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BIC Library Guide Series: No 27.

Harvard Referencing System:


An Introductory Guide
What is it?
Academic writing requires the author to support their arguments with reference to other published work or experimental
results/findings. A reference system will perform three essential tasks.
1. Enable you to acknowledge other authors ideas [avoid plagiarism]
2. Enable reader to quickly locate the source of the material you refer to so they can consult it if they wish.
3. To indicate to the reader the scope and depth of your research
The Harvard System is a widely used referencing system to help you achieve these objectives

How do I use the Systems?


The Harvard System involves two tasks:
1. How you refer to other authors in the body of your text.
2. How you compile a list of reference sources [Bibliography] at the end of your text.

The system in essence uses an author/date system of referencing in the body of the text and full bibliographic details of
citations in the Bibliography [reference list] at the end of the text.
In essence in the body of your text you will cite/refer to the authors name and the date of publication and in the list of
references you will provide the full bibliographic details of the cited publications.

Examples
 Single Author
The style depends on the context of the reference.
In the text In the Bibliography
Book
‘The financial problem faced by the developers has been Jones, K. (1998) Financial management today. Dublin :
described in detail in Jones (1998)’ Argus Press.
or or
Journal
‘Ryan (2006) states that cost overruns are frequently the Ryan, J. (2006) ‘Management accounting for developers’,
result of inadequate planning.’ Journal of advanced accounting, Vol. 1, No 5 : p.21-24

Options
You may use accepted abbreviations in place of the full name of the journal
e.g. Jnl.Adv.Acc
You may use Vol. To indicate the volume number and no. to indicate the issue number
(The Web of Knowledge Database provides a list of references in the abbreviated format)

Internet journal (Text only available on the internet)


After the title (Bibliographic details) add the FULL location followed by the date accessed.
e.g. http://www/abc.ac.uk/zpl.htm (accessed 7/6/05)

Journal available from an Electronic Database provider, e.g. ABI, EBSCO, etc
After the full bibliographic details add the name of the provider, followed by the date it was accessed:
e.g. ABI Proquest (accessed 7/6/05).

 Two Authors
In the text In the Bibliography
‘Boyd and McKee (2006) indicate value…’ Boyd, M. and McKee, W. (2006) Advanced Mathematics.
Galway : Ocean Press.

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 More than two authors
In the text In the Bibliography
Murphy et al. (2005)… Murphy, A., Boyd, M., Smith, A. (2006) Introduction to
advanced geometry. London : Longman.

 Two authors with the same surname


In the text In the Bibliography
Black, K (2005) Black, K. (2005). Geology of Dublin. Cork : UCC, Geology
Dept.
Black, R (2005) Black, R. (2005). Liffey Valley Project. Belfast : University
Press.

 Single author, two or more publications, same year, cited on different occasions
In the text In the Bibliography
Greene (2006A). Greene, K. (2006A) ‘Irish TV Drama’, Journal of Radio,
Vol. 5 No.2 : p. 10-16.
Greene (2006B). Greene, K. (2006B) ‘Welsh radio today’, Journal of
Radio, Vol. 5 No 3 : p. 10-16

 Single author, two or more publications, same year, cited on the same occasion
In the text In the Bibliography
Greene (2006A, B). Greene, K. (2006A) ‘Irish TV Drama’, Journal of Radio,
Vol. 5 No.2 : p. 10-16.
Greene, K. (2006B) ‘Welsh radio today’, Journal of
Radio, Vol. 5 No 3 : p. 10-16

 Edited work: Citing a book edited by a known editor


In the text In the Bibliography
Saunders (1998) Saunders, M. (ed.) (1998). Advances in food science.
Waterford : Nore Press.

 Edited Works
Citing the work of an author which is a chapter or part of another work.

In the text In the Bibliography


The early history of direct mail advertising in Ireland is Drake, S. (1935) Irish advertising. In Campbell, A. (ed.)
described by Drake (1935) in Campbell, A. (ed.) History History of Irish advertising. Glasgow : Macmillan.
Of Irish advertising. Glasgow : Macmillan.

 Works which have no personal author: Corporate authors


These include companies, Governments, organisations etc.
Examples:
• Aer Lingus
• Department of Education
• University College Dublin
• Road Hauliers Association
When citing in the body of the text use the name of the organisation as the author.
In the text In the Bibliography
The recent annual report indicates success in achieving Eircom (2005) Strategic review and report to employees.
its financial targets, Eircom (2005) Dublin : Eircom PLC.
You may use the abbreviated name provided you refer to the full name when first cited.

In the text In the Bibliography


1st Citation: University College Dublin [UCD] 2006 1st Citation: University College Dublin [UCD] 2006
2nd Citation: UCD (2006) 2nd Citation: UCD (2006)
If citations are to distinct publications you may proceed as for authors with the same name
e.g. UCD.A (2006)
UCD.B (2006)

 Secondary Sources: Private Sources


If you are unable to ascertain an exact reference to the source, e.g. you are referring to a source used by another author who
does not provide full bibliographic details of his/source e.g. a quotation from a textbook you have two options
1. attempt to track down the exact source [Web of Knowledge Database may assist- its lists citations to key academic
articles]
Guide 28- Harvard Referencing System Page 2 of 4
2. refer to it in the text as follows:
In the text In the Bibliography
O’Reilly, as cited by Kelly (2005) indicated that bus lanes Cite the referring publication following the rules above
were not a simple solution (e.g. as a single author etc)

 Private Sources
These include letters, internal documents etc not available to the general public.
In the text In the Bibliography
In a letter to the author the Chairman indicated…. Burns, C. Letter to author 1/7/06 (Private collection)
Burns(2006) Or
Eircom PLC Internal Report 1/7/05 (Eircom archives)

 Conference Proceedings
In the text In the Bibliography
Mulvey (2006) Mulvey, K. (2006) ‘Blackrock Shopping Centre’. In Irish
Retail Studies Conference Proceedings. June, 2008.
Dublin : IRS.
Note: Conference proceedings are published after the date of the conference. The date after the authors name in the body of
text and the bibliography refers to the date at which the paper was delivered.

 Thesis
In the text In the Bibliography
Brown (2003) Brown, M. (2003) ‘Email and direct mail’. Unpublished MBA
thesis, School of Electronics, University of Munster, Tralee.

 Working papers
In the text In the Bibliography
Henchy (1995) Henchy, X. (1995) ‘Irish Exports to China’. Department of
Geography, University of Munster, Tralee. Working Paper 57.

 Edition Statement
In the text In the Bibliography
nd.
Smyth, J (2004) Smyth, J. (2004) Introduction to calculus, 2 Ed.
Cambridge : University Press.
or
Smyth, J. (2004) Introduction to calculus, second edition.
Cambridge : University Press.

 Newspaper Article: no known author


In the text In the Bibliography
Longford Leader (1995) Longford Leader (1995) New Library opens. Longford
Leader June 12.

 Newspaper Article: known author


In the text In the Bibliography
White, K (1995) White, K (1995). New bookshop opens. Longford Leader
June 5.

 Anonymous Works
In the text In the Bibliography
In an anonymous pamphlet issued in 1897. Anon Anon (1987). Price of salt in India. Bombay : Oriel Press.
(1987)
If the publisher is unknown provide the details of the place of publication. Check the Library catalogue or COPAC to find full
bibliographic details.

Legal Publications: Court Cases: Judgements


Legal citations can be quite complex, the under listed are examples of items commonly encountered in business related texts.
 Case Law [Ireland]
In the text In the Bibliography
In Hynes Ltd. V. Independent Newspapers Ltd. it was Hynes Ltd. V. Independent Newspapers Ltd. [1980]
held… I.R.204.

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 Case Law [UK]
In the text In the Bibliography
In Federal Ltd. V. Central Ltd. a different approach was Federal Ltd. V. Central Ltd. [1958] A.C.270
adopted…

Abbreviations: AC refers to the House of Lords, Court of Appeal, Privy Council


CH refers to Chancery Division, High Court
QB refers to Queens Branch Division, High Court
When referring to a case in the text you may – if you wish- name the court the case was decided in.

In the text
On appeal from the High Court the Supreme Court held in Jones V. Kelly…..

 For unreported judgements (Those not reported in Law Reports)


In the text In the Bibliography
Smith V. White (1995) Smith V. White. Unreported, High Court. O’Brien, J., July
4, 1995.

 European Court
In the text In the Bibliography
In Costa V. ENEL [1964] the European Court held… Costa V. ENEL case 6/64 [1964] ECR 585

 Acts of the Oireachtas/Acts of Parliament


In the text In the Bibliography
The Industrial Relations Act (1990) does not deal with the Industrial Relations Act. 1990
situation
You may distinguish between countries:
e.g. Industrial Relations Act. 1995 [England]

 European Union
In the text In the Bibliography
EU Directive 94/33 (Young Workers) can relate to… EU Directive 94/33 (Protection of Young Workers Rights)

In edition to Directives, other areas of EU Legislation include (not all legally binding):
Regulations; Opinions; Decisions; Recommendations; Treaties
To refer to these documents simply replace the word Directive in the examples above with the name of the relevant document:
e.g. EU Regulation 58/22 (Price of Corn).

How Library Resources can assist you check references

Books
Electronic Resources: on and off campus
 UCD Library Catalogue: http://www.ucd.ie/library (Homepage)
 COPAC http://www.copac.ac.uk
The combined catalogue of the principal UK University Libraries and Trinity College Dublin Library
 Links to other Libraries: Available from UCD Library Homepage

Periodicals
UCD Library Electronic Resources
 A-Z of Electronic Journals
 List of Library databases
 UCD Library Catalogue (Print holdings and links to some Electronic journals)

Web of Knowledge (on Campus only)


Electronic database which provides bibliographic and citation data relating to key academic journals, papers and authors.
Example:
You can ascertain the original papers bibliography, who has cited it and who has cited papers which cite the original paper.
You can trace papers by Author, Keyword, Title etc. [Separate leaflet available, also online instructions.

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