The demand for ornamental fish of varied hue and variety is seen increasing rapidly across the world

. The global ornamental fish trade is estimated at $4 billion and is said to be a fast growing sector. At present, China is the largest exporter of marine and aquaculture products, accounting for about a 65% share. Around 10 million ornamental marine fish are imported annually throughout the world. The total weight of these fish may lie between 70-100 tonne. India, with a rich diversity and potential has less than a 1% share of the global trade. The US, Europe and Japan are the leading buyers. The fresh water, the brackish water bodies and the sea around the Indian sub continent abound in attractive varieties of fish, which are dearer to the hobbyists the world over. India exports over three hundred varieties of fresh water fishes today. Yet, the inability of culturists to produce ornamental fish varieties on a large scale, catering to the specific demands of the market has been the major reason for the low exports. The Indian fisheries occupied third position in global scenario in terms of production of fish which is 4.4 per cent of global fish production. The contribution of fisheries sector is 1.10 per cent to the total GDP and 5.3 per cent to the agricultural GDP. According to an official release issued here today, fishery sector has emerged as the largest group in agricultural export of India with quantity of 5.20 lakh tonnes and value of Rs 8363 crore respectively. Keeping colourful and fancy fishes, popularly known as ornamental fishes, aquarium fishes, or live jewels is one of the oldest and most popular hobbies of the world. The trade with a turnover of US $ 5 Billion has a annual growth rate of 8 % offers a lot of scope for development. With the increase in demand for ornamental fishes especially in USA, Europe and Japan, many countries in Asia have started capturing and culturing beautifully coloured ornamental fishes

1. The Indian ornamental fish sector is a small but vibrant segment, with potential for tremendous growth and large-scale gainful employment generation. ‡ India's share in ornamental fish trade is estimated to be Rs 158.23 lakh which is only 0.008% of the global trade. ‡ At present the market is mainly domestic. 2. ‡ Ornamental fish export from India is dominated by the wild caught species, which cater to a small portion of the global market. ‡ In India, the first public Aquaria "Taraporewala" was established in the mid of 20th century.
Fishing for ornamental fish is one of the corner stones of the fisheries policy being drafted by Gujarat Government. This is a non-violent activity quite in tune with Gujarati ethos . The business of ornamental fish has a big future in Gujarat, going by the growing number of small aquariums in houses india___fish_exports . ¾ AQIS Home ¾ Exporting from Australia ±,import and export policy in india

put a new face to rural areas and coastal regions. on approval of a programme on Development of Fisheries Export to the ye 2005. regardless of their production and business scale. Currently. Vietnamese Prime Minister signed Decision no. technical assistance.In order to promote the export of fisheries products and assist fisheries exporters to integrate with regional and global markets. quality and compatibility of Viet Nam¶s sea products. dated 25 December 1998. Fisheries export development programme The Prime Minister of Viet Nam¶s Government issued the Decision 251/1998/QDTTg. In addition. The Decision encourages enterprises in all economic sectors to have farming contracts with farmers in order to create a stable link between farm commodity and processing and marketing activities to enable sustainable farm development. assisting members to improve value. Hence.1 billion by the year 2000 and US$2 billion by the year 2005. For example. and solve questions on environment and ecology. a transaction of 1 000 kg from fisher to wholesaler and one of 10 kg from fisher to retailer are counted as two events and as such used in the calculation of percentages with the interpretation that the fisher accounted for sells to wholesaler and retailer or that wholesaler and retailer receive supplies directly from fisher. increa efficiency and se capital accumulation. it provides members with free-of-charge weekly and monthly Seafood Trade Newsletters with up -todate information and special reports. the Viet Nam Association of Seafood Exporters and Processors (VASEP) was established in 1998. create firm bases for fisheries production and effective exploitation of fisheries potential. contribute to the improvement of people¶s life. preservation and consumption of products. connect closely fisheries export with aquaculture.g. improve the quality of fisheries products. or a production cycle in the form of credit advancement. 80/2002/QD -TTg on the policy promoting contract farming. The farming contracts should be signed at the beginning of a farming season. Its aims are to coordinate and join activities of its members from different economic sectors. reduce production costs. Viet Nam Association of Seafood Exporters and Processors (VASEP) VASEP was founded in 1998. Also it arranges a variety of training courses. it has taken part in the promotion of fishing and aquaculture to develop raw material sources and protect the prestige of the industry¶s products in the media and with consumers. not in any way a quantification of its magnitude. During the implementation of the contract if either of the two parties violate any signed items they must bare full responsibility for any loss that may result. and farm produce purchasing. Policy promoting contract farming On 24 June 2002. make fisheries sector a key economic sector of Viet Nam¶s economy. a year. the basis of the calculation is the number of nominations of a transaction from/to. increase fisheries export value in order to reach US$1. The result can be nothing more than an indication of an order of importance of transactions within the marketing [1] . The farming contracts must cover the required items and be prepared on forms issued according to the law. fishing. So far. ar The objectives of the programme were as follows: y y y y y y y y y y hasten the progress of industrialization and modernization in Viet Nam¶s fisheries sector. It is therefore important to keep in mind the implications for the interpretation of these numbers because they are not based on equal events (e. it has 120 members as fisheries processors and exporters nationwide. create more jobs. VASEP represents and protects the legitimate rights of its members and of the seafood industry of Viet Nam . or direct farm produce purchasing and production cooperation. cases of same or at least similar transactions) but may refer to quite different events. and improve competitive capability and expand markets for fisheries products. input provision and farm produce purchasing. y y Many of the tables in this paper provide results of a multiple response analysis.

. This needs to be kept in mind when reading the language used in the analysis. The major export is of shrimp (almost 70% in value terms).channels from production to consumption. particularly in the coastal state. are used there is a vast untapped potential which can be exploited.5 million sq km along with peninsula .65 million tons ( Inl and .05 million ha water reservoirs) in addition to 1.90 million tons).2. They have grounds for captive rearing of prawns and fish and have many processing plants some of which have set up 100% export oriented projects.85 million ha of ponds and lakes. India's total annual fish production is about 5. Russian Federation. FISH (AQUACULTURE) PRODUCTION Institutional credit for aquaculture Role of Government Sector Role of private sector Investment opportunities in fisheries development/exports www.02 million Sq km with a continental shelf area of 0.70 million ha of fresh water area suitable for fisheries production (2.2. The world fishery prod uction was around 125 million tons. Indonesia and Fisheries production has an important place in Indian economy. Inedible Fish is also a rich source of animal prote in fish meal for livestock feeding. There is about 5. At present. However. Besides a rich source of protein.8 million derelict water bodies and 2. Japan. The major fish producing countries are China. 0. There is also a vast untapped resource for development of mariculture. India has a coast line of about 8041 . Most of the production is in the coast line states. The fish exports from India are rising. fishery waste is also a source of organic manure. it provides income and employment to millions of fishermen and farmers . the estimated potential based on the present levels of productivity is about 8. [2] The total export volume of fisheries products in 2001 was 375 491 tonnes. exp ort economic zone of 2. If modern state of art technologies. The export earnings which were RS 51170 million in 1999-2000 have increased to RS 63000 million in 2000 -1.83 million tons. India USA.2 million ha brackish water area.50 and marine 3.4 million tons ( Inland 4. Almost 30% is contributed by China. India ranks 3 rd in World production.82 million tons and marine . Production of artificial pearls has been taken up in some coastal areas of Tamilnadu in India.financilexpress. there is a tremendous potential domestic market. Fish scales. Prawns have a special place in exports. With nearly 250 million potential consumers.

In marine fisheries credit is provided for manually operated and mechanized boats and fishing vessels of different capacities including other inputs like gears . The Indian Council of Agricu ltural Research has established research institute for inland and marine fisheries and for fisheries education.NA*=Not available. processing. nets etc. prawn culture etc. the number of physical units financed in the country through the refinance from NABARD were a s under:(1) Mechanized Boats . transportation and marketing of fish and fish products. preservation. as on 31 March 2000. For example. Role of Government Sector The central and state Governments have played a significant role in providing policies and guidelines and providing financial incentives especially for aquaculture production by small .3). research and extension. packaging. Agricultural Universities also have played a role in fisheries education. inland and brackishwater aquaculture production. Constraints/required policy changes These are as under:y y y y Providing long term lease for public sector/Government water bodies Formulation of leasing policy and guidelines for leasing coastal waters Identification of potential areas and suitable fish/ prawn species and developing guidelines for farmer s Mechanism for regulating marine fishing essels to avoid over -exploitation . manufacture of ' quality' feed etc. development of new ponds or rejuvenation/ expansion of old ponds. financially vulnerable farmers/fishermen. The NABARD refinance for the sector has also increased as will be seen from the following data: RS million Particulars Ground level credit by banks NABARD refinance 1998-99 4480 297 1999-00 4050 268 2000-1 4840 340 2001-2 5930 360 2002-3 NA* 347 Source: NABARD Annual reports ( 2001-2.Institutional credit for aquaculture NABARD and banks have played a crucial role in providing credit for marine. It also assists in establishing fish seed hatcheries.20774 numbers (2) Other boats 71004 numbers (3) Brackishwater aquaculture 4696 ha (4) Freshwater aquaculture 264000 ha The ground level credit provided by banks for the sector which was RS 4480 million in 1998 99 increased to RS 5930 million in 2001 -2.

long term lease of reservoirs Integrated fish farming with livestock (ducks. value addition and their field extension. primarily for shrimp farming and exports. Possibility of developing a risk fund to take care of losses/risks to fishing equipment One pilot project may be instituted with collaboration and funding by FAO. NABARD and Government of India.pigs. Improving production of "quality" fish seed Control of fish diseases. It is estimated that their investment is about RS 600 million . The Bank-SHG-NGO model was more effective and should be encouraged. Research institutes to identify the felt needs of the SHG. Fish production throgh Self help groups (SHG) of small producers In July 2003 a joint workshop on microfinance program with a view to support and help alleviation of poverty amongst women in coastal fishing communities of India was conducted by FAO and NABARD in Goa. Following important recommendations have been made :y y y y y y y y y y Identified alternate livelihood avenues should be encouraged to increase family income.poultry ) and plantation/horticulture ( Coconut) .y y y y y y Amendment in Coastal Regulation Zone Act to allow aquaculture activities Greater R and D efforts for commercialization. Banks to rationalize interest rate and improve the met hods of monitoring of loans Increase capacity building o f local NGOs and women SHGs. development of fisheries infrastructure facilities on landing sites. harbours and establishing cold chain from production to consumption. Resource specific vessels for exploitation of deep sea resources. Investment opportunities in fisheries development/exports Some of the promising areas for investments by local and foreign investors are as follows: y y y Intensive fish farming (fish production) Reservoir development . They have invested in sophisticated fishing vessels. Government to provide guidelines for leasing territorial waters to Women Self Help Groups (SHG) Financial institutions to set aside some funds for training and development of skills. particularly with reference ot prawn cult ure. Role of private sector The private (corporate) sector in India has played a crucial role in the development especially for introduction of state of art tchnology for increasing production. establishing freezing plants. India. Net working between various institutions engaged in the programme. Of SHG and NGO. value addition and exports. Appropriate insurance scheme to protect interest of small fish producers.

and Kandla demonstrated significant growth in seafood exports over fiscal year 1987. Porbander. Smaller ports at Tuticorin. and Vizag registered decreases. To encourage Indian ownership of trawlers.y y y y y Development of oxbow lakes (north east sector of India) Onshore and Offshore fin farming in sea Mariculture activities Deep sea fishing vessels Diversification and value addition of products for exports. while Bombay (although still second with 19 percent of total exports). provides a 33 percent subsidy on the cost of Indian-made .more diversification Shrimp only.cold storage facilities at ports refrigerated trucks for transportation of produce from farm to processing centres ‡ Availability of soft loans With stipulation of repayment of loans in foreign currency through a fast track disbursal window. the Shipping Credit and Investment Corporation of India. which subsumes programs offered in the past by the Shipping Development Fund Committee and the Trawler Development Support Fund. Export basket of fish has jumped over time. consistent with WTO guidelines. Calcutta. and Paradeep each handle at least 1 percent of India's seafood exports. the basket consists of 60 items Measures of relative competitive advantage reveal that India has become reasonably competitive in recent years but it must vigorously take up various sanitary and phyto-sanitary measures.a 10 yr repayment period The ports of Madras. in order to give exports a further boost ‡ Fisheries need the support of greater budgetary allocations Institutional finance and confidence building exercise among potential entrepre neurs ‡ Infrastuctural support is lacking Factory ships.

The European Union. fish and marine merchandise are an important constituent of India's food production. India also occupies the second spot for largest inland fish producer in the world. Shrimps. Lobster. Cuttle fish. Processing Facilities Gujarat fish processing facilities needs to be upgraded to meet international standard. Allana Group . Squid. Eight Hundred And Still Counting According to an official estimate about 800 seafood exporters operates in India. the highest so far. 3 million hectares of reservoirs and 1. Japan and other developed countries are quality conscious so to cater to the international demand for marine products processing facilities in the state must be upgraded. Indian seafood exports business crossed the $2-billion mark. Majority of the marine products business are controlled by 100 companies. trawlers. Second Largest Producer of Food.1 billion). Sear fish and Croakers. The sub-continent has a promising future in producing marine merchandise as it has 8041 km of coastal line. establishing training centers for honing skills and trade development are some of the areas the state must concentrate if it wants to tap on the its marine products potentials.4 million hectares of brackish water. Fish related infrastructure. Bombay duck. as well as foreign-built. 63.921 crore ($2. USA. Marine products especially sea food business in India is booming. About 6. Silver bar. The companies pick up raw materials from its agents based near the country's vast coastline and inland waterways like rivers. Hilsa. Fishing activities here start from Lakhpat in Kachchh district in north to Umargaon in Valsad district in south. gfish processing units.603 ton of seafood worth Rs 9. Catfish. The gulf of Kachchh has potential and sustenance of different types of Oysters. Gujarat: Haven For Marine Products With 1600 kms coastline. Jew fish.32% of India's export and are the fourth largest contributor of net foreign exchange to the country exchequer. canals.hulls and loans at the concessional interest rates for purchasing domestic. Seafood exports contribute about 3. Sixth In Fish Being the second largest producer of food. Shellfish and Seaweeds. Gujarat has the potential for the development of marine and fisheries in India. Prawn. backwaters and creeks. was exported last fiscal year. Mullets. In 2009-10. As the sixth largest producer of fish and sixteen largest exporters of marine merchandise in the world. Fish Varieties Fishes that are caught on the Gujarat coast are Pomfret. Ribbon fish. Shark. cold storage chain.

Although India has begun to diversify fish production and marketing. It also contributes to the neighbourhood of its processing facilities. few non-shrimp-oriented fishing operations have been successful. and Japan as the principal overseas market. EU and USA are also on its export list. there has been gradual development of other seafood export commodities. the Allana group is involved in the processing and export of frozen fish from India with forty varieties of frozen marine products in its list.Taping on the potential for growth in marine merchandise in Indian. finfish. Meanwhile. including frozen squid (16 and 6 percent by quantity and value. India's seafood exports increased both by quantity and value during the country's 1988 fiscal year (April 1988-March 1989). Allana Group procures sustainable seafood from vessels using turtle-safe fishnets.2 million t. crabs and lobsters.000 t of discarded "trash" fish annually. still go to two countries: Japan and the United States. primarily frozen shrimp. Government policies support trawler construction and favor export-oriented seafood enterprises. remains a virtually untapped area for growth with significant potential for servicing both foreign and domestic markets. Saturation of the shrimp fishery led the southern Indian state .6 % of India' export. traditional fishing operations. any future growth in shrimp production must result from the expansion and improvement of shrimp culture operations. traditional gillnet fishing boats. the country's seafood processing industry. The increasing scarcity of shrimp has caused physical clashes among fishermen as larger mechanized trawlers encroach on shallow coastal areas reserved for smaller. have been slow. however.5 rupees).800 metric tons (t)-the fourth consecutive yearly increase. the preponderance of exports. and a variety of frozen fish. Fisheries Production The localized overexploitation of India's coastal shrimp resources by commercial trawlers and an increasing number of small-scale fishermen has led to the stagnation of India's total shrimp production. Japan is the largest importer of fish and fishery products. respectively). The quantity of Indian seafood exports has grown almost sevenfold since 1961. plagued in the past by the high cost of raw materials and weak domestic demand. Frozen squed. frozen lobsters. India's total fishery catch during this period was a record 3. live shrimp and ornamental fish are exported. to almost 99. leading to an estimated 70. In addition. Export value also increased by 13 percent to almost 6 billion rupees ($387 million at a currency exchange of $1 = 15. Although some diversification of seafood markets occurred during 1988. Australia. Because India's coastal shrimp resources have been widely overexploited by both commercial trawlers and small-scale. Fishery Exports India's fishery exports grew nearly 3 percent by quantity in 1988. So far. Largest Foreign Importer With about 22. The quantity of shrimp exports has risen only 4 percent since 1983. Belgium. lobster tails. its efforts to move away from shrimp as the predominant marine export. Although frozen shrimp still make up the lion's share of India's seafood exports by quantity (59 percent) and value (79 percent). cuttle fish. shrimp trawling operations have a significant negative impact on other fish species.

In addition. an estimated 180. foreign ownership in an HEOU joint venture is restricted to 40 percent. the vessels are prohibited from operating in India's coastal waters. In addition. and over 2. respectively. with a clause stipulating an 80:20 catch share ratio between the foreign and Indian partners. to avoid marketing difficulties. The Government hopes to add over 300 nonshrimp trawlers (23-28 m) and long-liners under its eighth 5-Year Plan (1990-1995). Most foreign charters have found this restriction unacceptable and have withdrawn their trawlers. up to 15 percent of the catch of an HEOU venture can be sold domestically. almost exclusively trawlers. despite the increased number of fishing vessels in operation. particularly as the larger vessels move inshore in violation of Government regulations. trawlers. has led to serious clashes between the mechanized trawl fleet and traditional gillnet fishing fleet. The ban was lifted in September 1989. as well as foreign-built.000 with outboard motors) ply Indian coastal waters. which provides a favorable regulatory environment for export industries. you have no subscription Irene Brambilla. falling world prices for shrimp have caused India's seafood exporters to pass the lower prices on to the small-scale fishermen. Guido Porto. creating further hardship and generating hard feelings between large-scale and small-scale producers. Trawler Policy The Indian Government has decided to permit large domestic industrial enterprises to charter foreign fishing vessels.S. which subsumes programs offered in the past by the Shipping Development Fund Committee and the Trawler Development Support Fund. 200 medium (16-20 m) vessels.of Kerala to establish the first ban on all coastal shrimp fishing for July-August 1989. Although no age restriction on fishing vessels exists under Government chartering regulations. the Ministry of Food Processing instituted a ban on "bull trawling" (sweeping the sea bottom with nets). For deep-sea fishing. To prevent overfishing the Bay of Bengal off Visakhapatnam. The stagnation of India's shrimp production. the Shipping Credit and Investment Corporation of India. Indian partners reportedly are opting for the value of the catch. Antidumping Duties on Vietnamese Catfish Online access to NBER Working Papers denied.000 small (10-16 m) mechanized vessels operating in Indian waters. To encourage Indian ownership of trawlers. Fishing Fleet There are currently 157 large ([greater than] 20 m) vessels. rather than the fish. Although the Government ostensively welcomes the chartering of trawlers. current Government joint-venture regulations prohibit ships older than 8 years from being brought into India Adjusting to Trade Policy: Evidence from U. Foreign participation in fishing joint ventures is acceptable within the framework of India's "Hundred Percent Export-Oriented Unit" (HEOU) program. provides a 33 percent subsidy on the cost of Indian-made hulls and loans at the concessional interest rates for purchasing domestic.000 traditional fishing craft (about 5. Alessandro Tarozzi .

you can either connect to your work VPN or proxy (if any) or elect to have a link to the paper emailed to your work email address below. the U. Vietnamese exports of catfish to the U. we explore the responses of catfish producers in the Mekong delta between 2002 and 2004. Gmail and other free email addresses will not have access.NBER Working Paper No. Finally. You may purchase this paper on-line in .GOV" domain name. we find evidence of rigidities in production and of spillovers into non-aquaculture household economic activities. Using a panel data of Vietnamese ($5) for electronic delivery. Information about Free Papers You should expect a free download if you are a subscriber. or a resident of nearly any developing country or transition economy. an employee of the U. or other subscribing institution. market sharply declined. In addition.pdf format from SSRN.S. a corporate associate of the NBER. the rate of growth of income was significantly lower among households relatively more involved in catfish farming in 2002. If you usually get free papers at work/university but do not at home. over this period. a journalist. 14495 Issued in November 2008 NBER Program(s): ITI In 2003. As a result. the antidumping shock triggered significant exit from catfish farming. Households adjusted by moving out of catfish aquaculture and into wage labor markets and agriculture but not into other aquaculture activities.S.S. after claims of dumping. university. Munich Personal RePEc Archive Home y | y Browse y | y Search y | y About y | y Help Login | Create Account y . The email address must be connected to a subscribing college. imposed tariffs on imports of catfish from Vietnam ranging from 37 to 64 percent. We find that. federal government with a ".

the challenges faced by the developing countries. the relation between trade rules and Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). Full text available as: PDF . Technical Assistance and Capacity Building (TA & CB) and the provisions for Special and Differential Treatment (SDT). Unpublish d. Relevant policy implications follow the issues discussed. we attempt to discuss the impact of WTO-GATS on the Indian Marine Trade and Service industry analyze . Non-tariff measures.Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview. Many other WTO-GATS related aspects have repercussions on the marine exports from the developing countries in Asia and India in particular. Manoj (2007): Implications of the WTO on Indian Marine Industry. The impa of GATS and the ct implications on Indian marine trade & services are specifically assessed in context of Tariff barriers. Hong Kong development round and the changing European Union regulations are likely to place new hurdles on the marine exports emerging from developing economies like India. Subsidies and Eco-labeling. namely the outcome from the Dispute s Settlement Mechanism (DSM). Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader 157Kb ¡   Preview Abstract The outcomes of WTO negotiations under the Doha round. In the light of the above. Issues nd P li y Perspecti es Kamat. and suggest way -outs to respond them. Manasv and Kamat. Item Type: MPRA Paper .Im li i W Indi n M ine Industry. Issues and Policy Perspectives.

Trade and En ironment: Bargaining Outcome from : Linked Negotiations. ITSP and Institute for Development Policy and Management.International Economics > F1 . M. and M. AsiaPacific Economic Cooperation. Trade and Non-trade Barriers. Sustainable rural livelihoods: What contribution can we make? Papers presented at the Department for International  © £ On  D £ By £ ¢¦ DC 6151 Manoj Kamat 07 Dec 2007 15:34   £ § © ¢ Su j £ §¦ K yw ¢ £¢ Languag English WTO. Economic issues Associated with seafood safety and implementation of seafood HACCP programmes.). (1999) Ecolabelling and Sustainable Fisheries...27/99. IUCN: Washington.W.C. Tariff database. (1998). 2002. Rome: FAO Deere.C. Warwick. Centre for the Study of Globalisation and Regionalization. (2002). Policy Suggestions ¦ ¢ §  ¢  ¤ ¦ ¢ §  ¢  ¤ ¥¤ ¤ ¨ P .Economic Systems > P5 . GATS. K. C. Chatham.. APEC (2005) (website)... Meijer.Comparati e Economic Systems F . Jahan. Fisheries. M. Arkell J and Johnson MDC (2005) Sustainability Impact Assessment of Proposed WTO Negotiations: Final Report for the Distribution Services Study. M. Paper presented at the biennial meetings of the International Institute of Fisheries Economics and Trade. NAMA. M. Singapore. (1999). Dey.Industrial Organization > L7 . J. Carolyn L. S. Washington D.International Economics > F2 . DFID (1998) Carney D. D. Implications. held in Wellington.Industry Studies: Primary Products and Construction  . et al. Rab. and FAO: Rome.C. Cato.. International Food Policy Research Institute and WorldFish Center. New Zealand.International Factor Mo e ments and International Business F . P. U.D Last 07 Dec 2007 15:34 Modified:  Referen e s Abrego. M. CSGR Working Paper No. (2003) Fish to 2020 Supply and Demand in Changing Global Markets. and Penang.. (Ed. APEC Secretariat..Trade L . N. Delgado. Ahmed. India. August 19±23. UK: Natural Resources Institute. Rosegrant. Kleih. Greenhalgh. Marine Industry. barriers. Malaysia. M. University of Manchester. Bostock.L. Analysis of fish trade policies in developing Asian countries: Liberalization vs. Wada. A. T. Ahmed. L.E. (2004) Policy Research ± Implications of Liberalization of Fish Trade for Developing Countries: Synthesis Report.

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