Instructed By


Mr. P.D.R. Lalantha R.S.V. Piyasena P.P.G.C. Prasanna R. Prasanthan M.G.M.M. Premathilaka T.G.P. Priyadarshana G.P.N.S.G. Punchihewa O.C. Ranawaka U.I. Ranganath Name Index No Course Module Practical No Date of conduct Date of submission :::::::G.P.N.S.G.Punchihewa 080391T B.Sc. ENG. Mechanical ME 3020 30/09/2010 28/10/2010

Group Members :-

measurements of pressures were taken for suction and delivery side. A pump was operated with control rate of flow. This was done in two ways. Correspondingly. It is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft is turning at the same rpm. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed. To assure the exact flow rate. The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. the higher the velocity of the liquid energy transferred to the liquid. The energy transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. Apparatus: y y Centrifugal pump apparatus bench Stop watch Procedure: Operation was done for a centrifugal pump.Objective: To determine performance characteristics of centrifugal pumps. Theory: A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the liquid by a revolving device an impeller. Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines". Also corresponding current was observed. A vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump. One is varying the inlet ball valve and other is varying the outlet ball valve. pipe reading with stop watch was taken for each case. The head of a pump in metric units can be expressed in metric units as: h = (p2 p1)/( g) + v22/(2 g) . This is described by the Affinity Laws.

The energy usage is determined by multiplying the power requirement by the length of time the pump is operating.The fluid density (kg/m3 ) g .The flow rate (m3/s) .81) m/s2 v2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s) Energy Usage: The energy usage in a pumping installation is determined by the flow required.81 m/s2) H . h = total head developed (m) p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2) p1 = pressure at inlet (N/m2) = density (kg/m3) g = acceleration of gravity (9. the head loss due to friction and any losses due to valves or pipe bends all expressed in meters of water.The energy Head added to the flow (m) Q .Where. the height lifted and the length and characteristics of the pipeline.The gravitational constant (9. is defined simply using SI units by: Where. The power required to drive a pump (P i). Pi . The value for the pump efficiency may be stated for the pump itself or as a combined efficiency of the pump and motor system.The efficiency of the pump plant as a decimal The head added by the pump (H) is a sum of the static lift. .The input power required (W) . Power is more commonly expressed as kW (103 W) or horsepower.

. as the pump delivers more water. etc. the performance of a pump can be represented on a head capacity curve of total developed head in feet of water versus flow in gallons per minute. of any pump. The intersection of this line with zero delivery line shows the ³shut off head´. Increasing the flow further decreases the efficiency until a point known as ³end of curve´ where the manufacturer no longer publishes the performance. \ . capacity. the mechanical efficiency of the pump increases until a ³best efficiency point´ (BEP) is reached. Starting from the shut off head.Performance curve: The performance curve is the easiest and most satisfactory way to show graphically the relationship between head. For a given rotational speed and impeller size. the pump efficiency also decreases. As the impeller gets smaller. Total dynamic head (TDH) is the difference between suction and discharge pressure and includes the difference between the velocity head at the suction and discharge connection. The horsepower line that does not cross the pump curve is called ³non overloading´ horsepower because operation at any point on the published pump curve will not overload the motor. horsepower. The lines sloping downward from left to right represent the varying quantities of water delivered by the pump with variations in head or pressure for a given impeller size. The power requirements are also shown on the performance curve. which is the pressure developed by the pump when the discharge valve is shut.

since only size and shape cannot be sufficient to select a pump for certain purpose. centrifugal pumps have certain limitations which. if not properly evaluated can drastically reduce their working life. y y y y Consistent and reliable flow Improved productivity Reliable seal integrity Low life cycle cost All pumps (both the centrifugal pumps and the positive-displacement pumps) have operational limits. . where a single pump is inappropriate for large flow rate or high head. while head delivered can be increased twice by arranging pumps in series.Discussion: About the experiment:From the experiments. pumps can be arranged in series and parallel or combination of both to suite our requirement. The BEP (Best Efficiency Point) is not only the maximum operating point but it is also the point where the speed and pressure at the impeller and the spiral stator are equal. Hence. Standard test were done according to the procedures defined by the lab manual and characteristics curves are drawn. characteristics of pumps ran at different flow rate are observed and drawn in graphs. required flow rate). We should have to compromise the efficiency for the fulfillment of the actual field condition situations. We have studied the variation of head available with change in flow rate. Features of centrifugal pumps:Some of the salient features of centrifugal pumps include. Specifically. The main aim of the practical was to draw up the characteristics curve. So the characteristics curves help to optimize the field conditions and to select a particular type of pump or a combination of pump for a particular site. input power required. To increase the efficiency of pumps we can use multiple pumps instead of a single pump. With the help of characteristics curve and the actual field conditions (Head available. With pumps in parallel we can increase the flow almost twice for the same head delivered. These characteristics curves are essential in defining the properties of a pump.

Cavitations occurs when the velocity of a liquid increases to the point where the consequent pressure drop reaches the pressure of vaporization of the liquid. even at high speeds. among other things: y y y an excessive load on the bearings an excessive deflection of the mechanical seal irregular wear on the shaft bearing The damages that might occur then consist of a shorter bearing life or a broken shaft. In extreme instances. Another disadvantage of centrifugal pumps is that they develop cavitations. and adaptability to high-speed prime movers. When this happens. damage to the pump could be caused by excessive speed and turbulence. cavitation has caused structural failure of the impeller blades. The collapse of the vapor bubbles can take place with considerable force. Advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal pumps:The advantages of centrifugal pumps include simplicity. the rotat ion of the impeller. This irregular pressure on the impeller manifests itself as a radial thrust which deflects the pump shaft causing. When the pump end is dry. or bubbles. the suction lines and inlets of most centrifugal pumps are placed below the source level of the liquid pumped. This effect. For this reason. is simply not sufficient to lift liquid into the pump.As the operating point diverges from the Best Efficiency Point. the pump must be primed before pumping can begin. If operating outside of the recommended operating range. therefore. form in the liquid and then later collapse when subjected to higher pressure at some other point in the flow. weight saving. The pump can then be primed by merely opening the suction stop valve and allowing the force of gravity to fill the pump with liquid. vapor pockets. compactness. Vortexes can create cavitations damage which very quickly can destroy the pump and impeller casing. can severely pit and corrode impeller surfaces and sometimes even the pump casing. One disadvantage of centrifugal pumps is their relatively poor suction power. Radial loading is maximized when everything closed. The static pressure of the liquid above the pump also adds to the suction pressure developed by the pump while it is in operation. . coupled with the rather corrosive action of the vapor bubbles moving at high speed. the speed changes which in turn modifies the pressure acting on one of the sides of the impeller.

if the suction pressure is abnormally low (caused perhaps by high suction lift or friction losses in the suction piping). cavitation can occur when sudden and large demands for liquid are made upon the pump. If this is not possible. . the subsequent pressure drop across the impellers may be sufficient to 6-19 reach the pressure of vaporization. then increase the suction pressure by some means to maintain pressure in the pump under these conditions. a suction effect is created on the discharge side of the pump. Perhaps the easiest way to avoid this condition is to regulate the liquid demand. as the pressure head on the discharge decreases. not the least of which is improper design of the pump or pumping system. For instance. Cavitation can also be caused by improper operation of the pump. A remedy might be to alter the pump design by installing larger piping to reduce friction loss or by installing a foot valve to reduce suction lift. Think of it as a pulling action on the discharge side that serves to increase the velocity of the liquid flowing through the pump.Whenever cavitation occurs. Several conditions can cause cavitation. the velocity of the liquid flowing across the impellers increases to the point where cavitation takes place. it is frequently signaled by a clearly audible noise and vibration (caused by the violent collapse of vapor bubbles in the pump). For example. Thus. As the liquid discharged from the pump is rapidly distributed and used downstream.

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