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The Forgotten Reservoir Engineering Tool
Reservoir & Well Performance
Understanding the Oil And Gas Reservoir Using Material Balance
Lafayette, Louisiana October 21, 2004
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Possible Talk Titles
Material Balance: The Forgotten Reservoir Engineering Tool Are Traditional Material Balance Calculations Obsolete? Material Balance: Obsolete in 2005? Material Balance: A Quaint Reservoir Engineering Tool from the Past Material Balance, Why Bother?
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Material Balance Can Provide an estimate of initial HC in place – independent of geological interpretation – can be used to verify volumetric estimates Determines the degree of aquifer influence – understanding of the “drive mechanism” – estimate recovery factor Estimate of recoverable reserves Tracking Info Here .
compression In some cases can be used to screen for enhanced recovery Tracking Info Here .Uses of Material Balance As a precursor to reservoir simulation Identify undrained hydrocarbons Can be used as a forecasting tool in certain situations Can be used to help evaluate operating strategies such as new wells. accelerated rate.
SCF Bgi – bbl/SCF Vgi ≡ initial gas volume .Gas Material Balance G ≡ initial gas volume .bbls Vgi = G × Bgi Tracking Info Here .
Vgi = G (Bg – Bgi) Tracking Info Here .Gas Material Balance Bg is a function of new pressure Vg = G × Bg G × Bgi } Expansion (bbls) = Vg .
Vgi = G (Bg – Bgi) . Tracking Info Here } Expansion (bbls) = Vg .Gas Material Balance Expansion must equal production: Gp Bg = G (Bg – Bgi) Fix piston Bleed off Gp SCF of gas until pressure equals the same as before.
Gas Material Balance Vti = Vgi + Vwi (bbls) Vgi = Vti (1-Sw) = G Bgi Vti = G Bgi / (1-Sw) Vwi = Vti Sw = G Bgi Sw / (1-Sw) Vgi = G × Bgi Vwi = G Bgi Sw / (1-Sw) Tracking Info Here .
Gas Material Balance The change in water volume can be found: ∆Vwi = Vwi cw ∆p Since Vwi = Vti Sw = G Bgi Sw / (1-Sw) Substituting: ∆Vwi = G Bgi cw ∆p Sw / (1-Sw) (the expansion of water with a drop in pressure) Tracking Info Here .
Gas Material Balance Vg = G × Bg G × Bgi Vwi = G Bgi Sw / (1-Sw) } Tracking Info Here Expansion (bbls) = G (Bg – Bgi) + G Bgi cw ∆p Sw / (1-Sw) .
Wp water until pressure equals the same as before.Gas Material Balance As before. Expansion must equal production: G (Bg – Bgi) + G Bgi cw ∆p Sw / (1-Sw) Fix piston Bleed off Gp SCF of gas. Tracking Info Here = Gp Bg + WpBw .
Expansion must equal production: G (Bg – Bgi) + G Bgi cw ∆p Sw / (1-Sw) + We = Gp Bg + WpBw } We Expansion (bbls) = G (Bg – Bgi) + G Bgi cw ∆p Sw / (1-Sw) + We Tracking Info Here . we inject We reservoir barrels of water.Gas Material Balance Suppose while the pressure drops.
Vti = G Bgi / (1-Sw) Substituting: ∆Vti = cf ∆p G Bgi / (1-Sw) This loss in original volume results in an additional amount of expansion from the original volume. Tracking Info Here . consider the possibility that the actual initial pore volume will reduce as the pressure falls: ∆Vti = Vti cf ∆p Recall.Gas Material Balance Finally.
Gas General Material Balance Equation Gas Expansion + Water Expansion + Water Influx + Formation Expansion G (Bg – Bgi) + G Bgi cw ∆p Sw / (1-Sw) + We + cf ∆p G Bgi / (1-Sw) = Gp Bg + WpBw = Gas Production Water + Production Note that all terms are a function of pressure Equation can not be directly solved An iterative approach is required for solution Tracking Info Here .
Oil General Material Balance Equation Oil Expansion + Gas Cap Expansion + Bgi Water Expansion N (Bt – Bti) + N m Bti (Bg .Bgi ) + (N Bti + N m Bti ) cw ∆p Sw / (1-Sw) + Formation Expansion + Water Influx + Water Injection + Gas Injection + cf ∆p (N Bti + N m Bti ) / (1-Sw) + We + WI BwI + GI BgI = Oil & Dissolved Gas Production + Free Gas Production Water +Production = Np Bt + Np (Rp – Rsoi) Bg + WpBw Tracking Info Here .
We Xg ≡ (Bg – Bgi) + Bgi ⎡ cw Sw + cf ⎤ ∆p ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ 1-Sw ⎦ Yg ≡ Gp Bg + WpBw .Gas Material Balance as a Straight Line ⎧ G (Bg – Bgi) + ⎨ ⎩ ⎫ Bgi ⎡ cw Sw + cf ⎤ ∆p⎬ ⎥ ⎢ 1-Sw ⎦ ⎭ ⎣ = Gp Bg + WpBw .We Y g = G Xg Tracking Info Here .
Gas Material Balance as a Straight Line Yg ..rb Yg rb m == G m G Xg – rb/SCF Xg – rb/SCF Tracking Info Here .
Water Influx Aquifers come in all shapes and sizes – Aquifers can be extremely large relative to the reservoir size. Aquifers can be hydraulically connected to more than one reservoir. – Aquifers can be small. even neglected. even infinite “acting”. – Aquifer productivity can be either high or low (relative to the withdrawal rates from the reservoir). Aquifers can even be connected to the surface. Tracking Info Here .
Steady-State and Semisteadystate Aquifer Models dWe = qaq = k’ × (Paq – P) dt qaq = instantaneous aquifer flow rate (rb/day) k’ = aquifer influx constant (rb/day/psi) Paq = average aquifer pressure (psi) P = average reservoir pressure (psi) Tracking Info Here .
Steady-State and Semisteadystate Aquifer Models k’ is similar to the “Productivity Index” often used to describe an individual well’s productivity. Using a similar definition: qaq = Jaq × (Paq – Pr) Tracking Info Here .
Steady-State and Semisteadystate Aquifer Models If the pore volume (Vaq). compressibilities. the total water influx at any point in time can be estimated by: We = Vaq × cavg × (Pi – Paq) Recall: Cavg = SoCo + SwCw + SgSg + Cf So for aquifers. Cavg = Cw + Cf Tracking Info Here . and average aquifer pressure are known.
Steady-State and Semisteadystate Aquifer Models Define a term Wei that we will refer to as the “maximum encroachable water”: 0 Wei = Vaq × cavg × (Pi – Paq) Wei = Vaq × cavg × Pi In words. this is the volume of water that will flow from an aquifer if it’s pressure is lowered to zero. Tracking Info Here .
form the basis for steady-state and semisteadystate aquifer models. qaq = Jaq × (Paq – Pr) Tracking Info Here . along with the previously shown equation below.Steady-State and Semisteadystate Aquifer Models The average aquifer pressure at any point in time can then be estimated by: Paq = Pi × (1 – We / Wei) This equation.
the aquifer pressure can be assumed to remain constant “Fetkovitch” semisteady-state aquifer – aquifer rate and pressure are assumed to both change with time as described by the previous equations Tracking Info Here .Steady-State and Semisteadystate Aquifer Models “Pot” aquifer – defined as an aquifer where the aquifer and reservoir pressure remain (nearly) equal as the reservoir depletes – this implies a small aquifer with high productivity “Schilthuis” steady-state aquifer – aquifer is extremely large and consequently.
Pot Aquifer Definition: P = Paq Recall: Paq = Pi × (1 – We / Wei) Then: P = Pi × (1 – We / Wei) Solving for We yields: We = Wei × (1 – P / Pi) We can be directly substituted into any of the material balance equations. Tracking Info Here .
Steady-state Aquifer Definition: Paq = Pi Recall: qaq = Jaq × (Paq – P) Then: qaq = Jaq × (Pi – P) ⎡ P – Pn + Pn-1 ⎤ (∆We )n = Jaq × ⎦ × ∆t ⎣ i 2 Tracking Info Here .
Fetkovich Analytical Aquifer Recall “encroachable” water was defined by: W ei = V aq × P i × c aq Aquifer Pore Volume Initial Pressure Aquifer Compressibility Aquifer pressure at any point in time is given by: P aq = P i × (1 .W e / W ei ) Cumulative Water Influx Tracking Info Here .
Tracking Info Here .Fetkovich Analytical Aquifer Finally. the influx rate at any point in time is given by: q aq = J aq × ( P aq Aquifer Productivity Index dWe . A large W ei models an infinite aquifer.P res ) = dt Reservoir Pressure Note: A large J and small W ei models a pot aquifer.
and Terry Tracking Info Here . Hawkins.Aquifer Productivity Index Source: Applied Petroleum Reservoir Engineering Craft.
e-J pi t / Wei) i Fetkovich showed that this equation can be applied in a difference form without the need for superposition to model a system with a continuously falling pressure: Wei ∆Wen = p ( pn-1 – pRn ) (1 . the water influx for a constant drop in pressure for a time “t” becomes: Wei We = p ( pi – p ) (1 .e -J i Tracking Info Here pi ∆tn / Wei) .Fetkovich Analytical Aquifer Through algebraic manipulation and integration.
Aquifer Boundary Pressure Tracking Info Here .
Some Comments Regarding Aquifer Models Steady-state and semisteady-state models are often thought to be less accurate than unsteady-state models (like the often used Hurst and van Everdingen model) None of the analytical aquifer models directly consider the growing water invaded zone and its impact on aquifer productivity or MB (see SPE papers by AlHashim & Bass and Lutes et al) Truly “rigorous” treatment of aquifer influx requires reservoir simulation Tracking Info Here .
and assumed values of N or G in GMBE to calculate pressure – Iterate until calculated and observed pressures agree – Excellent for investigating sensitivities Tracking Info Here . – Sparse pressure data. erratic production rates a problem Alternate method – Uses observed production. aquifer properties. etc. aquifer model.Material Balance Calculations Two Approaches “Traditional” XY Plot – Uses observed pressures and production in GMBE and aquifer model to calculate N or G – Some iteration may be required to estimate gas cap volume.
Gas Example No. 1 Moderate Water Drive Project Based on 60-100 BCF Volumetric Estimate Unconstrained MB Analysis Suggested Reservoir Was Depleted Subsequent Well Was Dry Hole Tracking Info Here .
Gas Example No. 2 Weak Water Drive P/Z Suggested 860 BCF Downdip Water Production Suggested Limited Water Influx Tracking Info Here .
) Material Balance 725 BCF HC Pore Volume 450 MMBbls Water Influx 100 MMBbls Tracking Info Here .Gas Example No. 2 (cont.
3 Strong Water Drive “Classic” Rate Sensitive Reservoir Used in Field to Establish Production Priority Tracking Info Here .Gas Example No.
Gas Example No.5 BCF) Tracking Info Here . 4 Example of “Pot” Aquifer Observe the Sensitivity to Formation Compressibility (49.7 to 58.
Oil Example No. Moderate Water Drive Observe the Extreme Sensitivity to Formation Compressibility (11 to 30 MMBO) Note Culled Points Tracking Info Here . 1 Initially Undersaturated.
2 Initially Undersaturated.Oil Example No. Weak Water Drive MB Analysis Reveals Pressure Behavior That Could Not Be Matched Subsequent Simulation Study Was a Failure Anomalous Behavior Was Later Determined to be the Result of Several Casing Leaks Tracking Info Here .
5 MMBO Agrees with Volumetric Estimate of 65 MMBO Dominated by Aquifer Influx From Dake. 3 Small Offshore. Exercise 3. Above BP Pressure N = 35 MMBO from “XY” Plot N of 66.4 The Practice of Reservoir Engineering Tracking Info Here .Oil Example No.
July 1964 Note Culled Points Venezuela. Water-drive. 4 From Havelana and Odeh.Oil Example No. Water Injection. Solution Gas Drive N = 27 MMBO with “XY” Plot and Fixed Gas Cap Size N = 34 MMBO Allowing Gas Cap Size to Vary Tracking Info Here . JPT. Gas-cap Expansion.
Material Balance Compared To Reservoir Simulation Reservoir Simulation – expensive – time consuming – requires geologic description – driven with single phase – ability to forecast – determines location and distribution of unswept HC’s Material Balance – cheap – fast – independent of geology – uses production of all phases in calculations – limited forecasting – can determine the existence of unswept HC’s Tracking Info Here .
Material Balance: The Forgotten Reservoir Engineering Tool John McMullan Technology Services Reservoir & Well Performance .
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