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2 Living things need energy to carry out life processes such as moving, breathing and growing. For example: (a) we need energy to do our daily activities such as walking, playing football, reading etc. (b) animals need energy to move and grow. (c) plants need energy to make food. 3 Non-living things also need energy to do work. For example, energy enables (a) car and motor engines to run (b) water in the kettle to boil (c) ice to melt Sources of Energy I We get energy from the sources of energy. There are many sources of energy in this world.
Food (a) Food gives energy to do work. (b) Humans and animals get energy from the food they eat. Their sources of food include plants and other animals. (c) Plants make their own food using water, carbon dioxide and energy from the Sun. Water (a) Water is very important in our lives. (b) Apart from drinking, washing and bathing, water is used to generate electrical energy. (c) Electrical energy that is generated using water is called hydroelectric. Wind (a) Wind can move and make things move. (b) Wind energy is used to move ships and kites. (c) Wind energy uses the energy in the wind to turn the blades of large windmills to produce electricity.
Fuel (a) Coal, fire wood, oil and natural gas are fuels that are burnt to produce energy.
(c) The food that animals eat comes directly or indirectly from plants. (b) Examples of objects or situation/phenomenon that have potential energy are a stretched rubber band. Thus. (d) Wood comes from trees. 4. a rotating fan. Plants make their own food using light energy from the Sun (photosynthesis process). a stretched arrow and a coconut on top of a tree. the energy stored in wood is also derives from the Sun. Potential energy (a) The energy that is stored in an object because of its position is called the potential energy. (b) Heat flows from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature. Thus. the energy stored in fossil fuels derive from the Sun. They are used for cooking and as fuels in aeroplanes and vehicles. (b) Examples of objects or situation/phenomenon that have kinetic energy are a moving car. like cars. These organisms got their energy from the Sun. (b) Batteries supply energy to produce electricity.6 7 (b) These fuels are among the most widely used energy resources. electrical energy also derives from the Sun. Battery (a) Many things around us use batteries to work. (f) Some power stations use fossil fuels to generate electrical energy which is used at home or in industry. (e) Coal. oil and natural gas are fossil fuels. 2 3 4 Kinetic energy (a) A moving object has a form of energy called the kinetic energy.2 Transformation of Energy 1 There are various forms of energy. . Therefore. (b) Many of our energy resources derive from the Sun. wind and flowing river. Heat energy (a) Heat is a form of energy. Sun (a) The Sun is the main source of heat and light energy. the energy stored in food derives from the Sun. These fuels were formed from the remains of organisms that lived millions of years ago. Therefore.
(e) The sources of heat energy are the Sun. energy 4 When energy is used to do work. (b) The chemical energy in dry cells can be transformed into electrical energy in a closed circuit.5 6 7 (c) Heat causes an object to become hot. dynamos. (b) For example. (a) Plants use light energy from the Sun to make food (photosynthesis). 8 Transformation of Energy I Energy can change from one form to another form. The sound of clapping can be Kinetic energy → Sound (d) Clapping hands heard. Electrical energy → Light lights energy The candle lights and becomes Chemical energy → Heat (b) Lighting a candle hot. rice contains chemical energy required by our body to perform work. 2 The following activity shows energy can be changed or transformed from one form to another. Activity/Work Observation Transformation of energy (a) Switching on the The bulb lights. burnt fuels such as coal. Electrical energy (a) Electrical energy is a form of energy that enables electrical appliances such as computers. lamps and burning objects. (b) Electrical energy can be obtained from sources like dry cells. (b) Sound energy is produced by vibrations. Light energy (a) Light is a form of energy that enables us to see. and lighted bulbs. 3 Table I shows the transformation of energy that occurs in our surrounding. lighted candles. A car can move using the chemical energy that is stored in petrol. etc. This electrical energy is transformed into heat and light energy by the lighted bulb. drying our hair and boiling water. (b) Light energy is contained in objects that produce light. fire wood and candles. refrigerators and irons to work. . it can be transformed or changed from one form of energy into another form of energy. televisions. (c) Sound is produced in almost all human activities. solar cells. (c) The sources of light energy are the Sun. Sound energy (a) Sound energy is the energy that can be heard. Chemical energy (a) Chemical energy is a form of energy that is stored in fuels and food. energy + Light energy (c) Using a solar The light on the calculator can be Solar energy → Electrical powered seen and the calculator can energy → Light energy calculator work. eat or play musical instruments. We produce sound when we speak. The light energy is changed or transformed into chemical energy that is stored in the food made by plants. (d) We use heat for cooking.
1 shows some examples of the appliances. Ceiling fan Electrical energy → Kinetic energy + Sound energy Gas stove Chemical energy → Heat energy + Light energy . Electric ironElectrical energy → Heat energy 5. Appliances Transformation of energy 1. Washing Electrical energy → Kinetic energy + Sound energy machine Electrical energy →Light energy + Sound energy + Heat 2. Hair dryer Electrical energy → Heat energy + Sound energy 4. Television energy 3. 2 Table 4.(c) When a computer is switched on. electrical energy is transformed into light. heat and sound energy. Appliances that Make Use of Energy Transformation I Some appliances and equipment that we use at home can change forms of energy.
Renewable and Non-renewable Energy 1 The survival of all living things on Earth depends on the availability of energy sources. in watches or calculators. 4 Non-renewable energy is the energy that cannot be replenished when used up. they transform energy into electricity. 2 Solar (a) When sunlight shines on solar cells. (b) Places with high rainfall and steep mountains are ideal for generating hydroelectricity. 5 Therefore. (c) This includes using wood from trees. 4 Non-renewable Energy Resources . (c) Most hydroelectricity projects require the construction of large dam across the river which can be very expensive. 2 Some energy sources are renewable and will not run out. e. (d) The burning of biomass produces less air pollution than the burning of fossil fuel. (b) The burning of biomass fuel generates heat energy which can be transformed into other forms of energy. 3 Biomass (a) Biomass is the plant and animal waste materials that can be used for energy. fuel made from sugar cane and biogas from rotting waste.g. Hydroelectric power (a) Hydroelectricity is produced from falling water. Others are non-renewable and will deplete with use. (b) Solar cells are useful if very small amounts of electricity are needed. we can group the various sources of energy into renewable and non-renewable as shown below. (b) Wind generated electricity does not cause air pollution. 3 Renewable energy is the energy that can be replenished when used up. The movement of the water spins turbines which generate electricity. Sources of Energy Renewable Energy Resources renewable non-renewable 1 Wind (a) Wind is used to turn the blades of large windmills or generator to produce electricity.
. Need to Use Energy Wisely 1 Our daily activities involve extensive use of energy. it is important for us to learn how to save energy. and to provide fuel for transport. (a) Switch off appliances when they are not in use. (b) Use public transport more often such as buses and light rail transit (LRT). 6 The consumption of the fuels also cause air pollution. (a) Some energy resources such as petroleum and natural gas cannot be replenished when used up. petroleum and coal. gasoline and other forms of energy (c) To avoid wastage (d) To reduce pollution 4 Renewable energy is better than non-renewable energy because. 3 The following are reasons why we need to use energy wisely. This fuel is used in homes for heating and cooking. For example. Natural gas is compressed and piped into homes to be used in stoves.1 2 Natural gas. and pressure from dirt and rock change these fossils into natural gas. Figure 4.7 Formation of natural gas and petroleum 3 4 Petroleum is an important source of heat energy. there will not be any left for people to use in the future. 2 It is important to use energy wisely in order to make sure energy can be supplied consistently for our use. Heat from the Earth. (a) it can be used over and over again and yet can be replaced (b) does not cause air pollution 5 At present. we rely on fuels like natural gas and petroleum to sustain our daily activities. The fossils are buried under dirt and rock. use fluorescent lamps which are more energy efficient compared to filament bulbs. petroleum and coal are fuels that are burnt to produce heat energy. To save energy means to find out ways in which we can use less energy and not waste energy in our daily lives. (c) Share the car with friends (car pooling). If we use up all the fuels. It is also used in power stations to generate electricity. It is used for cooking and heating in homes and factories. 7 8 So. LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is made from petroleum. They are called fossil fuels because they come from the fossilised remains of plants and animals that lived hundreds of millions of years ago. (d) Use energy-saving electrical appliances. There are many ways to save energy. (b) To save cost on electricity. Extensive use of energy may result in exhaustion of energy.
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