interpret research data and draw conclusions. (iii) formulate a hypothesis. (v) state the objectives of the study. (ii) conduct a critical review of literature. Thesis shall be submitted to the university six months before the commencement of theory examination i.e. (iv) determine the most suitable study design. for examination May/June session. thesis is also assessed separately. The student will identify a relevant question. Curriculum M. objective and reliable.D. 6. It covers congnitive. continuing and summative (final) assessment is also conducted in theory as well as practicals/clinicals. (vi) prepare a study protocol.4 7. (Biochemistry) . Trace ability) Quality management 6. Every candidate shall submit thesis plan to the university within nine months from the date of admission. Thesis 6.1. 30th November of the proceeding year of examination and for November/December session 31st May of the year of examination.1. Formulative. 6. General Principles The assessment is valid. (ix) write a research paper.3 Every candidate shall carry out work on an assigned research project under the guidance of a recognized Postgraduate Teacher.2 6.
exhibits good moral values. responds promptly to calls. and performs well in oral presentation and department tests. Practical skills and performance 3. skilled in procedures. End of the term assessment is held at the end of each semester (upto the 5th semester). *Personal attributes Availability: Punctual. The pass percentage will be 50%. 7.1 Record of internal assessment will be presented to the board of examiners for consideration during final examination. End of the term theory examination (I Year. 2 Years & 9 months) 5.3. leave no work pending. Formative Assessment The formative assessment is continuous as well as end of term. takes on responsibilities. gets on well with colleagues and paramedical staff. group discussion & microteaching) 4. The former is be based on the feedback from the senior residents and the consultants concerned. but will provide feedback to the candidate. Formative assessment will not count towards pass/fail at the end of the program. Academic ability: Intelligent. Diligence and performance: Dedicated. Curriculum M. participates adequately in academic activities. available continuously on duty. takes proper permission for leave. admits mistakes.3. End of the term practical exam/oral 20 20 Marks 20 20 20 7. 7. competent in clinical case work up and management (where applicable). shows sound knowledge and skills.115 7. goes beyond routine work. Summative Assessment Ratio of marks in theory and practical will be equal. (Biochemistry) . exhibits keen desire to learn. Internal Assessment Items 1. does not sit idle. Candidate will have to pass theory and practical examinations separately.2. has initiative. Inter-personal skills: Has compassionate attitude towards patients. II Year. seminars. hardworking. does not shirk duties. honest.4.D. Personal attributes* 2. does not falsify information. Sincerity and motivation: Dependable. Academic activities (Journal club. proficient in record keeping and file work. respectful to seniors. loyal to institution.
enzymes & Clinical biochemistry Recent advantages in Clinical Biochemistry & Biochemical methodologies Total : Marks 100 100 100 100 400 B. Should be able to make short lectures under senior teacher’s supervision. Should have learnt to make multiple-choice questions. Long case study Enzyme kinetics/Electrophoresis Short case study Standard Curve/Paper Chromatography/TLC 100 100 50 50 Total: 300 C. For Research Work Should have skill to look up references from journals and present seminars. Should be familiar with collection and processing of data. minerals. Orals . Must attend all undergraduate theory and practical classes. 4. Will be expected to be familiar with standards methods of preparing a bibliography and for preparing manuscripts and illustrations for publications. Should have computer skills. vitamins. Will be expected to perform all investigations and interpret all investigative data. 2. They must play an active role in table teaching in all practical classes.Grand Viva 100 8. (Biochemistry) . Theory Title Paper 1: Paper 2: Paper 3: Paper 4: Introductory Biochemistry & molecular Biochemistry Biochemistry of body metabolism Biochemistry of hormones.116 A. Should be expected to maintain quality control at all levels. analytical and post analytical. Should have learnt to make Power Point presentation. Curriculum M. Should be able to set up new experiments and methods for diagnosis and research. 3. Job Responsibilities For Teaching Should be able to take a class using audiovisual aids right from blackboard & chalk to that with laptop & multimedia session. Practicals 1.D. For Clinical Work Should have skill to work in Clinical Biochemistry Lab in all areas: Preanalytical.
1.3. Reference Books: Clinical Biochemistry by Varley Text Book of Biochemistry by Vasudevan Text Book of Biochemistry by Styrer 9. Puri Clinical chemistry by Tietz 9.117 9. Model Test Papers Curriculum M. D. Journals: Clinical chemistry Indian Journal of AMBI. 10. Suggested Books: 9. (Biochemistry) .D. Core Books: Text book of Biochemistry by Lippincott Harper’s Illustrated Biochemistry Text Book of Biochemistry by Lehninger Biochemistry by Dr.2.
Curriculum M. (Biochemistry) . Give detailed account of the transcription process. VI Name the important buffer systems in the body. VIII Enumerate the salient features of active transport. Describe the role of kidney and lungs in the maintenance of acid-base balance. Differentiate between primary & secondary gout. VII What is meant by detoxification? Give an account of various detoxifications processes with examples. Marks:100 Time: 3 hrs • • • • I II Attempt ALL questions Answer each question & its parts in SEQUENTIAL ORDER ALL questions carry equal marks Illustrate your answer with SUITABLE DIAGRAMS Discuss the genetic regulation of protein biosynthesis.118 MODEL QUESTION PAPER MD (Biochemistry) Paper-I Introductory Biochemistry and Molecular Biochemistry Max. Give two examples where drugs inhibit active transport. How is it regulated? Name inhibitors of transcription. IX X What are isotopes? Mention the medical uses of isotopes. V What are the sources of Carbon and Nitrogen atoms of purine & pyrimidine rings? How is the de novo synthesis regulated? Indicate the clinical uses of inhibitors of purine nucleotide synthesis. Discuss various causes of both types. Describe recombinant DNA technology. What are the important clinical applications of the technique? III IV What is genetic code? Enumerate the salient features of genetic code.D.
119 MODEL QUESTION PAPER MD (Biochemistry) Paper-II Biochemistry of Body metabolism Max. Explain the biochemical basis of clinical abnormalities in primary gout and their treatment. II Describe the transport of ammonia and highlight how ammonia is detoxified in brain and liver. Explain biochemical basis of ammonia toxicity. Marks:100 • • • • I Time: 3 hrs Attempt ALL questions Answer each question & its parts in SEQUENTIAL ORDER ALL questions carry equal marks Illustrate your answer with SUITABLE DIAGRAMS Describe the diverse biochemical effects of insulin. Explain metabolic consequences of alcoholism. (Biochemistry) . Mention the biochemical tests for diagnosing and monitoring of a case of diabetes mellitus. VI List the components of pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex. III Classify Lipoproteins and discuss the synthesis and catabolism of various lipoprotein fractions. How is entry of acetyl CoA into TCA cycle regulated at this complex? VII Discuss the pathway for metabolism of alcohol and the biochemical changes it leads to. VIII Differentiate between the primary and the secondary gout. How the process of ketogenesis regulated? V Discuss the role of various factors involved in maintenance of normal blood glucose level. Describe eicosanoids and their functions. IV Describe the synthesis & oxidation of ketone bodies. Write various drugs that inhibit eicosanoids synthesis? Curriculum M.D. IX X Describe the importance of serum enzymes in the diagnosis of diseases. Explain role of various lipoproteins in atherogenesis.
II What is the normal blood level of calcium? What are the mechanisms by which calcium homeostasis is maintained? III IV V VI VII VIII What is cycle AMP? What is the metabolic role of c-AMP? Enumerate the thyroid function tests. biochemical functions. enzymes & Clinical Biochemistry Max. Give two examples of each. minerals. Discuss biochemical functions of two of them. Discuss visual cycle.120 MODEL QUESTION PAPER MD (Biochemistry) Paper-III Biochemistry of hormones. Marks:100 Time: 3 hrs • • • • I Attempt ALL questions Answer each question & its parts in SEQUENTIAL ORDER ALL questions carry equal marks Illustrate your answer with SUITABLE DIAGRAMS Describe the sources. vitamins. What are the different types of enzymes inhibition? Explain with suitable examples. What are the deficiency manifestations of vitamin D? Name trace elements. (Biochemistry) . IX Explain the mechanisms of allosteric regulation using phosphofructokinase as an example.D. X Indicate the importance of enzyme studies in a) Myocardial Infarction b) Liver diseases c) Bone Diseases d) Pancreatic Diseases e) Malignant Diseases MODEL QUESTION PAPER Curriculum M. requirement & deficiency manifestations of pyridoxal phosphate. Define BMR and SDA? What are the factors that affect BMR? Classify enzymes. Describe any one of them in detail.
its advantages & limitations of two parameters. Marks:100 Time: 3 hrs • • • • I II III Attempt ALL questions Answer each question & its parts in SEQUENTIAL ORDER ALL questions carry equal marks Illustrate your answer with SUITABLE DIAGRAMS What is POCT? What are its advantages and disadvantages? What are preanalytical variables and how do they affect the results? What is the principle of colorimeter? How will you differentiate it from spectrophotometer & flame photometer? Write advantages & disadvantages of each. What are the abnormalities that you could detect in serum electrophoresis? VI What is metabolic acidosis? Explain the causes and compensatory mechanisms in the body. IV What are the characteristics of a tumor marker? Write a note on carbohydrate markers. V Give the types and salient features of electro phoresis. Describe the methodology. What do you understand by bone markers? Discuss the methods of analysis of any two of these. X What is ISE? Differentiate between direct and indirect ISE.121 MD (Biochemistry) Paper-IV Recent Advances in Clinical Biochemistry & Biochemical Methodologies Max. (Biochemistry) . IX List various endocrine parameters in case of male infertility. VII VIII Discuss the biochemical investigations done in case of anemia.D. Curriculum M.