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Methods of control
In many countries , rivers prone to floods are often carefully managed. Defences such as levees, bunds, reservoirs, and weirs are used to prevent rivers from bursting their banks. When these defences fail, emergency measures such as sandbags or portable inflatable tubes are used. Coastal flooding has been addressed in Europe and the Americas with coastal defences, such as sea walls, beach nourishment, and barrier islands. A dike is another method of flood protection. A dike lowers the risk of having floods compared to other methods. It can help prevent damage; however it is better to combine dikes with other flood control methods to reduce the risk of a collapsed dike. Tide gates are used in conjunction with dikes and culverts. They can be placed at the mouth of streams or small rivers, where an estuary begins or where tributary streams, or drainage ditches connect to sloughs. Tide gates close during incoming tides to prevent tidal waters from moving upland, and open during outgoing tides to allow waters to drain out via the culvert and into the estuary side of the dike. The opening and closing of the gates is driven by a difference in water level on either side of the gate. A weir, also known as a lowhead dam, is most often used to create millponds, but on the Humber River in Toronto, a weir was built near Raymore Drive to prevent a recurrence of the flooding caused by Hurricane Hazel in 1954, which destroyed nearly two fifths of the street. Venice has a similar arrangement, although it is already unable to cope with very high tides. The defenses of both London and Venice will be rendered inadequate if sea levels continue to rise. The largest and most elaborate flood defenses can be found in the Netherlands, where they are referred to as Delta Works with the Oosterschelde dam as its crowning achievement. These works were built in response to the North Sea flood of 1953, in the southwestern part of the Netherlands. The Dutch had already built one of the world's largest dams in the north of the country: the Afsluitdijk (closing occurred in 1932).
Flood blocking the road in Jerusalem
Currently the Saint Petersburg Flood Prevention Facility Complex is to be finished by 2008, in Russia, to protect Saint Petersburg from storm surges. It also has a main traffic function, as it completes a ring roadaround Saint Petersburg. Eleven dams extend for 25.4 kilometres and stand eight metres above water level.
However. In an act of successful flood prevention.S. passing through the city of Winnipeg (where it meets the Assiniboine River) and into Lake Winnipeg. and floodways (including the Red River Floodway and the Portage Diversion). The consequences of deforestation and changing land use on the risk and severity are prone to discussion. This can lead to devastating flooding. drowning. As is the case with all north-flowing rivers in the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere. dikes. including Grand Forks. the Federal Government of the United States offered to buy out flood-prone properties in the United States in order to prevent repeated disasters after the 1993 flood across the Midwest. carbon monoxide exposure. in partnership with the state. Flood clean-up safety Clean-up activities following floods often pose hazards to workers and volunteers involved in the effort. Asia In China. fire. motor vehicle-related dangers.Americas Another elaborate system of floodway defenses can be found in the Canadian province of Manitoba. Several communities accepted and the government. Agathe. In the U. In assessing the impacts of Himalayan deforestation on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Lowlands. North Dakota and Ste. during Hurricane Katrina in the city proper and in eastern sections of the Metro Area. In planning for and reacting to flood disasters. the New Orleans Metropolitan Area.and the positive effects of wise land use and reforestation. The system kept Winnipeg safe during the 1997 flood which devastated many communities upriver from Winnipeg. it was found that forests would not have prevented or significantly reduced flooding in the case of an extreme weather event. Because flooded disaster sites are unstable. the Manitoba government undertook the construction of a massive system of diversions. These wetlands act as a sponge in storms and in 1995. Manitoba. clean-up workers might encounter sharp jagged debris. This system failed catastrophically. heat or cold stress. managers provide workers with hard hats. To protect the city from future floods. and exposure to hazardous materials. and watertight boots with steel toes and insoles. blood or other body fluids. ranging from a few inches to twenty feet in coastal communities. as occurred in Winnipeg during the spring of 1950. exposed electrical lines. heavy work gloves. snowmelt in southern sections may cause river levels to rise before northern sections have had a chance to completely thaw. the government did not have to expend resources in those areas. goggles. life jackets. Potential dangers include electrical hazards. is protected by hundreds of miles of levees and flood gates. with numerous breaks. bought 25. biological hazards in the flood water.. flood diversion areas are rural areas that are deliberately flooded in emergencies in order to protect cities. more general or overview studies agree on the negative impacts deforestation has on flood safety . 35% of which sits below sea level.000 properties which they converted into wetlands. The Red River flows northward from the United States. . musculoskeletal hazards. when the floods returned. resulting in the inundation of approximately 50% of the Metropolitan area. and animal and human remains.
Many countries around the world are also at or below sea level and the worst part about that is the fact that a significant amount of the global population lives on or near to the coastal shores. Countries like the Netherlands with projects such as the Zuiderzee works and the Delta works could prove to be important models for other countries around the world to follow. Flood control will become an ever increasing issue in world politics and as more and more countries start feeling the effects of a global increase in the sea level then it will be time for action and the Netherlands will certainly be at the forefront of this action and furthermore used as an example for many countries when it is time for them to start dealing with issues of the sea. About 4 million rai (1. an increase in the frequency and severity of some natural disasters. The tremendous amount of damage that Katrina did to New Orleans could have been mostly prevented if New Orleans had such an intricate flood control system as the Netherlands. Projects such as the underground storage of water. according to the Office of Agricultural Economics.2 percentage point this year. Even though many of these projects around the world are designed to fight floods like a 100 or even 10. the Finance Ministry said. China has recently gone to the Netherlands and requested their help in combating the large scale drought that is occurring around China.2 billion baht ($674 million) of damage and pare economic growth in Southeast Asia’s second-biggest economy by 0. The Dutch are going to help China develop a drought warning system as well as new water management programs and contribute to flood defense research. With many countries around Europe at or below the sea level.000 year flood.6 million acres) of agricultural land has been affected. these projects can still prove to be key instruments in the fight against global climate change. Eroding Economic Growth Thailand’s most severe floods in five decades have spread across half the country. and even something as simple as turning a playground during normal conditions into a small lake during heavy rainfall weather all show how the Netherlands is actively trying to combat the increasing dangers of rising sea levels. the state agency said. killing at least 68 people and damaging 3 percent of agricultural land in the world’s biggest rice-exporting nation. The result of Katrina was that the state of Louisiana sent politicians to the Netherlands to take a tour of the complex and highly developed flood control system in place in the Netherlands. which accounts for about 75 percent of annual output. may shrink 4. .Future Europe is at the forefront of the flood control technology. The deluge may cause as much as 20. In Rotterdam there is even a project to construct a floating housing development of 120 acres (0. The Netherlands is the world leader in flood control and has been battling the sea for centuries and new ways to deal with water are constantly being developed and tested. The main rice crop. the problems of floods and rising sea levels are ever increasing. equivalent to 3 percent of available farmland.49 km2). and even increased durations of dry or rainy seasons. which of course will be unaffected by rising sea levels. storing water in reservoirs in large parking garages. These flood control systems do not always have to be solely to prevent floods but can also be used to combat droughts.3 percent this year. These sorts of humongous projects could be key in combating the increasing effects of global climate change such as: rising sea levels.
“Sugar cane and corn will have only minor damage. Apichart said. new homes and in tourism spending. .5 percent of Thailand’s sugar cane has been partially destroyed. or 2. he said. from the previous prediction of 3-4 per cent. the office’s secretary-general. while the strong baht also made people worry about their future income.000 rai of land was completely devastated.of which only US$8 million was available at the beginning of the yearIts budget for dealing with floods is about one billion dollars a year and is expected to rise to about US$1. Production from the main harvest of unmilled grain. which begins in late October. from an earlier estimate of 23 million tons.” Rice Fields Damaged About 4.“Production of rice and cassava will likely fall. 27.5 per cent. About 2. About 600. secretary-general of the Office of the Cane and Sugar Board. and the rest partially damaged. Prasert Tapaneeyangkul. has been affected by the floods. said by phone today.5 billion by 2010. Thailand’s main rice crop is planted over about 58 million rai of the nation’s 130 million rai of total farmland. Apichart said. may fall to about 22 million metric tons. with 51 per cent of its income coming from foreign donors.8 million rai. Mozambique relies heavily on international support.8 percent of Thailand’s rice-growing area. said by phone on Oct. It needs US$47 million to deal with flooding in 2008 .56 million rai. The decline in consumer confidence had led to a decrease in demand for new cars. from a total planting area of 6.” Apichart Jongskul. If the Thai government fails to rapidly heal the problems of flood affected people consumer spending will fall and that would hurt economic growth in the fourth quarter. he said. The heavy flooding that hit several regions in Bangkok since Oct 10 would bring down the gross domestic growth in the fourth quarter of the year to 2-2. The floods had caused concern about income and job opportunities.
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