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Ever wonder what it is that actually makes a camera work? This tutorial will cover the inner workings of a camera, and introduce you into photography basics and the expansive world of taking better photographs. To take beautiful photographs you do not need an expensive camera and a bag full of equipment. What is important is the photographer¶s ability to see his/her surrounding and use knowledge and personal feel for the subject. Being the first article in a series, this lesson is meant to only cover the basics of photography. The idea with this series is to get people more interested in photography, awaken creativity and hopefully help people enjoy this hobby even more. The community here at Tutorial9 is an important part of this series and I would love to hear your feedback and questions. An introduction to Photography
The word ³photography´ is French but is based on Greek word and literarily means ³drawing with light³. That¶s what photography is all about, without light ² no photograph. The art of photography is basically seeing and balancing the light. The illustration to the left shows the path the light travels from the object to the sensor (or film in non-digital cameras). First the light needs to go through the lens, which is a series of differently shaped pieces of glass. If the focus is good then the light will meet on the sensor. The aperture is placed inside the lens and is basically an opening that controls how much light reaches the sensor. On most modern cameras the shutter is placed inside the camera body. This piece of mechanics is what controls how long time the sensor is exposed to the light.
The sensor is a very sensitive plate where the light is absorbed and transformed into pixels. As you can see on this illustration, the image the sensor picks up is actually upside down, just like our eyes sees the world, the processor inside the camera then flips it. Aperture
The aperture sits inside the lens and controls how much light passes through the lens and onto the sensor. A large aperture lets through very much light and vice versa. Knowing how the aperture affects the photograph is one of the most important parts of photography ² it affects the amount of light, depth of field, lens speed, sharpness and vignetting among other things. I will talk more about these things in later parts of this series. F-numbers, a mathematical number that expresses the diameter of the aperture, are an important part of understanding how the aperture and exposure work. All f-numbers have a common notation, such as /5.6 for an f-number of 5.6. There are a set numbers of f-numbers that are used in photography, there are several different scales but the ³standard´ full-stop fnumber scale is this: /# 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 16 22 32 These are known as full-stop f-numbers. If you decrease the f-number with one fullstop, like /4 to /2.8, the amount of light that passes through will double. If you increase the fnumber with one full-stop, like /5.6 to /8, only half the amount of light will reach the sensor. There can be several f-numbers between the ones above ² depending on what scale is being used. The most common one is a 1/3 scale, which means that every third step is a full-stop, and thus giving you two settings between every full-stop. For example between /8 and /11 you will find /9 and /10. This can be rather confusing at first, so here¶s a short reminder: A higher f-number = a smaller aperture = less light A lower f-number = a larger aperture = more light
The shutter is what controls how long the sensor is exposed to the light. The longer the shutter is open the more light can be captured by the sensor. A fast shutter speed will result in ³freezing´ a moving object and a slow shutter speed will let you capture the motion of a moving object. There is a scale of stops for the shutter speeds just like for the aperture, below are the full-stops. 1/1000 s 1/500 s 1/250 s 1/125 s 1/60 s 1/30 s 1/15 s 1/8 s 1/4 s 1/2 s 1 s And just as with the aperture, the shutter speed is often on a 1/3 scale, giving your two steps in between every full-stop. For example between 1/60s and 1/125s you will find 1/80s and 1/100s. The two primary factors which control exposure are shutter speed and aperture. We will cover these things in greater detail in other lessons. ISO The ISO speed (the name comes from the International Organization for Standardization) is a measure of the film speed, or its sensitivity to light. With digital cameras the ISO affects the sensor instead of the film, but the principal is the same. A low ISO speed requires a longer exposure and is referred to as slow, a high ISO speed requires less time to give the same exposure and is therefore referred to as fast. One step in the ISO equals one full-stop, so the ISO is not on a 1/3 scale ² film can be found with 1/3 ISO speeds, but it¶s uncommon in the digital world. These are the most common ISO speeds. ISO 50 100 200 400 800 1600 3200 On 35mm film, a film with high ISO speed had much more grain than a slower film ² but the modern sensors don¶t create the same grain with high ISO speeds. Instead it creates noise. The digital noise is not as favorable as the film grain and can destroy a photo if it¶s too visible (the same goes with the grain, but it¶s effect was more subtle and often more liked). If light is no problem, then always use a low ISO number but if you¶re indoors with bad light or other conditions when you find the combination of aperture/shutter not to be enough the ISO speed can be a great asset. New digital sensors are constantly developed and the noise levels with high ISO speeds are decreasing with every new release.
STANDING STEADY: PROVEN WAYS TO REDUCE SHAKE IN PHOTOGRAPHY Learn how to get those steady shots, both with the help of tripods, monopods, and additionally with your bear hands. These tips are guaranteed to improve your stability while taking photographs! To get good photographs you usually have to hold the camera steady. Sometimes a blurry photograph or one in motion can be desired, but most of the time it¶s unwanted. The most common equipment to help counter this is the tripod, but I will also give you a few other tips to reduce camera shake in this article. 1. Tripod
As I said, the tripod is the classic tool to make your photographs sharp and crisp. It¶s by far the steadiest method and produces great result time after time, but there are a few things to think about. Just like everything else the tripods comes in all different shapes and sizes, not to mention price classes. It¶s important to sit down and think about what you want out of your tripod ² is it going to be used in a studio or outdoors, what type of lenses are you planning on using and how much do they weight, do you want a ball head or a 3-way pan-tilt head? If you¶re only going to use the tripod indoors it doesn¶t have to be as sturdy and rough as an outdoors tripod needs to be. The heavier the tripod the more stable it is, and I¶ve learned a µrule¶ that says ³for every 100mm focal length the tripod should weigh 1kg (2.2 lbs)³. So if you are planning on using a 300mm telephoto lens the tripod should weigh about 3kg (6.6 lbs). I¶m not sure how accurate this rule is, but it can work as some kind of guideline. Do keep in mind though those high-end tripods can be both very stable and light, but rather expensive. If you do not need to have the tripod set up at full height, extend the upper parts of the legs first since the lower parts are thinner and thereby not as stable. Some tripods have the ability to raise a post in the center to maximize the height even more ² do not use this feature unless you truly need to since the center post is more unstable.
The choice between a ball head and a 3-way pan-tilt head is simply personal preferences. With the 3-way pan-tilt head you can easily change just one axes, such as panning or tilting, without affecting the other axes. The ball head gives you more ability to move the camera around and is much faster to change, but ball heads are often more expensive. A personal tripod recommendation would be the Manfrotto 055XPROB legs with the 488RC2 ball head. I have an earlier version of the legs, but the difference is minimal. This combination would land somewhere in the mid-range of prices, but the quality is very high and unless you have very heavy lenses (in which case you might want to look at Gitzo tripods) this is a perfect solution. This tripod is not the lightest, but it¶s steady and at a great price. If you¶re tall this is also a tripod to consider, since it stand very tall even without the center post raised. 2. Monopod A monopod is a great alternative to tripods and handheld. You can¶t have a shutter speed of 1 hour on a monopod like you can on a tripod, you can most likely not even have a shutter speed of 30 seconds ² but that¶s not the target market for monopods. They are a more mobile tool to help you stabilize your shots without having to carry around a tripod, and monopods are far more simple and quick to set up. It can take some time getting use to a monopod, and the most effective way to use it is to have its foot placed against your back foot. Do not just have the monopod stand in front of you; this will not give enough stability to help you very much. Try finding a good posture where you can hold the camera as steady as possible. 3. Hand held
This is the most common way to take photographs and most of the time it will do just fine, but there are ways to take advantage of your surrounding and changing your stance to help you with stability. Always hold the camera close to you, inhale and hold your breath for the duration of the shot. Don¶t just tap the shutter release button ² you want to press it down and hold down the finger a short while before lifting it again to minimize camera shake.
If you¶re using a telephoto lens or other lens that is somewhat heavy or long place your left hand under the lens and grasp it ² do not hold the camera body with both hands if you¶re using a heavy lens. Keeping as low profile as possible is a great way to increase your stability. If possible, lay flat on your stomach with both your elbows on the ground. Not as stable but another good stance is with one knee on the ground and the other one at a 90° angle.
Leaning against a tree or wall is another great way to take the stability of something else and help it make you more stable. If possible, place the camera against the tree/wall to maximize the stability. The same goes for rocks, logs, railings and more or less everything you can find to rest your camera on. On many occasions it can be more helpful to rest your camera on a rock than using a monopod. One last trick I learned from a friend of mine; take your left hand and place it on your right shoulder, take your camera in your right hand and place it on your left elbow/forearm ² this might take some time getting use to but the result is a very stable stance that works great with telephoto lenses. There is a general rule in photography that says that your shutter speed should be at least equal to your focal length to minimize unwanted camera shakes. This means that if you use a 100mm telephoto lens the shutter speed should be at least 1/100s, if you use a 300mm lens the shutter speed should be at least 1/320s. A warning about the previous stated rule is crucial. Most Digital SLR cameras do not have a sensor with the same dimensions as 35mm film (which was used at the time the rule was made). In most cases the camera has a crop factor of 1.5 or 1.6, this means that a 100mm leans is actually a 150 or 160mm lens when translated into 35mm film sizes. If you¶re using a camera with a crop factor of 1.6 and using a 200mm telephoto lens you should have a shutter speed of at least 1/320 (200mm * 1.6 = 320)
DEPTH OF FIELD IN PHOTOGRAPHY
Depth of field (DOF) is the distance in front and beyond the object that is in focus. This tutorial will teach you about how to use Depth of Field in your own photography. Depth of Field in Photoshop In case you¶re looking for a way to imitate Depth of Field in Photoshop (rather than photography, as this tutorial illustrates). A short depth of field can be very useful when you want to isolate your object from the background, such as when taking portraits or macro photography. A large depth of field is great when you photograph landscapes and overall when you want every detail to be in focus. Control the Depth of Field There are three variables that affect DOF, the size of the Aperture, the distance to the object and what lens you¶re using. (There is a fourth thing that affects the DOF, but that¶s the size of the sensor and unless you have two cameras with different sensor sizes this isn¶t something to take into account.)
As you can see in the illustration above, a lower f-number equals a shorter depth of field. A higher f-number will give you focus over a longer distance ² when you¶re having a hard time getting the correct focus it might be a good idea to extend your DOF by changing the aperture.
The distance between you and the object is also important, the closer you are to the object the shorter the DOF. If you¶re photographing a person but needs to have a high f-number you can still get a very short DOF by keeping the distance between you and the person to a minimum.
The last thing you can do to affect your DOF is to change the lens. A wide-angle lens has a much greater DOF than atelephoto lens; the most extreme wide-angle and fish-eye lenses don¶t even have to focus because they are so sharp on every aperture for the entire DOF (making for excellent scenic shots). It¶s important to know that the depth of field is greater behind the object than in front of it. If you want to photograph, let¶s say 20 kids standing in a line, and you want as many of them as possible to be in focus, but you¶re unable to have a small aperture, you should focus on the 6th-7th kid in line, which would balance the field of focus about right (depending on your distance to the kids). If you would focus on the 10th kid, that is the one in the middle, the first few kids would be more out of focus than the kids at the back of the line. Unlike some other parts of photography, the depth of field works in your favor almost every time. If you want to photograph landscapes you usually have a wide-angle lens ² the object is far away and you use a high f-number ² all these things together gives you a depth to infinity. And if you¶re photographing macro you¶re close to the object, you have a telephoto lens and often a low f-number ² all these things will give you a very short depth which will make your object stand out and make the background soft and non-distracting. Bokeh The word Bokeh derives from the Japanese word Boke which means ³blur´ or ³fuzzy³, and that¶s just what the term refers to in photography. The out of focus areas in the photograph look very different depending on the depth of field as well as the lens used, some lenses produces much better bokeh than other lenses. The shape of the aperture is one of the most important parts together with the quality of the optics when it comes to how the out of focus areas appear.
The photograph above is meant to illustrate what bokeh is. The lens used was the Canon 50mm f/1.8 which isn¶t considered to be a good bokeh lens due to it¶s 5 aperture blades.
EXPOSURE AND CAMERA MODES The exposure is the combined factors of how long time the sensor is exposed to light, how much light comes through and how sensitive the sensor is to light. It¶s based on three things, Aperture size, Shutter speed and ISO. Exposure There are 3 parts of exposure that you should understand. The following examples ought to illustrate how these 3 components of exposure interact with one another. Example1 You take a photograph with the following settings: /8, 1/250s and ISO 100 But let¶s say you want to freeze the object more, which requires a faster shutter speed, you can either change the ISO or the Aperture. First of all let¶s change the shutter speed 1 stop faster, 1/500s ² now only half the amount of light will reach the sensor. To compensate for this and keep the exposure the same you can change the aperture size 1 f-stop larger, /5.6. So /5.6, 1/500s and ISO 100 will give you the same exposure as /8, 1/250s and ISO 100 (but now the shutter speed is faster which allows you to freeze your object in a different way). Example2 You¶re indoors with bad light conditions which make your current setting too slow and are unable to hold the camera steady enough. The settings are: /5.6, 1/60s and ISO 100. Your lens¶ largest aperture is /4 which is 1 f-stop larger, changing your shutter speed 1 stop faster will result in: /4, 1/125s and ISO 100. The shutter speed is still too slow and the result is blurry due to camera shake. Since you can¶t change the aperture anymore you will have to change the ISO setting, 1 stop will result in ISO 200, you now have: /4, 1/250s and ISO 200 which should be enough to get a sharp photograph. As you hopefully can see from these examples all three parts of the exposure are related to each other. If you just change one of them the result will be either an underexposed or an overexposed photograph, but if you change both you can keep the balance.
55mm, f/5.6, 1/60s, ISO 100
300mm, f/5.6, 1/800, ISO 400
50mm, f/5, 1/320, ISO 400 Overexposure Overexposure happens when the sensor is exposed to more than enough light, resulting in white images or at least white areas in the images around the light source(s). Sometimes it¶s impossible to expose the photograph correctly without getting some overexposed areas. Overexposure can be used as an effect, but most of the time it¶s unwanted and avoidable. Underexposure Underexposure is the opposite of overexposure, and is the result of the sensor not getting enough light, the photo isdark. Underexposure can be used artistically but just like overexposure it can be unwanted and hard to avoid. To Underexpose, or Overexpose? With digital cameras it¶s much easier to bring back the light and colors from underexposed areas than it is to bring back shades into overexposed areas. If you¶re photographing in RAW you might want to consider to underexpose your images on purpose to avoid loosing details in overexposed areas and then use a digital lightroom to bring back the light from the underexposed areas if needed. This depends on the light conditions, and indoors it can be a good idea to overexpose instead. I personally always underexpose my outdoor photographs 2/3 of an f-stop for this reason, and have found the results much more pleasing than a ³correct´ exposure. Exposure Lock Exposure Lock is a great feature that¶s available on most cameras. It¶s rather easy to understand what it does, it locks the exposure so that it doesn¶t re-calculate the exposure if you move your camera around. Try to find a neutrally exposed part of your object, not the light source nor the shadows but something in between, and press the exposure lock button ² recompose your photograph and take the picture.
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M ² Manual mode; this gives you full control over both aperture and shutter speed. Av or A ² Aperture priority; you control the aperture and the camera calculates the shutter speed for best exposure Tv or S ² Shutter priority; you control the shutter speed and the camera calculates the aperture P ² Program mode; a more advanced form of an auto mode. The camera calculates both the aperture and shutter speed, but doesn¶t affect settings like ISO or flash. AUTOMATIC MODES: Auto ² everything is on auto, including ISO, flash and image quality Portrait ² uses a large aperture to shorten the depth of field Landscape ² uses a small aperture to gain more depth of field Sport ² uses higher ISO to use faster shutter speeds Night portrait ² uses long exposures to capture the entire scene, often combined with built in flash Macro ² uses a large aperture to great a softer background JUST SAY NO! TO AUTOMATIC MODES There is no reason what so ever to use the automatic modes. After you¶ve read through this series of articles about photography you should have enough knowledge to control the camera on manual modes ² which will result in better photographs. The Program mode (P) is fine to use, this way you will have the aperture and shutter automatic but still be in control over everything else. Most photographers find a mode that they like and maybe switches between two different modes, this is personal preferences and let me just tell you that far from every professional photographers uses only the fully Manual setting. I personally use M and Av most of the time, depending on the situation. Av for the situations where I don¶t have enough time to set the correct exposure between every shot and then M for the rest.
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LENSES AND FOCAL LENGTH PHOTOGRAPHY
In Photography, your lens is often your most important purchase. This photography tutorial outlines some important qualities of different lenses, and how each performs in identical situations. Choosing a lens is often more difficult then choosing a camera when it comes to purchasing. One thing to remember is that a lens will last several times longer than digital cameras. A D-SLR has a limited lifespan of a couple of years, the prices on cameras just keeps on dropping and purchasing a new camera every 3-5 years is quite reasonable if you want good quality photographs & equipment. A lens on the other hand will (if handled correctly) last much longer then that, so a good lens will be an investment that you can use for a longer period of time. Another thing to think about is the fact that all the light that reaches the sensor needs to pass through the lens. A low quality lens on a high quality camera will result in bad image
quality, but a good lens on a low quality camera can still produce good results (and with low quality camera I mean the companies ³entry level´ D-SLR cameras). It¶s important to realize that different lenses distort and compress the view. A wide angle lens will distort the view and distances can seem greater than they really are, while in contrast, a telephoto lens will compress the view and make far away object seem closer than they are. To show this effect I have taken three photos with different lenses, the front object (a street sign) is kept at the same size but the background is drastically different.
Above: 18mm, Wide Angle
Above: 50mm, Normal
Above: 300mm, Telephoto
Normal lenses have a focal length of around 50mm; it resembles the view of the human eyeand creates a natural view ² unlike wide-angle that distort and telephoto that compresses the view. These lenses usually have a very low f-number, which makes them perfect for photographing in low light conditions. Back in the days this was the standard lens everybody had, often a 50mm prime lens (more about prime lenses later in this article) with an aperture of f/1.2±f/1.8. The fact that they were so widely used might be one of the reasons why they have now been left behind for most beginners and amateurs ² they are just seen as too boring. I personally would recommend everybody to go out and purchase a 50mm prime lens, even if you already have a zoom lens that covers the focal length. The 50mm primes on the market today are often cheap but with exceptionally good optics for the price.
Lenses with a wide angle of view have become standard as kit-lenses on most low-end DSLRcameras on the market, always as zoom lenses. These lenses are great for landscapes, architecture and indoor photography ² but be aware of the distortion they create. The closer you are to your object the more distorted it will become, and the distortion is most predominant in the corners. With such short focal length they can be useful in low-light situations, both because they take in light from a wider angle and because a little camera shake is not as visible as it is on longer focal lengths.Be careful when using wide-angle lenses for close portraits, the distortion created by the lens is magnified at close ranges and gives the model unnatural shapes. The effect can be effective and useful in some situation but it¶s a technique that should be used with caution. Telephoto lens
These lenses have a narrow view field and a long focal length. Telephoto lenses are great for wildlife and sport photography, and can be good to use for portrait when you want to isolate the model from the background. Telephoto lenses compresses the view which can be both positive and negative depending on the situation. Telephoto lenses with their longer focal length require better light conditions or the use of a tripod. There are fast telephoto lenses, like a 400mm f/2.8, but these are often very expensive and out of reach when it comes to most amateurs ² and most of these lenses are too heavy to be handheld. The last decade most companies have started to produce these high end telephoto lenses with Image Stabilizer(different companies have different names for it, but the effect is the same) to make them more usable without tripods. Lately this feature has been implanted in more and more low-end lenses as well. Macro lens
Macro photography is close-up photography. Macro is a word that has been severely abused lately, every photograph of an insect or flower is not macro, and many people seems to have missed the point of what macro is supposed to be. True macro photography is at the scale of 1:1 or greater this means that the object you¶re photographing should be the same size or larger on the sensor. Most macro lenses have a focal length between 50mm and 200mm, and they usually have a large maximum aperture (low f-number) that gives them both the ability to be fast as well as totally isolate the subject. The background and shallow depth-of-field is a very important part of macro photography and can take quite a lot of time to master. Many modern macro lenses can focus to infinity and are prime lenses which can make them ideal when it comes to portrait photography, so just because it¶s a macro lens doesn¶t mean it can only be used for that type of photography.
There are several ways to achieve macro or a macro-effect without a true macro lens; I will go into detail about this in a later part of this series. Special lenses FISHEYE LENS
Fisheye lenses are extreme wide-angle lenses, having a 180° horizontal angle of view. There are both Circular and Full-frame fisheye lenses, the circular will create a round image in the center with unexposed (black) edges and the full-frame lens will fill the entire sensor but will only have 180° horizontal and not vertical. Fisheye lenses are widely used photographing and filming skateboarding, since the entire scene is always in focus and you can easily capture the entire trick without too much movement.
Tilt-shift lenses are common in architectural photography to avoid the distortion a regular wide-angle lens creates while keeping the entire building in focus. Tilt-shift lenses have more
features than just correcting the distortion, they also gives the photographer total control over the focus and depth of field. The lens can create rather odd looking photographs where the field of depth looks ³unnatural´ and the entire scene looks like it¶s a photograph of a miniature.
Prime lenses vs. Zoom lenses
There are two types of lenses, prime and zoom. A prime lens is a lens that has a fixed focal length, these lenses comes in all shapes and price classes. Zoom lenses have taken over the market almost completely on the lower-end; this is mostly because zooms are more versatile. A zoom lens can be a wide-angle lens, a normal lens and a telephoto lens ² all in one ² where as a prime can only be what it is. High-end telephoto lenses as well as macro lenses are almost always primes.
So why choose a prime instead of a zoom lens then? Most prime lenses are considerably sharper than the zooms in the same price class, even when you go to the very high-end lenses the primes are sharper but the difference is not as distinct. Not only are primes sharper but they often have a larger maximum aperture which makes them faster and ideal in low-light situations. However, the technology is moving forward at a great speed right now and the noise levels at high ISO isn¶t as visible as it was before which makes zoom lenses able to be faster as well. All in all I would recommend that people have at least one prime in their camera bag, preferably a normal lens, which is the perfect lens for many situations ² sharp, fast and lightweight.
Most lenses have a ³sweet spot´ where the lens is performing better than on other settings. Zoom lenses are often best in the middle of their range and there can be some quality loss on both the maximal and minimal focal length, but it¶s different from lens to lens so your best bet is to try and see where you find the sharpest results. The aperture will also affect the sharpness, and most lenses are softer when they are wide open (largest aperture). To prevent this you can always step down one or two f-stops, if the situation allows for it. Some quick advice on buying a new lens When it comes to purchasing a new lens there are a few things to consider.
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Who much are you willing to spend What do you need it for (sport, landscape, portraits etc) What lenses do you already own Prime or Zoom Image Stabilizer or not Filter size The budget question is rather obvious; don¶t buy lenses you can¶t afford, period. What you need your lens for is another very important factor, both when it comes to focal length and speed. Previously in this article I explained what the different focal lengths were used for, but I didn¶t go into the different lenses in each of the focal length categories. For instance, there are many telephoto zoom lenses on the market but many of them are not suitable for sport due to the fact that they are too slow ² and with slow I mean that their largest aperture isn¶t letting enough light through to freeze action. Many sport situations require a lens that has an aperture of f/2.8 or larger (consumer telephoto lenses are often f/5.6). For situations with low light, especially weddings and such, requires even faster lenses, often between f/1.2 and f/1.8. It¶s also important to consider what lenses you already have in your collection and what a new lens will add. Sometimes you purchase a new lens as an upgrade from your previous lens, sometimes it¶s for a focal length that you do not already have. Don¶t worry to much about small gaps in the focal length in your collection. For example it¶s no problem to have a 16-35mm wide angle, a 50mm prime and a 70-200mm telephoto lens ² sure you don¶t have lenses that covers 36-49mm or 51-69mm, but those are not big gaps and buying extra lenses to fill such gaps is not something I advice you do. My personal opinion is that upgrading should add more than just better image quality, for a worth upgrade you should get a faster lens, or a feature such as image stabilizing (article on Image stabilizing coming later). The choice between prime and zoom lenses was described earlier in this article and there¶s no right or wrong here, just personal preferences and also depending on the situation. Last but not least, an aspect that is overlooked most of the time, the filter size. If you don¶t use filters you can skip this part. If you¶re like me and use several different filters it¶s more economical to have the same filter size on all your lenses as well as more convenient. Let¶s say you have several lenses with a filter size of 77mm and your looking for a new lens, you can either buy a cheaper 67mm or a more expensive 77mm lens (remember, I¶m talking about filter size here). It might actually be more expensive to buy the cheaper lens since you need to buy an
extra set of filters. Using step-up rings are an alternative, but they often prevent you from using a lens hood. So after decided on your next lens purchase, where to buy? The only non-Swedish photo store I can personally recommend is B&H Photo. Great service, good prices and a useful website, I recommend B&H to everyone that ask, it¶s a great store. There are other stores, but be careful, there are a lot of fake/bad photography stores online.
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