# PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS

Instructed By

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Mr. P.D.R. Lalantha R.S.V. Piyasena P.P.G.C. Prasanna R. Prasanthan M.G.M.M. Premathilaka T.G.P. Priyadarshana G.P.N.S.G. Punchihewa O.C. Ranawaka U.I. Ranganath Name Index No Course Module Practical No Date of conduct Date of submission :::::::G.P.N.S.G.Punchihewa 080391T B.Sc. ENG. Mechanical ME 3020 30/09/2010 28/10/2010

Group Members :-

measurements of pressures were taken for suction and delivery side. A pump was operated with control rate of flow. This was done in two ways. Correspondingly. It is important to understand that the pump will pump all fluids to the same height if the shaft is turning at the same rpm. The faster the impeller revolves or the bigger the impeller. Fluid enters the pump through the eye of the impeller which rotates at high speed. To assure the exact flow rate. The energy created by the pump is kinetic energy according the Bernoulli Equation. the higher the velocity of the liquid energy transferred to the liquid. The energy transferred to the liquid corresponds to the velocity at the edge or vane tip of the impeller. The fluid is accelerated radially outward from the pump chasing. Apparatus: y y Centrifugal pump apparatus bench Stop watch Procedure: Operation was done for a centrifugal pump.Objective: To determine performance characteristics of centrifugal pumps. Theory: A centrifugal pump converts the input power to kinetic energy in the liquid by accelerating the liquid by a revolving device an impeller. Centrifugal Pumps are "constant head machines". Also corresponding current was observed. A vacuum is created at the impellers eye that continuously draws more fluid into the pump. One is varying the inlet ball valve and other is varying the outlet ball valve. pipe reading with stop watch was taken for each case. The head of a pump in metric units can be expressed in metric units as: h = (p2 p1)/( g) + v22/(2 g) . This is described by the Affinity Laws.

The energy usage is determined by multiplying the power requirement by the length of time the pump is operating.The fluid density (kg/m3 ) g .The flow rate (m3/s) .81) m/s2 v2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s) Energy Usage: The energy usage in a pumping installation is determined by the flow required.81 m/s2) H . h = total head developed (m) p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2) p1 = pressure at inlet (N/m2) = density (kg/m3) g = acceleration of gravity (9. the head loss due to friction and any losses due to valves or pipe bends all expressed in meters of water.The energy Head added to the flow (m) Q .Where. the height lifted and the length and characteristics of the pipeline.The gravitational constant (9. is defined simply using SI units by: Where. The power required to drive a pump (P i). Pi . The value for the pump efficiency may be stated for the pump itself or as a combined efficiency of the pump and motor system.The efficiency of the pump plant as a decimal The head added by the pump (H) is a sum of the static lift. .The input power required (W) . Power is more commonly expressed as kW (103 W) or horsepower.

since only size and shape cannot be sufficient to select a pump for certain purpose. centrifugal pumps have certain limitations which. if not properly evaluated can drastically reduce their working life. y y y y Consistent and reliable flow Improved productivity Reliable seal integrity Low life cycle cost All pumps (both the centrifugal pumps and the positive-displacement pumps) have operational limits. . where a single pump is inappropriate for large flow rate or high head. while head delivered can be increased twice by arranging pumps in series.Discussion: About the experiment:From the experiments. pumps can be arranged in series and parallel or combination of both to suite our requirement. The BEP (Best Efficiency Point) is not only the maximum operating point but it is also the point where the speed and pressure at the impeller and the spiral stator are equal. Hence. Standard test were done according to the procedures defined by the lab manual and characteristics curves are drawn. characteristics of pumps ran at different flow rate are observed and drawn in graphs. required flow rate). We should have to compromise the efficiency for the fulfillment of the actual field condition situations. We have studied the variation of head available with change in flow rate. Features of centrifugal pumps:Some of the salient features of centrifugal pumps include. Specifically. The main aim of the practical was to draw up the characteristics curve. So the characteristics curves help to optimize the field conditions and to select a particular type of pump or a combination of pump for a particular site. input power required. To increase the efficiency of pumps we can use multiple pumps instead of a single pump. With the help of characteristics curve and the actual field conditions (Head available. With pumps in parallel we can increase the flow almost twice for the same head delivered. These characteristics curves are essential in defining the properties of a pump.

if the suction pressure is abnormally low (caused perhaps by high suction lift or friction losses in the suction piping). cavitation can occur when sudden and large demands for liquid are made upon the pump. If this is not possible. . the subsequent pressure drop across the impellers may be sufficient to 6-19 reach the pressure of vaporization. then increase the suction pressure by some means to maintain pressure in the pump under these conditions. a suction effect is created on the discharge side of the pump. Perhaps the easiest way to avoid this condition is to regulate the liquid demand. as the pressure head on the discharge decreases. not the least of which is improper design of the pump or pumping system. For instance. Cavitation can also be caused by improper operation of the pump. A remedy might be to alter the pump design by installing larger piping to reduce friction loss or by installing a foot valve to reduce suction lift. Think of it as a pulling action on the discharge side that serves to increase the velocity of the liquid flowing through the pump.Whenever cavitation occurs. Several conditions can cause cavitation. the velocity of the liquid flowing across the impellers increases to the point where cavitation takes place. it is frequently signaled by a clearly audible noise and vibration (caused by the violent collapse of vapor bubbles in the pump). For example. Thus. As the liquid discharged from the pump is rapidly distributed and used downstream.