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< 7 .



Fundamentals of Semiconductor Fabrication

Fundamentals of Semiconductor Fabrication
Alsc.~mlnF~ntta<lnlinn Pmfesror ,%b<,nl ofEleariro1 ond Cnmn1,ucr Enginerri,q a o r c l a l m ~ f i r ~o f ~ tf Trrhn~~logg Atlnnm. G o r e i n

SIMON M. SZE c~rc I'rufi.?sor Choir
&',,lbnol Cltino lirng L l t ~ i w m l t ~ ) &hri,8nnl Xnno n,vicc Lnlromforipr Ilrincl,!r. Toilcon


~tt:on.ofin~portnnt mnwptr.\IE\IS>.I selncstrr-lcngtlu mum on integrated circuit fabriation. Ch. This instntctori manual & a d l a h l e to d l ndopting k a l h 'Ill? fio~rn tlw tmt in are also availnhle.wplm& Cbapter3 presents siliror. t~u. and micmelwtrid n. ricncc. ..r\ \\. Tllc test can alw u r \ r x a rcfcr<.r 9 tics tlnr indi\irlunl nrocrss stens toceth~r .nc~. Fimdl?.nt1y i r k . integrated de\ices.lplrr 2 deals \..nt in line prilnnl). ~ n . Chapter 10i!~tralt1cesldcl~-le~~el iintemtedcircnit n. fmrn the puhlisl~~r the fr>Illlo\\ine at \\r.ae!~laawinebsarr. 3 t a ~ t of ~ wtii\-arr h i n t m d d s r this to supplement.it11 cnstal . Clrap:. ~ l l .hritr: l~t~~/~~~~~~~. Such a arm%. .eter iwCins\vith an intmludion and n list ollenminr rods and mnclard~. but nM replace. Solved cst:lmple pml~Iems pro\idrd tlrmo~harc out.ech.\rd irlhimtcn nm oreanimd xn. i d 6-ss mntrol. .rnr e ic. ermvih twl~ninues..enimv of rnajar wrniconduaor <lr-irr-. electrnnic5 pmcessing.rnr. usin< the popular SI'PRE\I and PROLITI-I sohmre p~cljlges application \rhic!er. .and irr\ technolop dcvrlaprnentr.ell as an intrwluction to hmic i:~bricntionstvp-. ..~~ileyca~~nllegeI~na~.d e#>ginrering.ttion . Clrnptcr S. p~cknging.. of process siniulation is presented in scwml chapters. l ~ a m i n the fcnndarncntnl rnnwptr . tccbniqaes lor tlte intrrvludion oidopmts: djfilstoru m d inn implxnv.. The final three chapters focus on h m d . sornrnati\. i n c l a d i n e ~ ~ l t ~ . for Ench cln. r ~ t r . ld i ~ ~ m t!~rfut~xre l e s outlook ant1 cl~dlrng~. 'The book r a n lx. rI<. . and sareested l~omnrark nmhlems anwar .'a. .kt the end of the chantrr 'ill? mnwirt .nling to a hpid fnhrir. . . . nmmting tlw o m s flmrs for critic-. reslxrti\.s the scn~icanductorindsstn.fo# s nradicinc cnCinrcrr and scientists in the srnirun&iaor indust% . Clrrtpter I gives n brief historical o\. cows \arioor rnrtlml~ thin on of film drporition. A complete set of detailed solutions to all endd-ol-chapter prnblen~s hecn p r c klr pared. Thc final c1111ptcr inclili\idaalprocess steps. .clconwlaic.$ omhv " ccss technologies.miotl syr)slr.~swciat<d nticrog \\it!.elp Chnptcrs (5 end 7 pn. Photolrtlwzmp!~ nnd etcllieg RrC <Lisct~ssed Cbaplerr 4 and 5..The next sc.oxid. q r rlvd? ncA o Iw rirmarnpnnird by ~s mrequisite lnlnratol). chrmin~y b e r i d cw*rr--rine. h testing. with ssun>rnan.p d u ~ t c s o fi&t-!t~ pcl(illiatestudends in ph!si~s.c topic-.<tian. and )irld.md nratrrial. in electronic Cornat.

S .rin.btrd Xlr.v. \ I s . Y. Sw \rirlles also 1 0 arknm\.\vrwish to thank hlr.dnc the Snrine Fo>iedationof t l ~ r . l M Jolrn\Viley :rsd Son%.lr. Y:ingofthv S~nriconductorL~hhorntary :tnd N:tlirmal Cl~iaoTung Univcnily\vlto fc~rnisltcd hundnrls oftrxhnid illunntion~ tltc ~. hl. Erdor for trcl8nic.in~l<. S. Lin for hpto Iris ingtlw m:ay rc\islon nftl~edmlt.rus tnkc tllc proirct. C.d in t l ~ r m k ..d editins of tlte manurrcript. 51%. uhn encoum~d to un<b. \V 7lol.

1 Scmimn~l~~ctor Materials 2 1 2 Sc~mimnrl!nctorDevices 2 .~tion 81 4. 2.Rrdistrihatinn r h Oxidation 50 3.4 Xfetslli.2 Eymsan: Tools 6? 4. 83 Ilcfrrmcrs 83 Problrn~s54 CHAPTER r s Silicon Oxidation 41 3. 5 Callintn hrsrnidr Etchin? SS . Refrrrncrs 15 CHAPTER 2 3.1 The Clean Room ( 4.mc~.6 Onidation S~rnt!lntion 54 3.5 Oxiclc Tlricknrrs Characteni.2 Silicon Dioxidr Etcltit~? S i 5.1. L ~ ~C ~ I B S> of ~ ~ Lith~nphic hlctlm& 80 4.4.3 G'aAs Cqrtni Gro\rtl~ Trcl~niques26 2.2 Extwm? L'ltr. Implantation 14 1. 1 3 Senlimnductor Process TecIlnolow 5 .dity 53 .2 Next-Cencntiun Litllwraphir >Icthmk iR 4.5 Patten) Transfer i 4.1.I.2.1. u ~ d Pol\silirnn E t c h i n ~SS I?tcl~insSS 5. 3.4 Sttmmat?.~tron j4 3. w p I ~i8 ~ 4.)y L i l l a .3.2.2 Cq51.6rle Qu.3..1.1 Key Semimndrrctor Trchnologirs 5 1.4 hfaterial Cllarncteriz%tion 31 2.~l~tmiaant 5 .1..1 Starting Xlateriitls 26 2.4..2 Pl.CHAPTER 1 Introduction 1 1. .2.4 Effective Segregation Cocllicient 22 2.1 Elrctron B e r n Lithm.r~~r Tnhniqurs 72 4.5 ~ ~ ~ \ .1.41 \\5tfer Shaping 31 l 2 4 2 C q ~ t nCl~ar.2 Thin Olidr Gm\ttli 49 Etching 8s 5 1 \Vrl Clte~nicxl . 4.3 hlxsb 65 4.2.2 Silicon Float-7~ne Process 24 2.?tion 14 1 5 Su~nlnaty14 .lcteriation33 .3 Silicon Sitridr.3...4 Photorericl 61 4. Etchins 8 5 5 1 1 Silimn Etcl~insS6 .rl.3 Distribution of Dopant 19 2.1.i Summary 57 References 58 Prohlemr 59 CHAPTER 4 Crystal Growth 17 2 1 Silicon C y t n l C m \ t h fmm the . 1.2 Imperit?.phy id 4.2 T ~ c h n o l o p Trends 8 14 R s i c Fabrimtion Stcps 11 .4 Ion Ream Litllopphy 79 4.2. 5.6 Resolution Enh..1.3 P l ~ o t o l i t h o ~ p l t y Sin~ul. Melt 18 2 1 1 Slartinp 'faterial 18 .11 Cm\*l~Tccltnilues 30 2.1 Oxidalion 11 1.1. 2 1 2 The Cmchnlski TechniW 18 . 1.1 Tl~ermal Oddntion Procrss 42 3 1 1 Kinetics of Cro\eh 42 ..1.5 Summaty 38 References 39 Pmhlems 39 CHAPTER 3 Photolithography 60 4 1 Optical Lithography 60 .1..3 X-R.3. 2.3 %larkingProprtim of Silic* Dioxide 51 3 4 0.1.\\iolet L i t h ~ t p h yi6 4.4 ..o1olithoCnph)~ Etcl>ing 13 1 4 3 Diffusion itnd ton . 3.

7 Sttr~~n.2 Extrinsic 1)iNusion 114 fi.r 187 C o n .3 CMOS ' r r c l ~ n o l o e203 9.2 Stmdarrr and Defvcts in Epitaxid La\m 152 9.6 P r o w s Simulnliots 218 9 .2.1 Pl.3. -- .2 Cllcnlical \'capor Deposition 16 SPIT-AlignedDoul~le-Pol!lilicon B i p l a r Stn~rtures 193 9.3.2 RrSiwac~~s 103 Pmbl~tns103 CHAPTER 6 9.~rianw 243 IO.l Comptring Distrihutic~mW.1 Silican Dioxide 156 8.3.l Cor1rrnlmlion-l3rpen(Ie111 UN.2 Final Test 228 10.3.ttltin Oxid.~.2 10.r Limitntions 261 I . p u l ~ r .~q~ortics.tpor Deposition 167 8.5 hlet. End-Point and Control 9 1 5.1 Implant Dnuna~e131 i.3 l l i c l ~ .I.5.\tior~ 139 4 In11Inlpl:ttntiiti(~n Sitna~li~tiou 140 I . St.tnt:~tion 138 1.1 EpiI.lems 180 CHAPTER 9 XIELIS T o c b n o l ~ 1 2 9.2 Bipolar Tecllnolng?.3 S n ~ r n m s ~ 204 H<*G-. ilatrrial.di L Contents CHAPTER 8 5.1 Cnntrol Cl~arts Tor r\~trihtntw237 10. i Summar).3 Silicidr Formation 261 11.1 Pll)sic. -.3 Alnmien~n~ hlt:t:~llimtian 169 8.3 h1t.2.l. s.rhniqtars 144 Vapor I>rpositio~~ 8. Sumn~.ution 125 i . 2 lilt-Anel? Ion lanpl.1. 5 1'owt.1 Ralk >~icromach~nxn~.1.rlion Process I 8 9 9.3. I .rials 164 I S 8 9.~rns142 Percentage Points of the FDimibution 3 1 CHAPTER 11 Future Trends and Challenges 259 for 11.3 Some Properties of the Error Function f l APPENDIX H Basic Kinetic Theory of Gases tAPPENDIX I rsl SUPREM Commands 2s3 APPENDIX J Running PRDLITH 287 b APPENDIX K Process Integration 182 9.2 Ultr.1.3.IIIIOIU~ 196 9.1 S!~trla-an-.t-CI~ip2F^ 11.1.1 6.5..2 Surf..2.3. 223 Rrf<.2 Silicon S i t r i ~ l c160 8. Ic~n l ~ i t n n r l i n130 C ~ i.2 P:ar. 10.n~rrcnt an~l Implnnt.6 Drposition Simn~latiort177 8.4 BiCMOS T r c l ~ n n l n e210 9.s 261 l't~.~xialGrou<h Tr.2 r\nn~aliag 134 i.1 Cllcn~ical 8.ric.\nnr.2 >lolcculnr Bvam E p i l .1 R:~nge lnnplantetl Ions 125 of 7.1 Lqtticx. $ r 215 9.3 Lir>\r.%.3 Fs~isto~idr s i p r 246 D 10.1 Cl~allrngrs l n l e p ~ t i o n259 11.tlion 261 11.~ n t ~ C + t ~ l blanufald~tring256 Greek Alphabet 271 l APPENDIX E Physical Constants 273 t APPENDIX F Diffusion 105 Diffusion Prm.rry 141 Ilcfi.1.4 Resrli\.E ! ~ v ~lligl~-C.4 Nva.5 Silicirlp 175 8. 2 IliN~lsian Profilm 117 6 .l.trhment >lrtlmlolog$es 232 10.1 D i r Separation 230 10.l.2 6.5 Summ.2.2 D e f r c t in Epiti~xii~l Layers 1 8.~rl~nalo~ 212 Percentage Points of the t b~nnounon t APPENDIX L Ion Implantation 124 7. L ~ t r r al)iflt~sion 118 l 4 I>ilfi8siort Sin~ulation 120 6.-Dirlrctric-Constant Xlatrrinls 162 8.\r).2 C m m l Cli.s 199 9.1 l'hr R:rsic I'sl.$w >licromarl.tmrlrir Yirld 254 10. Ion Slopping 127 .2 Diplrctric Isoliition 192 9.nc~s 142 I'r~l>l.4 Copper hlrtelliz~tionI 7 3 8.ioin~215 '1.1 Ion Dislril.2 I)? Etchins 89 3. l .2.1.2.:~ry 177 References 179 Pml.ei\ih 115 6 .sntn Ft~n<lnmentals 90 3.4 Flig11-l)irluctric-Constant \latc.n. 8 .2 M r n l o n Dr\irr.2 Anal!sis of \'.1 Trst Stn~eturn227 10.3 LICi\ P r r .2.n~nc~.s 223 Prnl.1 T l l r I n t ~ g ~ ~Circuit ted Hesirtar 184 9.2.L ~ ! l ~ n ~ s l ~ ~ ~ l l o ~ v Jttnclinn Fnnl~.4 hlESFI7I"r.2 T l l r l n t t y c t t r ~Circuit l Cep.s 264 -.1.2 Pach@ng 228 10.5 Film Deposition 144 8.1 R z i r 6.4.2 P..3.3 Diclrctric Deposition 155 8.5.1 P~(5ive Components 184 9. 121 IicSr~rrnccs 122 I'rnhlra~s 122 CHAPTER 7 Properties of Si and GaAs at 300 K 275 t APPENDIX G 6.5 Siel(l 250 105.2.1.r I~~tcrmnnt~~lioa "-1 I l .ttislical Eqwri~ncntal Drsip 242 L0:l. ~ 141 ~ 8.llins 131 l anrl 7. 6 SO1 i l ~ t r h ~ ~ t 262 1 ion 11.1.1.'anctionnl Yiekl 250 10.skngr T!ys 230 10.2.3.n.3 Reactive Pl.3 hlOSFET TCL.5.3 The Iut<yratrdCircuit Indllch.3.1 Elcclrinl Testing 227 10.5.ss 106 IliNtnsion Eqtaation 107 Diffusion Profilrs 109 Evaltvation of DiNosrd Lq!vrs 113 6. I ilultipl+ Irnplantatio~~ .3 E t c l ~ Sinlrll:~tinn 101 i ! : s1111111113.tnd il:~skirtgI 3 6 3 .nct.4 Po$silicun I)rpsition 165 8.c Pl:nma Elcl~ing r\pplicntions 9 7 5. t 95.lrts krr \'ari?l~lcs239 10.2 Impl:~nt l a n l n g ~ .1 l.3 Elclt hlrcha~ism.-Xlatcl~ed and StnincdI~ayer p i k ~ y152 E 8.3 Implantation-llcInte<lProcesses 136 -.1 Tlw B s i c Ftthricatio~t Prcress 196 9. 261 11.4.k.2.tl \'.2.lrlas 224 CHAPTER 10 l APPENDIX 1 List of Symbols 26s t APPENDIX B International System of Units IS1 Units) 2fis l APPENDIX ( Unit Prefixes 21 l APPENDIX D IC Manufacturing 226 10.7 Statistical Prnrss Control 237 10.lcitor 185 9.xlli)i~tion 167 S.~smaEtcl~ing Trrhnhlom l n t l Equipn~~nt 93 5.I. Plsamil Ili.

i \ l t h o ~ ~ prestmt-rl..(~p-st~l~ndcmn th? clloi<~* silimn :lnd tllemidl!. Recause of its attril~t~tes nor~rolatilit~ debiee of Iiigh dcmsity low power cuns~lrnption.yare ~ ~ s e t l in radar qrntpnls ancl a l .xn. CCD dc."Tliw p r w s s urn itred to p ~ o d n w nrlxln steel in l ~ r e l ~ r .- Figure 1. cle\iw \\-a$ invented Ijv I.:iltnx and ~z. 19SO. ~ ~ .A limitins cace of the floating-gate nonvolatile nlemoy is t l ~ c i n ~ l e . In tltis o r i $ ~ ~pr-<.al"in 19%.ml try ago. anrl brnrnlrncd compmllnaion lln? lwaeell :tpplicd to tlle creation of nrwtlr~icices.hotwaph rnultey of ~~~~iii~ lr. At this dmer~lion. ~ d o r lthe~ l In t o 5IODFETinrxl1~latio11-cl~I TK. 20 ~ I I .. . . These prnposds Inid the f o ~ ~ n dation Lrr nimlrn~I:~.l \V.l>olcsarr the s o ~ ~ r :md delis contacts.u. ~gl~ tionnl XfOSFET.l . uhen an ~ l e c h n n o w i r ~ t o tflmtillg m l~~ gate.lhont 90% ofthe wmirnnduaor d e t i c ~ nlarkrt.~. wl~iel~ i n v r n t ~in l1795.\!\IIcI intror~tal .ins ~ tllp . The oprcttion o f a SEhlC at mom teeprrnture15-.pte"inrvl~icl~ scmiper. sl~nrcs ~ Zi U c t o r i lllore tl1.c. tr.g.vt ~ and ill l!)(il).r ~lic. digital camen.e l e d r ~ ~ s mernory cell (SElfC). invrntwl I? 5. \ l i m ~ ~ c t. In 1962.lnler. 10 nnl). or iln.ran. wort inlportant d e j i w foradv.thr \IODFET is the fatest field-eNect tcmsklor.'flmtinp. Hall ct itl.~ter linn monitorinc.n and c he removed hy appl!ine voltage to the contml gate).. and tllc top elongated a r m is the cr alinrnin~. t l : a s ~ fli.u~sfemlclcdmn ~Iimlc (TEI): a ~ w c ~ l n ~ ~. s. All IlnpOrtmt semicond~~ctor mrnmol?. nonvolatile semimn(luctur nlernon.s fin1 rlr\iw t~singa . nolelvnk mm~~~.d na~nlwr drtices to perforn~ given ~se of a circnit h~nbion. Tllrw important micm\r~\rde\icrs\r. 111" .l<l-a.-dcr. .~y5IOSFETs I I I I ~ gl~ lxvtl a-.I n i d r mnge of applications.cn. Tile d.remote mntrol5. tltr X\'S>I 1 s n t n e the ilon~i1r k nant memory for portatlle riectrnnic n5tems stacll a the wllulnr nllone. lnlroduction TIlt.I<Iellrct tnnsistor).-srlllilr~l~~I~Irt~~r transistor). cell.r.IS ~ i~ tllp p. and smart card. l mrtal ~n-k. S .aal a F t r od#lctllicknrss of 100 nm (1 nln = 10-'cn1).111 oltc~cnlallXIOSFET \tit11 a cll. m d microt~avc instn~mcnts.l~icl~obtnined by reducing the Irngth oftlte floatis? p t e to "Itrd.dn!clo~m tltp cl~.. (CT\:J qurllcies of:1ll selnimndllacrr deices. one rnnpeIling question remains: \\lvat pnmsses are r q ~ ~ i r c dmnstn~ct to tl~ese wondrotls de\ices frnnr b:lsic sen~icondt~ctor m~~terials? SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESS TECHNOLOGY Key Semiconductor Technologies \lnoy important semimnductor trchnolo@cs II~IW lwen dcri\rd f m ~ pm'ssrs inwntc~l n centt~ries For e s : ~ n ~ p l ~ p n l h of n ~ ~ ~ t a l l i c q sinl nsh~rnact.d.Chapter 1.11 ~ of LlP ~ ~ 2IXW) !rats ~?n.le. electrical rewit7ititbility (i.C applimli~ms clrtection s>Ttenls.tnnrl lpngt11 of 15 nm 1l.ns... puler.s..f~rrrd frnm s stone platr ilitho!.optic:il-filler co~nm~naication.?'in 1974. \ ~ s t e n l .d in thr tl. I-lmrm~r.. .?<Ie\ice for t n n ~ ~ o l i t l ~ i c m i c m ~ a ~ r drorits ~.lr and in optical sencing applications. e s y .xtmrivrly in stdcl~ ~ millinlrlrr. Tl~is thl. and atmospheric polluI.+. andenl~nscd filnctionality.tncrd i n t e p t r d circuits is tile MOSFET (~ner.varc rre. the major dillerencr is tl~eadriition of:l. diodrs can genecrtc t l ~ r l~igllest rnntin~~o~~s-t\.~d~icl~o~~redremrlyl~i~l~ d m s i h ultnhi~l~rpnul.ntprl 13. the potential of thegate\rili be dtrrrcl so that it uill prrvent the entnncr o f w o t l ~ e ~ rlcctmn.s Cra (lcmonstrated by Y:~no et al. ~ l .8"n ~ x jI\I~:\TT its fiat i .~yi~lr." lint acl~icvecl I:~sins semiconductors.e~ l ." in 19% The SE5IC cxn s e w as t l ~ e baris far the mort advancrd sen~imnductor nlmlories. T l ~ e SEhlC is tile ~lllimatrfloating-gate nlernol?.lI l~~lnnlrm~.wis for the most nd\anwd T l sm.a~alKsxinov" proposwl tllr itck... 3 slloi. quwtun~-rffrct dedws.ite. fir.w lrrs ~ l r n ~ o n s t c ~ t ~ u l ~ ~ ~ t I ~ " n n ~ i s d r ~ i c b.an is ~I rct.. The cl~a%e-co~~pled (CCD) u a s inwnted by h y l e and Snritll" is 1970. \vhirh n a s n~portellI I R ~ d ~ n g Ali~ll:~" licld. \vhicI~ h r oprratr(l mntin~tously room tcn~peracan at ture.dcr is llsed exieosiwly ill \illen c.ttion \vl~ent11e p u r e r supply is nvitclml 011. printing. fin1~ I ~ \ i ~ *tlte= ~ u tr. irl. In 1963.atrri:ds.'' This section nltlsidrn .ttenl. \Yitl~tile proper selection of l~eternj!s~~bion in:lteri:ll%.err invcntrd or rr.. The resonant hmnrli~lp i ~ l (RTD) na lint stulbed by Cllang el d. inclrlrling <li$tnl xirlm disk%.:' i n 1967.~sri\~or''~ r ~ )I.c ~ r i ~ l c .mll.\.erdindes.u Ill? r intrmntrd circltit cllips mnhining obrr or!? trillion (>lo1') dedws. .lre power at millimrtcr.\vI.VlTdi~le: oprntior~\rm~ o1. tnancrit ellarge storage is possible. Ira :I g:~trlrr~gl.lge. KmemerlLand in :\lfem\.3 Tltc linl t ~ ~ ~ l . ~fomd-cllnfl fltmaws. Gllon"ill 196% TIlr TI:13 is I I W r. I test rile is ill? IXIp. L x r r rlimlcs arc tlto key conlponents for . ~ ~ The tllirtl dc\iw is tlre XIESFET imrtal-sm~icondta:tor lielcl+llect transitor). It is a kt. :\notllrr ted Pralnple is tllr litlloCnpllY p-s. of silicon dio\i<lcusrd in tlw lint hIOSFET rr~anins innst important combination of tllc n.. ~ ..* pionct. I x ~ t ~it pcrnlits a p a t l y rr(lun..materi~lr..~c:I. . RTD is the b:lciv for n~oct d e .tt~ fi:tpo~ttcd t l l r o n ~a ~ Satt..tin its infom. TI11.\.d jnlll~ston d.&~rtn c I ~ ~ r ~tl. pwtn lo rr@nle. Tllr \IOSFET:III~ relatctl intrgctted circuits ~lo~vconstitule .li7.e. thr stored c l ~ : r ~n . ( ~ T ' s ). of I Tllc hsrr kt.rnstmchlre 1:lser.. .rrc . ~ l t h o ~it i5 similar to a rnn\. t l ~ e of e nunllx=rand \ari?hofrpmirnnductor devices Il:>ve i ~ ~ c r e a terd m ~ n d n ~ ~aslad\. 1 tllr tl~rr~~~ally<)xidize~l silicon s~~hstmte.~ .~nccd t c r l ~ n o l qno\. sinw need only one electron for information storage.. Sincr t l ~ e invcntior~ t l ~ bipolar transistor in 1947. is slnall rlilnrnsionc (e.II.di. \!*hie11can mntain over one trillion hits.\.

.PW pm~ ~ Fii. m r t i n r of .~..:.1 al. Kokorirh. Lemons. This ~ncll~rxlimmrt.? tlbrinting all ~lc\icr. and Bohor Cho Hoff et a.") .mnlmlnnd rcnlimnductor cnst.SIIC~~LI '"Epita\?. . nrens.. The idea of using clifi~don \ ~ .sic difilnon 1 1 1 \ ~ um n s i d e r ~ I?\.ln p r w n t mast impllril) :ktnnlr fronl diffnsisg t l t n ~ n it.pun& semimnducton.of rnndurtivih in silicon \xudisclosed in a patrnt in 1952 h PCAnn.nrl.1..r.r" l~ro&. TIl? dilii~sion impurity ntolns in sen~iconducton inlportnllt for d c d m p m s s of is inq %.. lrchni<n~r.I litllom..anrctnl \$irr hnndine-.srd to most of the cnstals lion1 \dlicl~ 011 silic ..pil:~~iilj krox\tl~ r ~ ~ i .s.. .ltcy{ . .. >lomore. ~~~~~~~ nw-? . Also in i959.s : r prwlncyd. I-lr \%. the ancient I i t h o g m p l ~ ~ p m sapplied to semimndlldor d<+ice s~s I. . L i t l l p p l l y is a key t e c h n o l forthe semiconductor ind~lstly m n ~ The tintled mo\\tl~ the indttstn 11% heen the direct result of i~npmvedlitllogmpllic techof ~ ~ o l ~ . r cpi. ant1 Ns&atnrho D:a\lui c. \ ~ r l k r i " ~ ~ o tthat gallium anpnidr a c ed n. e~lrly hn IWO.3 Semiconductor ProcessTechnolo~4 7 o ~ t w ~ l l l n that ~ ~ ~ applied for the Ant tilne to s~lni~-nduc*or ~ s U.~al~lctor inntmals on 111. Pamnmak et a l ~ .. Ilnpurity atoms \\ill r l i h s r x only througll the eqxwxl seniimnd~stor sn~&~re.reeli\vor<L~ me:nn. .. ~~~~~ Tllp odd? rnaski~g i r t h ~ x s drrt. ! Rune.." dvseribrs s lwItnitlttc of cnstal grmtilt to form a tlrin 1. ~ ~ ~ 1 dr\iw s .e<l. ~ rlisted in Table 1. inrrotions l:url tlw foendntion for the napid . \wine thr l i l h m n l ~ i c TIkrrr .(. F i c P in 1%.r Rnclwt:ut twhsique been 11srd rxtensi\rly for tltr qm!tl~ ol gi~llinm aneni <. mmtth cnstA .rs CMOS DRAM Pol!%Iirnn self-Aimed mte \lW.irnnc[urtor tcrllnolot$.~.~lo~wcl a li~luid-solid lnonon>~nponent pal11 twhniqt I?. .I. . Cmhmlsli ~ s t apl v i h R~idmnan . Kill>?' It mntilin<.2 in chmeol?!ir:~lord rr. d ~ r i v r d r t ill. kc.I>:L-(TI 1111.lls.~\.' In 1957. :\notIlrr Fontl~trcbniqse \ m c de\..rin a sinelr s r ~ n i r n n t l ~ ~ a o r a t n t(nrottr~lilirl~ sr~l r mems sin el^ slnnr." He used photos~nsili\~e.:..a<. I -I.)-.. r.r)r is tilr pnn. No!r.. ~ ( I ~ I Vstrldied sin. circuit.. . 1. ins "on.111~. 1~. etch-resistant po!\nl?n [pboloresisl) for p t t r m tnnsfrr..I jrnnctions s i l l fonn in the odde and wiado\r.. gro\\ill of tlre inicrwlcctmnics industn.... (." and toxir. Thc altaninmn intrrmn~~cdtion urnnhklinnl hy rtchingevap Lines o n t r d nlonlin~~ln lawrover thr entire ori~lr snrfam. threr r ~ d s . III-\.~ .. In this p m s s .=.. r~~rfcmcv n cnst:d that IIX a 1.. . .. nqlc*ed for.~ski Sn.i&:' <~. tllr stucly of srmirnl~ductolm pn.lyrr of romic~.\: rn.. lonetinle.ics .lnt lor thr imnwc. ' L i t h b &o a signifirmt economic Factor.t mOina-nt a n intevatedcircuit \\'m mad^ I)\..tttic-c of stnxcturrr irlcntic~lto th:~tof t11rcnst.Trimr~~tnll!: T t ~ h ~ ~ oand dc\ices nsing tllese conlpollr log Il:t\.rnmpounds Diffucion i\uthor(r)An\~ntor(s) Czoehralski Brid~man \Velkpr Pfann ..isrtniconductor sarbce..loprtl by Frnsd~ n ll n anrl Drrrick" in 1957. .l.d onr biw1:~rtmnsisto~ . n.cl~~y l for s r ~~ ~ i m n d u c t o r filhrintioll.and lx .lirnn I. fo11n11 illat an oxidr 1:1yrr c. nlrstlitlS "ikrno~gen~c~~t.c. all lnxle in grrrnanit~nr c~.elopd by Rnygmw" in 1 915 . TABLE 1 1 Key Smiconducmr Tachnologiar Y Twhnolop. an midr layer s is formed OII .lrrtonrr r.. :iIunrinu~n~~~rtalliz.r .~linn. Klrin.. hltl~oogh ..UI . In 1952. ds..&ndns F m h and Derrick Sheftal.\D D n etchinx \lolm~lar a m e p i k ~ y h \lirropnrccrsor i4W1 Twnch iolrlinn Chemiml mcchnnical polishin< Cnnncr inl~rmnntd llwrni \\hnlmr md Sah Dcnnard Keruin.. \\Ftll the h ~ l n .. l tCyhniqun to *Iter tllp hp. In 1959. t I.. l p r d~pnsition p s s 011 tpcltniquc \\.i~v dr\.srdthe monolithic IC I. currently repwsmting over 3% o~~hy . and Samw \lanam+t and Simpsnn Inin:.mltv nrocess. c:Lwl. of the oxide CITI I rrmo\. and on? rapleitor.. . chrmir:d \ ..rInp~<I I>!.hric3tion hy Andnls.4 shows the first mo~~olill~ic a flir)-flop rircnit I'i~!nrc IC of . the s e n l i m n d ~ ~ r tpmpert or s...s~ .tl.fr.. .. mntnining six dr\icrs. The plannrprocrss n drvrloprd hy Hwn~i"in 19fiO..r rille h e n acii\vly sturlird..uld \rindo\\s cut in the o d e .! I ~ h r i d .and mnnc<tiiiine tllr dr*iws I>\.r. tom.he . ~ ? a...mmt is of dr\icr prrfonnnnce ...IS ahlr to prr<lict tlreir c h a ~ l c t iaio and to thrn1 e.. <. . froln l l ~ (. and Kn~ilov Shockley Kill? Nn)rr Rrl 191s 1 24 29 Lith-phir photomrist Chide ma~linq Epitnd C\D ~ \ i h Ion implantation Ilyhri<linlwatnl cirnzit \lonolithir intrpted circuit Planar pnm.tnd tllc crcation o l novrl d m i w stnldun.1. lIs ~ ~ thp S I I ~ P y(>:Ir.

lllr first ~nicmprwssor\t~as made I?\.. ChIOS cvnept \\.en\it~ ..~1 insvxttrtl 11..\KY pcrformann. Debice miniat~rriziition resnlts in m l o n d unit cost prr circuit funnion..cr.it~. ..Tr..aln'd ICs. ~ ~ ~ pP.ClioA'\\-a molecalar k n m epitay.lr<tia~ws.ln..r bit of memoly chips 1 ..i \~(i\l:t:T~t. tltr cost 1x. I n tl~r u t ~ t rdi@t:d ICs \\ill be iil>leto perf ~..srs?.. t Figure 1.ss only improwd dmin.. S % yIS nlollt~ls.. rir illq)m\t.r ilscn-. ...N.. c!o~sinsntt t ~ ~ l ~ 1 1 o l t q for arh." The mrmoyci~ll contains onp SIOSFET and one c ii. a fador o f ? c. dc\im tniniat>1ri7~1tion d u c r s :also . mnl.nts. Dt..1 . ~ ~ i Cltmnt!\: 3 ~ ~ ~. kxjc c~It~na.~l 1...tnth\n..rq pmpost*~l r i t .-. Coppcr intrrmnnect was intmd~lcedin 1993 by ~ P. many new tccl~nalogieshave been developed to meet 111 vquirmlmts of ewr-sltrinking minimum feature lengths. ." to rrplnw nlominurn for minimum1 fnture lengla approaclling 103 r nni. :el ixt~jrni.l~o put tile entire cent ~ t p m r i n x itnit (CPti) of a sirnplr computer on one ellip.~w <-. ~ l t l ~ o u g l l d e aluminum h... Tl~is el prm~. \ I ( I\ .i~lx:tnka:c* c>fC:\lOS t~~clmolnqthat I ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ IKII \~ V~ ~ I I I s is < .g.?? imporThis 1.. Tltix tt.. p m r s . It u x a four-bit rnicrol pnxrssor (1ntt..micron dimensions..eh~ln~~nt circl~it. Tllr SIOSFET w m v s i n stilclt to c l l . t lw.l -IWl.sllm\n in F i ~ l r e nit11 n chip size of 3 mm by 4 mm. in 1969.~.rsnl.IRKZCLI~t al.. It \r..c.:~I mlnnl.. It is responsiblr for the creation of numemos pllotonic dc\ims and qaamtum-rffrn dr!in>s.~s SB~IPmntpatntionnl p w r : tlut of *ICR4Y I the s ~ 132 Technology Trends Sinw htv Ixyinninenftl~r tnicrns!rdmnics e n . n o l o ~ .\~iill incn. This ly \rxs .tllr cl!~~ialaic random a w n I n m i o n Dl<\ \ I .t..w n lxttlr.Y..! 11.2... clccrr... rl~rmicalmecl~aninl polishing." in 19%' to isolate CMOS dr\ices.h\rro tr.-1. the d? etcliing tecl~nique drveloped WIS tn n-pl:m-\rrt rllr~ni~xil rtcl~ine hi~li-lidrlihpattem for tmsfer. \~. lint ~ n ~ ~ r r ~ ~ n r(I'l~otrrq.fro111 to 1) 0 .~.WO lBhl .. tl~icropmcessors for in tn m!rctittrtc thp lap~est se:ment of the inrhlstry Sinw tlw ri~rly1950s." in 1971 usinza CFJO: gay n ~ i x t ~to r e silicon wafers.~ inerras? oftllr .~cui. by [ftrentk mnti. s l l m t~l ~eWnentiid incw:se ofnlicmpmswr mlllpat*io~.cltniqae de\.lr fahricatetl by a...thl~~ rllrtmnic r?sle!ns i n the &rrcswablrfllturc.rrrhqeof near-perfect vertical mntml of co~n~osition dopand inr rlnua to . form data processing and numrticnl computation at terahit-l)er-semnrl rates.for mtdtilmrl metallization. itllouing po\\vr mnsu~nption hr lllinto C\IOS tvrlmnlrr. clr\im <lin~rnsions \wre reduced.t\ial qo?n\\il~ trclrniqnr for r ~ .. .. ion. TIl.. 111nl\rdem? 2 !ran for suwssiw genrr.shlrr i~n?lll' nf:al intrgalrd c i m i l Ilas I w n r e d ~ ~ m da lilt? ofahlnt 13% per year' nt .&." far ~lobnl Iy planarilation ofthe interLwrrlirlwtria. mnil>tttrnuf tllr ~ i ~ r19~Xk--e..n\\r l l cmnllmti. . wllich is the t n l l s p r t of metal is in. i tint.~innlX O \IOSFETs. Trencli isola tion 1 ~ 1 .) i.ulrl to 64 Ch nrmllld 1IIe 2012. e ~ i c c l ~ r ~ tnpmld e p Alsn nica ritinn \IOO'DI inrll~al\r:r<detrlopd by >l:svaw8il :ual Si~n~son. t r d ~ s o l q nlo\wl f m n ~ IC 11:s NXfOS (nrl~annt . 1'H%7. and it 1. IS ~nontls.." it a\.~des i n e 1959..tpi~ ~ s r r ~ r ' uuarirsyof lntcl Corp..lsed I)? over on? million limes sinn. n ~ r r c f n r r .!! < .\\I\ \ r i l l n..a ht-rn used sinm.. ~ a \\i~lrly Lnmvt~hilure nlecl~anisn~ rlrctromigration. the chen~ic%I r In mechanictl polisl~in~ n~rll~wl\\:rs d~vrloped Daari n al.i-lmiqltr hils tllr atl\-.\\l i* \mlatik. the i n v h l o ~ .lliclb ~ ~ ~ pLx)111NSlOS zlntl PJIO ." in 1969. 19S9. speed has iniprovrd I.16011~ DRAM s of circoits.statt. thq. tllr smallest linmvirlth (or the minimun f-. ~ !ctnmv!at t ~ n h t tit~n~t: t~insilion tl~v ftvln on<..~~>.cloprd in the same )par b). to ~1110titer l<. As dc\ims k m e s smnller.? four orden of ma. the lwl~silimr~ self-aligned gate pmrrss uw pmpos<yI1.... 19%.n -~~~~ tlw m e n f used for nicli nvitcltinr! olwmtion. This \v:s :ipprnach rvrnhtally replacml ill1 o t l i ~isolation mctl~mls. hlOSFKTI. rip. rrliabilih blrt not .l fWnl ] 9 i i t o 2000. ..~. Hiqhcr spreds lrld to cxpnndrd 1C limctional tllrougl~put rates.in. !. .r 1. For example.pit.. . Hoff r t al. 1 I. r.*a. Tliis I m k mnsidrn all the trcl~nolqies listed in Table 1.. Tltc r n r r dissipntcd pcr Io*c cntc h a ~ .FI.llp~rl. e kns I]? :.5 1'1.l t ~ . ~ I.)~ :\ltIt011"t 11 lIH. .lpxilor. At snd. ntis k a 1 .. Dcrirr. iuld IOIIInnes mlstiw!y l l i ~ l po\%vr.7 r tm. l?iymrc.r.hlml by I n i n ~ ral..1 At that ntc.. and copper interconnect.~to!nirr!im?nsions.. consume less p w r .i..~~~ "ffint pmlndio.$w wlltoul pcwitir r.. I-.hic&needed n CPU the sizz of a large desk.t~aitCms.ri . q or d i x h a ~ ttlle clpacs e i!. IIC.I <.I major I~renkil~rougl~ tllr sen~icond~rtor d ~ ~ s Currently.ll~. DR. 7 t l ~ i t . Three key tecl~nologies nr trenclt isolation.rc~s. This tmliniqae \ a ini\s tt.. r?imsro 1 (icl. Another t ~ etch imp'RxIt tc. r u m n t Ix.. .5. suffers from electromir a% it $ration at l ~ i q lrlrrtrical amrrrnt.cr ~ in~n.nlin18r to hr lllr lint cl~oice anlong \ariulls st*n~iconductor memulies for nr..lr~r.. nlr rlrnsi~~incrcscs a factor o f ? c\m.w rpii.t(. .rll of\r.<I.tciusl DHA>I rlrrlsih%mas ~ lhr !ria .? ic 1111.:. the n~inimumfeature length \\ill shrink to alwttt 50 nni in tlie !Far 1010.. t l ~ early 196~1s intrrmnnrct n~atrrial. intrmhlrrd by Rung el al.~p..>-cl~annel TX pol!silicon gate pmcess using 1111 j-pni d r s i v n ~ l rThis micropmssor prrfonned a$well as tllosr in S30n. 111 1971...:~sc lo 8 Gb in tllr!'car20(Li . m ~ w i ~ n d scmimnducton such as CaAs.llmt.nnanl.thrnuzlr a rnn<l~tctor~ i to the passage ofanelectricill current.\\I dc~~sit). l we e h ~ e c lllat t I>I{. r\s (levice (linlensions d ~ c r m s rtlrc intrinsic svitclting time drcre..I.

1. I. ion impl.1.il (anpnlh SiO.8 illoshtes the emnth ntmes fordiflewnl lecl~nnlamdriven:" A Ute hnin1 ning of tlw nuo~l#m~I t ~ lem ~ ~ n ~ ~ . Tllrsr steps isclt~de o\idntion. ~ r ~1950-lCI:O t is r om.r. ned tnrtdliwtian.:~wl 510.pten 3 10 S: Chapter 9 describes lllc inregfitcan in tion of tllcsr unit p r w s steps to Torn) sernimnduetor de\iws.vlopmcnt inane . tlw bnpl~tr r ~ ~ ~ ~ s u:tst otltc twlt~nol.9 and 1.<sorl. n r r e tltr t c c l ~ n t ~ l driven because of tllr npid grnntl~ p ~ n o n a cornpaten and o~.4 Basic Fabrication Steps 4 I 1 Fieurc 1.. hlnctions a :minculator ICs.'rnn~ 10711to I!J!XI. of l b 1.ination.~lri%r. ufmnl~n~mi.10show the major steps o f a plnnnr pmcrss. This r~~clion dcscrilws tlinr steps briefly blow detailed disrt~ssions 1w fol~~lcl CI~:. s . .4 BASIC FABRICATION STEPS Today planar technologv is used e\iensiveIy for IC Fnhrintion. tllr DR.igh.4.\.) 11% l l c l p l to rsti~hlisl~ C~OIIIthe rile rlP. . Fiplms 1.5 ~ l n i r r r on .qanlih silimn d i o 6 6 (SiO. l ~ i o l . p l ~ o t o l i t h o ~ petch-~ pl~ ins.1 Oxidation ].r~i in tllr p m ~ .\l and llw nlivnrnmn.

9).4 Basic Fabrication Steps 4 ID cl '+LA Mnll c n Figun 1. remud. dl).i s c~ten~icalx t i o depencIingon the Qpeof mist.10 ( 0 )Thr \clfer after the drwlopment.*).91. interfam cl~mcteristin. the wafer is coated \rith an ulha\iolet ( W l liglit-sensitive ninterid d l m l apholnmivl. methods. &.the solv< oul of the resist and to harden the resist for imnpmpd ad~esion. used to define thegeometry of thep-n junction. (fi A p-r. ~vhich to e.nt FigIre 1. is Another technology. r Figure 1. e \vliereas wpt or dation is a d for tl~icker la!~rs l m u s ~ of its higher p \ t h rate. (c)The final result aftcr a complete lithngraphic pnxrrs. layer I~ formed all owr the a l f e r surfam. calledphntolitlmogra~rlmy. which is spun on thewnler surfacehya highGWPA -r winner. I.~feris placed in a developer. Photolithography and Etching in a number o f d n i m s t ~ c t u r e orar a barrier to dflusion or implantation during devil s fahriration. junction lner the romplcte pmcrssc's. F i ~ r 1. The eqmed =@on of the pllotorwistcoahduder under. (d!A p-r jtnnclian is farmed in the diffusion or implantation pmcsr. .. a SiO. the SiOI film is used to defir ole junction awa. In the fahriation ofap-n junction iFig. . the mafer is baked at about 80°C to 100°C to &\? I .91 shoua the next step. ARer the fonnntion of SiO. and \vet oxidation.A.1. lh) Thexalcr aRer SiO. ~ \lore a. \\. o9yrn or w t e r \ a p r k u & Dry oddation is usually used to form thin oxides I s.xpose the &r tlvough a pttemml is mask using a Ul'light snum. details on oddation m! he found in Chapter 3. tdl Rnin flrr.9 lo) A bare n-t?pe Si wafer ib) An a d d d Si wafer hy &y or ~ coddation t f \pplimtiun ofn+rt. depending on whetha dl).hem$the unexposed region (under theopaque area) clissolws a~ld \\il41esaway. Aftcr the oddation prapss. 1.7he area* ~ a to w ~b tm c s p ~ l y n e ~ and difficnltto remmFe anetchant.90 sllows * sfMon of a haw Si w f e r T C : Ifor oddation. Thepohmerized e o n retnainsdnn ed in the \v. ARenvard (Fig. shmm only the upper su e faw of an oxidi7~d ~ f v r . Therr are hvo SiO. a h i m .ure thmqh the mark. For simplicity. F i p r e 1. stnlmlr? h ~ r s of its eoocl Si-SiO. ( r )Thc >raferafter inctdlintion.

chapter has presented a historical r o i e w of major semicondt~cto dmices. 51. ~.. p.1.r is prcsrnted in a clnlrnnd cohrrent f:ahion \*tl>on~t ~ c n rrliantr s...r..'Pl~p. 45 119191. 45. Photolithnppl~! p . which constitute t111 r h\n Iaq-t spmnrnts of the sen~icantl~rctor industry ~ -(3.I Pmmn. O f particular importann are the invention o the hipolar trmsistor in 1947. The p l ~ o t o l i t l ~ o p ~ ha s s is again used to define the p y fmnt mntact.. This chapter also described key semimnd!~ctortechnologies. C. Chapin. for ~rr ..\I I. SY) ilwi!. a baru rier to i m p ~ ~ r(liITwio~~ ion irnpl. 28.nt 181. Due to lntrrd diffusion s t~nl>unt~e< or 1. 40. the rt-sist is stripped a\myby r c1lctnic:d wlnt~ion an o p S r n pl. h u r J ~ 9 a iTl~r p r n n l r lo~rld Be(. 71wTnnsislor. of c tmmfrr p m s s for semimn.1. Rn. 10.Il. . iallxniant paprn ir? listrrl at tltc r. A l k . Then. . the .1tecds t n ~ l ofttnplant<. ~ pnxrss. from the first stutly nf the metal-semiconductor m n t a d in 1874 to the iabricatio~ ofan ultrasmall 15-nm hlOSFET in 2001. 'A N o s on Carbmrmclutn: U'arun. Kdmgand M.. 'Fo~~rTcrmlna1~wr-p-n TNni. 18..4. intended i ~ n l tllr rityis intmluct~l thr semiconductor hy awleraling the impuric ions to a high e a r'3 into Iewl ant1 then impl. e Y: . 51. F. 25. i\l~l.sfan: 8 4 syrr Te1t. The \\?tier is agoin baked tr 111l'c: I. . 8 J. A Atead. R.. Silirnn p-n Jlnnnion Pl~nlocell Compnirlc . I361 119i21. It!. 8. nmmd. I l n \ % ~ ~erfew. !I. Tnl~nnl. 19. 7 . D. H. 'Cohewet 16. whiclr is the most important d m i n for integrated cir cuir: and the invention of the nonwlatile semiconductor Inenlory in i%i.ese trchnolo$es m n h t r a e d hack as far a%hm millennia. L Eub. 1535 (1957).specti\vly.il h sulid-st21te diffusion. Of particular importance are < l w l o p n ~ e n t the l i t l ~ o p p h iphotoresist in 1957.luctir deices: the in\rntion of the integrated circuit i. la!w sen. \. 111ion in~plmtation.L. of. Ki L i ~ h Erniction fmm C & l . % iIPllii. 937 iZWI1. & Slnrr I (1Sii3).. Rn. % ' <I . ISIPC for 20 minutes to enhnnw the adhesion and i~npmve resistancr t~ t11e s ~ t l ~ wrtrhing ~ ~ t ~ . IF S l ~ o e MThe l l ~ w n .l. 15.I m~.~S~M Cmma8m. o n d l ~ l oh w r \ ~ i l l t r Elwitiol P~rrnpinx: US. IRE. F i g u r ~ or 1.rir.y IC fal. 11.and t. 19.\lnrkef 4. rfi3 (1931.fNr IhDo. Cunn. a shown in Firmre L.trl. 3 . ero.. which estaMished the \?sic pan.uma s!strm. Rnttdn. im." June d u d o n mrl lw ~unnion Tmri. M Tech. jr. Diffttsa~\ ion i ~ n ~ l .unr. l ~v on lllc original litc. ZOO. . P i l ~ . 111.dions. iy or m s .jtmnninn InFlicrn Lwlrrrs: Pnx. 5. $1. for Solar Rrrlirtion il~lo Elrrttinl Pmsrr-J. senlimnductor surfam not protected by the oxide is expo!ied tlre to.OW..mtiation.nmll Pimar CIlOSTmntisloi lEEE IEDW Trclrnlml mgen.. ct td. Sf. C. C. respctively. r 1.-~ the back m n h a rrithout udne a lithmphsprorrss.1.\(icnnmr~ U ~ N : &I1 SI(*I.R. 9.rror mmlc<r. T ' x n . S. A . 6. N 8.rtl~ of the micmelectronia industn.< 11w~ ~ s ~ r o Si0:t s~ l r f i w tn ~ (Fig. 3.r G ~ l Firld E a r t Trmsi~lar'P r w IEEE. K.1% A similar metallimtion step is performed on .~~~ oprnrntt of t l ~ e DRAN in 1967 and the n ~ i c r o p m s s o in 1071.i5. ~ ~ . .lPhhyr.43 Diffusion and Ion Implantation I" rhr (liflwion s ~ r t l l ~ l .ofn\\iclr-Gap Emitter forTc~nriston: Pm... \vhich is sltmvm in Figure 1.u^ru+ctmnlc. Asur. 'A Sm.: and the dwel .. In?l. Dekla.npid .s il1tO 1uthe wnnimntlucturcnJt. anneal aaukl dw be perfokecl to promote low-resistan& contacts L h w e n the mt Ia!rn and the senlimnductor.I. . shn\n t l ~ e finid rs111t of a \\?tl. C. 5. k Ctrirlr 10 Smllmnar. -Seholth. Scl>>\clrlmcldc~: n n N>yrC h m ~151. D. Juttnionr:l%p.. R. The wafer is no\\.. Alter the difilsior~or in~plantationpm. Ebm. L Jolmrton.\ftrr difircion or ion implanlation.torr''Pm." B ~ n kElmm!~lnd. DC.554 (18741. Confirmrr.rrm\r.. Calm. .l$lizationpmcess is uwd to form ohlnic cont.5 SUMMARY %miconductor devices h a w an enormous impact on our society and the global econom! brcause they sewe as the fnundntion ofthe largest industry in the world-the electron i a industr). IEEE. A "lltrtrd in S. inn etch I I S ~ I 011lk.~pter . h t l y .101.').S. . Patc.. Nonnallv. IM . rr. R. p in 14. I?.1 1C .o~t oxide (R uindow) :titer the l i t l ~ o p ~ p h y s s .ad tb ~~ and 7. H. \ktd films can Iw formed IIV d~\sic.-A Sil'imn Dicx(x(. el al. J.IM. The origins of tlt. sonme rrilh a hiell concvntration ofopposite-typ? ilnpt!rih The impurity mo\r.es .. F Dmun. J . l s d d . " S w Phrnomcnon ill Sam~~Grrmoniu!~>p-n J~~nrlinnr. o f s t ~ ~ )l:ncli c11aptt. -~ficm\m\~w O~lllrliun~ ofCt#mnlin Ill-\'Srmirnndanun. l. Uetallimtion is discussed in more detail in Chapter 8. u ~ r a arcodisct!s5ed in C:I\.-Ulxr die Stmmleilu*ng duwh 1.frrrncr and for f ~ ~ r t lrradinp. . 4.inc sw drsrrihrcl nlorr thnrn~l<hly C h a p t ~ n and 5. 2MO 1.lOr).n'cl ofr:ach ~r cl~apter n. iunction is formed.> ion and i n t r n o n n ~ t ~ o ~ l r L.%nrlurnd~~rforl c n Rnvrdnc Ed.~tionp r m s s strp or s~rlnlpl~n. B.*nordew%it or chemical \apor deposition. Kmrmcz Tllrnr). 13. Rm.Sp. .366 119621. \Ihhinson. Ilrll.~l IFbe .. R.]. m n n d R. ~ d t ohI ' t I ~ ~ .r fornlinS thrl+n junction hy a cliffusionor ion in~plantation m s . Sa. Fcrllrr mcl C. S. 109. l i b 2 iIW31. B.r:ltnre.369 1ILK5). YFCnr-trill.nSrrnlmndtnnnr Ttiodr:Pl~!.. .. Rmltw and \\'.676 i I Y 3 1 .l 1 9 ~ ~ ulwch wu wminal to th. Scrv York 1w5. 20.r eis s lni c l ~ ttlr~ e po v tlun the \<?nclo\v openin<. read! pm fi. and n. 1. Yu.lW!.indtu.. 71. IIC.red I~yclrofl~~orie (AF) I~ acid n.Corn1.J. in 4 In this lank.4 Metallization . M I i I W ? ) . Aldla Tilimn-Silimn Diotick S u d k ~ Dnicc:in IRE Dcvirr Rrrrarln .mtieg the ions in the srrnicond~storThe SiO. wl~ichha h w n the technolog\.Kmrmrr: A Pmp 17. Ind.FiOln 1 . l h il~mr-the \\afer nller the development. a lmv-temwrahlre ( . \\:rhinetoa. which ushered in the modem electronics era: the devel opnient of the hlOSFET in 19fiO. IRE. This intmducton. each chapter dmls wit11 II k<.'tS nm Gat? h. driver of the electronin indust? since 1990.

170. This cllspter m r r n tlle fnllm~iing e tapin: . ..U.I 1 I)P. Nlyr 2 ..is Om*. Yarar.. Lmpmn. D i g IEEE In. and gallium and arsenic lorn galli~rm arsenide anfrr--re chrmically pmwssed to form a ~liell-narih~ool\mn~talline sernimnd~rctor fmm \vhiclt sinele cn. spmlIar surfaces upon a.-~nn.Cho.<".&. Urerrnn Dcr<cz$Zfarpr Symp.~ -i'h.I\. . ~ J J I-I:. 2fil (IW). Lp:.646 (19761: I s P.. . S . Kobririh. \\' SLoeLln. h l l h -1mmlron oltllr istqnlrd Cimtit. \btm . P3tml2.. lii. ~~i. Paten1 D. 'Ill>. d ~ r y s t aGrowth l T h e hvo most important semimnductors for rliscretr d e r i m and i n s p t e d circuits are silimn and gnllit~~n arscnide.ENcd blrtd. 21.Technol~: Pnx Inr.? >lnlnuhr Beam T-hniqur:] . 11Jrlritc.n11 \I. p.. YIT Press..'!. prontcd . m 45 R. Fogin. TkepTmeh lrolvld CMOS Dr\icrr. ~ ~ ~ if.nvn PI. B o b .. The startine m a ~ e r i a l s ~ i l i m n diosidr for a silimn \vafer. Camhtirlp. E.!\! I. ~ .Vetdlr.* i ~ . IW F \I. and Y~Szgahlh..3%7. .\. d d.kr~ t i r t d l i * .1tcn13.s. -arrn~ mr ~ I . \Isnr-il and. p \r R.%mimndunor T 1 I)I: IEEE 1.dA.lticlt devices will b made. 'A SMPlra%tintian Tcrhttiqur..p.475. .' U l n n r h m . *CsPk-ma Vapor Etdkit* P m a : U.. Shimn. U11ng n Comhinllion of RlE md Chrmld > I w h m l Poli'h ICYPI: Trrlt.lil. > I Lkntunl. 17% il%39I.56.~.S.....lmiw Ulckinp duriq Diffwion in Stlimn.Orgmie in lhc P~cpnntionofkmimnductor >Iatc.mq iI(152). I . IOI. Rune 11.av.743 ~ P n lu59. U M m n B r i m >I?#.O~de.mkunduaor S i ~ Tntnrlnans Do*. 9% 21". F. -. 40 Ttinl-: B a i c tecl~niqurs gro\v silimn and Gu\s single-cvstJ ingots to \\'afer-shaping steps from ingots t o plislted \~-fers \\'afer charactelimtion in tenns of its e l e a r i d and mechanical pmpe~ties 42 R.. Pmtmit? In S i l h R..234 . 32 (IW!. Hdndtu. Tldr Inrrmnlimol Twhndoin/ Rmrlmpfm Srminmdt... 60.lY1%1. F&. ? J.mw Diclwirin and P-sw for ULSl lnlrrmnncdion Xvhnolwn. 'Film i k ~ i t i o I.dm.W .Scmimndu<tor lhimmd. San Jmc. .sru. Epitslld CrlLunl-\'Compounds:]..4.li9.a.' US.8ii (filed I s 9 . 5l7 i1957). 1%7.1' ib b duprw I.~p~mprmw sinqlcCnstdr o l m q r t m .. .1. 2: 1 S.Rl7 (filnl 1s..Ted. 51.1. -... Srmimndt~+or A m . 41 R. S r . The h a i c process flow frnm starting matre rials t o polisllrd wafers is sho\\n in Fiarre 2. E Lrmanr. D. .n?m. RIcnt 2.35 s s Sh. DC .. p. T + .a j &nilnl.615. >I.-Crm~thafSi~pl~~C~rtd Phyr Srr. .(191.7S7.-Y~prI'l. " .' Tmh Die. ED-93. K r n ~ i n D. Kntilm. 116.S..ot 3. . . T ' t d .!I~~~.S. 61 (1959). d . . Tominq S~tnimncltmnr Dniw lonk Bo!nlunlmmt. \Vshlngton. -sanwlrt Lqio UrillgFirhl..l'rll.. Urnmn &. S&..' U. C.Lrad Slmnum. 303 11925). -SU&Y ~ k ~ r r t i o n Sc. >I=nroh:Fl*h tlW1 Llrmnn.%6 (film1 1967: g ~ l l r IlW ) .S. 49 1..59 IlW!. -c. llcrmi.lkr Figure 21 Pnxr.~&. . K. E. ~ ith.ch Pc&m. * 7 11. e l -lli. d 2 CHAPT .IEEE Trnns.md C T.S31 09il).Antimom): Rbmufb.lllln. This chapter descrilxs tlw mrnnam trchniques for e r m i n e singlr c y t a l s of t h ~ s t \ w semimnductors. 7% 744 ( I s % ) .1. n I'm. UrrrmrBem.1B. U.l.fid. fm~n starting material to lr~lirl~nl \*. 1999..itds arc ~.I. Y. Lmw. .Pnx A.. p.*I. U s a m h r . Cfg. . E lloR w*. 2' Fh:.rhIndnngen. 6 . The sin Jr+qslal ingots are s l ~ a p r d define the diameter of the material and to are a t t e t l into \vafers. l t i o ~ ~ ~ w c I ~ ~drr .il . Pntenl3. l m 50. Urermta I k c F s . IEEE Inl. -~. hllrnt ?. l * r W . 1*11.. .Z Snllrrlomh. 3 c 1. HOBF... 7 h c Uw olMetd.59:. nrl.19711.. 47 R. 140 00571. d.I (I=).Yn!c Cimrir Ccr?{. p. p n t r d l W 1 ' l 3 R S Sqtr. IEEE lnf Fm n D w l n . i~nd ?AIC.!r c Nmn.11.. Thcse unfers are elcltctl and plislted to p m d d c smootl~. 237 119'121.(~. S. S.. >fro.~hnc-rtmn olsrm~crmrl~mor Dt-im: US.ti~l%. L x . Ind. . I I. W. gro\wl.n~k~ \i.S. Ininq. Shtrr.!lrrt. 4G lltr immlm d l b m l~ o p m l o r arc W. .).r DiiT~~tion. and C.1m. Ldi. I'n~awm~k. 8.S. For a profile of ~ n \I. Rtrll A m 1 Sc( L~.S. in)?rrnfSllimn and . P. .R. Yomow. p n l d 1W). .md J. and 2. ~ . ..S \t.-Pfannr S~licon Tr-ton I m l Di&: IRE b r . I. -Field Efft" Tnnmtor \lrmory" U. -hlrtllal lor hfabing XIIS Slmc3arc.ins h f m . Palrnl3.Introduction aI ( . ~ ~indi~)R~ . L lilcin.


..) TABLE 21 Eauililwium Sesmsation Cwfficientsfor Oo~anta Silicon in SOLUTlON Tal. \Vc nwlmc that C...iS11 C.96~10~ honm atoms (4s) ~nvnll amount oflnmn needed to d o y sllrll it brpe hwd of rillc~*l.. is @\. = L. .. \vI>rrp C .r<...nlaj~lingin thr mrlt thy\\eigl~t) S For an incwnlrntal itlrlount oftltr cnstal ir ~ 1 1 \vcielbt d l .\I. tbr.37~O I ~ C ~ ' t Consider a cnxtal !wing pow fmm a melt hadng an initial w e i k ~ J1... the compmition initiall? at k. IF Cornhining El'. (I'hoto m u b EXAMPLE 1 A silimn incot. .rlrb 1 ~ ~ 1 3 nique..\I Ilaq heen ~ro\<ql. E 1.mtht. thmuphout the p l h .le is M kg... R uniform impurih distrihation can be obtained.r/. the wriqht of the dopant per I g of ntelt). C. for boron is 0.Cn\sill increaqe continually for k.lten a cnlstal of weight . the < n m s p n d i n .. . which shottld contain 10'" lnmn stornskm'. 7 of : Soldng L. 4 ... thp \r. \vc can intrpnte Eq.4 illustrates t l ~ doping distrihetion ns a furwtion oftlle [r~ction r solidified (l(Jf/.I. the rcnlnining \\. Thus.7 2. filerrk.Ly>. 6 gives Fi.C.wms of k ~ m n (atomic \\right 10.37xI0'cm'=2. is to be grmn by the C.81 slto~xld iddcd? V I P lr density of molten silimn is 2.the amount ofhomn rnnwntntion ir u small.v.8 Sin.. of front thc weight of silicon. hm\. R p a 23 t c w of XYCmm 1 I2 in. \\laat mnrcntration of l n m s atoms sho<~lrl in the melt to gitr the reqtrinvl c~mwntmbc lion in the ingot? If the initid load of rilimn in ihr mnril..lo~!nr mrlt can ht. antaunt of the clqxu>tn.. li. \ \ l ~ e n k. 2.1 shmvs that the s e p p t i n n melEdcnt I.\l.c 1 and decrease continually fork. . Shin-Et-I H.cchr.. 5 nnrl6 and substitl~ting C.53 glcm'. 11s melt is C...25x101^homn ./Cl = I ..wln~lrtrd .witl1 an initial dopine concvntntion C. n'x2.rigl~t tllc mclt is . mans .~lom-lcm' 0.) and UW-mnl (16 in1 C7achrdslri-grm\nrilimn ineots.dl. thlc \nhnrnr of ((n ksof silicon is -= 60x10' 2.1 Silicon Crystal Grmmh from the Melt 4 21 Nrnv. :it a S\I.gure 2.) for sevrrd segregation mficients?' As cr)std gmulh pmgresses. point of ~ r m v t h u. in the melt he.e$hti: The total so that ..lt.. and the c l ~ ~ i n ~ c o n w n t r a t in tllc of ion liquid (by a~right). initid mnwntntion of lnmn in tllr melt should be lo1^ -= 1..i Cs. i s tl~r chpine cancrntntion in the cnskll (I>?u. qre(ltmion of the clopant 1 fmn. the mclt b ..53 2.\.-ml)ining with Eq.ll...8.\I.> I. yields C i \ m the initid weigl~t the dopant.

n i e first houndaryconrlition is tliat C = C. mro. which is the ratio of C. v is thr c n s t d p x i h velwih and C is the lo pi rig concentration in tlie melt.t>n. the dopint conwntntion ha< a constant value CI. is rcplawd ! k..3) is k. are laqer than tl~ose ) I olk. dopants rnconstantly being rej&ed into Ole melt (for I. \'slues ofk.1. . Rw~mnri~lerine ~lifft~sion tllr of~lonnnl t o ~ in . and the imp) ri& concentration far a m y from the interfaw: Consider a sniall. " diffi~sion the solid). 11nifon11 s dopsilicon mntinuously lo tile lnclt so that the illitial ing is to add ultrapure pol>~mtnllinr doping concentration is maintninetl. r\notherappmncli to acliievt. 1 1 is \\.liere A . 9. 1 and noting that C = C. + I) in the cqstal cm Ix obtained hy emplqving a higli pull cite and a lmv mc~tioa p n l (sinm 6 s i invrndy pmportionnl to the mtation s p e d ) ..lr. The sccond honnrlnn~mndition lhr mnis s r w ~ t i o n f t l ~toktl ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ l r r o l t ltl1:lt n n t s : o r o p is.v.mrlt .( 0 )nt x = 0.n(.eh%6ne ~ n t11r ~.. If the rejection rate is higher than the rats at which the dopant can he transported awny hy diffusion or stirring. Outside this stagnant layvr. s that k.= C. a illust c trated in Figure 2.tr b Cbronr 2 C w a l Growth 21 Silicon C a Growth from the Men wl 4 23 Figurn 25 Doping clislrihtntion near the did-melt intc+ee where D is the dopant diffusion coefficient in the melt. at x = 6giei\~s 2 \\lrik the crystal is W n s ..tl~es~tnioftl~cch)~..5.mt ~ ~ r s ~ t l l ~ t11einterface niust In. and A. \irtuslly stapant l a y of melt \\<th uidth S in which the only flow is that n q u i d to replace the cqstal k i n g uitlidra\m fmm the melt. in Eq. are constants to be determined I)y the houndan conditions..and can appmicl~ for 1 I q r values oftlie gm\v~li paranietrr vS/D Uniform dnping rlistribution (k. the stea~ly-state continuiF equation: The doping mstnnrlnon in the crystal is given hy the a n t e c. eswpt . \ve Imve in fmm the melt shmring the doping mnmntratian in a solid as a titnaion of the fmc(ion rolidifid. then a concentration p ~ l i e nwill develop at the interface./C. The segregation coefficient (given in Section 2. .. The solution of Eq.' F m24 Cunpr for p i h i g 21. the dopIIIC mncvritration a n k drscrihrd h\.(C \Ye can define an effrrtivc x p q a t i o n mcffident k. Inside the layer.> 1).4 Effective Segregation Coefficient Substituting these boundary conditions into Eq.

2.2 Silicon Flost.Zone Pmcerr 4 25

* 2.2

11 Lu a s 4 to q \ v silimn that l e r ~ lower mntalnin;ltion than tllat Tllrf?<xrf-:~,r> Ilr ~ r , ~ - I ~ r ntterl~niqar..iscl~e~~latic of t l ~ r l&i srhlp flot~t-zone tw~n~~.%!l\~ o!tt n. ?.fin. A liigI~-~urih l ! ~ s t a l l i nmil with a sred cnstnl at ~n r p n x r v ic .;In< :I,,. 1,~ttnrn IS z ~ r t c turt .I xrtiind pnsitiou ;utd mtstc~l. md is i.ncIosr~lin aquartz enwThe !r \\ltl~in , \vl!idt IVI inrlf a t r n ~ ~ ~ l(arqon) b tnaintxind. During the operation, a small lew n,,qr , . Ii , ~ u . ~ n t i , , , ~ t m in 1~1ictl11 cp31:tl is kept molten I? i~ rxlio-freq~~e~~cy oftltr iRF) Ilc.ttPr.wltirh is inn& fmnt 1111.scwl up\ranl co 1l1;1tt l ~ i s j l m t i t traverses the lengt.111 ~~~:~~ tht. rnl. nlf. n~r!ltrnsilicon is wklincd hy surklff tetlsion iwhveen tbe nleltillg ar-' v n r i r )rolid-dlirnn inn?. h the floatir~q ~ zone mows up\rnnl, single-cnstd silicon f n w .n tI,v ronv\ retw.ttin< md x i d p \ v s : an extmsion of tbe seed cnxtal. hlaterials \vi s hiSI,,,r misli\iti~s I ohtain~y{ cnl r fmm the float-zone p m s s than frnm the Czncllral! ~ n u Iw:~nre ~ q the fornler GIJI hr used to pt~ri& cnstal inow easily Furtliern~o~ the 1 1 t t y 110 cntcihlr is ux'd in thr flatt-zone p m ~ s s there ic no contamination from t . .rucihle (;s C,ncl~~&li \\ill) qmvih). ,\t the present time, float-zone cr)~txls us, arc. n.unlv for hinh-prn\rr. Ili~It-\nltage:edcwic~s. ultrre high-resistivity materials are wquirf TC, r\;llrnatc tllr (lopinS dicmhution ofn flmt-zone prorrss. consider a simplified niorlel. ;~c shrnrn in Fiqurp ..I The initial trlnifon~t 'M. doping concentration in the rod is C, ( 13). \rrielttl. L is t l ~ lenzth ofthe molten zone i1t a distance x along the m l . A is thc croFSr spainnd areaof thv m l . p,, ic the specific d~11sityofsilicon, S is tlie aniolmt ofclopacnt and resent in tI18e molten zone. i\s tlie zone tmverses a distance dr. the amount of dopa ddnl to it at 11s:~d\:,nnn?end is (: .p,,Adr a l t ~ n x Ill.? ;llnount ofc!op.int n.tllo\.cd trc s vtnl rs I , SddLI.~ I I C * R .I , a llte r&divc. ~cyrqalioll mefirtent. Tllt ti11 tI,e rplm~tsn?

so that




. , C,,P.IA -(k.s!L)

first fnnnrtl at tllr

\vIlew S,,= C,,p,,ALis the antount ofclopant in the rnne wllcn it frnnt end of t l ~ c Frnni Eq. I&, w r oljtain rod.

Since C (the (loping concentration in the c y t a l at the wtreating end) is given hy C. = . kJSIAp,&). then
08) Figure 2 . i shows t l ~ e doping concentration versus t l ~ e solidified zone lengtll for\arious V ~ L I P of li,. S These hvo crystal p n t h tecliniques can a l a he used to remove imparitics. A rnm. parison of Figtre 2.7 wit11 Figure 2.4 shows that a s i n ~ l e in the flost-mne p r w r r pass does not pmluce as much p~~rilintion a single Czwl~nlski \ \ t h . For example. for nc p k, = k = 0.1. C,/C,,smaller over nlost of the solidified ingot made by the C d t n l s k i . is grm~tli. How'ever, multiple float-zone pacses can be prrformrd on a rod muell more earily than a cnstal can hr grnvn. the end region cropped on. and rrgm\cn fmm the zs~lt. F i g ~ r e sho\vs the itxipurity distribution for an element \ i t h b,. = 0.1 anrr a nun~lxr 2.8 of succrssive passes of the lane along t l a length of the ml.' Note tl~at tltcrr is a substantial reduction of impsrity conffnlrntion in the mil after each pns. Tl~rreforr.the s float-zone process is ideally suited for c y t d purifimtion. n ~ i pmcess is also died tlte zort~-,$nii~g techniqt~r. \rllirb cnn prn\idc a "3. I~igll purity Inelof the raw materid. If it is desirable to dope the rod nther than purify it, m ~ ~ s i dthe a q e in \vhicIr all er the dopants are introduced in the first lane (S,, = C,Ap&) and thr initial mtlcentratio~~ C, is negligibly small. Equation l i gives

C =~,[l-l(l-k~)-~""] .

Rf mil 0

Since C, :

1 .


Therefore, if k L is small. C, \vill renlain nearly constant tvitl~distnncr ex* @ at t l ~ e rnd that is last to solidi(v s ~ t cas l~ .For crrtain mitching d~\ices, a singlrlti,e,lk-\olt;lge tb!~iston. large clip arms arp quently an entire \,.;~fcrfor de\ice. This size impuses stringent mlllire. the uniformity of the starting material. To obtain ltoo~yeneous distribution of I float-aoae silicon slim tllal 1 : avemgc doping conceiltntion wvll I~lav 1s a11 ,,.l...,ed a~rlount izsrd. T l ~ slice is then irradiated with thennal neutrnss. This pmis c wss, c~lled t~nrtmn irmdiation. givrr rise to rractiond tnmsm~~tation ofsilicon intoplmspllonrs ancl dopes the silimn 11-1)p:


26 flmt-nmrbpnxvw In1 Schematic rrhlp fbl Simple, m d r l lor dopine nalt~ation

2.3 GaAs Crystal Growlh Techniques




c,;c,>=I 1 .(


4 . b I..'''.

T , ,= I 6.r ull c.a~n-.r

Solidifinl mne lmptlt' df, irnpuri? concentration rrmtr ,me lensh for a numnkr dpnrw. 1. Figure 28 R~el:~tivr ~l~~nolcr the 7onr lcn#l,.'








I 4










Figun U Cllnr.~ ihr float-mne p-sr for hlnaion of wlhlificd mne ltqths.'

Salidinrd zont. b.nsfla dl. shm\ing dr~pin~conccntmtion the solid a a in s

The 11;Jf-life f t l ~intrrmnliate rlrrnrnt Si:: is 2.62h o ~ l nBemuse t l ~ e o r . penetntion depth of nrutrnns in silimn is alnot 100 cnl, doping is v e n lmifonn tllrnuklo~~t slice. the F i p m 2.9 mmparcs t l ~ latrnl rcsistibih disirib~~tions con\.c*ntionallydo~xul r in silimn and ,n in ~ i l i ~ dojxul I? neutmn irn<lintion.'Sotr that t11r rrsisti\ity \anations for the neu. tmn-imaliatrd silirnn are lnuch smaller tllitn 1110s~ tile mnvcntio~~idlyo p l silicon. for d

(e.g., "lid, liquid, or gaseous) in which a material may exist. Al~lto.~c flingram shmvs thr ~lationsllip brhveen the h \ a m ~ n p n e n t s . gallium and anenic. .lc n h~tlctionof ternpefilture. Figure 2.10 sl~ows p b a e d i a p n i of the pllitlan-:~nenic ? s l ~ n l .The ahscissa the rrpresents \-drious mlnpsitions oftlle h%'n mlnpnents ill ternls ofatomic percrnl (!rnK"? scale) or perrrnt (upper scale)." Considrr a rrlelt that is initidl!, ofmn~position x (e.g.. 85 atomic percent arsenic, nr sho\vn in Fig. 2.10). \\'11en tile t e ~ n p r e ~ t ~ llowis r r ererl, its mmposition will rrlnain k x ~until the liquidus line is rcacl~ed. cllr Flint iTi.x). l At of50 ~ t ~ npercent arsenic (ir.. galliuln anenide) uill I v e n to solirlifv. ~ i c

2.3 GaAs CRYSTAL GROWTH TECHNIQUES 23.1 Starting Materials
Tllr starlint iniatrrid%for thr s\ntl~esis i lnlycnmmllin~gallium anenide arc the elen ntrnt.d. rl~t.n~ic~lly I p~l lPi ~ ~ l ;ln<l:trsrnic. B r c ~ ~ l gdliem arsenidr is a mmbinalion ~ I lr se I)( hvo t~li~tvriids, Ivl~it\ior ilifferrnt imm tll;d of :I single materid slncl~ silicon. its is ns TIM.I r l r s m r of 3 mrnl,in;tti<m mn hr dt.scriln.l I,? a p h a r cliagrarn. A ,>lmav~ n state is

T*(on ill,.

riprr2.10, consiller


li,l,,i~l,,s !in<!)10

T,,. 11,e lctclion of IIK melt thi8t nit1 Find

~ f i n i t immporilios C,. (\\vi!$>l ~l prm,nl w;*l*,) is nxllwl f n m ~ th;ll wlidific~~.

SOLLmON At T . 11, is ihr urixht of thc listlid. ,\I. is thr w i $ l t of llw wlid (i r... G.&I. and C! , the r,,nwn~mtions"f dopant in thr liquid and ihr rcllid. rrspvclivt.ly. !..~r.n.lort,. ihc C. ,vrieh~s ,,fnnrnir in (Ilr liqurl ilnll ~ l i innsAI,C,;md .\l,C.. rerpcli\r.!\- Rrc*t~rr ~ I I I ' Ink11urrenic ~ l

23 G a b Cvfiul GrmhTschnlguss 4 29

md I are 1l1clmgths of lh. Ix\n lines meanwed fmm C, s~ liquic . the .-.,-.-... As o n lw s o fnrm Fiplnrr2.10. alnntt I ( ~ . o f t h mrlt is w,lhl cly wt r

Unlike silimn. whicl~ a a relatively lo\<-vaporpr~sstnre its melting point (apprr,rh at irnately 104atm ;a 1412'C). arsenic has much higller wpor pwssurrs at the meltingpoin~ o f g d l i ~ ~m n i d e (1240°C). In its wpor phae. awnicllas ,\s, and&, a s i major spreies. m ~~ Figure 2.11 slaws the vapor prcss~~res galliu~n anenic along the liquidus curve? of and Also S I I O for~mnip.*nn ~ is the vapor prcss~~resilimn. The v a p r pressun, cunpr lor of gallium m n i d e are double valued. n ~dvlled runes arc for arsenic-rid, gallium arsenide r melt (riglit side of liquidus line in Fig. 2.10). and the solid cunrr are for &Iiurn-richgallium arscnide melt (left side ofliquidw line in Fig. 2.10). I ! ,isa larger amount of arsenic in an arsenic-rich nielt than in a gaIliam-licl~ rn ;enic 0% and As,)

&rn 29 (olT ~ i lateral rerirlhiirit).m o u a o n m a eonwntionally doped silimn. fh)Silimn d dnprd neulm imliation.'

Atomic 5 m m i e

fipnrZl0 Phaw &amm for the yallium-nmnk .sytcm.'

Panid pressam of gailitr~n arrenic o w r rdlium m n i d c ar a fun*ion af tern. and pmtnw.' Also ~ho\vn the partid pressnm olrilimn. is
Fipurs I11

Have\. . an encuated. Tlti s e w s ar tile raw matetell to grow single-crystal ~allium arsenide. 1)~. lullc Ir.~ to solidify' The n r ~ operntion is to grind tllr surhce so is t that the dianleter ofthe materi. the material is undoped. a single cqstal of gallit~m anenidc b ~ \ \ I ITlie impnrih distribu.rr a preferential loss of the more \vlatile arsenic s p i e r is .pte at the liqui<l-solid interface. Figure 2.. surface lilyen of liquid ~allios tll.u selenium.' 0.dnc are commonly used forp-hpe materials." . ~ ~ ~ ~ Figure 212 Bridgman tcchniquc for grwing sinelr-c~~tal gallium mnidc. s X.5~i\lltlt~siz~ .\rnt drmmpition of thr mrlr cl~~ringcn. :w sho~~m and y ill F i p w 2. the nielt cools.03x lo' 1.mt Br \I< is made ofquartz.tl is drfinml. a Lqllid ennp p\ atlrtlon n ~ r t lis rnmlm~l.1 Wafer Shaping n/p "/P n n 1..mt .' Semiinsulating Semiinsulating After a cqstal is grown.rru. silicon. the basic puller is identical to tl~at lo nbwn Hm\.v.i~. n tion c ~ he descrilwrl essentially ly Eqs.4 MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION Z n C Si Ge S . The equi librium srgregation coefficients for dopants in G d s are listed in Table 2. \vl~ich I.scm~tdan~~a are grotmd to irlentif).vpor pressure of gallium i n a ~Ilium-rich . 9 and 1..* drmn~pose e. Similar t.30 Chsptrr 2. Thrsr regions.2.4 Material Characterization 4 31 h .trsmidr. no fli~ts p d . an ovprprrssore of arsenic is cstablislled (a) t~ Undrr tl~ese m l s c the tm~cport ofalr*nic\-aporto thegdliun~ itlelt.fure the mt4ting point is r e ~ r h ~ l . those in Si.\in-s relati\.After that.1 la\? .li.= 10.8 x 10-1 0. \\it11 the arsenic kept at the other end of the t u l ~ .mid heated to slightly above the gallit~rn nrsenide melting temperaton . Cryrml Gmwlh . The left-hand zone is held at a temwratore (anororv . ltnui~lrncansul.. :t high-puritypolycqstalli~~e \\hen gallit~m arsenirlr resolts.12 shows a Bridgman system in wl~icl~ a hvo-7nne furnam is uspd for g m ing single-cnst~l gallinm arsenide. and telluriun are treed for n-Qpe materials.wlve silicon dioride. To ohtain the desired doping concentration in the grown ctytal of GaAs. 3 TV ! 1' b 2. 4 to 1.. Brcnase the \"dpor press~lres gal !nil\. pre\iously Ibr Si (Eqs. it fi~rn:~ce.13.' 232 Crystal Growth Techniques There are h\o tecl~niques Cmk cqstal growth: tbe C~ocbralski for technique and t h Bdcrnon tt~ltnirpre.~ the Iliglrer \.utJ the liquid k o n ~ r galliutn ric11.L. the first shaping opention is to remove the seed and the otlwr end of t l ~ e insot.twr.. and the boat is made ofgr~pldte.. As the filmam is rno\~e<l tmtuxl the rigl~t. sealed qttartz hlbe s)stem wit11a hvo g:~Ilium tl.. Tlie high-purity arsenic is placed in a graphit$ is n ~ bo:.~w htn~arr c ~ n ~ m ou sld . T B E L2 Equilibrium Ssgmgation Costliciami for Dopant.e~ tllr C ~ o c l ~ d trcltniqor is more popular for the growth of larger-diameter Garb ingob sk For Czochralsk ero\rzl~ galliun~ of arsenide. operation.~ .\lost gallium menide h p \ n by the Brirlpm tecl~nique.. most of the segregation coefficients are less than 1. mnditions.tiNerpst. The l:qtsst flat.~ls\\itl~ diamrtrn rqud toor Lqcr tl1m200mm.t anrl l~eatrrl 610DC 620°C.I ~ L I ~ ~ ~ O ' C ~ ..' x 2. about 1 cm thick. tupn. % Sn Te Cr Fr 0. a small gmove is ground along the lengtll of the insot.I 111oltrn ~ ~ al .. For cyst.. Usuall!: tl~ere the is aseecl placed at the left end ofthe b a ~toestablish aspeeificcqstal ori~ntrtion.0x ~ t r ' 5. nncl a trmpmturr profile of the itln. The expressions derive. Xlolten lmmn trioxide is inert to the galliuni anenide surface and senre w amp to m e r t l ~ melt. Eventually.. 1 rT~ai. the boat is loadrd\rith In a charge of po1ycr)l.aepr.5) are equally applicable to Gals. melt mols at one end. cadmiun and .il 2.. l ~ p p d t T ud freezing (solidification)of the melt allm\s a single cnstal to pmpa.e to the cqstal. one or nlorc fill regionsireplllld along the lm$I~ of the ingot. .5 5. .0 x 10.errrt sot.d \ l l l . thus resulting in a lligllermpor pressllre. mnvertingit intogalliunl arsmide anrl ihr to prevent dnun~position the g~d1i11m of anenide wl~ile is being formed in 111. \vhere. Thr is lmmn tnoude (R.4.ir\rr)i<l.0.1 I x 10. \vlrere the p \ r t h rat? is given I n t l ~ e traversing speed of the furnace.the ori~nlatioli conducti\ih h of the cqskal.. orJa1. cded. the prilnay f i r . .8 I. are Intrad.lc+.talline gallir~m arsenide. in GaAs AL hp. into and of hill.A tllr arsenicrich melt.. nrark tile specific c y t a l orientaih tion of tlir ingot and the ~ ~ n d n c t i \t!yc ofthe inaterid.2 x lo'? 6.. For semiinsulating Gals.it.~lli~tni arsenic. " k.8 x LO-? P P '/P n 18 2. This cap prevents demmposition ofthe gallirlm arsenide a Ion: e a the oressure on its surface is hieher than 1 atm (760 Torr).+t the .r :wnic:mSR. Othcr soiall+r fl:~ts. . I ? ..5. the fieed-silicacrueihlc is replaced with a graphite cmcihle. allows a 111rr11anic1l in automntic p m s s i ~ l g locator equiplnent to pmitios tile \%lfer and to orient the dc. Because boron hioxide ccal 0 di. \rfIlereasthe l~igI~-poritygdliue~ to to is placed in mothe vtphite boat .

e. It l .) IlWI . lmtll sides of tlie \vafrr are laPprd wing a mixture ofAl.lless variations from one rnd to another: and how.~turcs I r rlrfined h? pl~otolitlio~rapl~ic can processes (see Chapter 4).4 Material Charactemation 4 33 -.14 200-1.1 and 41M1-mm i i G in.. t a t r ofpJlinn~ The .i'35 NA m+1 0 i.flats nrr p t ~ n dinsirad.1%).%+ l O.?. r - - I +1 Ssme Sntnc Same Same Samr Sam 24. T. not a?lil8blr 150 m m I. i t r y ~~k~ineter).. specl~lar s~~rface \\here dr\iw fr. alrcl~a~~ical.\ 30 10 NA c3a < LO c a S O 0 )+ I 0 and mntantinated redons can l r ren~o\wl y chemical etching (srr C11:lptrr 5). Howrvcr.) lmlislied silimn wnfers in casr (8 srttes.I%)] r sitr at or a s interstitial site 1i...2 Crystal Characteriza" .lrn (S inr.14 shows 2. surfnce atoms are izicosipletrly Imaderl. in . flats TABLE 2 .65 40-45 25-30 Thr ingot is thrn rrarly to he sliwd hy diamond saw into wafers.3 sllous the specifications for 125.. it 11s defras.70-~nm in. ToLyo.lai Co. 1. Gallium awniclr is a more fnyile material than silimn. r no .) polished silieon wfen in mqrttcr. and 3. a regilar lattice sitr (Fig.hF Figun 213 ldentihin~ on r remimnductor \%afer..g. mines fonr\\:ifrr pa~mrten:ntrfncro~~~ntntio~~l I > or <Inn>):thickr~css O."' Any foreigi atom incorlm~~trd into t l ~ latticv at ritlier a s~lbstitl~tional [i.t. mest~red from the wntrr of the wafer to its rdge.) snrl 400-mm (16 in. the t e c h ~ ~ o l ofgg r o ~ o Ill-V rnnipo~~nds :~<hannrl lixs partly l u c ~ u s of the ad\nncvs in silimli t e c l ~ n n l o ~ . 200. F i ~ r 2.frct. After slicinc. .shlr 2.7l~.'.70-~n~n dilmeter polishcrl silicon aafen from the Srmimndnctor Equipment and Materials Institute (SEMI). Figure 2. .. Furthemiore. wl~icl~ strongly influr~ice electrical. 3 led Monocynallins Silico~ j trim Panmete Diameter (mm) ThicAmcsr (mm) Prima? flat length (mm) Scmndnry flat length (mm) Bmv (ttrn) Total ~hickncss \ariatic Sud-ce oricntntio~? NA. T .l* llOOlp. Slicing deter(e.50. Its porpse is to proxidr n snlooth. Rreadefrcls. \vIiich is the xvnfer thicl. Figure 2. (I'l~.7 tnta.ls is finite: tll~ls.trsrnide technc q r n ...15 sho\rs sewml foniis ofpoint d~fccts.m. tlir wnlr . Altla~nghthr bmic shaping oprration of gallium arsrnidc is es<entiall!.to murtrry oFShin-Etmr Ilrnth. .1511)]is a point dc. behvcen wplzl:lr lattice sites (Fig.L% that for silimn. a m v e marlr on the edce of the \\afer for msitionine and orinitation oumoses. line drfkcts..and \ulutile defects.tE4. c l (e. de-pnding on wifer diameter): toper. opticd prnprrtirs of the sr~t~imnduc the and tor.60.iO.Oj and glyc7 enotl il. There are fourcategories ofdefects: point defrcts.2.Ti5 9A 55-m 35-40 N. Crystal Defects A real c ~ s t a (sacl~ a silicon wafer) dilfen from the ideal end in iniportant \\.. \vIiich is the surf:lcc conatllre of the \Vafrr. is wl~tivrly primitiw mrnplwl with that of silicnn. grratrr care mu hc rscmsel ill gallium arsrnidc \\:+lr pr~pac~tion.~. A mrntionrrl pmiowly for l a p q s t a l ( 2 2M .I:S.The find I step of nafrr shaping is polishing.i 1%+1 0.g.. A missi~~gatoln the lattiw creates avac:1119also mnsidrretl :I point dcfect (Fik 2.

particularly itlllwrt.m~rnl\.reue6 with decreasing telnpmh~re. 2.ltore.~nt subjects i t l ~ e e t i n ofod(l. respecti\~ely. host lattice.tnd (IrNt~r~on h proxsres." Precipitates of impurities or dopant atoms m&e up tile fonrth cl. Sl~cln (lefrch aplpnrd~~rine. a s called a dislocntion. thr aachne wnucnrrofnu aton~ic .r\im~~~n mncentntion allo\ved hy its soluhilih at a given tempemture. An ednplane ofatoms AB is inserted int e the lattice.r.~~ . tllnn 10' mmpnnrnts. In Fiprre 2 ." The soluhilih of most i~npurities (~r(. Thr rcshtitih is III~UIIWIly th~fm~r-p~irlt 1nt~t~ln1. the \ululnr nlislllatcll behveen the host latticc and the precipitates resalts in dislor. There is a s p ~ ~ i f i c in a soli(l solution of itself and the inlpurih.ttion . it is an extrinsicstacking ranlt (Fig.16 (0) Edge nntl (h)screw cssloration formationin cubic cnrt. the defect is rdlrd an intrinric stacking fault (Fig. \vlliclt is referred to as el:rn/n~~~-~rn/r irl:rgmlioa (ULSI). The line of the dislocation \auld be perpendicular to the plane of the p.~riotamptltnls.lib). 'In t h c .nlt. that the lrost lattice cm x m p t . l i the sequpnce of atoms in the stack is ABCARC . 2.~<< defeas: colof Iriiled/ccls.. Figure 2. The scre\rsdislocation may ire mnsidered as being produced by cutting the crystal p#art\vaytl~mugh pushing the upperpart one lattice spacing over. is tl~e. If a part of layer missing. ~. d )FrrnlteI-h~x defect.4 mmpares silimn chandrristin md the r~yuirenlcnts forillte~ltc(1 cimiit trdlnolo9 I~nving rron.o represents a change in the c y t a l orientation acro plane. c? ~ ~~~ (a) 61 la) Figure 217 Stacklng kalts in srmicond~xfor Intrinsic stxljnq Fault ihl Edrimic ctcklng fi. .\?nus temperatrw for a mrieh of elements in silicon..pde dexice performwcr." There are h\." FigM 215 .170). imd the cpstal is then cwkd to n lonvr tralper.4 C ~ I be I n~r. and Line defects in desices are unclesinhle bemuse they act as precipitation sites for me.an eqailibrion~ st:ttr I precipitnt! . The neb class of defects is the line defect. by l~ndn.Jv t 1 ~.. T ~ i defects are h d and grain Lmuntlaries. Figure 2. ~ ~ . Figure 2.4 host atom that is situated behveen regular lattice sites and adiacent to a vacancy nlled 3 Fwnkeldrfed ~ F I Z .age. as shmtn in F i p r e 2. rrlntionslt~p tonne motla. hlntetial Properties Tal>le2.\nother 3n.18 sho\\s solubilit\. \&ch mayde. iran imparit!.16a is a schematic represer tation ofan e d ~ dislocation in acuhic lattice.~nrkir~pfo~tb ~ drfw.cnst. ~ ~ ~ .1511. A m drf&f~r e p e n t a large-area dircontinaih in the lattice. Thesr topin arr mnsirlerc(l in Chnpte~ 3 and 6.IL lic impurities.(a) 6. ( 0 ) St~I>stitutional impuriy (b)Intemitial impurity (c) httice \ l e n n ~(. lmpr ~intrrnln ir . ing the iolpurih atoms in excess of the sohhilih Ir\vl.tlr? (c) (d) Point defecb. Cqstals having these area clefects are not usahle for integrated circuit nlanllfachlre and are discarded.:161. Thus. lo hpes of dislocations: the edge and screw types.. is intmduml to thc n~.*.. If an e d n plane A is inserted behvees layers R and C."" The remimlaludor mntrrial prolwrties listed in Tcahle 2.ltio!~s. These defects arise beause of the inl~errnt roluhilify of the irnpurih in the mncpntmtion of iolporit). Ilo\\?\rr.a cIr m . 2.. A gelin houndan isa tmsition behveen cly~tals havineno particular orientati. the cnstd can only achirvr . Point drfrcts art.Such delects rnay appear during cnstd gro\\th. ?icinnin.

UKI Up to 100 I.tn~innlioncan ~nini~nizcd using p p h i t r crucibles for by melt grovll~. For Bridgman Club cl).alerials o f g a l l i ~ ~ n ~ arsenidr are 11ea\ily(vnlitniinat~~l by the cn~cihle.lsc5 its resistiuity Oxygen mnt.cles can he wed to promote t l ~ ionnation ofoi?xen prrcipitatrr r in tltr interior o f t l ~ \ r ~ ~ ffor getteringof impnrities. <bstortinet l ~ c resisti\itv of the c n s t d caused h\f intrntional doninr.%10 0. TIIPprpsrnw ofnrlwn is ~~ndesirahlr 1 1 r 1m a aos w e formation of clefrcts. 15 Sltrfac* flihtnerr (pm) 55 Ilr!:lry!netnl intpltrities (ppltn) 51 ppma. This lo\vers the oyo.I.~rhon m ~~t and nton ill ~ilicon m ~ p y n suhmh~tional laltirrsites.h p (ohmentl Hcsisti\4h (Inran)p . For integrated circnits or for discrrte MESFET devices.en due to the solubility rffvct can l i w d for x gettering. the precipitates ofo. p r F r znlllmn atom$ ppha parts p r billton atoms. cu~ wnt ~ip~hilitirs mwt inmtoftl~e d r r rpffificltions listed in Tahle 2.ltr-pint pmlr) (%I !4isolity m~rricrlifc.19.OILi-50 5-10 XJ-300 144M 20 ..3. undoprd gallil~n~ en id^ n n be used . manyi!npm\v cm u ~rirnts nrrdrd to satisfy the rtrincent requirements for ULSl t e c h n o l ~ . o In addition.cnztals is The galb~rr~r nhoat hvo onlen of mapit~zdr Itigher than that for silimn.g.1-1 5 .02 5-50 and np <I -'. the StartillR tnntrrial with a rrsisti\it).I <I Up to 300 <5 <S c 55 5 0.st. the dislncation <lensityis abut an or<brrof m . has 11otl1deleterious and kneficid eflects. 500 Diameter (mm! Up to 200 Slim Imvfpm) 52 5 Slice laper (pm) I. q e n in an interstitial lattice site can increasr the yield strength of silicon. assl~oun the inset of Rgrrc 2.1 9 (nhm. Oqpen is an ondesir. l~and. c. The depth of the defect-frre zone e er depends on t l ~ e time and tenlprratrlrc of the tlkcnnal nl?.00.&Li~dr ~otvn GiAs cn~tnls. It can act as a donor.~ls.yp. oygen evaporates from the surfam.clcand on the diff!~ri\ih ofon.en mntent near thc surC. gen in silicon. 105O'C in S. \vhicl~mntlibutcs to a trapping rba%p in the balk of the substrate iu~d incrr.ace. hle.' It ic ts i possible to obtain Czocl~mlsLi cqstals of silimn that are \irtnaIly frrc of dislmtions.). 15 Unifom c~mln>llnl <(). for pl~otonic appliwtions.W-UKI Sot cktcdnl 0. Getfenng is :I general terlll nleaning a proct*ssthat removes harrnf~~l inlpurities or defects iron>the rr$on in a svafer \vltere de\ices are fahrimted.. .~hle implllityis C : k Lrcal~se a n fonn aclffpdonor it level. moct wq~tirelnrnb forhca\iIydoped cidl materials (brhveen 10'' and 10'" cm-'i. On the other .lime ips) Ox>xcn ipp~nitl 0. Comtnerci:d melt-sro\\m n. O I M 5-25 Carlxm (ppmal 1-5 DisLrntion (lrfom processing) ( v r c ' m) I.19. tlmvever.lc anrl t m n p r t nfclrhon to thr mrlt fmtn t l ~ ~ x p l u t srLurptor d~~ringciytnlv t l r e p T t p i d nlartmn ~enwntrations g e from 10'"to a l ~ o IO"ato~ndcn~'. an of 10"R-cm./.nidt.cn~) Renirti\ity pndicnt (fi. Ppical oqxen mnmntrations range fmm 10'' to 10'' ntomslcm'. \ \ l ~ r nthe safer is sn1)jrcted to 11islr-temperature treatnlent (e.~ct!rrd r r s ~ ~ lfor the den~tdedzone nrr sl~o\\n n F i y r e 2. 25 I. t ~ n i t ~ lower than that for C. clisloc:~tioncontent for C~ocI~~~lsld-grn\m arsr. 0.01 I <(IIX)I :u~rl tnaw impurities stlc11n<o x y p and carbon in silicon n n be wal!7rrl by the secondat ~ ion mms spwhmmpic (SIXIS) trchnigtr d r s c r i k l in Cl~apter Note that dthoogl~ 6.24 Material Characterization 4 07 TABLE 24 Cornpariron ol Silicon Material Chanmerlulm dRaqulmntr lor UlSl CI~:~mcl~ti~lim Hesirtibity (antimony)t t . ho\ever. " :arc Thr ni?:ca and n r l m ~ ~ cnncrntrations irrr s~~hstantially liigl~er Czocl~rdsld in cq: talc than in floiat-zonr cr)stak 1wn11srofthe dissnl~~tion o y s e n from the silin c n of el.f~1t-0.' in Additional thern~al c!. L 7 . Oygen.. The treatrncnt creates s defect-free iorden~lded) zone for dmiw fabrication.ochr.

sand (Si0.r .Hmtion PHlltil. l t the mrclts~timl.. It.111~trr that en he nrpp. ~l r ~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ~ 13. and 15 cni fmm the surd in n silicon Ingot 50 em long that hm h r ptollrd fmm n molt \\ith an initial loping ~n mncerttratior>of 10'' mn-'.-Phorplooms Dqinqof Silimn by 5lraaof X'ulnln lrrxli.hrrcn imron aloms. \I..scyl in tllr c ~ ~ I .ris.Phnn.. ChsndLi. Elmirr Cipnw 13. 3.m t h t nonrr:rll\. Ed \7. ED-23.r.rsuitll a s p i f i e d cliam~trr. SnvSnr4. is 2 x I@ ptcm'. S.11~that arc . 'Silimn Cr)\ld* for Cim-Ril Snlr Intr~ntios: InT.n: Tmnl €l<nrun Dnlws.n to a snvall dio~n..CA. must sqtuan' n n t i a l r t r r .. ( h e r W% of silicon c n s t a l a r e prepared I I ~ this twllniq~le.p m c r s s itn~dh ~ I is ~ ~ nwktrl dm..n milormly distril.ttttrc. ileG.m. 1..n . Tllis chapter a l u ~ disrtrsa.4tl. Lnndnn. F I k .to i. K. :\notl>rr trchniclae is 1111 Rridcm. S i n d r cnstals of Gar\s m a rd w n n l hytlie (:znclindsh ltrl~niqw=. ~ y p ~ f i ~ n ~ e t ~ IrI P is r swrczation co(.ttr the il~syirnun~ lm@h of r silimn isgot 1(Xl 111111 in di. 7. O111t~r imlwrl.wltirlr urrs a hrrrzorlr hrn.51 ctnd Trrl$ndoc!.. 2IKI-!nm silicon \vairrs for a M O S F E T falrriration linr sl~otlld 11:nr :i ilinmctcr rrf?rNl t 1 mm.plc. BIO. \vhal is lhr . h l . s~. ~ n o t h r . 205 1 ISCS):8 .AnnacnlamSllu. S Llmuller.nlrd in n ~ h s t i h ~ t i oritrs.ohtained frorl~ C.s wltere I~ip11-rcsistivih materiais arc rrquirecl.enriched \\it11 th? dopant . n d surfno p a oricnl.n. 19%.ation of a m n i c at distancvs of 10. *Cylsl Crcm.r~~v-Illll. u. > ~ ~ t l ~ e ~tioz form pn$cnstallinr C. In silicon. E.r. Dlvrin: c n s t ~ l ~ o \ r t h the dopnnt in the c n s t a l \till r r d i s t r i h t ~ t A .y. \\'en 9.11~ \\il. IVI5 n. Plop Chml . clcfcrts..llill.41 ntgofhn. 3. dislrmtion ~ l r n s i ~ y hr 1c. Slllnd Scmlmnrltddor TrJ8ndqY..Lsnnnr s 1t.~li. ~ l lI.rl solidilicatioa of the melt for .e~ ~ . b PROBLEMS SECllON 2. I t offrrs lmvcr cont~ taminatior~tlt.mmprition o f (:~L.mt to find the drnsity of rilim. l i n ~ r.ri$ in a CxoclmilrLi ppellrr.lt.thickr~css.tnrl . \ICCW. \IGm~~~. F ~ j r tllr more clrln:tn<ling LiLSl :~l>plirntions.ntralion in :aluslr'cm' ~~n md 11. r\. 2.5 SUMMARY Se\r. El-Krrrh. (l~. orirntzti tmn oi I ( Y j l i 1''. T JOT Srmimnduaor Imlurtry Anacl~linn. .-Brll Syn Twlr m 3 .r Pn. 'Solid Snluhilitier oflrnp~dty .1: SILICON CRY-AL CRO\\TII FRO\l THE MELT 1..~tovns~on'. 1IF)I \bl.0L R.d \I. \I: Pr. b REFERENCES I. Sr. 28.ml rrqltirrmrnls a r c lislrd in Td.. 2. fJ.n tln. D. 10. Yvrk.ag T<cbnnlog. lrLS1Tmhnd ! l ' ~ l t " . . C. F A.Sinw most of tlrr cwflicienh arc I s $ t l ~ : u1. (1. Tui.l is n ~ r to p n x l l ~ c c d pol!.W&. S.For r~. Tllrir s w i l . . ?0. .i n t w ~ t c rirnrits. U c lcl the Awgadrn mnst. Elrmmt~ Crnnanitm md Silime.t!~. . 5.pr. Iiull.tmount of hnmn t l ~ l mtul p l h. Plt~mmrr. \< Ilm-rn. S.'. Ed.m prr~r. ScaSork ID.II~II. C.4.K1tnrr.flicirnt.td<lcrlto prt thr lx. Tnmmhorc..(1)Calmlstc the nditls of n rilimn alom.rAs.. \'LV F01.725 . \lit% SCW I!W. it llsuzdl? S w s thmlr~h a:ifrr-sllapinS operations t o five a1 t%n<l r h l c t of hieI11\ polished n~tI. 8 . ~ 1 %.8" ahm onr-htlf of the ingot is p \ n P 4.vd-rphrre m<xlrl. cJcal.llrrnolulu (1996l. 8.sq.tm. Plot the d~rpinsdistril.) Delrrnrin~ drnsily of rilic~nn the atoms in . Arlhur. 5Ims. that is. 1%. a l i q u i d e n n p s ~ ~ l n(n t. g . Conalfafina"[Biwry A&nlr.2c 111r cnstal m\\s.-bpor Prrssumr and Pha<cEqullihria in lhr C d s S>slcm~].dly p u r r <allit~m :v I < and arsenic a r c used a<the starting mn ri.\rtt.i. 6.01 mln.yr dirlntrr ix. :I t l t i r b ~ r c s oflJ. C.r.n. ?MI. IV(15. \\:+fin v i t h diarnctrrs I n r ~ r than 200 nlm .ni . Rnrton. Y Sfnlnrdlitr.~cv grathl. m:tt~.itia~cdislmti~.Sol*.7 r m d of Silimn Suhslmlc Trchnoloxicr for 0'5 pru Dnim. PIdy* O J S ~ ~ M ~ .cnstallinr silicon.\s at tlw pm\vtl~ tpmpw.~tinn. silimn \eafer I mm lltick 1n:lrinp a diameter of 11K)rnm ronln~inr \ 5.as. F~~ndn. J. c A. \\ilr): Sw Sol*. 3 \\'. 2.lriclt l h ~ sen?s n a tllc nta. 12. I'l's3. C.71.Imn*r. the Isttiw mnrhnt is 5.~lp n p rrlirs o f t h r s r m i ~ o l l d l ~ d oTlwsr clrfrcts arc p i n t rlrftctr.mhralslj t r c h n i o t ~ eFloat-zone cn5tlw .lllon'sl~rl-Eplt*r): in.nv-llill.3.r t i cn-la1 is gro\\n.~sorli I(M. ~.d has clckcts l l ~ a i s f l ~ ~ e n w elc~utric. d ~ lrlelt lrconles r ~ e pmfrrscivrI\.) the . I!r51.r g a ~ i l tir c l t ~ ~ i q foresilicon ic t h r float-zone prncpss. s w d c n s t a l x i t l l the desired orientation is s tlrerl to ~v n l a q e incot fmm the melt.&.. . R. Iriolr-\alla<r (1c~drr.ron-dolxd silimn to hnre r resirtivity~~fO.. 2 T Ah. chrmic. t h r ratio of t h r dopant m n c r n t n t i o n in l l ~ o l i d to that in tltr 111eIt.Ire lwing man~lfactorcd r for futt~n. R. 2nrl Ed.r. Asuming that a 1O. pltkl Rrf~mnm ~lnnaaiJorEnglnrm.V. Sw 4 \\'.k~ a n silimn c h . m t i o n < a r e l i ~ l ~ in! Tahlp 2.\rr.~l. Edc.linly for hiell-po\vc. and R.rts. R!m)sn. st~clt d.d trc$nirI~ws inxilahlr to p \ v single cnstals of silirnn a n d gallit~m arc menide.)idd stnm!tl~ .Ilondlmln r Smtimndt~rc~~n..ns 1 p r r 1111. tals a r r (llrnl nl. 5lcC.5 m.nnl hy stnelt r XYYI.?vnInlr oJSrmlconrlr. :~nd optir. W:3119761. S. trr (5. Sm Jou. . To mk G& . 5.\\.) is requi I c to pn-vcnt cl8. 225: Il~X. &nr ilrlrlnp. I. 'Thr lr~lmmllnnnl r r l l d o p l Rmdrl1~111 SO)tIrndt~do~~.Problems 4 39 A r r i ~cr)rt.Ao&~~uie.. arc. :~nd \nlclna. For silicnn mst:ll<.frcc p ~ i l n Iftllr critinl.lFind ( a ) dlr lnron mnn.dor Fmrrr(. 9 Stlimn.43 A. cMtd . . \\?It7 S~rnv Sol*. .30.<l trtcans t o nrinimin. q c is e s d . P r q ~ ~ H i n ~ f C ~ r l o N i n r ISSPEC.Pnx.Yd:r.a silicol..let.1...I snrLrct.\\' n..ii.

SM'C. ir 20%.\illae for k. Rot11 gate and field asides genenll!.d. ( X r r 01'5 N+I.kl silimn n-cltannel XIOSFET tlrat lrsrs d l four p u p s of films.t a sclie~natic \imv of a mn\.n."' \%here k rhc atomicdtm"tyof silimn (em"). polycr)ddlinc silimn. 0.agrr for the mnvmtionnllydopd si clrn and the nrutmn.1 eV and ertirnat ihc d the <b. 4 ~ R M l l O N 14.. 4 u d c r perimeter . Fmm F i ~ m ifC..1 1. whidi pm\i(les isolation from otl~er e devices. S E C n O S 2.n ah~upt.10.~i.jtmdiovt dicdcs we iabtinted tising the silimn mncridr sbovn in F i p 2 Y. ~ n . The eqtzilihium derityof\rr. dlr - 0. g.hveeo t h ~ source and t l ~ drain. A related layer is the firlrl odrle.fertdcntih at 27'C and IXnDC. Figure 3.~frr than at its pvrinwt S E ~ O 2 SluCON FLOAT-ZONE PROCESS N : .nd2 l .4: S1ATERI. Fmm Fimm 2. 9. .yImntrati~n x 1U"cm~'.rl h do+ ~ i t h>mn\\It)..t pt!rifva silicon inpt that r~mtains uniforn ydliun~ o a .lrt ~ i t c/c. 1 1c. inclt~~lingtl~cnndoddcr.t nu at .n mnrrnlntion isrg h at tllr i. i ~fc.myn. Am~me e n e r p of fornation (E. llmv many chips of m a 4M mm' em k placed on a wafer 3M mm in dinmctcr? Explair !our arsumptionr rrganlinq the chip shape and t t n u . E. dielectriclayen.1 slio\r. formc~l *ln. e~l~rilihrirnm Thr density ofFrrnke!-hpe defca! giwn by "..lcnv5 x 10" cm"? is Silicon Oxidation hlmy difTcrent kin& of thin films arc used to hhricnte discrete dr\ires m d i n l e p t e d Orc~~its. is thc enewof formation Calmalate n. This chapter m v e n the follmsining topics: The thermal oddntion process used to fonn silimn dioxide (Si0:) Inipurit).) of a F r e n k c l .p.. in rilimn at 2i°C. .I.lkTj.U C 1 l N i ..3: G M S CRYSTAL GRO\Wli TECHNIQUES 12. $\hem N is the densit rrmimnd~rctor atoms and E.dlium wnwntntion h. is giwn by N exp(-E. \Guu the flwt-mnr pmm. find the pncntilqr ch.uli~tdsilicnn. 13.3 r!'. \\hat fme(ion of thr liquid will remain at T ? 2. arr p n by a thennal oxidation p m r s s lwcause only tl~crmal oddation can provide t l ~ hi~hestq~ndity r oddcs I~a\ing lowest tile interface t n p densities.. trh.h ~ e f m to be 1. rrplain \vhy ihc C:L* liquid alu-a!~ hcromes gdlium nich.~ CI~\PAKV the rrrulting g.under \vl~iclla mnduding chmnel can In. md I2MVC.=@t-~.n m3. I I..ul r ~ x of the m-td than at the scwl i. redistribution during oxidation hlaterid properties and tl~icknness mensuremmt tecl~nir~ues SiOi films for 10. n i p first important Illin film from the thertnal oxide grot~p is thr g:lte oxide in)~r. " ' 16.3.dLr I and 2 >\it11k.cntion. is the innputin mnrrntr~tionIsqt-r in the cvntcr of the s. ~ h ~ (-nrl. is the lw. m I$ find the C/C. 15... and X'is the density of awilnhle intea X tid s i t s [em-') is represented by A" = I x I F c and ' 'Tcm". Ifpr. = 2.05 in the Cznchdsk tmhnirlac.<<solme E. SECTlON 2.tngc (of hmskdmw~ \nlt.One pss ir mndr with . and mrt:~l fils~s.irr.I moltrt>zone 2 cm long.

18 m'/mol 221 glrm' Sinoe 1 mol of rilimn is mnvrrted to I mol of rilicon dimide.tinecl. : ~ ~ hrnullq . 1cIcm'.~1 oxidation apparatus is shown in Figure 3. EXAMPLE 1 If n silirnn nddr layer of thickness x is Lmnnn 11sthrrmal oxidation. . For cdli. n- internuclear distance is 1. . tlris clmple m . Srn.1tion of silicon.imn.nsitirs anti molrrul. t ~ .la. lt i s l keyp-s~ in n ~ o d e n ~ silimn intrgrat~dcircoit tcclmoluv.lit~drid ~ l ..1. to increa. \ \ l ~ r n silicon is t h e d y ovidized.ise..crd cqstalline stnlrtlrres (e.~. ~ THERMAL OXIDATION PROCESS lW oddized by .yoq$en bridges in a \?riehof\\TI>5 tu fonn the various p11.uh 1m:tt.ll inrul.. .nrumed.e.lf~ en: ~ t ~ .itiot~ prow<<.1are joined at tbeirmmen I. l ~ cb.67 girm' for qaartr.3).? pmfidP prrlfftric.09 g/rnol :~nd C/cm'.~ ] .~tion w n ~ i c o ~ ~ d usurf.3. m n r m t ~ t t onc the thermal od11. I . cL7tioo {stem uses micmpmcesson to replate the gas flmv sequenm.and the denity ~ r Si is 2 . Flmv is dirrctrd as sho\\n by the arrmv in Figure 32 The.n :Inenide. This creatrs 11 frrsh i n t e d ~ r region.n Ix.. compared nit11 2.. ~ ~ ~ thern~$o s i h ~ t i results in g e n e d l y no~stoid~iu~netric \. o~~ RIIII! TI.. . Thickness of Sixarea .. 3. ~ i m t i o n.lnt ~nl fi.I.1 Thermal Oxidation Process 4 ID b 3.a sity of "2.. o p v a silicon diooac l. and to n m p t l ~ temperature down \vl~en to r oxidntia is mmplrtvd. and a soclm of either pure (I? o q g c n o r pur uatrr\-npor Thr loadinr: rnrl oftllr fum:~ce t k protrudes into a wriical flourhood \viler h filtrrr.ies or stntctures of silimn dioxide (also ridled siliro).r. quiutz) and an anlorphor~s stmcturc.\idCI aw nrPI!.tmplc to shmnv tlrat gro\ving an orhlr of tltirknrss x consunles a layer of silirwn 0. m n s ~ ~ m nThe inoln~tlar l? weight o f Si is 25. t~tnperature the osidation temperatut to wr that tht. l l ~ r n ~oddation is I)? far the Itlost imprl.i>rral 11x1nln. 2.nd pl.~.1 .9 g/m/mol. T)pic.1 g/cmi.06 cm'/mo~ Dznrityof Si 2.~~~ EOC .\irl.-to-oq'ge~~ internucleardihu~cr 2.md the hpid gas flow rate b shout 1 Wmin.. 5..l flmr.srious methods.q up on tI~r osi~l? s~lrfaw.what is t l ~ v thickncrs ofnlicl. . to mmp the temperature up (i. .9"mol = 12. .q tube a ~ u ma f ~ containing the silicon w d e ~ hrkl t r r t i d l ? in a slotted qu.~rv r i c l ~ rrf ilimn anrl sili. For c~xmple.nsih of SiO.rcma-~nl~anml a m i d wpor deposition (PECVD.1 Kinetics of Gmwth The follm\+ngrhrmical reactiom describe the thermal oddation of silicon in o x e n (I oddation) or \rater \apor (\vet osih?tion): Si (solid) + 0.llly an~orphoos silia~ 1sden1 .4 t 4 a I !r of W nm of rilinrn is w.i?i(.'The reactor mnsbi of a y p s i ~ t ~ I I ~ t .tint..or.r thick (Fig.2. Tlre Oxidation trmper.. T r \ t con dioside are use11 in tl~r follon.~ a t ..t * R#om 32 Schematic m wiion ofa nristanrr-heated oddation filmace . aitll sudacr contamination on t l ~ orictinal silicr..\'olumc of l mol of Si Thicknrsr uf SiO: xarcn \'olameof l mnl of SiO. haxl duct-sdust and particulate matter in the air surrounding t h e n & n :md mir itnizes oontamination durine \\-afrr loading. Silica h:i se\.. to contml the auk matic inwrtion and remmd of silicon \\dbrs..~.~l. 0.an. ~tllrsr n r t h a l s . .xclfrn \rill not \ r q due to sudden tenlpenture change.6 A. The s i l i m n ~ i l i w n dioddc intrrfaw nlovrs into tlle silimn (luring the orirl. Dc. (gas) + SiO? (solid) Si (solidl + 2H10 (gas) + SiOI (solid) + 2H2(gas) ( (1 'Ihiekmesofsilirnn = 0 4 (tbicknnr dSi0.ing vr. The ox . tile hlrnaw trmpenture linearly) from a lo\\. to maintain the ox &tion t r ~ m p n h r r e within +1"C.~~ in ~ d l i u m e n i d e t r c l l n o l o ~ Consequently.~ture generdly i is the m e c of9M'C to 1 O ' .M). ~ basic thenn. cl .r silims dr\im.ir.21 SOLUTION The wllrnrnc of I mol of silimn i~ Molecular weight of Si 2R. EJlal0.accprntection: h r n n and dor ~ t . and the oqge~e.h9 glmol =27.33 g/em' Thr \nlt~mc 1 rnol of silicon dioxide is of Molrmlsr wcicht of SiO. These include thermid oxidation.44.IO. f The roncsponding \alurr krr SiO?are Cfi.~urton . is These tetra11edr.n r r en(1in.zir is m. the silicon diodde structare is an~orphous.

<.4 (01 R:~sir\tn!rtnrd unit of silimn dinedr. . rrlnti\el?open stmatt.kicn hmlimensional schematic dism. for oxidation in d v oqsen is 2. nrld add one oqxen molrcule (OJ to each silimn &oxide molecule.C2DC. At 1000'C and at a pressure of to :ttm. TI1 in a for ~namlit~~cle rqtjlls tlcc equilihri~~m concentration of the species nt the oxida of C.I=-(rtr) (71 h. Fipre3.mIrr. of silimn.L?srxli~~m)enterand diffiw readily tl~rnug n (sucl~ to tlw silims~ ~liosicl~~ la. = Fl = F Combining Eqs. The rqllilihri~~m mncentmtion gr~~erally is proprtiorial to the palti. balk tion tr. is given I]? F:=< wrrpst~nl:tlion s of Kgun 3. (1. 4 is quitc oppn 1m11se 43% of the spqw is ~ I 3 ~ only pirrl I>? silirnn dioxide moleo~les. tIw mnc~mtr. for In then.) T~~wlimensh~nal . is the initid oxide tl~ichmess: can also he r e g ~ r d d the thicLness of oxide layer (1.tv4rvz cnxt. the fllu F. 2 0 ZDC. Therefore. ' for The oxi~lizin~ i r s diffi~sesl ~ m ~ ~ c h yc t the silicon dioxide Ia!pr.hewas we add htv \rater molecules (H:O) to r. rc~s!t~tin~ srldacr cnncentratinn of C. at dlII.atcr vapor./~)C.1 Thermal Oxidation Process 4 45 Figurn 3. At tl~e stead? state.w-r aln-arl!.. the arnornhous sm~cture. is still :a lentleny to frmn cha~~cteristic !vitll six silimn atoms.<lrrrpreseotatinn of tllr nmorpl.. res~~lting a mn in c~~ntratinn :tt tlw sttrfam.r.i<lr.<I latfirv (rlT\mdimcnsion.. Tl~t~s. accounts for the lo\c~rden The sih and :~llmrr mrirhof imp~~rities . can he \\7ittrn a C~ c I The reactior~ the oxididng species ~4t11 of silimn fonns silimn dioxide.3. CI I I I I ~ afl~ere e (d 5 + ZDd.2 x 10"' molmulerlcni' for dry oqyen and 3 x 10' C.1111 ~ I I Iamoml~o~a of stnlctirre sl~o\\n m~nnariron. Thcrr am 2. and for oddation in water v a p r it is hsice this nomher (4. .2 x 10" silimn dioxide molwaledcnl" in tllr oxide. the oxidizing species mcts cl~emicaaly\~th silimn. . C. Eiqtn? 3.' A silimn rlicr mntacts the osidizinp species (oqxen or \rate \npur'l. 6 )ielrls the general wlationship for the oxidation of silimn. Assuming the rate of reaction is proportional to t11c concentration of the sppcies at the silimn rurface..ous stntcturr of silirnn . n~o!en~lrdcm' these sprcies. molrr~~lrJcni \v.4 x 10'cm-'). niolecule. Solving Eq. gmtth nte of the the oxide layer thiclinrss is given by \\'e om solve this diKerenti$ eqlmtion s11hjrc-lto the initid condition.tcl~ SiO. \!..5.. x(O) = d. wlticl~ r represents a time modinarc shift to ~ for the initial odd" l : q ~ dv r The oxide thicknrss after an oxidi7jng time f is @wn hy - 7 \vltem D is tltr difft~sion cwNicknt ufthr oxididnx Species.d)is. and x is the thickness of the mirlr 1.lr.lc~nt the oside srtrf:lo?.: (c) At the silicon surface.lricdifTrrencehrh\w~l cnstallinr and nmorphous struch~m that the fol e the ic nirr ic a primlir stn~ctun. %\llere rl..t-. Let C.~tinn is 5.5 Raic mdcl for the thermal avidatinn of rilimn. be the rntmher of molecules of the oxidizing species in a unit volume of the oside. prrsrot. Tltr flclr F. a grown in an earlier oxidation step.edmdingover nlan~molrmles. F.\vI~erex~h e r has noppn the nlir anniIln.' (4) \rrllere xis the sudxe reaction nte mnstant for odrlation.\ h~vdzner~401d wllen~atic i i m ofaqllartz cqstdlind ctnlctum nurle upof rinqs witll sixsilimn atoms. Tlir hinrtics of tl~ernlal oxidation of silicon mn he studied hated on a simple md~lc illnstnted in Figure 3.l.~r. 3 and 4 gives T l ~ h.lttlrc-.2 x 10" cm-'. Sote that the rings dmnlpho~~s stnlctnw in Fig~re . pnsntrr of thr okidaflt ntlj.


lg of lil!vr 01.= ..madclitiosi~l oridation tin)? of d: + A4. W)C. i r . mnsiderably more time is required to grow the same oxide tl~ickness a given temperattlre in at d n a n r e n than in\\. = 0 196 pm fmm thr fin! rtcp.12 Thin Oxide Growth R e l ~ t i \slow Cro$vllbmtrs nwst lrr used to repmltlcihly ~ r n uthin mid? filllls of pw~l~ . 11. For relatively thin oxides s u c l ~ the gate oxide i n a blOSas FET (hpi~111y S2O nm)." Under a gives oxidation mn~lition. Siccon Oxidation 3. oxide thickmcss grown on a (111) suhstrate is largt-r than that grovn tlre on a (100) suhstrate l m u s e of tlte larger linear rate const'mt of the (111) orientation.. 11. such X\.I. \vr ohtain an odde thickness of r = 0. i n (IO. Using these panmcten in Eq. (a) \%at in the thickness of the oxide pmn? (h! Ilm~. for thicker oxides such as field oxides (220 nm ) i n SIOS integrated circuits. o q x e n h a w the best elearical properties.c~icll' fillnSn. l pm more oddc in \ b e t 0 2 a t 1200''C? SOLUnON (a) Fmm r = 0.' . to surlt inclu1]inxgma*l. dr).mt~ch additional timc is required t o p 0 . \re haw r = (di +2D4.2.8 shm\s the e v r i m e n t a l results of silicon dioxide tlrickness as a function of reaction time and tempratare for h\v substrate orientations.045 pm'h and r = 0. the \dtler of the rate constants for wet 0: at 1200°C are A = 0.72 unlZ/h . s o\idiinx sprcil.Althoud~ oxides p \ m in dr). Odhlion finsr r ~ r r (h) Figura 3.s IstN"C 10 at g m 0 c ) :pro. . and for bipolar debices. or He. F i p r e 3. nt 1200'C for 1 hour.0.A = 0. oxidation is used.lsisti. Ilsisg lhrre pann1c.76 h = 4. \w A $limn smple is oddiad in dry 0.196 pm (hr Fmm Tahlc 3.48 F Chapter 3.2.s: and thr usr ofcr.a111en o\-rrli~yer SiO: Sro\\n I>! of B = 0.ic thickmess s a fimrtion of rraction time rnd mrults tcmpcr~ture two n ~ h r ~ n l r for orirntatinns.a in Eq.~tc. Sine .: grn\til~ rr(111d in p~rtiill Ar. oxidation in water \apor (or steam) is used to pmridr both adequate isolation and passivation. . I?\.h. losctlt~.027 h.r prrssurrs of^. i n ) Crwtih in d ~ a y ~ ~ h Grcmth i n slrrm.05 um B = 0. 0: inmosphrric prcssare and lo\v~. lhr %alaes the n t c constants for d ~ 0 at 12009Care of y: .lmrtcd.~.n~~msitr tllr. the oxide film obtained usinswet oxidation is a b u t 5 to 10 times thicker than that using dry oxidation.1 Thermal Oxidation Process 4 40 IMOlTiK-1) Fipun 3.ater tapor.tl.. Xotr that for a given t e m p m h l r e and time. -it11 lhv 3dilarnt incl-t g. midr films. cise tllichrss. m l . tlwrnnlly grn\\n SiO. obtain . PDC.01 pm 3. + 0. \\it11 thr q.1 ilm = Oe96 film. \T:lrionsapproacl~es a c l ~ i ~ w slo\v p a i l l n t r s 11mrbwa rt. nt tllan ilttn~spl~cric prrsst~n.1. However.53 nbin 4 Tahlc 3.8 E ~ ~ ~ i m c n l a l oisilimn di06. m n t ~ .rtrl1qwntan.067 h B - ~h~ final drdnrl t l l i c ~ e sis = (1.7 Parabolic n t c constant versm temperature.

in n Fo~rr pos. For eu~nmle. I n gmop I . sn~all \w GIII nrgIect the Ann that in Eq.~ceconcentntion will nnodib tllc tl~reshold volt:tpe and deiire contad resirtancr. t ~ fusion rwflktmt ill :.onrnach its strrss-free wltte.ur rnnv n~nnrlt~cihlr.2 IMPURITY REDISTRIBUTION DURING OXIDATION Dop:mt impurities nrlr the silicon s11rfacx2\\ill Iw redistrihut~d during thermal oddation Thr m l i ~ t r i h ~ ~ tclrpntls on sc\. 10-nm It $)is nntrd t. pmpn?. Pdcporition ofdopu!ts usehl (see Chapter fi). ~ In c.the sirnplc mwlrl d.~trly tr.~cll. apprn. thickst~ss of nholtt 20 nnt. .wge of the snrf. \ \ l ~ c ndiffusion is thmugh the silicon dioxide is rapid. In m a r .tril>~ttr<l 3 lawer volamr.' n ~ c wm s s e s in p mn in.. in active.it11 the cliffa~sinn of the impurity thn1p11t l ~ e mtr oxide is important in r l ~ l ~ n n i ntllr ~ t e n t of the N-<listribr~tion..? ion ilnplantation. the impurih piles up near t l r silikn snrfarr: ao exan~ple phosphoms. \\ill. This is similar in the pretious discussion in Chapter 2 on impurih retlistrih ~ ~ t i in rc~ s t d ~ \ V I I fmm t l ~ inelt. odrlt. or . in r Xotr that even if the segreptinn m f i c i e n t of :UI i~np~nrihequals i h ram? r ~ l i s t r i b ~ l t of the impurih in the un be silimn will still lakc: pl:~rr. irnpv~rityin solid d l redistrib~~te onr behvern t l ~ hru solids until it rearlles r eq. ability to ~gm~m\v (-5220 ntn).pnm.ull:lt i1aplr. I.. Ilicl~-<~ualit\. l n~erefore.. During .ihlc n.. Ho\ve\.~ h \PIIIP of ll!ret:~~ sl!flici~ntly Ir. then.rir is at pNhSS1lN' and lo\ver t c m p r a t t ~ w s . Rapid &lTnzsion of the in~purity rq!rnl thrn11~1~ silicon dinside tllc increases the amount ofdepletion: an exan~ple homn-doped silicon heated in a h d m . with k appmdmntely equal to 90. d ~ r n ~ i c dillusion. the t m s r is mdtm-rl hrr:ttnsr of the viscous flmv of silica. r i h : ~ lftlifitsion ofthe inmu~. 9 .lrh mv. The ratio ofthe eqsilihriam conmsntntion of the o n I r ilap~~rity the silicon to that in the silicon dioxide is callt~l srgmgotio in thr 381 and is rlcfinnl 1= .. r i v through the silicon diodde is relatively sfoiv. 1116. is s e a t e r than mihi.As indicitt~l F i g ~ r 3.cral facton.I . becnnre hydrogen in silico~~ ~liodde enh.1 is not \:tli.. uniform. . 3 .~Iistrihution prn1Trv.Isewn11 factor that infl~~enrrs in~pnrity distribution is thqt the impuriv m y (liffuse rapidly thro11~11 silicon dioxide ant1 e s r a p to the ~ W W I I S the amhient.8. nonuniform clovant distribution \rill inodih the interpretation of the mensurnnents of interlaw trip prnprties. I r m m r r thicker. 11s the o d d r the . the odde takes !lptlle impurity (Figs.di. I in~pnrtsnt.. I l t e r e f o ~for thin oides.n~rleplals on llmv ~lpidly irnpurihcln diffuse thrnltgh the the nxirlr. 2. with k :~pprndnlntdyequal to 10. thr oxidr layer will Iw . n * r t ~ l t i in~depiction of the impurity from the silimn. this fador \\%I1h~ important. The redirtribatecl dopant imp~rities silimrt cboddr are selrlont elec+ri~illl\.silimn sr~rf:~cv ileplrtnl of impuriticr: an ex.ssiag using m ~ l r trriirnl odd:ttion furn ~ rl. \Vhm hta solid p l ~ z r are brought ioe s tqether.er.tmplc is inmn. ~ n in thr otltcr 1I1r d o\icl? rrjrcts thr impurity (Fig. . tl~r to . for I. for Jn odrl. 11 ant! olttain 3.pnxl~lcihlrpak oxi~lrst i s h m m r inrrea-in~k. Ilmrr\rr. is i1n apparently mpid oddation tllat tlkat @r. 3 . of . 0. 'Tl~errfore. . of tllin In t l rtrly stact. .r a w ill~~rtratpd F i p r r 3. tlti. 3 MASKING PROPERTIES OF SILICON DIOXIDE A silicon iliodde layer can also pmtidr a selrctivc nlwk again. b 3.mt rlTect on processing and d w i w peran formnnce. ntn tl~ick tu cm\v the oxide liln~ iatn~ospltt. l m ~ c ~ n t v dSwtiol~ in 3. A thin! factor in the ~ ~ i s t r i b l l t i o n prim-5 is tllilt the o<de is . so the odde reiects the i n ~ n ~. 9 and d for I > 1).ulws the difhsi\ity of bomn.\c.1. ant! tllus tltr i n u n r t l n behveen the silicon and the ndde is a r l \ m r i n ~ t l ~ silicon as a function of time. in IC hbrication. wtlistrihution in silicon IBCU import. in silimn Equilihrit~nn conwntratio~~impurih in SiO. the inxinstreim~ nl)proncl~ gate odder 10 for t t n 1.s to \\illkin 0.l for ~Ino~iclatinn an n d d r thirl. e ~ 3 . The relative into r cttr of tl~is ial\ance mmpawd \..hTicdly resalts in n dopnnt source at or npar the surface ofthe odde. high-quslity thin n.1 nnl acmss thr \rnfrr.!tion. \sit11 is I i~pprnxir~~.. is gen ambient.3.3 Masking Propanies of Silicon Oioxida 4 51 - .rlmsilird into h v o r n ~ l p s Inone p o p .altl at clr\atnl tenlpmhtrcs. same amount of imptwity\\"ll nmv the h.tn. Tftl~e lbffusi\ih of t l a inlpllrih in silicon dioxide h inr-ge. < I I. : ~ 20 n n ~ For IILSI.w\ing.tlnut hviw in e thirk :z tlrr silimn layer it repl.. r (pml r ipml (4 Figum 3.~rlit.nws lrss than \\it11 o r C Y ~ .~. o f q o \ \ i h in r l n oudntion.SO * haonr 3 Silicon Oxidation rhrrnirrl \alnr rlcpositios (CVI)). and 1. .spin-on trrh-d niql~es. there is a large conlpresive stress in ~ thp o<d<. stxiion lrriefly cnnsidpn Illis thv Lmn\tlt inc~ltanklt~r s11r11 oxides. lmrr that n ~ l u c r s o n' s e n cliffusion mflicient in the oxirlr. <.9 (dl Four dillemnt rues nf impurity redishihation in rilimn duc to therntd od<htion' Equilibri~nn concentration of inlpurih.3. \vhethrr it lw I. and the dif~.~mi.s r i r to an initi.rill he a depletion of t l ~ impurih rmmple r is gallium.tl nxi.1 t1ie diffusion ofdopan. . and the ch. so much impurity may escapr fmtn the solid to the gaseous ambient that the overall effect . \ r x ~ < : to tnrvcI. b 3 .r c.tilihrium.

3.These ions. It is for tlirsermwns tltnt the thin gate oxirln in h!OS dexicrs are us11. As. growill rate is mllcll higller when water is uspd ar. is !nut morv eff. wl~icl~ :unonnts to about one interrace trapped charge per 10' s~triace atoms..#terfacetrap densih is ahout m order of nlapiturle smaller than Illat in tlte <I1l>orientation. hou.ukng coolmon in~puritics 0. thl. may reslrlt in the positive interface cltarge.Q. Lxcd oxide charge. m he repnled .\. number of inteaace tnps per ~d p r c. a chaqe sllrct < .~rti\rfor nvaljng baron than pltospl~on~s. llrnt.as 10"'cm-'.0 10 IM ntlT. with ener~ystates thes in den 1)ande. depend an the m for centn~tion.ltc of opposite ~~~tchtcti\ity particular tempcnlhlre at at a t i .4 Oxide Ouality 4 53 stdscqrsnt high-tenIperarureuriw-itt step. some ionic silicon is left near the interthat filce.sicm time (I. Silicon Oxidation 3. Tlte ba%ic are the interface tnpped charge. In silicon uith a c1lXb c y t d orienta~. of tlze oxide. Tlte kxed cltnrge (Q..\') k orienhttion depr.~s in a ltidter brcak(lo\~n wltage (. P.. oxid:ltion%.e.1 1.for <IN)>-oriented silicon can he Im\. Silicon nitride is itsrtl :zc an alternative mnrking mnterial for these rlements. Generally. of Q.. Tltr tnps are located at the 50.n annealing (see Cl~npter The \due 7).m.n q j r n r in the \vet phase. ' ~ ~ ~ i ~ used lfor. and 13 it1 SiO?arc all ortlrn of tnapit~tde tlian their corresponding val~as less silicon. Dn.52 b Chapter 3.3 lists <liffi~sion mnstnnts f \Niour cotntnon dopants. ( .. For <Ill>-orient~l silicon." Interface trapped charges (Q. . oxidation. Tlds is not t ~ eI~owcver. and mol~ile ionic cltarge. w the!. This charge is fixed and very dimcult to charge or discl~arge. sillce tile SiO.The q u i r r d thickness 111t1yh dctennin~ rxF"nlcntally I?.10gi~i\~s oxirh?tlticLness requir~l ttiask Imn the to and pltosplrontsas function of cliffusiontime and tcrnperature. T l ~ q is face. Present-day \IOS dmices with tlienn:Jly grown silicon dioxide on silicon have most of the interface t r a p p l charges passimted by low-temperat~~re (150°C)hy11rogc.0 pm thick. res~~lts a Itisher-qualit? oxide that is denser and 1~.10 Thiehnr orrilimn dio.uc all comp:atil>lewit11 midr mnsking. tlte diff~tsivitics of Sh.. pmpertirs.) are due to tile Si0. ~Iiffusion oxide-ninsked regions must I in sI0\v rnouCh nit11 reslrct to diITusion i n tlte silico~t prewnt dopnnts from difl~eil to thmtteh tlw oddr lnnsk to tlte silimu surface. 0. It 1 1 s l ~ c n s a ~ e s t e d wllen tlte oxidation is stoppd.\vet-dr). Si-Si or Si-0 hanrk) at the n u surface. .g. anrl structure.tllyforn~ed using dry oxidation. is positive and depends on oxidation ant1 annealing conditions and on silicon orientation.auring wide tllickness nccesai? to prevent the illersion ol the liclttl\.ridr nredcd to maqk lnron and phrxphoms diffi~sions a hamion <ddifiusion time :and lcmpcratm=.-Si intrrface properties and are dependent on tltr clletnical composition of this interface. Notr that SiO. doFd silicon substr.~.-Si interface. lor or Al. hlOS devices are also affected Iry charges in the oxide and traps at tlte Si0. oxides : ~ l y are Tl~e \Tllrues of &Nttrion mnstw~ts \n"oun <lopantsin SiO. b y \ r ~oxiclation. ~ ~ ~ .11.4 OXIDE QUALITY - Romn Oxides I I S C ~ mucrking are usually grow.ever. Talrle 3. along\vitll uncompleted s i \ i ~ bond5 (e.-Si interclwification of these traps and cl~arges shrnvn in Figure 3..rn.) is located within approximately 3 nm of the Si0:-Si interhce. Q . oxide trapped cltarge.) Figun 3.. w 3. . A gpical g r o u ~cvclemnfor t l~ sists of a sequence of dg. Xevertltrlesr.%I0 M\'/cm).a.Tile interfant trao densih (i. oxidant. and Fipn. .is ahout 10" cm-'.5 to 1. Mcxt orthe prmvtlt in strclt a W I ~ I P ~ C V . n~e.

.~\vr~ Ipn) 0.. its mmph~s rrfr. liph~ \iolct n.IRllie 10 \. i s s~n:~lln l o ~ ~(6% or lrss! of .t L \ \ l ~ e n 3 3 o n i d r .llmn\.m l ~uafcr is illunlinatcvl \\it11 white liellt wrpendiallar to the surface. R l s a &let 1)))s 0. Cl~lnrine imtnob lkes hlr sntliu~n n ~ ~A .trnntinn nink \'icrl~t n~ Rvd .02 10.lrt remrtler o r CR scrrrn.lttc to mrt.lr \'i"I"t Ill.rrnn. hvo-.ar<li~ir .p .I n ~ r r f ~ ~ l l ~ twatc s. >100'CI and l ~ i g l ~ inns. an~as.~rgr.45 1.72 Iwtnv~n tiold rwl and I>ltw~~~~~~ :twl lc<>k\ gn>>i<I3 I liluc pn. can Iw ~ . tl hut n n accnmplislI tl~is. a \safer witl~ 500-am silito a m n dinride I a y r uill appear hlur m r n .urnution pink \5ol<~t R n l \iolet \Fcdrt m l Ctrnation pink to ulmon 0r.e.~hl(* . s.i~lr" rl. The: C ! I : I ~ I ~X-RII c r e a t d .11 1.25 1. 3.ws I~otlt r:$tr.probI. light cwrlny gri~v mrlrlllc) or Lieht orangr o r )r~llcnr pink to C. k t s nf sadit~l of For the met. the l i ~ h t l .sts T:m Ilr.m to )rllmnv prcm Scllmv per rrm Crt.PVIi~ht yvllr~n gr~.oln~rn DDI.c: n nt llCl .llow Y?llrn\.11 1.!. e IF n.tttc-tl insidr t l ~ ori(lp li~!rr. prnctnltrc tile oxide .nto\wI hv Lnv-trn~p. for c*x:~mplr.. Constnlcti\. T>?ic:ll k~ed r oxide cl~arpc ilnuities for .6 OXIDATION SIMULATION AT trend* trnr~tnl miniaturiirntinn mntinup ancl the s a l e olintegntion of ICs incwasr amlratr b ~ m v l c dofonr-..tl altrntion mtlst In. 0..o.n\isl.00 1.W 1.~.rencrs in politri7ation are I I I ~ . r s t ~ r r hyl an ellipomrtcr.l'y.. cltcl) .scnncvofchlorine during dr).dm~ illnut In'" cm-' for a <100> sttrf. scpci. For example. 1.: sliql~tly rnc~t.18 1.23 I .\icr C~lnic:~tion. mnnnon methwl of film thicknrss menwrrment. l u 4 a ? n t tiolvt .rrnw It.llcn\.t <I I I> starf..oridntion incre. !ioh!t Hit~c l1.trt. and the mlor . 1 C w m )r.pitl~er n~nskin in rl.10 1.lrtive inrlircs). Ycllmv t r l "!rlln~~ish" ycllrnv h a 1 (not u in thr position tvhrrr !vllmv is tr. ~ nfor ~ n i s drtrrminine oxide thicknrss.54 Ori2 0.r broad fix ocmgc) S. a signal variatiu trrs intlintes t l ~ c step I~eigbt.21 1.hi 06 . Ulipwmr?nj ir anothrr tridrh used measurement tcclmip~e is hxwd on the polarthat is a ization rhangrs that m a r \vhm ligl~t reflected from o r transmitted tl~rouglr medi~am.(11n1 I ~ . and tl~r ~ c~xirlc tl~irkncss t l ~ r n r a l c ~ ~ l ..lltn.ro:td) Yvll<nvgY 1 ". TRIWmnt.nnin. ~ l ~ ~ . Blue Rlt!e g r ~ c . grr.aycr :m<lr:luw t h r e d ~ o lvnltap s l ~ i l tTl~mrrfore.~tion ? . .rn to gncn lrluirc llnwdi "Yt. Untlcr thew mnditinns mol~ilz ionic cll.g..ntLc to ~ n l ~ m c r m e o f a wrtiun ~v:~vrlrnetl~ nt of rrflected liel~t.&5 0 . u J ~ \ r l r o ~ ~ s in the ori<lizinc<. r rlcyirir field oprraticm~s.lLnv to "!rll<n\i~b' Oritnp Liqlnt orange C.Ita: Blur Rita to blue w e n I.arr morr lckr a i l ~ i x t t l n .19 1.s(Q. th I.Ornnev S. rwlnr rh.dinc lllna.r aith a w6. of thr wafer mrrespnnd~ that uavrlrngth. lw <during drposition or ln. . Tllr pmfilometer then drags a line stylus acm: lltr filn~ snrfll~'(see Fie. ~l .ii 0. Ilnnl.l. a sten fri~ture the mown o r dt:msited lilm is tint r ~ a t r ~. I>? hanln>rnt. pn.r traps art*dirlril.dlir blur >lt.6 Oxidation Simulation TABLE x4 Color Chon for Thenallv Cmrm SIO.9 I Onnsc lr. .~.mcl 1. \\lien tllr stylrm e ~ ~ r a ~ ~ n step.~ture anneding.ltlc.. optinl proprrties of the mat~rial are of (i. a ~ Q.L Carnation pink \?otrt n:d R C \ioIct ~ \lolet Rltw \inlet Cncn Yvllmv crrcn Crwn .m to 1%. \vhirl~r r s ~ ~flm ~ n t contiunination from sodium o r nth. h. This infom~ation t l ~ r n is displn?ed on a ch.<"I Prnjlr~~nrrnj a wr).rtcl~ing aftrnwrcl.ce I.Tl.LS ~ "nlakb.c n Yt.i(l 1. and thrrr~limensionnl t n ~ c t m d ~r r ininnnation rep.nli<nn<luctorclr\icvr o p m l t < ~ l tlndrr l~igI~-hia% high-tenlperat~~rr and mnditionx.~ll. . p i the rliteir~ation ntohile ions in iit..r" Omnpc to inrlnn Hrd \iolrl Bluc to \iolrt l.icltt p e n Cn.Si isterClm. c Cbnom I SlLcon Oxidetion U 3.9i 0...r .~tb<.tnge 'T.ln l n-drlucd by addillg cl~lorine w during oxidation.r. <.~c~. 0.ociatrduith defects in thr silimn dioxide. r n .AS tlw O I L Pin T.. Film Observed Perpendicularly undn Dayligk n~omrced Lightinn 4 55 Irratrrl at t l ~ SiO. OXIDE THICKNESS CHARACTERIZATION Prrltap<tlte sitnplrst mrtl~ml drtermining tlw t l ~ i c k n rofsan oxidv is to mmp:tn 11 for ~ mlnr of t h r uxf8. \loIriIe ionic cl~arst.. . ! > C h c n (l.~ppc. ~ ~ ~ r n p l er..e intcrk.. m u s r of the lo\ver \~1111rs C). . ( h t l r t ~ arhnrgrs I Q~ . t11e <100> orientation R nf ~ d pn-frm.5 Tl~irhes< Color 2nd Co~nm~.5 l(K I..an<!parilholic nh nnnstants.~mio:ttion r. In this trcl ir nique.ar and alnllt 5 X 10'" cnl anfi.~lli~li are mohilr \\ititin tltr oridr t ~ n d r ctisml trmpcnilrlrrr (e. nlte m ~ c l ~ .0 1.0i 1.tl~ b 3. ~ t r d .:can n ~ o hark iind fort11tl~rougl~ v~ the nxido l.i fbr silimn hlOSFETs.n y..16 I.dl yvllcm.ir.-siilltrrf. it$ thirLnrss.GS (idor i m L_IJT~IIIII. anrl tllp ~ w v ~ l m gand~angle of incidcnrr of il t l ~ lieht lwan) relative tn the sl~rf:~ct. Clearl!: mlor chart <omparirons i r e suhjcctive and nrr therefore not the most ace.<l Vsnlr. linear .54 BInv Illuv gn..o r n ~ dT l ~ r s(li&.rs: .smrn c 3. leading t o n highrr ~ro\r.. Fil~ns tl~icLnrssesof less than 100 nm to greater t l ~ a n pin can I* nnlrnsnrr of 5 with this instrument.lost procrss-rr!at(~dQ.mr. k eqwctvd: at tinlcs b8ppc. ions lrrlls in <t.dk:di n~rtnl may cause stahilit?... x-ray radiation or 11igI1-eorrg rlrctron 1m11 Ix. Change* in polari7~tion a f~lnction the.24 1.m Dtdl yvIlo\\. bhtr to p k v nI~lls \'iol~t Rlur..irl>tgold ctr )rllmr. A more aceorate measurrtnent w n t Dmk \iolrt to r-I \ic~lct R q d blue Light I.12)'.nIlir (:old nitI> 5li~ht y<.mcl is rrllcctcd hy the u~~rlerlying silimn \\afer.

Ir *. a~lC?!d I M \ O ~ S SqnS. 1 0 amnu!~rg.lun!qarr sa5nlr!a e s pauuoJl.~lfi ~ J ~ I P J J < ! < ~an.vpo ~IRIIJ sorv-xpu! q~!t.vxa! s ~.7~ JO 110!1311"J n sc T : I ~ ~ ! I ~ J I mt>qds(tqd ~ ~ . ~ m .w~ 1 .m 01y ~ s q ! xl. ! n.II 3 1 1 'alwl'iqns lla>![!s all1 0111! s ' c U! an! ~ tq111.%"p tlum qnrnwnql r:pmmXt~y~:rmd~o'du!t1tn$x1 lr 3 ~ 1 1 q .mrtunj aqr autnsm JO ~O dOLS LOld lNI8d WISIlJJIO lN3Ma3 wIsnJJxo JN3hW3 NoISIlJJIO lN3Ma3 WISnJJIO lN3w3 WISIIjJIO lN3W3 3ZIlVILINI lN3M*)3 31111 ..it:^ appo a q u! mqlr~wbmu! srun~ldsoq~l s ~ ~ ! d a p 111d O J O SWJ "11 PIE M t -y.! Im: s t .p. l:m n ..pna "'PI* 3. *~nn!mn. U L I O J 1 ~ 1 PUP! luud a n .(nIC dn dm= a~lnuu!m-n~ P . .~i m auop dnrrd pur <Indurn nqL .'!qr .alrlldlttu7 k UO!IPP!X~ J-)IJY 17111 d ? ..jn?n\ aql u a t l .oz.

n.<lis$olt!lion..~7v.-.. Ir .ll.?< nncl lo r = UIAil + ri for rhr. limn. . I J ~Iwn~l. CI'I'PREI1. Shcnv thrt Eq..and lhc.m<tE (:m~r.!t*. 1I>V .NJ.xlm.... Yo*.~. ~ . : t I(YNI°C li..ICI C.Problems 4 59 PROBLEMS . I u r r . SmrlmR Lr\~lr. 5 R E Lh-11.rn. Ilsc SI!I'IIE\I lo tlt. I>rlrnninr the t l i f l ~ t ~ i o n l l i r i r n l D for (13.utcl i ~ n d o p n< l W > silimn snrnplr is oridiznl for 1 hour at II(YI"C in d y 0 I 1 i.rll.r YI rnisatn.r i n cy ~.I 11 \ ~ . il is w-odrlind in \vet 0. .<.ur dclmrition and ir rnranrnul with atomic dxorption .S. \IiL-.n~nE p i ~ .PT. aaindclu.-. n q l l i n n m l t i c i r n t of Cu i n SiO/Si Ia)rm..nn.. l l l c ...tl ~ 1 l ~-\ .liw Indm ol nl Tr. 1977~ s C m r ~h.1 R. % . tmd 3.ln I.!:. t s ~ ~ ~ ~ l CX.idwl urlh Th. *vvn in I'nd.n. r l r p in tbc. I 1 tc~!um\to I = RI lor lr. III)\VP\.l.orin~ltrlsilimn mtrnpl(.lhf.dDtricn oflnacmrrd Cimril !n J n7:. lx~.nd:xti<.\ cnnr-C*.nccn1r.: R I D Slrlndl *.I" dr \Iirlc. % . . l n F t n r a fic. ir opcnlrl in lhr "\idc. ~ ~ ~ T v ~ R.~l it \ ~ I i in I . ' 4.rl lirnv\..d itrcl i n sn~lwcqsrnt rll.rrl Jfonnnl.~. ~d.r 2 1 tnisnxtt.pramrnrty.t b-dr>w.. \'. .md EcI.ti. n u ~ ~<: l .a. <~\~dc.! irr.rm:II (fitLt1ion aiSllimtn:] 2 R E m-.3".li. A~s!~mr the Ca mncrntmtion in tile SiO: I n y r i s 5 x 10"alosdcrnl' sf1c..lcl odd. ~St. St. 199-2 lor thr Thl.~ . l : tllcn mrrrcd mcl hxr the odde n*mo\vd over hall llrr \rafv.ior. ~S~.s $ ./C!.md Oxi&..-bn . to qrm a \ I w t r oridt. d hflcr 1111. 1 .Apld Phys .ihnd~lq. Fcl .. Asw.%.r rl\ttnnlt. ~l (:%.lf .I~. P n n v owl 1 h 1 r r>f.. 11s. thicla~err Lhv t\m a in nyilln$.43-51 41kW>l.tvrri< 3 x 1 1 atom$cn>' uftrr IIF.u.n. JO Plillrin ond Tl.tnsrnxv Mcnnmation oiThicblrn m c Rvfr.. t o olridation.0.r lhal pL.. of1145 pxn r t ln3l-(:..r Next.d .... lhr tolnl l i r l c l orirh.it(.roh-... at IIWMl'(: li. h i ~ are tltf step on lhr rt~rCncv.ft Dtv<n. \I: 1 En!$ and P 0.~.l~. I S \\ilry.rltmdllp ...m.. ~ l to 10 F" ". larlirr Pn. 6.minolw lor Oodr Clt3ql. FII.~rmdl?OddmdSilic~m" lEEE Twnc El. 6 \V r \ s \I... Sl~nu. I . \ilmvl w r k r uilll 81 w*i\ti\ily nf 10 Q.. I)c..rd lirl. CA. I h 12-t\y <IIYl>-aril~nt?c~ . S.I .~.nll. .d s .. S w Yo*.m cl:ttion y ~ t r .n.~l. 1 : % .i I.iln:ifiir In. ... d J R R 1 :n .i'k$ . Thr Car <r.r \... ~ l ~ i r b t nfthr~g. Jrqwv.nl K.'l1. Conzytrrr ~ul..~ rn.tnd R T.tlion in thr Si I.r . and it \till hc r ~ \ i is not lit~. '7.sO.ri .l .~~ ~fsrminmrbrfsrIX.e~t.L> IW.linl ohi<l:llirm.nninr the. . pack~ilrSl:PRE\l \: i n t r %a dtmrl. oddrlion ol<l(Yh.cmr..llx.. lcl9-2.pn.n~tin.lptcn.rb.I I'.cnt i< plirc~.I.minr tlr. T ..l. Sonla . ED-27. Scu.hun: in F.. '2.niilnll.. S l I \ y n l n b m i .\v h I\ <lr~rrilr<l Finall? t b r prowss sim~ll:ationa~fhtare :~r \\.'\I ...i!dntcttr5 IIc. F 6i I'JVI: J R.C>~<~ dIfl0. Z M D . 1" Calc?d.l ! ' n .18JIJ R n D.r.n. b REFERENCES 1 E 1 srmlli.I'md tla.. . . Tltr wr niSI:PIIE\I.-..\..n(or~l. . .~orr~rrdC~m. n ~ ~ t l i n .r wr nl 9\Oe(: :m<I 1 xlm. . Si!am F m n v l ~ / l r r b r \%S1Ern..

r wI>ichsen.-si~~! and distrihutiort rtnwrs krr ~ l r i o u clsses ofclean rooms. 1 1 tlwt dm.n...rwes ~Cclean m0111. = a pinhnlr in the i ~ ~ ~ d e r l !layer gPartirle 2 is Iwatnl nrnr a p:tttcnt rdec :lnd in:t?cmrsv i~~ n mnstri~iian of<vnr.. thr tot.~ mon. tnn&.it h n r rlurt yrticlev on :I ph01oni. elms is tnkrn fmm thr lqarithln tl.acl~nn i entirnnmrnt.~srl line l. c n t tcrhniqitrs :\<l~~~lt. \\Iten dart particlrs adlrvrc tu tltr surI f . phntntn. 8 ~ .al<r. b 4.~&. 4. Tltr scrtinn first bricfly dscuwrs the. ~ I I P s cI.5 prn . and tltpsr nattrtrls trill t I r nl..5 p n ~ 1.~l of an cpitxrial film.~rpr..~n rmtn c n \ i n ~ n > c n t mqui~vd .es i ~ a basis for other litllocm~hic 1 . syt..trpc. a u s r clust pnlticles in the Thr :ur c:ul wttlr nn wmirnnd~tctnr \rxfrrs and litl~ogntpl~ic a b mcl can c.shriration f:lcilih r r q u i m a clrnn prnwssing rmm.~al!!clinq regions and r~n(1c.s per unit volt~rnrmttrt In.ws.~'s 3. In . clran m n l .5 p!n or !.. a <Illstparticle on a srmiconcluaor xnrf:tn.~esr litho~.tnw oFn rlpat~r w m fnr lithopphy Thr moct \tidcly ttscd litIiqctphic ~ ~ t ~ t l ~ ~ I . u Ir.5 in thr nwtric s!slrn~. thr ~ I I I I I P ~ ~ A I i ~ i t t i o01 tl1(.mr .rr swetns .ricotiur~art.r~k.are usrtl to ~CFIII.miidr sirr <!<. '.amplr. .I rl<. sincl~~-c~.r ruhir invtvr nrr . t cnntroll~~d.d thp d r r p sul.. bt r mask.OF:.nm .. and mwl!tlion eshannment techniques u s ~ for o p t i d lilliogc~pl~): l It .tztv lintitations o ~ o t h e tr i l h ~ n p h i methci!s old r OPTICAL LITHOGRAPHY Thr \-at m a j j o r i h o f l i t h ~ p l ~ i c r q ~ ~ i p m r n t fiahrintion is opti<alrclnipment using for IC ~ ~ l t n \ i olieht itrarrlrnflh nr A O:?-0.anirrnn r.ll.it.nnnlio ~ 0.1. for tllr litltograpl~y.ationa l dililmtions.nt flcnviu a n~rtal ntnnrr Piirtielc.'Particle I may rrsult in tltr F<.o iptth c ~ ~ lI ~ ) ~ itc WEOI~Il io~p .lSnir that Ixtude lonrr tl~itr~ ofordinan. l ~ m r l ~ a : ~ .r$ r p.tpl~ic all promwc* ~nllrt r prrfomrd in an idtr. \xtt.as 100rlr.<lltirrd. especially in the area I L V I.ih!atlon 11. lhp dwst cntlnt i n l ~ d rlwnt four urrlrrs of rn.d nambrr o f d t ~ sir:wticlr. <nnsigltxsthe pattern t r ~ n s f r~mcess. ~ s to I00 clra~l w m is r~qairrd: is. rrsisti. 111tlte tn~tric s>st~m. ~ r t i r l ~ a ~ ~~ w in t l r 12tqli~l1 s c l n ' 1lKJ . :t ~ 1 . ~ P I more critiml in thr. For aorl IC i. Irc.stringrnl mntml of tlrr clp.tn cx~rrcs~mncls .tnrl For rx.m rmm (E!..lrr 10101 111c thr rn:~~imum nllo\vablr nwnhrr nFp:t~tidrst l ~ .~nd tton ~ n l ~ : m n n . CI:L<S d~s t) is tnkr~iFrnt~~ inaximttrrl nllounhlv namllrr of partklrs that nrr 0. : <lust particle inrorpontecl into the cate oriclr can resal* \ ~nl. 4 for such a clrnn rmn. wit11 a lnapr <l$lst munl is ti.~n~n.tpl~y. n r .:m rwm.t ~1. Thr ! f rI P . ~ t 0.n tlw < I ~ \ i w s .qnsure twls. ticlttl\. a cl.1 The Clean Room 4s IC f..\\itln pl~rto~nr\L prtt~.r 1x.r<. cansins the for~m7o\\il~ r~. 10 &I Hccanrsr the n l ~ m l rofclust pmiiclrs incn.rt l ~ e circuit i ~ s r l ~ s s .Photolithography I Figure 4. Sincr 100 p~rtirlrdft'= 35lNl l ~ .elisll n s t r ~ nI)t s n dust munl OF l1Ml ~~.2 zlrmrs tltr p:trticle.. arises k .1 \:~riouc na)s i n wl>ivln duet parficlrs can it>trrfi.3 cm Ienl to a sltori ~irL7litirhvren the h w ~%. 1 clr:m nvnn or on. . cm dicnapt thc.4 prni. Fis p I I <licm.>long\!it11 llw tr~npratttre ilulllidih Iiimlrr 4.trgcr l r r nlhic foot ofair..rrcd to t l l r undrrhinc Inyr alnns\\ith thr cirr~lit t t r r n s on thr mxrk. T\r. \vhicIt w v l t in circuit Fiailt~rr. . EXAMPLE 1 . I I P I I l h minin~ttn~ is ~ ~ F~al!!rv Ic!~etl~' of ICs are r~<lum. litlttqraphirarct.c'XFL'S.nngc.~rtirlrdft' .atjur ..' In 1 1 1 ~ Enslish ?stml. nnw air llo\vrvcr.tnmlcnn<lurti\itymd cruse d ~ \ i wa i l l ~~ ~ I to IIW hwa$la\\m wltaw..)r pltotolitllc~r.1 T l t r iwprt.For cntrnplr.msr clrfects in . This section mncidrn t l ~r. psttmls on thr maql.

. i n ~ l r < k l n l tlrt. Ilmw the.rit~!ir~c). To only a snldl nortion of the m a 4 is rmosal at a time. if thcrp are 4IXI IC chip* on thc \\alcr.4 pm and g = 50 p n . onto tltv x>it. 4. . r tlte edges of on opnqt~r mwk feature. 'ti1 ~niini~ai/e rnilrk damaee.n~rh~u~~ lpm! (-1 Figun 4 2 P."ltt~. 4.rrlai(l) \rith resl ~ el? can to nrr\iousl\ ~lclinrtl n:tttma 018 tlir aafrr. F i p m 4.r mz~rl.m g potentidly c:m cause mxsk darni~ee. . 1lmvrvc.512 = wilere h is tlic \ ~ \ ~ I ~ n ofthe ~ P O S U T P radiation and g is the gap hrhvecn tile m a k @li and the ~rmfrr inclu(les t l ~ tl~icLmess the resist..rtnrnlrl!: onlya fraction of thc.2 to 0.sn~~all rc$ults e r.. h t .sirr <licmhutioncunv for Engliqh (. \ ~ s r c lly a nnrl? m l l i a ~ a ~ d of ultnl\i tllr beam I . Hn\vevrr. tlrc. For h = 0. cxcept ll~at tlwrr is a small gap (10-50 pnr) bchvren t l ~ wvafrr and lltr n~:skd ! t r i s ~ e v r ! ~ r nlr. mlall inlacc area is s m n n l or s t c ~ ) over tlw \ d e r to m r the entire \\.r..r rcdllc~ to 0. .~frr a i In.lt k In r man o i h o ~ c ~ ~ l m tpixttrms on sacw<si\.~ IF a l i p r d (or o\.lf.25 pm (n wavrlen$tl~ h ranse of 0. ' h\. ~~~~~ n~r lurtirl. n><l tbrm.5 fim.~\k a into u?len m:ikcr mot. is in. Am liql~t w at tl~at p&-. I%< ~nn..'" SI~:~rkn\pri~~tingIl:~\.. in ~vl~iclt a rrsist-mate11 \mfrr is bmngllt into ph)? rrtr81.o~rl rrwlts it) (11.td \rill$ a in:~<k.c. Ihr partirlr munt amounts to one paltic11 r. . particles that lanrl adhere to thew mti:xr. :I h:~ric wttip k'r cvnt. T l ~ unncc srlm on t l ~ n:afer e r ~ ~ . m. fringes itre fonnrd xnd some light pe11~1rnte tile into sl~n(lo\v rcm$on.asinll\ hvn optictl rsposurc rmrthnls: slradow printins and projw prinlinc.r. Tl~rnselmtt!is tlir number o f uafers I -.sn rrmbtion of . n~r the inti~natp mntila lrrhv<. s a ll..nfer surface. Thus.~i or in closv prosinlih.a? r r i t l ~ I I I . e perf..O in n. em I r y x ~ s c d r Itour for a Gym mxk levrl. gap in optical (clillfi~ction feature rdprs on tbr pl~uton~a<k: is. ~ ~ t . thr CD h m n ~ e ? pm. . and r of tlir CD is 4. Fr.w..tcnof the mask patterns *.I f i n 1 titne.cnr r s i ~ t ~ and m i d l>m\iclc.r. ThcwA.ir 10 t l ~ ?mnrlci p r i s t i n ~ mtsllt~l. incrcw rcsol~~tion. tllrre is an s s d ~ ~ m t a g e rrducing b t l i h and g.. . from the n~cuk.3 pnn is in the drr-p U\: spcctnl rrqion) and g to 15 pm.~ titree pamnlrten: ~eso~ntion."n!ir. pmj~ctton n t r ~ ". ~ . m . t t e r n transfer p r o w s i.lsl.4. It is sin1il.trr l.lltnrl ).d s n \ itnasr fiekl appruxi~natt.lrh of S?T n f l L chip*. Rnohrfion is tltr minitnuln f r a t l ~ rdimrnsion tl~.. rr tr.1 Oplicel Lithography 80 ligl~t tlirn~~gh back of the 111a5klor .onkn icstiun arc at aciro~it of hrati~merilicd enotqh 10 O~IISCil r.As a result.irnift. the minima~nlinewi(lt11 lor critical dimr~nion(CDI] tlnt n n IF printed is mtrghly CDE& (1) 001 0 I I to r. in ~.irkan(l\wfrr in dim+ n t a a \\it11 one anol ta:nm .~ct printine.5 jlrn anrl l:~qc!rrl containcd in thc air \wltnme is .nrtanw o i an r+sun. mntart printisg r. . .tlionin<licrt.12 Exposure Tools TIN. Fiourc 4. t m ~ <~btern)ine. S O x 0..~pprori~nalrlyfim. is In sl~adnw printing. c V Tllvn . To avoid tlie mask damagc p r o h l ~ m associated !villi sl~ado\v printing. .llv tr..lnou: arc-sl~apt. pmjectionorintine e.~.ertidr.~cic setup.Fces in thr w f r r aitli each succt.r.ly1 8nln it1 ni1\111 seri:.sist is c ..ttiaa. onto a rrsist-coated \vafer many cmtimetrrc aur?\.msure tools ha\.r nu~sl*. thr prclsiznityeqmsttre metllnl is tnsetl. :tad tllmtndln~~t.rIhv isqwnmcr oi the clran mm. If \\..r oidlzrt prrticlcs (0.~nsfrrsthe slit imncr oltltr ni.at dsnrnge to lllr mxqk . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .e been dewlowd to proiect an i~n. elln~l. arron~plisl~ed urinrr a litllwapt~ic w m r e tool. 1 rers n n~ajor dc~\vhnck t ~ s aI)? rlt~stp.r. I T l ~ in~lwddr<l r particle citltsrs pmliaar. for a given distane g.31SII(MT the 11.-1 and #r~cttir - dacw1 of <I. t l ~ c resol~~tion dcgnderl to tllc 2 to :-par ranee. n.:~n(l n.di~igCqWSLLr. . an? cl~~st in particlc w a diameter larger th.47 slxo\n a 1:I xd'rr ~d \cat.~rticlrs.30 sll . d a ~ p:~rtielcor a speck orsilinlrlglllrt n l I\ t on tlir \v. Fimjrr . a l i tlw ni.

Ois thr half-anglr ofthr mnr of ligl~t mnvrrgiag to n point image at th? \v.5 Simple in~ngr qscm. Rrrlaction prnjwtion lithovaphy can also print larger \wfrrs withol~tredrripir thr strpprr lens. sn cxcirncr laser.l. hltl it is tn~ich more dificult to prndliw (Irfrct-free 111rnk. tl~nvevt-r.Erl. can hr a narrow arc sham for . rt. . Sr~tion 4. t .llere ii is t l ~ c intlpx of refraction in tltp im:spr ii~rdium111st1nIIy \vlirn..' .5at I:I than it ir at 1 10: 1 or a Z l rlenlapification ratio.1 3 Masks h. ii = 1). The m a k m ~ ~ s i s t s ofn f~1wd..hich is tmnsfrrrcd nnrr rnorr t l r a k i n ~ to !IS(.irrtion uith s ratio of 1:1 o r at a drmapificntins n l i o ofill:l 1r..~nslstionsoltI \\afcr aith SIX~YI 1.:) IT either nrducins t l ~ c n~:a\~Iength incrcaqing NA or lmtli.iqe rnoush to contain one or more IC cldps. Ad\nnced e w s u r e tools sucli . n l e first step in niask : ~ ~ ~ n ~ p ~ ~ t ilt~iqn ~ I ~ I?st(.insl. \I I n~luaion tr) rtt~p-:md." id) : Thr st~v." Also sho\\ii in 1111.r. the 193-nm lith<rgrapliics)strm using an ArF rrci~ncr Im-r.~ imaqr firld on t l ~ rrticlr.~r 248-nrn lithomnpl~ic .4. s l m ~ ~ ar in F i p ~ r r 4.n~pr.1 h s t n t ~ su co\. and tltr 13inrn litltocctnl~ic t e n i usinc a F. 4 ~ s rho\\.~nin %$IlicI~ e r . In thrn driws npnttem grnentor. 10:1 for a 10 times rrdudion on the \wfrr). ns lono ns t l ~ e liclrl sizr (i. 14s DOF Figure 4. r The rrsolution o f a projection Fsteni is @\.lxich cln IF rxprc~'srrd RS \t.i protlt~<t. IS ~ ~ ~ ~~~ \ Irll.5.fi). lipn is tltr depllt of fnctts (DOFI. t r m urine a KrF tlir . pattern i fitst t m s ? frrrerl to the elrctrnn-sensitiirrd layer (rlrctrnn resist).~nplvtcly ~ l c v n l x tltc circuit nnttrnls rl~~rtricallv 0~eil:tltlat.p~lrtitioning tlic safer image by sfq. a'hicl~ an clrcimn lxmn lilbogmphic?stcn~(see Swtian is 4. 4 indicates that tlw DOF or ~ l ~ g r a dmuch inore rapidly by incrcacing NA tllan hy drcrrrning A.m by 4.rsk.4 Imnpl.lirrr k. F i ~ l r e 4.sped. fiirthcr pnrtitioningof the image on tlir reticle b IICWSW~: In Fig11 .lt. Tlte . (n)Anau:al-field \\afrr sm).ttion offlte mwk \ri111a snecrl . \r.' I:1 strynnd-rq~:t~. i IC:\l>) t dcsiencn mn r%.\l:l step-and-scan pn I& l r ! r jrction lithogmplly The strp-and-scan ?stem )ields hvo-dinier~ionaitr. (i..dns statinnay Mter the rqmsurr of one cleip site. tht.e.ered \sit11 a cl~m~niunl The ~ircuit layer.d thr (>D nxtrnl .sprctirrl\: Thr dema@ific:ttion ratio is an imporlion ?Jtcms. \Vhm the chip s k c exweds 1 1 firkl sizr ofthe lrns.1) that t m s f e r s t l ~ e patterns directly to clcctrnn-scnsitiwd ni.~frr. Equation 2 indimtes that resolution a n Iw iinprov~l smdlerl. is another prowss-dependent factor.5 used for IC manufachlrinc are ~ist~allv reduction reticles.\I ti that of thr ~ : d r.-andof n'j~<wf pn.3 pm with rcsol~~tion rnhsncrment techniqt~t-sisw. pmtioninq terhniqucs lor projection printinq.sili~.g.. u. This explains the cs trcnd toward shorter-\wvelengtl~sourecr in optical litliegraplty The high-presurc mero~ry-arc lamp is tvidelv usrd in cmostlre tools I m u w of its 405 nm. and 365 nm.41. >t:I nrhaion strp:url. $1.ifer) of 11 lrnc is 1.2. .rr~~~.illi m n s ~ firld can also he stepped ovrr tllc surfacr of the \ a f e r by hrndimensional translatiom of ~ I I P \\nfrr only while tlie mark re1n. rrsp~cli\~r!y I-line litl~ogmpliy\+itl~ step-and-rrpst prnjwtion 5:I a n offer a resolution of0. and one-ditncnsional tr. ilnd air.ktsk.1 Optical Lithography + 6% u. the \taler i~ n~ovedto the nest chip site and the process is rrprxtrd. anti 4 . excitner layer have k e n drvrlonetl for m a s nmlucm Rwrs 1. thr eqmsurr a n onto the \v.

. 0.1. w d A.qrlarc.lrra is rnnndato~?. Evrn n s111:tllrntak-dcfrct densih Ilm n profo!tntl eflrct orb tlle final IC .t. Of mt~ni.' rnarck on a.trr also inclt~~lrd tltr nnmk. . the a\rrnpe nasnlwr of "Lltal" defects lwr onit arc.utd it rlmps to:dn~~t fi~re si/e of 1 Yl n~m:. nnrl its n~rchnnic$~l :~t strrnqtlt. :Is a lint-order apprnd8n.1.c arc1 (or "criticnl area") of the IC chip..25 rlrfdcm'.~l cirnait photornak. ~ .hic11pattenls ofprnrnrtric shnpm h. I l ~fi~rrrl-silic2 r plntr is nrrrlrcl fix its low wfificirnt of t l ~ i ~ n rrpansioriI. rcmnins the saillnc fnr it11 inlzsk It?. s!rcl~8 tllr s lation re$nn on one lrvrl.:nplrnqths. l i t l ~ ~ ~ p m~sisr i ~ ~ foll 4. s s yze-C* 151 tvl~rri. : \vI~erras tllicLness is wqrsirr~l tninitili. nnrl ...5.ite a hrsrrl-silin~ is pl.66 Chapter 4. ir~spcctiott n rrlraniop of al.rls (e. )?clrl is defilled RS 111e lillio of scad cllips prr \vafer to tI1e total nllnlllfr of c h i p prr aafrr (sr. to 20 15 fcrrnt nliak It-vrls are rrqsirrrl for a mrnplrte IC p r m s s cycle.donh o r l r r \r.1 Optical Lithography 4 fi7 Figure 4. A frw s v c ~ . The stanrlanl-izr rnz& snl~str. T>~icnlly. For mnnplt.slrnr~ .g.rirlrl. in One of tile lrtajor m a i r m s about mmks is elrfrct r l r n i h Alak il~fc~cts lw introcan cl~tred cluri~iji manl~fist~iretlte mask or rluring s~I)se~~r~<'ntl ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l ~ tllr of I i t pnmssrs.D.5 x 15 crn . ~ ~ k rrpresrnt onr lcvrl nf an IC design.e pattern placemrnt erron doe to suhst nttr tlw to clistorlion.s. t l ~ lcns f i ~ l d r sizes for 4: 1 or 5L optical expsure ti . Tile composite l ~ ! is brokrn into mack lrvrks that mrrrrpond to the IC p r m s s srqorncc.7 :\n it~trgntc. its nl s l~iell tlii~~r!~li. If D..In pnxrssing . fi~r = 0.4 Photoresist .S shows tllr nt:~~k !it4iI for a 10-IewI l i t l z ~ ' ~ p lpr<xrss. Tlte details of pattern traInsfcr nrr m n s i d ~ r r inl Section 4. thr gatr rrsion oe . the yield l for r given ni:rskns IrwI ran b r ' mprcsseell is IIS<-I~for p m .. .. I).. n r l : ~ d sitt..6 cm 01 The size is nttdcd to aixorntnakt(. i slto!r n F i p ~ r 4. Cliapter 10). ~ip e\aluatioti. e 1% r. t l ~ )irld h 10% lorn chip sir*.ttion.we l w n fonnel. 4.ttr 1. oltr.w on.llip Tlsrrfore. Photolithography Slink r revs h? t l i l k t ~ l . A' = 10 levels)..IS21 frloctioa c li~nit ~ic orcllip sire for \clriaas talurs of ilrfrcl dntsitirs..tnothcr. ofW innr'. tlleli tlw final !irkl lxwmrs YsrV"4 (fi) into tllr undrrl?ing chromiu~n layer for tllr finished rnzck. ~ TIie pilltcnls on a t n . is tllr drfectis sensiH\. F i p r r 4 ..rsks nrr i t n p n i ~ nto acl~irvr ) i ~ l d on inqt* ~ l t Iliqll s cltips.

er'~<ll~ally incrr.c~nnttpl<. This reactiohl cartsrs I n~r eight .ywsltrc. r l n ~ n ~ d u ~TIIUS.ct~ltis ll~at p. r l o n n ~ r ~ ~ t of is .911 sho\n lllr espsnre reslmnsr CIIW anrl inngr emss section fnr . t l ~ pl~otosmsitivc n n l p u l ~ d insolIh~blr e r is in 111.tttm~s llw fontlrtl (:~lso cidlcul inlaps) in the p s i t i w r~. arc'is ..rhing~Icrrlnprr solvmt. 4.>21 140 If* lu1 2 J M Rgun 4.m l ~ TIw l ~ .) is $so inflecnffd I?\. the i ~ n r s p s c d : :~rvrt.4. nlore of t l ~ e resist film rem:lins aftcr dcvclon~ncnt. A% vxpsurernrrQ incre.rlnprr mlotion. tllc position udlpre thr Intill ahsnrlrd optical r n r F eqanls thr tl~rrsllolrl n c r p E.mrl I m n r r 5 insoluhlr in the dc\. .sisIare tl .ss nvplls I)? al>n. . 1 1 1 ~ m resist h c ~ o n ~mmes p l ~ .yxstlre energies hnvrr than E. ( 0 ..itit~rt.except that E. .) 61 Eymsrxre rrslxmw eumc and cmsr section of thc rcrirt im. T l ~ edges of tl!e msist image arf.s/.8 Yivhl fnr n. E.d rrsion.0t1v zn:~inrrlfi~\r. l l ~ d i f i ~ t lion cfkct.a procrss.slly i n s o l ~ ~ lin l e ~ dr\elopr.90 ilhlstratrr thr rrlalionslbip i w h ~ ~ thr d e e r en of photnmack image and the currespontlin~e(lges of the rrsist imsees dter (levelonment. T l ~ e negatitr resist rrnnains mn~plekI\' . . n finite solu..!~sitiv? c n m p e n d :hsorlls 1: tinn in thr r\posCd pnttrnl arras. SOLUTION For tllr p. e I'iptrr 4. to reach lOO% resist tl>ickness. nct rr. Tlnr in parameter y is (IeCnrd similarly to y in Eq.I lI~resl~t>lde r q El.. tlrp pl~oto~rnsiti\~c ~ p u n d h s o r l ~ s optical e n r r p and cor~verls into con ~ the it :ma clac~nir~l rnr. ~ l ~ sr. eapnsetl regio~ls ~ .tntr .~ S r ~ ~ ~ pl~ntnrrcists p l ! ~ n r n cwn~hinrtl tivr arc\\it11 e photosrnsitive c o n ~ p ~ ~i n d .lnd an org:tnie solvent. ~ I l i l i h in its c l r w l o ~ rmen uitl~oltt .i.t:. tlbr cnnlfi~rt ratio. r.~!rlilic.ri!i\v rcsisl.\ ~ X ) Sarc= are ren~owd.% s l ~ o \ \ ~t\pintl vqmsure respansc clln. ILF s11o\w1 ill r i o t r e 4.itin the d r \ . = nn. .qe akcr dw'~lopmcnt..~pltir pnxr.LX tlvo~e on IIIP mask.(l. and dr~vrlnpmrnt \. This nvellithg .ss \4lh \nlious drkw rlmsitir~ per lcvrl. the \vl.vposure e n e r p ant1 res:~~~Its ill shaqxr ima~es.t r l \ . r Rlritiw. anrl 1111.tr sollrl>ililyill t11e ~ . .~~ EXAMPLE 2 Find the prctslvtcr y lor IIW phn~orcris~s rhaw in Figm . of pl Fim~n. I the I t ) . arc.rrse of t l ~ mask pattlems.sk a nrlrativc nl~otoresist tl>.cnrr to fialiatioa.l~.in e p live resist. r tlhe I~rconlr 4 less Idr. LO-rnwk lithwr. cyu..9. ~\fter ~ v c l o p t ~ ~~rItI~. Alxwe E.i. l a v e r y ihnplirs a lligller soltdlility of the resivt uith an \ increhnental increase ofc.' T . Prior to i. cympon~rc.s llntil st . \ wnosure rnereies hciw llhe tlhresbold e n e m . b )N~pIivc ( photorcsis~.nus tIw r\qnwrc m c r p .. ..".rn to initiate a n c ~ l \ ~ cross-IinLine reaction.I par:ttnvtrr y..90. p sun.llla E.~nore.c nncl imagc cmss section for a a pxitivv resist. Rguw 4. is clelined to chanctrrizr the rcsisb r. tangent at E.Ls. a. S o t r that tlw resist I I . T I I itntigecmss section For tlte negttivr rrsist (Fig.nviti\ih o f a psitivr rcrist is dclinr(l :rs tllr e n e q r e q ~ ~ i r tod c pmc l r ~ u .E. Aftrr dwlopmpnt. soluble in the devrloprr solution for e. The irnnge cross section in Figure 4. ~lvvelo~wr solution.9 (1.(. \vI~err is the energv ohtained hydr. pl~utorcskts cwaist o f t l ~ r c o m p n e n t ~n photosensitive m m p ~ t n d .I haw ~~ : . i. = 45 slJicm'. 1 1 es r ~ a i t i \ i ~ y onegati\. . 4.~~ ~ t o r e s i ~ t s .T l ~ edee of tlre resist imttec mrresmnrls to L s r . ~ ~ Ito ~ S sensiti\ih s yi . PodIRl.~ ~tl e fa resist is CICAIIMI as t l e ~ n ~ q rrqt~ired retain 50% of tl~r to ori@n:~l resist Cl~ntl~ich~ess 111eeqms<. and E.91.ggcccdly not at tlleve~ical~projrdrrlpsitions e o l tile I I I ~ c (~l ~ e because ofrliffrortio:~.>. tllr reskt lilln txwnlcs e s m ~ t ti. ~ ~ g o / irr*i. . resin.1. thr photon. ~ ~qrr d C L. .)~nrgrd. p:rttrn~sfi>rnledin t11e ncgltin~ rcsist arr tlw rr\. hfter erposurr.~rr. changes its cllelaic~l~ stnlctrtrr. .stion limits tllr re%nlt~tion ~legati\. I (rrcpnrccmwr <lrscrilwstile prrwntageolmist reminingaftcr c . pl~oloresisl.~.~.iaing t l ~ e E.olr resi~t m.Jlcm'imml E .1 Optical Lithography Smtav w d ~ t 89 I ' $1 0 40 RI Y(1 lln 1211 CI. For . tllr t l ~ *<rltrl>ility . I Y ~ I T ( .and i?econlrs sol in tl~r I ~ ~ v e lsolution.

itfer \\it11the is done cleveloprr . r ~ ~ ~ i l l r l y a l ~ p l i rr l~dtr.1 I.4.Tl~ose tlaan of ~nrtions tlrr film on tl~c of wsist are rc~nloverl~ ~ s r l ~ t i v r t ~ d i s s omist ~ ~ ~ i n an nppmp". The film (e.rposr~l are rm~oved.5 to 1 ltm tl~ick.110 nntl.application or an scllwsion prolnotc.. . TIIP (Fig.1 IT!. can a p . and the raist is cqmsrd to U V liqltt.10k. a sllo\\m i n Figure 4.? tile insul. Tlw \rafrr is nlipml with respect to tltr nvask in .10d. ion irnl~lotllnli~ln Cllnpter 7) can i r done to <lopethe rxfnspd srtninrnrl~!ctor (see wgio h111 llle . .u1 0. s a ~ n r t l ~ e opitquc i ~ l ~ ion tlrr n ~ .na f i l r l ~.imbiel~t etchrs the exposed i ns11The t11. exposed resist is dissu1vt.r is pl:mwd i n a clean Tllp ti\? to \clvt-lrqths greater th.? -1. \vafer is then put i n all . Tlw l i h ~ ~ l l t ~ lis ~ i q ~ u c:lpnl.11rthyl-disil:lz~n~.r.. S~ fro111 to This rl~ang.arra co\.r.101.si~t. 4.ite (Figs.~Tt.1.ll~rgr-sc~llc T . be ma.. sl~o\\n Fiymrta 4. TI.tt h:rc :m instllnting SiO: I:~yerfonned on its snrlhi~~.ltnl to . sl~ona Figlrr 4. To ensurr stttisfilctol?~ srlhrsi(r:l of the resi: the stnfncr ~ I I I I he cl~i~nzed I~.ttor.5 urn. excvpt that .1I Ill!. If .5 Panem Transfer F i g ~ 4.\ftcr the spinnins step.c.10 illustnd~s steps to tnlllsfer 1C patten~s r~ the Troln a ~nmk a silimll \vafer to t11.liich is nmainktincd fur about 30 seconds.' \v.Tbr \\.70 Chapter 4 Pholol~lhographv 4.g. tl~r. Iliph-pou. Fillally. the <wferis "soft baked" (t!picallyat 90-120°C for 60 seconds! to n.10c) is thr rewrsr nrlhr optqur itnagr on tlir inask. ~(left side of Fig.we ~ I I P~~nr. final insul. resist to the s~~hstritte.sist slid to incre. C:III by tht.tcrrlrr.at. its sho\\n in Fi~tr.? no st inn~tnor~ ndla.I constant ~1to1i11n:d sprrd.ssllonm on tl~r side the lrft of Fig~rc 4.micall~ mn~patil> surf:^^ for tlw rrsist. A reI:~t~d pattern trancffarprm. . (II\IDS!. A in pmilivr rvsisl is ~ ~ sto d r fonrl tla.s stlrll . l~l~~ o i~~c~:r.l.1 Optical Lithography 4 71 4. resist .I posilivc photorrist is i~sed.hirh ran pmrtlr n cl~r.10c).clropl~ilic I~ydropl~~~l~ir.dmut 0.?Ter.e tlte solvent from t l ~ pl~otor~.ste liqttirl t. "post hakin?" at approxinnately IOO°C to ISO'C m! he required to incre:ar the> adhesion of the a.I positive pl~olorr~ist. ~ conlpletc circuit is f:tl~riixtc<l aligning tltr nrst III:LC~ ir 'I Tl r hy srqee!lry% tllr prr. tg~ <k For negt~tirr pllotoresist. prncrdl~rrs clrscril~rd :\lso npplicablc. it is T~.~!rr so tllnt tllr overl!irlg fillnis lifted offil~mcl TPIIIO\XYI (Fig.\iotrs paltrnl and wprating lhr lillto~mpl~ic 111 tr.?fcr is thrn mpidl!. i\fter clcvc~lnpmmt.~pplication tltis all~rsinl~ tllv \v&r is I~elrl of li~yer. Spin speecl is grncrlly in thr m g o of II1lUJ to 10.wlutios. using solvents or plxuna oxidation). 4.~\ing bel~iod ins111:1torimagr (or 211 pattern) tlrst is tht.~t 1:ltion layer bat dw's not attack the resist. I)? flwding tlte n. TIICios~~ltitor ini~gr lw ~tsrtlc a mnck fnr stihsrqtlel~t r m s i t ~ g For example.nlnlninurnl i s depositetl over tll? resist and tlw s1111st~atr 4.lr oTlliSII is isrd rstensively for discntr rlr\in. Tlmr <lop:tntpitttrr~~R dttplioite of the dcsil not is p:tttcnl on tlir pl~otomx<k a n~gatiw for pl~otorc.ss is the /ifl<~/r tpcltniqt~c~. resist pnttrm on tlw strhstr.alrfer pnress.ltinn.trltant I thr I ~ i l. f itnd resist to on :I V ~ O I I I I I I spindl~. a.000 to mat : ilsifr.1 Id). the resist is stripped (e. Photorrsisl dr\~lopn~enl~ISIIRI$.ldhesion r film to thr xnxfpr.g.ul optical lit11ngr:tphic s)sterm.. Tllr \vafer is tlzrn rinsrd ntld drird.sion pronlotcr for silimn ICs is he:<a.llb.riqt is its c o n ~ ~ l r ~ n e r ~ t n 6 or p:lttmI ~ .lllo\. le. e to 3 cnl' uf li(loi~lo~~s is apl)li~l tlir wnter o! tl1e ss.d in the dtvrloper. After tlir ..~tor arm The in~agc (right sirlp 11117ipre4.\vllicl~ in (In rtclling is the prer(!md t e c l ~ ~ ~ i q ~ ~ c . CIIII thicknrs must be sn~allrr tl~nt thr n.crr<lI.r ~ ~ E S F Elloucver. The tl~ich L as in oFpllotor~sictis comlaterl with its \iscnsih . \\.

the elecin tric firld b:rx tllr same pl~ilre even aperture (clrar a m ) .rs shoan I)? the dottnl1int.tct llole uitln dinlensions nrnr the resolution limit p"rrt rrr. tile it llrmmrs clilficult to seplrate t l ~ hro imapvs tllat are projected close to one an01 r fllr pl~.. r\lmslnr? tools and dewloping new wsists.12n).I!/>. 111arl~lition.6 Resolution Enhancement Techniques r ~ l a c i n ~ navelrn$l~ of tl. images tllat are projected can r \ close to one atlotl~er l sepantrd. Cosrlenser lp~isrs used to fwus t l ~rh~1m11 for are r lwit~n to a spot size 10 to 25 nm in (lianirter. Tl~errfore.rd.. T l r h.llrrr ii is the refractivr iindes anrl h ir " of = \\. o ~ ~ p l r y ~ s t t ~ n t . Dec. ape- I.~tion t) litlioppl~ic ~nethmb IC fi~hrio~tion ilism~zrrd for are in 111. In addition. ?? P St~l.2 Nen-Generation Limographic Methods 4 73 l l l hl. Rrlatitrl? fe\\ t~lols dcdialtnl to dirrct rrpsure of tlte resist 11). Imv Howrwr.c.ctmns nitlt :I saitablr current densih! A ttzngsten tl~~nnionic emission cstl~odr si~lglr-cl?~tal or l. in 42.a. insption cannot of be racily resol\.ili% For rmmplr. lrn~ii<lcflec~ion are mn~p~tter~nntrollnloprn~trrl~ t\I112 coils :m<l : or ~ .a fw~tsed are elwtnn~ hram \\itllout a mask.l. Althoo~h can use PS\1 or O P C to ~r estrml its useful span.tol.. lnterli-rmcr Iwhwm \ct\?s $Ifractnl i n tltr acfjawnt apmtms rn!~mcesthe I W ~ V P F ~ Rrca~~se intensie 1.rmtc i Ic) figurn41 The liltoffpnxvss for prttt. rhre to rlrep-subrr~icmn pmcpss rrqrrircrnents. \\. ~ incl~~drI Cgencriltinn of s~~l~~aicroti ~I resist s~.trly s :a circle.iphy n ~ s i ( k r r das are the d i f f r l m ~ :lmotig tllrst.a~ie. PC).. to Electmn kanr (ore-beorn)l i t l ~ q p h y prini. le 2 s sltoan in I .. ' " T l z r ~lectron g111 is n devicv that can senerate a h a m of rlt.~osr intnlsih at the mask is unclmozcd.wic mncrpt is sl~otrn Figare 4. opticd litl. \vhiclt t11n1 clectmn tllr h a m 011 aad off.ltiuo in the sral field 011 cr tlre sulntnle. \krio~~sp s ofnemgenrr. n squaw cnrtt. .121. Electn.n. Therrfirr. diamrtcr.~rily~~sed is to plwlr~cr pl~otomwb.md e:we in opeition. the man>-rpsoltation rnhancrn~ent tecltniqoes have bni de\ploped to estrnd the capability of o p t i d litlio~apl~y even smaller feahtre lenghs.ltnps of rlectr~n1. s 4.yatetl ~ ~precisely c~~ntrnllrd i t ~ l opccltio~~. need to li~al \e nltematives to optic11 litlhogclphy to pmczss deep-sulrlnicmn or nlno!lletrr ICs.ssection.antl~:intnnthrutlwridr (LaB.\!r. are .. sl~o\\n Fi01rr 4. to :\n itnportnnt rrsol!~tion enli:tnement trcliniqlte is thr phosc-shif?ir~::tnrrsk (PSbI).\t. rmnsfcr .\lwlifiin~ contact-llolr pattcn~ IIle wit11 atlditioa:~l seonletl the njrners \rill l~elp print 1 IIIOW aecllntr square Ilolr. it. llis~lly al. srr..~<e-dtift y that covers adjacrllt apertures rrvrnes thr s i p of the elrctric I".:.ngrapl~~ IC h a some li~nitatioesthat 1iw.s. Dram-blankins plates.-i i r I l 4. Dpc. DiVractian and the limital at rrsohation of tlw optiml gsteni spread the electric field at the \wfcr.13 slio\vsa schrmatic ofan elcrtron Iwam ~ t l .1"" Fnra con\mtional mask (Fig. n~ctl~<xls. stage r to ~ 1 n(l.rlrnflh that m\. mst. the electric the firld nf t l ~ irn:l$rs at tl~r r \\aier a n he cancrll~d. .ause the scat1 lichl (t!picallx l cm) is 11111cll s~rlallcr I~I:III s ~ ~ b s t n ~ t r 111~. the m~npledh mask prwluction and ilinsl.n beanl litl~ogn~l~y.lte he pttmln!.) is r~sed the rlectmn gun.1 Electron Beam Lithography . . the mst of mmk is very higl~.. i g ~ lrates to llirrct tllr fWasrd rlrctmn I m n l to any lor. 4..1 a~' (dl b 4..1. Figure 4..ltcr d r ~ ) t l ~ . estreme U\' lithocrapll!: a-n? lithopplr): end ion benni litl~o~.1) is proprtional to the square of the electric F the111. i ~ r e J.e3n1lithosc~plly .2 NEXT-GENERATION LITHOGRAPHIC METHODS \t'!iy is optical lilhogmpl~y \~6delyrtsml wl~at so .I!. .e not yrt been s o l ~ ~ l . precisioll l~lecl~. g . : 180' phase cllnap can IF ohtained hg using a transpcrenf l:~ycr tl~icknessd hll'lii .ometfirs.ers one aperture.n.and makes a sucr~ pmmislne inattat: I tle a remons are Illat it lias hi$h t h m ~ ~ ~ h p u td rcsoh~tion.rrk k~ Wpi1 1 .d is usnl to pnritioa t l ~ a~l>str.

~pc.otcr Gem.tn.1 Hal or Iwttrr.tt rr.ti~<.r 2l:ln. ~~ In a itrrrsr <con r!-.urt l ~ .srihlt.l-i1cn~i1te is a rnll1((:OI') llloll n e g i .n in F i ~ u r e . m s h o ~ in F i p r e 4. tltr \ilri:lblc-sllapd lmrn. o ~ ..tn.rluire sfnall ti~lt~bhers r11210111 rircuits.r \ ~ : t~ ~ ~ r ~ t11.th.w-i. and c~. sllonn in Fimjrr 4.\I1 into .~trd wl~icll lw dissnl~wl area. ~ gl~ nonirm<liattylresist e m IH. is ion s~tu. This chlngc dlo\w tile resist lo In? p:tttcrncd.! cttin.nll\ rwvr c. \.\v~. 111.l. ~ ~ o ~ ~ oelmirunt lx.(:. s i n e i t l~iglrly .. rrsist p s t t r n ~ are ~~~~~~n IIV ~wrtiCnllvori~nted s beat11 t11. I.? :.iilnhlr rmm optical litl~oq:tply.d>lv %in% :~ywct .i. :t minimtun incretnr.bt1i. timr is c. . t possil. Ilr.q>lt! ~n.~:IIII lit11 .rr ..3turr. ~:~ < l d r v~ i z r .lri. t.llprojert>. tltc imlrliation c:lusrr r.uri.... throls~hp~ltaclrqu:tte for tllv protluction of photo~llask.tvt11.tl intrmd t11:1t is e n <Ini~ildc tlw I K .1sk. \ 1 ~ din. < a. !Ilr reqc.. ~ i c t ~ l a r l s s ~ ~fora l ~ l ~ reptitiw d e s i ~ aa in hlOS meznonells. TIw h~l~il\ior an ~ l e c t m n 01 henm resist is sirniliu to tlli~t of n pl>otoresist:that is. :md <*. tbr molerular\\riel~t n is mluced in thr im<li.I~t!ys of rlt-ctron hr:~m< -I cmployd b. Co!llllloll positiw ~fe~.nhIt.r ~l~ tl~t.m~ 1 c\st<.t t~~af~ri:d. s11o\w1 thr far right o r F i p r r 4. t i ~ rlrdm.Itpn~jc~tion.TI!? d i w < l ~ ~ ~ is k t g r .tpe r ~ x ~ s rrccl~ i o n only 20! Iv is t i l t .n(.hn~+. llso nvells durino.~r fngrnents.~nlsion~. mn sr~hsrqt~entlyin h \ v l o y r sol~iat tion that attacks tilt* lo\r-l~~olrrul:lr-~vcisI~t materi:ll.l!~ yxll l r . rr.and dirt.m \m'ting rd>e~nr.lor s!5km: this is d1mI rrlI]~mjrrrrion.n-t* lo\v t ~ ~ r o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t . tllr p.in. Electron Resist Electron resists are pnl!n~rm. I ~ .I \.tvrtile l!i~l~est imss t l ~ m ~ ~ ~rlrl ~ x ~ t tltr l a r ~ c s lw:1111dia~llrt<. The 1x.tt vl~ctrnn I. rnlller tllnn sc. r~l. ~ l c l r i i c ~ r . tile pol!mrr-clrctron intemaion muses cl~rn~ical lmnds to Iw hmkrn (cllail~ sciscionl to fnnn sllortrr molw~rl.I.xvn ix. r ~ h n . :tnd for d c s i p vcrificat: of . ~~-al ~ tt.tri. so rrsolution is limitrd trr almet 1 W. a cl~emicnl ph!sind clumsy is indl~crd the resist by imdior in ation.l.erposrd at oncr.rrli..lyhutcnr-l sr~lfonr nt~ (PBS).1~~l~t~-cn-etll!.151. is ttire \\itla n ino~ictl~ar~ ~ e iIliglit-rt Illall tl~Itof ~ I I ? nonimldiatt~lixll!nlrr.ttionrtI~.lc cn~lsistrnt sit11tlle n iv~untc l c . trrm Ix.rl1r. For nr. ~ ~ ~ ~ ) r o r i Iiour i l less~ ~ 10 \lilfrrs per ~ ~ r at l e t llilll for 11 1 p111rt. hlr lwam is directrd only to rvqtw<tt'd p.ittvnlr on tlbr area to IF \r-rittrn niarst hr s~~l>di\ided in(li\icl1181 .r.s'i inr diwct a-ritinq." Egum 4..]tltion is not litnite~lI)? <lilTr:~ction (In'cat~se tlw ~ ~ v c I ~ ~ I I $ I I:~%swi:it<%l s .!n. For a negative e h ~ t r n n resist.tl. In t.lttvn~ing r a n ) 11x5a r~ctnngrlnr I cross w + i woiv.. TI~rrr.1tnlcr\r.and ~ I ~ I I rl>ip. ' ' In :I rnr~crrmn nlitrrn.~~? ofexposing smen~l acl~!res IIIII~ \i~~>illt.trliation-induml pnhlner linksho.<olt~t.an1 srans sequcnti. f<x. s srver.ic~tr~ 1-IC<I1.~&Ic. Crll pmjrction 11% not ! ~ ncllirvrd p:lttenrs t tltr tllmt!al>put of opticll e\panare twls.m i n mslm 4.\~.:%t!!re< jut!lpC frortr ir:tture to it. .lc--ri.trhinr< It. ic n-altlirr~l. Posititr elrrlmn resists c m ~ acltirw resol~~tion oi0.l w a ~ r ~ litl~o yltt t l ~ t . ~ ~ ihvo \\. nlr The P m x i m i y Effect In<>pti<dt l l q l p l ~ ~ t11ercarlution is l i m i t c ~ l I ~ c l i K r .tt . I t nfTt-m tlw :t<l\:tnt. llis~oI~edI ~ l r r r l o ~ ~ r s o l t ~ t i odues llot attilrk thr I l i ~ I l in tllnt n molPclllar-nriSI.ota'lv.1\17SCYC~P.tm: nntnd..RIIII. Ikwittion 011 t l ~ ~ n i s k is blt~nkrd c and (hlrnetl o m \vlirre no expown.toy ellips. For A positim rlcdmn resist.:L* i n r.L<s1tou.2 Nen-Generation Lilhogrephic Methods 75 ("1 (a1 Hwtrr sc. n*llpmjrrtion twllin Tllr nilup'' is p . tllr aver.14~.n.ll n l ~ ~ ~ n o r y a ~ l l s l r l I*.lpe in one Pspsurc \\it11 an elearn" br.ct pattrrnin< on :I re tll. r ~ a $V-I pattern tnt~ct i l lla\.r!slto scan tlte firuscrl rlectmo hrarn: r a t e r s n n and ..xti. It is dso pssihle to pattern s rnn~plrx gcomrtric sll. developlnrnt.r r .anl litl19li In f l i g l ~ .rn 1 1 Ill? \:tri.-~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ \1 i t I w ~ ~singta r11.4.ihlr-sl~apcl !wan1 Tltv l n~i< 9 n..nn.14 olrltr 11% h i ~ l w r tbrougllput than ~ I I Prnnventional Gn~tssiao spot heaal. chip .m fi.c t l r n ~ t ~ h :r rccul:tr m ~ l c.ativc pl~ohrrvsists. l t v vvctor sc:et r n ~ l l m usinr! . t~lacl~ine nnjst l~. t n ~ ro~!ntilIK. r.lrLIll resists inclr~dc poly-rnetl~!l m e t l ~ a c ~ l (PhIhIA) and p. P~!\"gIyrid~l 111et1~.lnning .150."1\s a rrsult. \'cctur r a n wi~ing h c m c ~irl ShaFs Ihl s .l COI: like most nro. cmss l i n l i n ~ r r e a t ~rnrnpler thwt*-clit~~erlsio~~:d ~s rtntring.~\-rd s? tr<inc:t vector scan nslrnr.

undergo d tbey collisiom. ~lislribtion f o n \ d mttcring and hark-ttninp at thr n~isl-nnharntrintrrCarr~.rly that tlte electrons are distriboted i n an ohlot~g pear-slmpnl \alemc ~ i t a tlilimneter on tlre same o ~ l rof ni:qnitode .15 Sdwlnatir of positi\.ofthr arlrlitionxl mrnputrr time rrtluinrl tn r r r i s v tllr suhrli\ided resist patt ems..4-ptn P l l J l h film on a thick silicon suhstri~te. TIIIIS. h. ." a ( b ) Don.76 c Chapter 4. Tllr proxitnih rffrct pk-3 3 r Limit on the mioirnllnl cpacinp I r h v e ~ n pnttrrn f ~ t h t r r sTORI-~ for the p m d m i h r k t ..r sremmts. p.rs. Figtre l..r .L< thr rlectrnn penh r rttatios drpth (-3. l k s h o \ s rnrnputctl elrctrna tnjrctnrin of 100el~ctrnns . Rrcause ofhackscattering.material lilltil either ill1 of their t~llrw Inst s tlir is or the? leave thr rnatrrial k c a t ~ s of hacbcatterin~. T h r incident clertrnn dosv ill raclt segment k :t~ljustnl tl~ttt i n t e p t r d tlmr fmm all its n r i n . \ritIt e l r d m ~ u a few of 4 Ememe Ultraviolet Lithography +' 4 Dow Figure 4. t t t ~ r i s p ~ l r d r o nthe resist-ntl~stntr at s intrrhcr.mo so tile is n s r s u n close."Tl~e at clectrnn hram is incident :%Ions z-ajs.1~1 hackwtrd frnrn the silicon stshstnte into t11r P l l J l h resist film and l m \ r tllr oraterid. . and :1 tnjrctories hare Ixen pn~jrcted tlte a1 ontn tl.v t ~ YYYY (a) -.lfiJ. T l ~ ~rnllisiorls lead to e n e w losses and path chatiqrs.tttcrns are tli\idnl into mmallc. dectmns rffrctirrly c:m irradiate s r v e ~ l nmicmrnet~rs l a\wy from the w n t e r of thr e r p s u r e h r a o ~Sincr the doce ofa resist is @ven ..am. This pllenomenon is c. This tppmach ftlrtllcr c l e c r e ~ ~tllc tl~rnt~ohput thr elrckon hram c. e F i p ~ n4 ." . Figurn 4. h l n ~ r i ~ i ~ w g n t ~h t~ rnrrrct t.v resists nsc~l elwtmn Ix:anl l i l l a ~ m p b ~ " in kr\' and h i ~ l ~ pnergies are less than 0..r.n\ar~ll-scatterin and h a c k ~ c . incident elecse the trons spread out a the? hxwl t h r o u ~ h . and twgoti\.nt imtliation at one l m t i o n will affect tllr imliation in nriglllmrin'z lwzhions.5 pm). Photolithography rcw>t.I L R ?I LC.~tr.e. sltmr-i tlir nonnalizerl distributions of tltr ft.lllcrl t l ~ proxiraily eJfic1.1 nnt) h t ~ by electron er t sc~ltterit~g \\hen rl&onr penetntr the resist film a ~ t ilnderl!itl~ srtbstr.stcm rs of ) tvc~uu. rlprtmn I~. This figme slto\\s qtnalitati\. Alw.on ..16 ( 0 ) Sirnulalcd trajectories of l )clcermns in PUMA lor ik 20-CVclrrlmn lx.sz pl:me. t h sun1 ofthe irradiations from all surmunlfing ~ arp.c. mmyelrvtrnns undrrxo hackcattrrit~gcollicions ~ n d : tr. \\ith initid e n e q of 20 kcVind~lent the ori$n o f a 0.



chapter 4 Phocol!thwra~hv qste111. : r I ~I ,,q.) ,c.,,,,, tic^ zt,,, :*,,ELT' l i ~ l , , ~ r a ~ ~ l ~ y t\ l ~ ~ ? r r - p m l ~ ~ Iw Ll$ Ior~ yi,lLn,tn,,, r.,cli.,ti,,n,,,srnl. .\r the sourct. n l EI:V ha\inq a \!-,~wlcngtli of 10 to 14 nni. .,,

n,,.El'\' Gllll.trs,nis n.ILr.tctl hy it 1n;al. Illat is pnw!llnsd I,? p~lt?rni~lg;~n malr-. alrsorlwr n.,l tl<.lndtr.ll t,n ;I maltil:l\rvcnah.cl 11:tt siliron or p1;us-plat? t11:rrk blank. EU\' KI<$~. I:,,,,,c n ~ ~ l t r - t M l 11,~. ~ ~ n n ~ ~ : ~ t t ~ ~( ir. rn n o~nl; t l ~ ~ ~ ~rcxin~ls)of the n~xrli ironl rt.,$oss .. ~ rhin~ tf2,,,,,c~,.tx r r ~ ~ , , c ~ i nci,,,,e~t:incl i ~ t ~ a qintnla thin l;iyrr nf resist tile n-afer. ', l, t~

<,,,cr E ~ T r.aliiltiol, ilram is n:knou: the m;rsk lmlst IIP sci~n~lcd tllr k i t m t 11,~. \. hy Illlllllillittrs thP t.ntirt, ~ ~ ~ b t tlirld tlnt desrrilx.~thr rircoit inark li~yrr.Also. Tor a 4x ,.n~ lttlnrrr I.P.. t!lC ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ h i~I~~~l - ~ ~ d .l ione-plmc,dniirror! rcd~~ction e n . l o i :tnd ~ ~ m i . ~ cm tIII u:afvr mtrct Ix. Yitnta~d one-fotrlIt III? 111:tsks ~ e in a d i m t i o n o p p o i t r lo tb ilt d nl:hsk nlo$mbt.tlt to r<.pmlurr the itn;,p lirld on $1 cllip sites OII tllc a l f r r s~~rfao?. pnriqion ? d ~ is nqttirvd t a l*.rfomt tltc cltip-sit,, nlig~nlrnt to mntrol tllr \$.a& s ~ and ,t~td lllitsk tilq. ~ n o v e ~ n t ~ r ~ t~sI I Crxpnsur~ iu~d dosr < l u r i ~t11c S C ~ I I I I ~p I ~ s s . ~g Im E [ I ~ Iltllomtphy is clp;lhlc of printing 50-nm fc:ttun~ nit11 Phl\lh wsist using 13-nl r.ali;ltion. H~nwver. p m \ ~ ~ c t i o n EU\' eqmsurc tnols lms a numhcr of clzallenge tlw of Sinrc EL\. is strnngl? ahsnrlu~rlin all inntt.ri,ils. the l i t l ~ o p p h y pm.s elurt h r pe h n ~ , p d :I v;tnm,,,. Tltr can~erz in ntttst use reflrctivc lens P~I.IIIPIIIS.;lnd thr rnirron mu h u . 1 1 ~ 1 n i h ~ a l ~ l t i l ; ~cmltinq that prntlurr distrihl~hrl . r rr quarlcr-\fi~re Bra:$ r d r c t ~ o . i~~ldition. 111:~ck 111 tla. h1:11,k rmtst :ilw h r rnl~ltil:~yrr coated to in:L\irnize its rrllrcti,,? st i.of 10 lo 14 om.

drprnrls on tla. ntolrlir ntrmlrroftla. niateri:~l ,nost n~ntcrinls and I,;,\.,. I(,,, I ~ , , ~ ~ , ~ . , , ~ , at A I nm. tl~r nl:r~ks~tlfitrntrternst l a thin inrml,r:~nc.(1-2 pm lllirkl r ,,f I,,,,.. ntrm~ic-number n~t~tcrinl, : silica" nrhi<lcor silimn. TIIe pnac.m itsrll i< drlinecl surlt a ill a thin (-0.5 w n ~ ) rrl:~li\r,ly ~ i g l ~ - ; ~ t o m i c - ~ ~ l ~ m l ~ cstacl~ t.ntalt~t~~. n ~ s t r , ~ . . I m;tlr.ri;d. r ;a tt~ gold. o r on? of tlleir alla!s. 8vllir.11is s ~ ~ p p oI,n ~ l tliin mmrnhr~n~~. ? tllr hlwks are tllc most dimct~lt and critictl elrmcnt of an XRL s!stcm. 1II<. constn~ction an r-GI? ~ n a is I I I ~ I C Inore coriiplicalctl tlian tl~iatof n pliotonvirqk.To atoirl of k ~I aha>rptionof tllc X - r a y hrt\rren tllr SosrLx. alld in;lck. thr rxlmsure crnrctlly t;,krs l>l:l<~. it1 n l~rlium en\dmnnimt. The x-ray arc pnxlli~cul vactntlm. \$.luic\t is srpar;ttrd lronn in thc llclinnl ])?a tllin\-acllllnl aindow(lls11;1~1y0f Irtyllium). Tltr inark s!thctr;itr \\ill d,sorb 25% to Xi%. t l ~ e of incidnlt flt!x and nmrl thercfori- l r cmlr,l. Aa r-my resist I ptn tl~ick \*ill shsorlr about 10% of the incirlcnt f l ~ ~ r . arr no rrflrctions fn,m tl~r Tltrre stll,antz to crrntr slantling ~clves. antireflection m:ttings arc unnewsray so \ r e can ~ t s clrctmn Iwam rpdsts ns x-ray resists Irrcamsr !vI~eaan x-rav is ~I>UI~IHYI c I~yan atom. t l ~ atom gws toan rrcitrd stisteaitlr tlir rlnission of an rlenrr,~~.l l ~ r r c i t ~ r l e T atom r r t ~ ~ r tosits ground stat? 1 enlittirig an x-ray having a difirrrnt \nvelragtl~ l t a t ~ n y t 111,. incident x-ray. This x-ray is ahsorlwd by anotller atom, and tllr prrr~.sswpciit.;. Siuw ;!I1 t l ~ p r m r e s r e s ~ ~int tile emission of elrctmns. a resist liln~ r l under r-nty irradiation is ~quiunlrnt onr Iring irradiated I1y a largr n u n l l ~of srrnndary electrons frmn any to r of tllv other pmmssrs. Onw tllr rrsist filrim is imdinted, clvain cross linkittenr d~;ain wission \\ill occur. clrprnrling on tlir h F e of rrsist.


4.2 Nen.Generstion Lithographic Mclhods



3 X-Ray Lithography
S-xty l i t l t ~ n p l ~ y(ZHL) is a pnl~ntial '" c:mdirl~teto succrerl optical litltqr~pit). tile for f:thriration ~i intzq.ltel circuits nt 11x1n n ~Tile s!ncl~rotron storace rinrc is tllr choice . sourcr f i ~ l~igl~-voluane r lii;unuf;rhtrinq. It can proride a i n ~ anioltnt of collie of x-r~v oiaterlflt~r can r:~rilyarcnmmcxl:ttr 10 to 20 eqmsinrc twls. and S R L wes ;I s l ~ n ~ l ~ n r . printin? tnetllod sitnilar to optic11prosimity printing. Figlre4.1S slto\\s a scl~rn~ntir L s)stc.ln. Tile x-ray wvav~lengll~ al.wut 1 nnl. and tI1? printing is SR is t l ~ r o a l a ll~ m,lrk in closr prosirnit). (10-40 pmi to thr uafcr. Since x-ray ahsorption ~ x

42.4 Ion Beam Lithography
Ion h ~ n mi t h m p p h ! . ~ ~achieve l i i ~ l ~resolution than ~ ~ ~ t&-In?.v, ~ l ~ c ~ m !w:mn l ~i cr ~ ~ c . r t ,n liti~o,craphic trcliniq~les because ions IIR\SCit higlwr mi~w tl~rrrfore :and scattrr less tllan elrctrnlts. Tile most in~pnrtar~t application is t l ~ p rrpair of lnasks for o p t i d Iiit~o~r;rpll!: a 1x4 for \r.llicl~ ~ m a i r r c is$ems are a\;iilal)lr. ~ sl liipnr~ 4.19 s l ~ ~ Ill? mmpl~ter-simtll:ttc(~ \n trajectories of 50 11' ions implantrrl at 60 ket' into Phl\lr\ 2nd \.:trious substrates." Note that the sprracl of llle ion lr;an at 1 clrp;ll of 0.4 pxn is only 0.1 p111i r ~ c;rses (mmpare \vith Fig. .(.I& for el~rlrnssi. all I3nrbottterinp is c o m p l ~ t r;rlrs~ntfor tlw silimn s ~ l h s l ~ ~ t r ,tl~rrc oal? ;I s~nnll l~ and is

Figura 4.19




~ n j , ~ +ofr$14r\' inns tr.trr.linS tlnmu~hlf'U\lA into \$I. Si. : s ~ 1 ~ " , . ~ 11. P\I\I:\


F 4.3

is t b case \\it11 oxidation (see Cl~nptcr mmpatvr siml~lstionis also .In importmt 3). tool for stud!ing t l ~ pl~otolitl~oqapl~y r prorcss. Tlnr SUPREXI packarc, snfnltun:ttrly, is not cap:lhlr ofp~loto~it~lr~mp~licsinltl~ntio~l. anolhrr popular tml. I'ROLITII. Ilo\\n.r. clops provide this wpahility I'IIOLITI I is a \Vind(nw-ban1 pmgmm that IIWS a p i t i \ / n q a t i t r photomist optiad l i t l ~ c ~ n ~morlrl originnlly d w e l o ~ lh Chris 3l;tck.l" PHOLITII simnl;ttes t l ~ cnmpl~y l c plrtr on#:- :1nd hvo-dimr~lsionaloptic:~llill~ogr:tpl~y procrss from acrid i m s g ~ firrmation tIimr1$11rrsist cqnstlrr anal cl?vrlopn~?nt. TIle output o f t l ~ p r o p m is an ;twnmtc prre dic!ion o f l l l r final resist pmlilr, u.llidl is p r ~ s c n t r d :I \vide \ a r i r h o f ilnagrs. plots. in rr.iphs. ;anrl calculations. In partic~~l;~r, PROL.ITII is able to sitnnnlate tlte follmvining


Comparison of Various Lithographic Methods
TItrlitltoS.l;lpbir inr.tlnc~I< dirctnsst.d c.ialier all l ~ n \ r 11111 or Lwtter r r s d ~ ~ t i o ~COIII100 A l.
p~h,t>n 1 \;tnous litl~<v:nt~ltic t ~ l n ~ oislsltmtn~in Tzhle 4.1. Elo\%~,ver, 111etI1nrl 0 t ~ ~ ~ ~ s rttc11 Il.~r un\m I~nlit:~tinnc: difl'c~tinrt vITc~ct o ~ t i c i d its lllp in litltOgr.lph\: the prosinlit? eNect it) r l t ~ t m n IU..~TIIlitla<<r;splty 111:1& f;al,rication r n ~ ~ ~ p l e x i tinr s i r-my litl~o~r:~pl!\: dimnrlh 11, ~tl.c<k 1 . d pmcl~trtiot~n IlCV litl~o<ntpl~c s t o c l ~ ~ ~ ~ Ii W c l ~ a q in i b C. o ;n~rl St c r IW:IIU Iitl~cwcr~tplty Fnr I(: f.tlmc:ttios. n,:tav ~n:wk1rrr.l~are i ~ l w l w d . Ilo\\r\rr. it is not arrexQ1n IXVtlw S I ~ I I C i t l ~ o ~ ~ p l ~ i c for ;dl l r ~ ~ : sIII~X-:UI<I-TII:I~CI~ l tnetltwl l , \ :~pprm~clt k k r ; U I \ ~ ~ ~ . WI t l of tlrr imirltw &,,tlun.s tach lit~lorr;qdrir m r s s to inlpn)vc, resollltion alld lo Inax;y of p irnin. tl~n,u<lt~,ot. ~.ctmplr. For n-$:I EL'\' metlml w n IF nsed for the r ~ ~ o s t critical mx5k Ivvrlr. n l a ~ n . . ~ c I o r 5:) a I ) t i d ?strtn ran h~ used for tile rest. a 4: :\nunlinc: to tlw Srmin~ncllcrturI ~ t r l n t s t ~ Asswi:ttinn's It~tumotionolT ~ C ~ I I I ( ' Ilcwd,n,~~>.l;)r .Sc.r,,in,r~d~rctnn. in:mnlitctt~ringt r v l ~ n o l n p reacll ti#r n m IC \rill 50 eration ;irn!~n,i2l)lll." \fit11 rarh nr\r trcllnolop. g e n r ~ d i o nl. i t ~ m ~ p l h;S~1w1 l!

Fonnatio~l an inlnge o h I of

I I ~ feature I ~

by an optictl projection system

Exlnsr~re pholoresht by this image of DifTtlrion of the imaCr

PROLITH accppts l i t l ~ m p l ~ \ ~ i n f o r m a ti i otn ~ form ofdata files and input pa..... n l e

TABLE 4.1 Comparison 01 Various Lithographic Technologies

Optird 249 I' I nm K
Fr,'.""". Xr.1




Ion R<

menu. :After n SIICCPSS~~II license searcl~, Imaging Tnnl pammrtrn \visclav appears the (see Fig. 4.20).,\s tltc user makes clloices from tlte \'irwmrntt. PROLITII displ;i!s \\inclo\\s in which parampten may I r entered in orrlrr to \ieatsimsl:ation rrsslts. Thesf be obsemcd fronr tlre Cnplrs mene. These i d e a are illt~stnted Example 3. in


I.wr L),t?r.fr.lni.>n lin~itc-d Ye.; (?IN<Rt,fr.tni\r.


Lawr plsma



S!ncl~mtmn k s So optin YPS

S1t.r rod \c<e llinru.rl~pnr of
?o~l-mn> ~




\lullicla: No Fn~ll.ficld refmcli\r Slrppcr

t'w PtIOI.ITII 1,) d r \ v rlw n.,ist prc,(iivfor lllr nll~ldnr.~l f#,.~lttn.in nl.ak Rmrr 4 ?naftcr.


;m<1 <h.n.lr,pn~rt~l .\ssttnw tllr fijllcn\,nr: pnrr,.\ cn1mrl118<,n$




l ) ~ ~ ~ n ~ m i f i ~ - .4x t i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i li? I.'ml.'tltl,l R.,s!,.ttu-rc l),ttl~ T i n\t>lr~l.nt.r ';in<ll-


i s i Rdlwtion

Ix Yrs Tr.msrnirsion Sinxlt.


S o
Strnril Singlr




Sin&. Ym

l.*.n~~t:J-inlpl~lililiI Yv\
r, ). .,


SOLUTfON ~ 1 nfll,,, piwn ,q,ltlcs can lx. cnteml fmln lhr P;~rrslrtrrs 1 nlrnn or I,? cliclill&7 an 1111.appmpriate imns on thr tmlI,.~rlltr rrstlhins rrriqt PrnfiIc is shcn\n in Fiqxrr .l.Zl.

b 4.4

TII, c o n t i n ~ ~ pgmutl~ t l ~ s c n l i m n d u d o r industr). is a clircct r e r l ~ l o f tile cap>hilitY cl of e t t o t n o ~ s f c rln;lllcr a n d smallrr cilruit p : ~ t t ~ m s u.n~iconrltrctor uafcrt. C:tarrrt~t$: tlte r onto

v a t inajorih of litl~oxrapl~ic n i p ~ n r o t optic:~lsystc.ms. This chapter mnsi<lrn,rl v;lrrq is ious exposllw tools. masks. plrotorrsists, and tla. clr:tn m o m lor opric:~ll i ~ l ~ ~ rile~ l r m primary factor lio~iting resol~rtion optical Iitliologr;~pl~y diffniction. Iln\vc~\~rr. in is hrcnnu ~ ~ f n d n s ~ c r r n rin trxcilner ism. pltotoresist cllrntistry anrl r~:solution e n l ~ a n c r m c o t n s t r r l ~ n i q u r SIICII as PShl a n d OPC, s optic:al l i t l ~ o g r a p l t ~ ~ ~ i l l tl~e remain mainstr<.a~n trcll~ ~ o l o at:lrnsl t o tlle 1 0 11x11eerierd 1' y 1011. E ~ r r t m h a m lilho~rnpl~!.is t l ~ r ~ t e c l ~ n n l ~ o f c lfor ITI-k making a n d aanofab~r ~oice rication. in \vhich IIMV dr\icc m n c e p t s nre rrplorcd. Otl~er lithomnpl~icprocessin< t w h nokr$rs a r e EU\! x-ray, a n d ion b a n i l i t l ~ o g r . ~ p lA yt l ~ o ~ allgtllrsr Ilnvr IIW) nnt o r ~l ~ l~ better resolution, eacll process 11;~s o w lisrit;~tions: its pmrimihrfl?c.l in rlrccrnn k m m litl~ogn~ph!: mask blank p r c i l t ~ a i o n i f f i o ~ l t i in EU\'lithognpl~): nv~skfabricxtion d r conr. p l r a l y in x-ray l i t l ~ o g n p l ~and s t o c l ~ i ~ ~ t i c cl~argr ion l r ~ a ni~l ~ o g r a p l ~ . y, space in l t At tl~e present time. n o o b \ i o ~ ~u c c e s o r t o optical l i t l ~ o g n ~ p can be idrntifierl ss l~y ~~~~nrnhipioasl): I lo\ve\rrr. a inis-and-match approach a n take ;~clrnnta?eof tltc rzniq~w f r a t u r s o f each l i l l ~ o g r . ~ p l ~ y p r o ctro irnpro\.r r e s o l ~ ~ l i o n to inaxi~nizp l ~ m t ~ e l ~ p a t . ss imd t

I Far a more drl.rilerl cliaar.inn on lilh<lgrrpllyw (31 K. .\'ahmum. -Iirhqmpl,y: in C. C C b q slnd S. 51. S l r . Eds.. l%Sl Twl8ooln~. Sl&r.~iv.llill.S<?~,Yo'ork. ihl P. R:u.~~nw,Il~urg. ~ d h A 1%. II "f lficnlrh,?~mphy. 3limrrrwcltining. nnrl ~ l l m ~ r l ~ ~ , n m t i n Ir,~ . Vol. SPIE. \\:ultin@nn. DC.1'11;. i c , D. A 5IcCill~~. -lill~~.tplny,- S. 51. S ~ P I<<!,, in . \'l*Sl Tccl,n~d~~gt,, 5l&~~v.llill. S<-.vYo?x.I%?

P For a mom drt3ikl d i ~ a ~ i onnnclminp. nr K J. T. I J I ~ . o -Elchine: in C. Y Chmqmd S. 51. Sn. Edr
L11.Sl x7lt!1o!<*q. >(cC.r*\v-lldl. Sru. Ycrl. IYJCI.
3. J. 51. D,oK?lo md J. R. Slonkm~rki. -Podionlair Cnntrn>imalionmd I h i m Frrlom;uw: Sdd Smtr %dand 27.3. Irn(~su~.

4. 11. P Tsng and R,J w ~ r n-Clc.:mmom TmlmolnS\:" in C. Y Cb:mg md S. \I. Sm.Ed,. VIA<! . . . Trrltnolo~y. 5lrCr~~v.llill. S~?vY<,rk. ID*.
5. 54. C. Kin$ -Ptiwiplm of Optid Ufhmr.~pl~):- S. G Einspn~clt. in Dl.. VI.SI lYlrr(mnin.GI. I.

Aorlrs~lc. Sos.York. 1981.
fi. J. H . Rruning. *I\ Ttlntid on Opticd Ulltalfinl,hc"in

D,h. 1)cunr. rl d.. Dlr .Cnrtimnrlur(r,r


7.~1~nuloq. Elwtrwhrmiwl Sor. R~nninckm. illY2.

7.R. I .\\:ills :,nd J. I!. 8noning. -A Rlzirr.ofFinc..Lisr. Utho~r;aphicTt&ni,~u<.s: ( Prcunt :old Futurr.%lid smr? Trrl~tm,d., s. 119911. W,

S.\\! C. ?ill and J. T. h o n . Inc:nmhd Cirnnts. .llotmnlr. k.irrr. nnd Fobrimfi<na. Pn.nticr,-l1:JI. ~ ~ ~ ~ s j~I!+*'. , m l aim. .
0. \I. D. L * W I ~ I I .S . S. \ln~:m;~~ll,tll. I . A. Simpsn. -lmpnnins Rrrrtlslio!8 in Pl~~~talill~c~npl? md uilh a Pl~zrp.SLifl 5I;~~k: IEEE Tmns FJ~drnraa ~ i c nED.29. I'r29 !l!lvYI. . nl., -pmclir.J .+WIT of \lirmfal,~m~inn (la, lM.nsn R<@yion.'Wirl Stair x~Ic*td. in 10. 1). p Pi. 2. 12i (199.11.
11. J. A. ~ ~ n o l c l r . ( h x ~ n i o r . o f r . ~ v\knk-~~&~ag.'S.Jid Evlrad. 22. -,in ~n~ Sfott

s. $7 119-1.

I?, Y, ,%lt~nlr,( d.. -Elemn.Rr.lm ci.ll P m j ~ ~Lj~ftofr;~pl~y m o rnrl 11s nlnwlchpllt: r ~i~n 11s . m . A 1 \'or ,W. Evh,zd., Ill2 !6l, XXW il!Tjl). . 13,\y, L R~ T y,.,,heq,", %I A. \\,,,=V~. -ton k.xm utlwqn~rplty." Wid Slmr Tvhrwl. 91.J. (*'I 19\1''

,, ,,

la. D. S. K~~ , m S.\I: \im;,nal,m. - 5 1 0 ~ 1 ~ Simal:,ion o f s p s l d h Ihrltihuhut rd&.nny i l l ~ carlo Eleron.Rlwn>lithop,pl,?:-] !'or. 5". T h n o l . 12, I?Ri I l!l:i!

and thr prodacts frn~n sadacc are n~nlo\. Nm Cencrntion \\l~itc . and ntrtal fillll~ Plasnia-assisted rtct~ing (also cnllrd dyrtching) far Iii$~-fidcli+ pnttrm tnt--'-- b 5. l!KR IT.l. and k1 panmrtcs to inlprnw.tc.r~pl.t\\.trlirlrs prr rabic mrtcr with p: L rlt. Thr relnired e q m rurc encqv for :t p. I. fmm nln t nln. (1.) Ix. c.r-li clrangr to imprnxc resol!ltian? Mrchat~isrns a r t cllen~icnl for etching of srmimndnctors.. Cobr.r C\s~n. hi$tl? ttnifonn r t d l rates arc imlnrln~t.\Ionan1 FIS1. (n)For. as illnslrateil in Figure 5. 1' sil. rraloves i ~mmilskcd portions o f a layer. Etch r .C In.E T ~ h n o l ~ ~ r ~lS.H3~ Ut1~4~apl1< Pnpr.2. Srrnnuch..cd lhe by clilTt~sinn.0 lor one lcwl. The pnttenl trc~nsleris acco~~~plishecl: n ctching process that rclraivrl!. arc to rrmove contamin:itinn that results fmln lvar~dling storing. . ad.4.sili\r l>l>otorcsist 14U mJ/r.ta. nncl merl~. m r in. ! ! il!J?Il. The present chapter co\. 7-10."].. Utl".!. fmm wlfrr to \\xfcr.e. over the a~ltole \cnfrr sttrhce) of pol!silim~l. RRntrlrru~rrjrr Sn.2: SEXT-CEKEIUTIOX LITHOGRAPIIIC 51EniODS 6. A 2tnl. ArF c. ~\s'iw~lin~ n~eliqildr timcs lnr lording . cllemical ctcllants are trsrcl for lap@\? an optically flat.rnriyti.\\hrWly.sistand nrg:ttivr photow%ist. 16 j.r oirlurt p.n.yanln.ni011etrlli~lg hils e~l hecause it greatly increases tllc rtrl.and ttnlo:tdin< n?fcm. ing to 1:l prnjection printing and finally to 5 l projcrtion stcp-and-repeat?(h) Is it pos : I. = 0. h. Both agitation and the tcmperatarr of the etcllant snlutinn inllr~rnw l ~ rtrl~ t r rile. in Starting fmn. b:tm F. clamage-freesurface.:-Ill. 4.tnicnl a@tntiot~ urnally required to P I I S ~ I I ~ snik~ris ctcli ~ility n mnsistrnt etclt mtr.rrn I .11~ in asilbnaih is $vctl by tllr filllowing cqt~:ttinti: . (I.<[:<Ilmnvccn 0.ls.~ i 5 diwtnrnt in r-rav lithm~mhv dificult? (c) \\%:$I sn are the tntential adwntsces of 7. :and 1.ru%\:lfrri m m r w l For h in the etcll solution.hiuh thr a\r. \Vet cl~emical etching is uscd e~ensively scrnimndnaor p-ssing.l? (I)) \\hat of \\rdo is pncticp to arljurt SA.1 WET CHEMICAL ETCHING I 5.rr~. what up the thron~tinl rcsnhztion nncl rl~ptil fcxtns h. lo IC p m c i n c ... T h r ~nccllsnisms forwrt clirnticxl etcllisg in\ol\r three rssentinl steps... imntcrsion etclling.f. Sd Vor T e c h r ~ d .. k.acb Spnnqc. most wct chemic:11 etcltcs pmcrrd IJ? itnmrninp tllr \vafcn in a c h r m i ~ lsohltion or hy l . pmrlucr circuit lrntares. .tir~. To tllese resist patterns rnlzst hr trassferred into the andrrl\ing lnyws conlprising the de\ice. \Vet clI?ltlic~l and rtdlino.. Cmlur~loSprisqr. odrle.Compatrr Simmdlio~~. cl~emr icnl reactions occur i t thr surface. Find thc find )irld for a nine-n>mli-lclrl m v a in o.knd ? Nn.65... resolt~tion'?c ) \\hat ( pantnrler clws lhe pha~-%hiit (PSXI)techniqt~r nl.\asin. . (a1 Explain wl~y shaped heam prnmiser higher throughput than a Gaussian k a m in a r-lraln litlt~mphv. For I rl:m l W cleat) n n n l . Etching As cliscussed in the previous chapter. Ul~ntioliolrt rt U~bogrn~l~~: P n ~ rScrnnlrrh.I .1: OFTICAL L1171OGWIIY I. mekds.q.m:.1: The rradants are tnnsportrd by dilfusion to t l ~ e c c t i g stndnce.50. ~ cinln11.ln r-ny lithopphic s\stem? \\hy or why not? ..\lrrnu. llmv c aliqmcnt Ix perlonned for e-ham lithopnphy? \\h) m .rrl~.15 Chr&... rrvlved from nnnimily prin .t~c J:fcd dcnril p fxtd m : k 0.rci!ner l:tscr 1 m n m optiwl lilhnpaphir. .rnoant of film removed I>? etching p r r unit timc.I%lS.nl.r this tm. (1. itnd lor m ~s o y \~rintions fcatorc sizes and pnttcm drnsitirr. M . I><Y. ~ t nlust h r unifonn acrnss .0 m\Vlcicl~i:. For srmimnductor production lines. Spr. I.. 3. pl~c. and (c) almvc ? ptn. litl~ogmplly tlle p r w r s of transfrrring patterns is to photoresist mvering the surface of a semimnductor\~afcr. . sin.spqing tlie \ \ d e n \ritlb the etclmnt mlolt~tion.?ned p 8. (a) \\lvul arc the n<l\nnt.An optiml litlnngctphic s!stem lriw an rqwnrre pwrr of 0. .1 lor f i x ~luvk. I h e plots in Fiaxrc 1.k.~qes clin<lvantaqcr urine resists aith h i ~ h wI~~es'> Convcstional resist ascl of y (Irl SECTION 1. Snl Cvm~csion \\llitv ljllmpph! \\i3rlrrlm1. nitride.) . \\hv has thc orrratinc modr ulonticsl lithogranhie mtem. . nrlrm \viIh Sf\= 0. cumpan: the m k r thronqhptlt krr lxniti\r.9 arc callcd respurasc nrrxcs in microlithopnphy. S:va Jose. b PROBLEMS SECTION 1. Tllc chijr wra i c 50 mm~. find thr nnmlx.5and L pm. Etch r. n t r and aniforn>ityI I mnstn~~tly ~ stnppl!it~g fresh etchant to thr a d e r surf:^^.I unfrr.-Pmlrniy S.lc.. insalatorr. rl rl -lo. m :m<lk: = 0.mnductor wafers sliced frnm an ingot (Chapter 2). IVLY. . ant1 Ill-\' mmpoencls.r.3~ imd r~ching gnidtmlly r ~ p l . \vllich is tltr :.' A hrief dcscription of etching given in Scainn 1. (1'25 kw fintr Ic-\.). to build a rlvp-sn<l-sr.n. md for r ne<ati\u pholorrsirt is 9 is mJ/nn'.crs the following topics: 19 PROLITII:? h i . S %I IS .60. Srmimnd~~rtor A r w . Prior to tlaemd oddation ping and polishing h~ (Chaptcr3) o r e p i t a ~ i d v t h (Cl~apter) sr~nic~znluctor~cderscl~emidlyclc.PmRlrr in P\l\tA. 2. is esprcidly suitable for blanket etchrs (i. rnamnriond nd(ard.

flbl Figure 52 Orirnfdion-dcveln>t c.lt.~l or rc~:~ctinn.( r [I.pltrrnr ~ilima.sults in o r i m t : ~ t i m ~ l t ~ l r rrtclting. A(ldin~ Sll.. Inttnn~ nld:tw..ttr i < ~ \ ~ r lto lw ~l.sid ( I I F Iin ic manly ~tsrcl t c l ~ .~~ rilimn. is sl~ofl.r ilrlit .41. EXAMPLE 1 5. U-slt:~pcdgrwsr a ~~~ trill l ~fonncd.d :is aclilucnt for tltis rtcllnnt. .5. 1) :an a n k r of 5.wid is prrfcrrrd hr it n.I>! .rn~ic. 1x. ott <Irn~-t. r ns at r rln\v in tl~r mask is si~fficiontly I:~rgror if tllc etchins tin).r plan^: t l l i q n.orir!~tcrl rb) \ .lawcr ~ I I C I 111 pl:mr. ( : llw c.<~ r-?~tsl aSi\. c r s r n t i a l l ~ s l m i ~ I ~ t ~ ~ ~ ~ a Iuith s i d c s o ~ ( l l l \ s groaps I d pl:inps c2n 1w fnmlrd.s..1.ahlr Ina(l.O ~ ~ O ~ ~ I P <II. ns s l ~ o \ r :atitl~r i ~ l of tFixup 5. Il.rirnl~d .11 of F i ~ u r 5.ltl(vs tlw rlisoltttinn of tlto nitric acid S o n r ctcl\. = \\I.2 Silicon Dioxide Etching Thp wet e t c h i n ~ osilimn dioxidr is mmnmonly nchirved in a dilute solution of IIF \titlt f or a i t l l o ~ ~ t addition of ammonium fll~oride the (SII.F creates u. vtcl~iny: silicon ~ can di~nxidc nmqk rrr:itrs p n r i s r \'-slispnl proo\r. a. ~LFs l ~ o ~in F i q z r ~ . i.I silimn lntticr.> -6 1 (4) u!~rre \I:.tll<. s l ~ a u n tl.PlttrmP(~ ~ilj. A c o n ~ n ~ o nusrtl orirst8tionrd for ( ly .v\~rr.Fl.' The s \nrtvr or :~cvtic acid i C oxidation rcartion is \\:~trr c t t r l r 11s(.tcl>r. ..1. -. ~)rirn~ltiolr-drpn<Ir~~t of < I U O > .1.B. T O I B ~aI .md (IIWI)p l a n ~ stllrrrforr. lowrd I. is thr wividtl~oftllc uindo\r on tllr \calrr S E I ~ : I W I is tllr rtcl~cd and depth. r ~ r ~ given hy uidth of thr.).tchiag_'(ni IhrnugI~ \vindm\. 9 \\i.a tnorr :nnil.(. silicon. nlmllgll t i z ~ l p. the (I 111 ~~l~n pl:tnr.n'lrnt ctdr filr %i!i(~nl mnsists of :B miaturr of KO1 I ill rr.' tFor .ahr and isopropyl llwI10I. I:lyrr.altcms on < 1lO>. ~ naf s r Sitric acid o~iclirrs silicon to fr~rtn SiO.d or ctrlline i~st~:~Ily procretls Ily orid:ltion.rn plalrr of singlr-cnstd silimn m11c11 fwte :mr.~nt<cli<~<>l\.1 Silicon Etching For s ~ n r i m n d ~ t c t inatrrisls.? tlw ~IL~soItrtion tlw oxid<.1 Wet ChemicalEtching 4 87 .I cl.1ftlIc\M. can usc t l ~ c m 5 ~ large orientation dcp-t~clt~nn i n tllr e t c l ~ t r r to fabric~tr w i n structlrrrs aitl~ n d sltllnnicron feature Implla.r 11. If <I IO>-oriental silimn i IIXY!.7' from t l ~ (11 I ) s~lrlncc.. the itlost L< For of nitric acid ( I I S O .arctic .l~nt is 5. is \if.I I ~ plsnc5 :.rt r11rn~ic.p. ) and l ~ ~ l r o f l a o r. Iloa.' t l ~rc~qos ~ ~ i .trra lllnn t l ~ e 110) .

At.fi~n.tcl. wl l ~ . TI..ntr.>v trttl.1:1rirs. t l l ~ r : ~ p l r irc r f f ~ t nnrl r. and 19. ~rnoq.I~v. amtatinn nf tI1r aafrrs.3p K.ants ~ .~nt conirntrnhions and tmmprr.. 3 5. ul. SiO.~~~.ds in hulk form and invuln. Tltr tempPr.lnsfvrrcd to the T r ovid~ I.~cv 0 1 ) the ars~nic ~ fnw.l l ~ O ctcl. 3. *rrlution.cor .aldrtl to t l x nlaminunt.4 Aluminum Etching . 1 : fc. 4 ml IINO. ctclt rat? drpm<ls on ctcllant mncrzitntion.rII ~ l I I Stl~e? ~ r . Sclcctivr r t r l ~ i t o fenitridr to ori<lris donr w i t l ~ ~ hi4 Il. l ~ rt.l~rmiral t r l ~ ~ n t . n hlr etch n t c i s 0.3.C0011 .r. :Iwtic acid.5.1t it d w s not attilck tlte ilnd~rl!inc p t c odd^. and D l wxtrr.:H.sist p:tttcnl i s tr. .2 DRY ETCHING In psttrrn t m n r r r opmtions.tl silirrm. t 1 2 1i 1 Ill 53 .O.4 pndmin for tl~r I > Ca faw and <I1 0. ..N.lC~lfor callitlm 3wnVIr: I~rnv~vc~r.n.acv.te u ~IILIII 111 for t ( l ~l I ntr~'111i11 silimn dim ihr IIm\r. o\-iclin%s al~nrlinum. 111 11 e. tlip t-trll n t e is r r d u n r l \vllrn m p p r r i s ."I 1 .Unminom mcl :dllrnin11111 alloy films arv gmer.t r~xtsk % ~ ~ h s r qnitri~lc ~ t c l t i t ~ ~ . v v y tlifl. .t efrhincol ins8tl. l lisotmpic (i.r.l~atts p o l y ~ ~ ~ t a l l i n r filtns. 2 ml IISO.? t!pic:ll rtrl~:tntis asoltttion o f i s % II PO.thr i n t c ~ d r tl~r ly anll \rrtinl rtclk rates . ~ Il1 I I F '11 1 SiO: 170 trnl l l F U~>fi. I l r t v Innr~min~ ItXl lo ml IlZIO..C001-I.< of tlw IIII Ga and 11II 1 (.~ t ct11~t1 :LS .~cliikt~~I.rs in oftlle rnntrrid alrl tlrr l a t r d rlistaney rtcllrvl t ~ t ~ d e m r tlw~ I r t l rwist nvsk.d al~~niinum.\vof 1 . &fine the d~prrr . etclt mtp i s ~ c r ~ r r .2 Dry Etching TABLE 5.r tllh vll!ltion R ~ ~ R P ~ C dioridc v ? y s l ~ ~ ~ v l ~ 'ilimn The r.SO.I 1sn II!O I ml 11x0.. 4 7 I l S 0 . ~ l ~:11 nx.5% CII. \lost c.mt\\<ill) n 3:1:50 r r \olt~nle t i u of II. l l l r w t ekhinq of ~ l n t m i ~prcrcrds ~t~n~ follo\r~:1 1 x 0 .ly lllr 11 l r r m*rnrvnnnlvOUSNI :trr t l ~ ltl ~ S ~ l ~ .ittlrc. pl.~l IIF 113pS11. F o r m rtrl~.F 15 rnl I I F I Efrl.l ~ t t h . at I U I C ix.md 1.btinq snrl metal film< i s i~su:ally~Ionc i t l ~ r \ sintilar rl~e~iiicals tltnt cli~solrc thrzc tnntrri.:HIO.lrr tltr san~r).1'0. wl~itintt.1'0..3nI:' hlost n f t l ~ v I.c. t l ~ r i mnvrrsioa into solr~blr r salts or m~npler~%.\ ikn. ~ n t s in<nll.5 ml C11~COO11 i 3 rill II.dl o t l ~ r bws. f i l n l :~ rv r t r l r .aIl? ~ t c l >t )~I l~ ~ n t snl~~tiuns phori vd of pltorir acid.8N d m i n for t l ~ < I 1I > Ca faw . i p .dl otllrr Clilrrs.PO. P i.oton-ist .57 DI v.1 H e l m l w Insulmn and &dueton \I.tlnplc.acts for ~~rnt < Etrltinq prl\rilime i s similar to ctcliinc sinel<.P0.1. .esion pndvlt-111s r r e r w n t r m . t l ~ c n dis~ I \ Ptl~r P orirlir~.LC.dutninatn film.\rr.:A.rrttt.~nisotrnpy rrf (A.. or Some us< !.iy~r ? o (Fig. ~ ~ v of P qfi~in lm1111.. isotrnpir " This i s l n ~ a t t t11c~ s ~ st~rfitw acti\itit.1.:H. t*tcllrcl more rnpidl? t l n n tltrir hulk munt t v p r t r .4 p KO11 .: a l f ~ the etch r ~ t o f p o l ~ ~ i l i r o ~ ~ . i f i n l to r n w n . 13.PO... b lilta n in stresq.l!vr mnlcrials ( e x . or clcpzlltnrr from stoie1t1o1n~t~\:that Ilia\. . nitric arid. 3 II:O to makc Ilitrr 1 50 t IMP an ctcl~nnt nit11 an 8:1:1 \nhtme n t i a of H.tt81rr mil\..l l ~ O :and ll ~ P O ~ . llhi i q the tl~iehcss .r~~ m lr tt~!nIn~fiattrn. . I f tbry or thin are etcltrd in a u p t r. trmclq tn rlto\v m s t .Xt A1 nallr~d IIF II.rtinqa!~dmcfitl films :err. 3.tcl.5 ml 11?0 4 g KI 40 ml Ilp I 31 1 lo( ]I!'> Zlo 5 ml II.cm .ttc~rhl 4 ICtrleut ( : ~ r n ~ n ~ ~ t i . 1O 5. illustn~tcd F i p m 5.O. 1G. for ~ l \V 31 g KlI:PO. 1 Silicon Nitride and Polysilicon Etching Silwm nitn<lr. d \ v l ~ m t c l ~ i nitrirlc \\it11 l a r n~ in= 11.O.t <w:~tine. itnd 11.*tv is h ~ i c d l l y nrn1~nin s i l i m r ~ ~ ~ t r i I v~ . Iln\r~. and d r p s i t r d mrtals) an.5 pndmio for ..in t l ~ .~ > ?strrr~s.ttrr pitttmlirle cxn hr itrllic~vr~<lrlvpnsitillg a tlliri oxide I. Si.mtl irnpt~ritic.n.ln<lin i t hoiliuc I1 PO.tllq.-mst. i\lso.l . f l i r etrlt rate is 0...si. conn.c% g i v :I p l i s l l r d st!rF.6 p m for .tellrs more slmr. tibe vteh rates arr lliehrr for films that l~a\.rhrvn irr. For r vr.l l ~ O ~ . a mist pattern i s dcfiard l>ynlithogn~pl~ir x s t o s e w pm a a mxsk for e t c l ~ i n ~itsfo~ldrrl!ins I.5 Gallium Anenide Etching 4 aide % n r i r l y n f r b h w h:tw htvn ilar?tie. l w v t c l ~ T sn111ti<~11 i s usuallv mwl.1. i.r p m r tnicrostmctnrc.FrlCS). b 5. l)y on top o f the nitridr film Ix.\rr. l i ~ tin Tahlr 5.atcr itt 30-C to MI'C.PO. XK Pt i rrnl Itl:I 4 .PO. Ccnrdl!: film mntrrinls trill lu.t11. 19. tllr etch cite is ~ ~ ~ n s i ~ ll:~stf.i<ll. . I>op. Rt. DlXl ml ll:0 Si.~trtl A F or b a f i m l ill I I F .alln~mf.) 1 .l l. CII.

.~cmn.irculrr are 10' to 10' timrs l~ieltrr than thr rlrctron mnw~r.trl~i~~~i. tn tlic dvn\ih 14nir. rr. . 5.thoot onr-tliirrl or lrss of the resolution rcquirr.la~i. I5 . Tliersforc. t1..ie\.ltulre in ti. some meanc.56~ Ill"' . n i~ qx. t i r rr. to frc:~~I~rlr.e. tarbreak mx clown and hcn~nle ioniml. rncl tv K. TIIC ikmir.lcticc. Ti' ila. ~ tlar t l i in r ~l m practice. To acl.st.\.nfll~~~ < l ! l < ~ ~ i cttla.l.r rsritr.90 c Chapter 5. 11111111 Ili<l~er ioni. (?pi. ~ !dcnotrs se\.aclts in n an a\?ra?r gas trpmprr.MI~ = 1. rrnctive ion be. l plasma is proilt~wrl Etch Mechanism. cwrrespon(Iiag to 1 = O (or R. = R.lrcs . I'l:n~n. d n etching mr. ~O ~ ~ ' x f i l ~l2 x llml l lf ' .2 Dry Etching 4 $11 uhen an electric field of suficient mngnit~ldc applitxl to r ga~.. l o 1 1 r m ' a:rl I I ~ 'In" . rracti\.111 HIE.. inn' 111)1.a~<istd c!r? etchin? is n l m v . ulrcn tllc applied voltaw i s laxer than tile hrrakdmm patentid.oI I. The planla i s initiated I>?f n r clcc+rons t~. R. i :tt tun. .dn~l plasma i s form.btc n.llckrl~lrtIw iosi. for ivotropic rtcllise. \vhere t i timc and R.lrlcm .c ion r t c l ~ i n g (RIE). the rnncrntrations of : .r iree r. rc. . . 1 ''.tm rtchinp.lrl.vlterr A..an ih.1%? ~ novx IOF ~. n ~ clrctrnnr g i n k i n r t i c e n r r q from tltc field.lltr...Ire..n<? Iln. Plasma Diagnostics.n..wd h\..d slnil~s. tile \allle t~sed. nr. a sllrl.= :IN'. rclr. - hO\x x 10".tctin~lvith p: sl. mnpnctically cnlutnccrl R l E (Xf ERIE).Rr sl~o\rss lin~itingc:tsr tlrr . and End-Point Control ~l solid film i s r c ~ n n \ t ~ l:Lc l w n ~ i cw.v ~ n . . = PIRT = ~ ? w ~ ~ m .g is l~rwy. = 0.I f pnth. Dry etching is 9non!?oot~s ~ ~ i l ~ ~ p / ~ ~ r ~ m . ZlM) rnTc>n. sputlrr rtclling.n r. n I< ibr "11 Ixv of zsnlw..and llDP cbrrn!r.li1. ofA.iio uf tlbr vlrc7mn ilensih. r. pl. m ~ r . EXAMPLE 2 vllrtmn dm\itim in RIE md III>P?>tr-rns mnet.lrcnc Pis Il..ntir.rli\r. % ~ i . and l > i g I ~ . pli~qtnit = 1 1 6 .-l t h r n ~ ! ~ ~ ~ o lrrnction c h a ~ n l r r tllr r t l'l~r l r c t r n n ~ concvntrations in the plasma ford? etrllinss arc. IV p I 5 111Torr.tttems rrquirrd for altrala~e.ml I I I I R Z lilvr-itn~'m~~l.no. rcsrlltine in s loss of resolt~tion t l ~ c t c l ~ enattem. I n nr. At a prrssrtrc of ITom.scde integration prncrssiog.mn-l. the film tltich~rss sltoltl<lbe . 11~.inq ~ IHIE cbrrnlx~r r r .~elki. slrcl~ firld emission from a ncp:fiti\.. fntm 1 .?ly I. anisotronic ctclline (i.lns>.~llcrthan the film tltickiless.IlP'iJfix\ = 156x l t ! ~ . isotropic s For etchine..1.t art. a rnr. and A. 0 lnniz~lion elTicil. 1'ir the wlttmv in litrn.ntr:ttionr. and R~are thr lateral md \~rtic. I l ~ ~ r r l o n .r prcrwrr in aim i t at") = IFnSYxl rnTont.l!: For lhv HIE r>~lenm.m<1IIDI' n~ielor. c.. Tllc major dis~rl\~nnta~c d ~ c m i a l ofwet ~rtcbing pattern transfer is tile undrrcotting in of the li~wr ~ n d ~ r n e i ~ ninsk.lin: i s v~~l. .~:~~r~.~tion c4Tidr.tl~odsha\:s hrm drvelopetl.tt. Etching 5.forr...~id & c l ~ n i p ~that tar? pislna \dlieh n / d c ~ ~ i ~ ~ t r rs in t l ~ form o f low-prcsrurr disrhnrgrs.~c. 1' 1' in r L ~ ~ p c a i:\wun. = 0).is c h o s ~ n b r close to unity Fim~re to 5. lL rl f. nxmra 1 k .qxcti~~rly. tronc g i n idnrticencre\.n .*pl.!:ntlo cr 'Illr SOLUTION s..iasrd ~ l m r r x l e . from llle clcctric fic.rred r itb and cn in thr callisinn canrrs thr gnz molccc~lrso h ionized 1i.rns arr rrquirrd \\it11 rrsol~~tions mtlcll sm.rclarivdy lrnv. c*lly on the ordcr of 10'' to 10" cm-'.e gas.r.ss in w l ~ i c:tl ~ mollml.r.lletcll mtes. i m ~x~. = I .? nnge of 50°C to IMIC.nrrqttr.l~r . D n r t r l ~ l r t l ~ ~ l s r n incllzdr plas~rra etching.n.. > 01 must I><.21 Plasma Fundamentals A plasma is a ftllly or partially ionized RLS c n n ~ p a s ~ d eqilal ntirnhm of positive and of negatit* cllargrs and :I differrnt nolnl>rrof rnnionizrtl ~ a o l r c ~ ~Ar s .~ I ~ n s i l y ( l l D P 1rtrhing.sr. I n tlte munr of thpir trmpl tlaronsol.r.R<ir. and tltr prow<\ mntinaes.n.c.ut<~xl i n or .e n 11igl1-fidrlitytrnnsfcr o f t l ~ e wrist p. r l ~ u l l l ~ ~crnp. t l ~electrons r n l l i ~ l e ~ +gxs moluo~les lo<?tI~<+ir r w nrrr.:nlion vflicirny ill RIE n. is cau5in~t~.c m p n t t ~ r p prccsx.: l . .r pn-..~l....

lwl!.us thr ~ r !)I rmis~ions pn?ioasl? d ~ t r n n i ~ywtfid urirs.j. .. an . Figure 5. l . U I I I ~ are~d~e s ~S~ ~ fmm the s11rf.lrareclIn. nit!. emit in A plr .2 Dry Etching 4 93 Etch \techanism I'l.u~~. l ~ basic etch med~anisrn.. ilarniqe.misotropic rtch profiles.t.n~trho!~ll~lK!lnrlll-in<I11~1~<l h n e . T\\n bn rtcl~inc on b v * of tnrthmL\ an. tto ria.) ~ IIIV C ~ ~ ImI into C. ~ne.cnl n c. ~ S I I ~ . rile.amtls discl~arge.i p o l Elcl~ (arl.. This oscillation wcurs kuausp of the pllase interfercncr hrtween the l i . ~ i m .~l u t i ~ to k1m1\ulatile pmhxdr. lhr r t c h n ~speck3 in e ~t .3 Reactive Plasma Etching Techniques and Equipment Placnra reactor techno lo^ in the IC industv has ellaneed dc+nlaticaIlysince the fimt appli. Nt.liam-neon lmrr source for wl~irh 52.0irl. ohtailad I?).m'. to ve Istion.:lctant is then t n ~ o s ~ .rrrli$sion s i p ~ d ilc. Plnsmn Dingnostics 5lost prwrrsing pl:~s~n.ltrs alld to drtermine the end point.ltil~~c!~anges i s iatensity\ritl~ pl:em.rivvd f m ~ n pritn. hut !iclrlc isotrnpic pmfiles.asl differrnrrs and Figure 5. * ~ ~ r r aby d pl:~sm.L< illustfi~td F i g ~ r 5.r inchlclrs purr clrrnlir:~letch is^.cir< cnrrr.dl a~nollnts nepti\r.xtcyl tlar..l~d srl'ecgw ti\i% and muli.s for diffrwnt rnatrri. tht 1.5 TIlr T~. Table 5.flcr.m.2 slm\rs the similaritic. paver snpply genrntors.ction (z.~r. ~ is l>:r~ed thr gr:ler. end-point rlrtrctor. ~ ~ o ~ t :. ~t r and ?-l~i.r<l spctn. or f:dl :tt t l ~ p tile ~~c rr~d ot'thr P~L'II y d ~ .qal frnm a silici~lrJplycnstaIIi~~~ rtcl~..nl(lw . ions k ~ n n e d at of in t l p ~ i s ~ cannot rwrh the \$afkrst~rf:t~t.ntj o ~ form vol:tt ile u f n l l tn i ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~F) io~t ~ indrlk~. Duril~getcliing. Chrlnic:ll etching ed~il. is the \r-a\.ar17. IliSIt spiv.J IIIC~~II(XIS rllr~rrlial ~ t l ~ mThe forrll(lr incltli and m b. End-Point Contrnl L)I? rtc11i11gdiffers fro111wet cllemicnl r t c l ~ i ~ ~that dr).t lo\v prcssnrr. Tl~errfore. ~ lreflected from t l ~ o~lter inner intrdxws of the etchinc la!rr. is it ~rrtmlly lnssihlr to ~ L ~ t e n n i ~ pnwncr afncutnd and ionic \~x. tIlC n.t!xv ~cill. ~ c cr~tl-~x>i~bt are intnuh~c'i~d m111tro1 l>rivflyi11 this section. n chrrnicll e t c l ~ i n11e11tn11 I ~. is but :n\rri.lx.misotmpic p1~r6lc.in g it? to the ilndrrl!i~~g layer.tyvt~r iota c e ~ ~ e min ~ ~ l t a g.in:ll!lil~ll t~v~hnilIar nlorrllrr the intensih of tllrse rlnisrions ~ ~ N I I ~ \ \ ~ : ~ ~ I is to with thc .tinCtllr.t rtclunc pmrr(b in Rvi. difins~d the 1. ions lmmlrar~lthe sorf:tc~. a Si <ate Thr period of the oscillation is related to the change in film tllichlers I)? &I= 1 / 2 6 (fil ~ s h r lhr I is the change i s Rlm thickness for one wriml of reflected liel~t.11ich iLll.e.ltrn.ilnn:tlnilcl llmr reflectmw of lhc rtrhing r!~rfao.. l:l?rr must thercforr In? optically t m p a r c n t or rcmitrn~lsparent o l ~ s ~ r tho owil.tmn<r.2 L Chapter 5 Etching tn t.~~tr~.yt.n~hinatinnc \\it11 hicl. 5. a l h tlw ntio of rtch r. r t r d c l i l ~ t ~ stilo ~ ~ ~ ~ g h 11.lge..~paranleters.2Ferliglrt. :rractor for pla5111aetrhing c~lntnins a clcuum clraelber.~tionofplmma i s .. t11r r ~ i ~ r t a is tadsorlrtl 01) the s ~ ~ r l i ~I\c cltemi.Lc I..l lualiX.s l ~ the r.~ cs t ~ thr intenct Nit11 111~ nr. lll~refore no t l i w t mle in pl:~~nlaetcl~l ~~a and PI:?\. In ph!~icd etrl~ing..di0~8.1ttc. terminrtnl (i.. i/d&iOn w e~~ :::drrn).5 sl~o\rr t)pical si. reactive s l ~ i ~s .tl method to msist cl~enliod elchins or clrntrs reactive Ions to participate in cltrmicd etrllinc. n m!nyostlr altnll<:. steps.corr~~l.tl cn~issinn sprdrnscop) (OKs).. . u m p l ~ the RII? pnrPss.l:.d: snn.it11 a mc~nthe r p1 itor that i~~dicatc. lhr TI~t.+a#~ristin.l.. :In11 P( t ~ \ . c.ual II\ dil&nwt rl~. U~insob.snla processing to photoresist stripping. rra<~~n:il. Cl~enlinil p11)sid etch mecl~illlis~ns V s v .urd Ix. i~tq.C n.s.s. intensity oflnsrr light reflmrrl the oK a t11i11film s~trface oscill.lls) and pnxlt~ces ion In~nbanlrnc~~t-inc111crd low cl.>! of rtrll is indic~ted tlnr c~.tching p m s s is to ix.u.its lti$ rtrh mtc allrl g ~ r xs r l r r t i ~ i (i.. l'lt!sic.m !ield . Thr by ~ r n a sbo. of chrtnical and pl~!sicnl etcltine give . R~latirr!mscmtnlk)ns nftllr rprcics nit11 ~c~l can in. I)? of e!vr . . IIXYI: PII\T~c.is rtiiliatio~r the nnxe frnm isfmrrd to itltnnialt~t.R 3tnd l > ~ t ~ n l ~ I.h I.ll stching r. pll~sic:~l rl'tiyts such : ion l)ot~~lx~rrIn~t. &I for rml\silimn is 80 nm.?l the \-~tcrnnm out < S!T~PIII.. ~tclulntor l ~ y p ~ x lhrfie. n. is nsrs a ph!sic.etching bas lrss etcll wlwti\.eh Iengtl~ oftlle 1. n.s<rtinn thr n.ttt.4 First.I gns :. ~ T r p a ! t .? is the refnctirieiti~r~oftllcla~cr g ~ t c h e dForex.R. yl~tttcr etrltil~~. Ernt~r.~mhin . plaima reactor must l ~ ( 1 1 1 i p\.e.lid of optir. I cation of ph. usine a hc. pump systi*n~.tr).ltes. and .rt~l Lnv etch scl~%ai\it\. p s flow control l~nits. pll~stni~. pressure senurn.~~~banlt~~est-induml (i.' F > I .lolivc m.L w r intrrfrrolnrtv of thr wafer surfaw is esrd to m n t i n t t o ~ ~n~onitor sl~ etch r.

m ~l~~ ..<1r. in file ~ ? l rl~ntnbrr itsclf.mrn looblnin wkcli\ihof SiO. rl.el\f mt~plerl s plania (ICP) soitrcr.~\~.lrlmn pnl!.i.iliv to mn.Imm. . Tltc magnetic field is s p l i d fmm the magnetic mils.~-~~~ic:Ja ~l.~~tisrn~-cl. &upled plusma (TCP) source. ~ Tlw etch svI~cti\ih tllis ?strnl is rcl:lli\rly low mmparc~d i t l1r. t the lro! pli~nln pxnsletrn such a rlrdmn enerk.!? urafer.~ >pnl!~neridnq tllr ~ i l i ~~.rrI. .~~~l m~c most lnrlitionnl lllE sylen~s.into the ECR so~irce a rcgion.alitional han of ~ l etch ?strtns lrca~rse siron< ph!ninl spnttrrinS. e ~ c e p lriodc RIE.L mev and i>pCCatin< prrrrurr ranceri for clifirent h F s of v. n~ I illo\rs t h cmund~rl l c ~ t r ~lozhave $1si:aifinntly largrr area h.tilablc~.. 8 sho\vs an ECR reaction cl~anlber configurntion. cessing pressltre ( 8 0 rnTorr). and the applied r l ~ a r i c thc ~ field that ws in . Tltr i a ~ e qrouncl~l r are.) cnrnhined \sit11 the lower oprnting pre I<irK) tnTorr) causrs tllr u. waetiw ion ctch n e t o r Thr ion m~r q is scpan~tpl!.I source pmver). :rs s l ~ m w ~F i p m 5.ia5 Fipvrs 56 Cltmpiri'nm . Hrnvwrr.r RI F i p n j . High eflicienq in exciting thc reactants in ECR plamns allmr. vn(lrntly As a result. IZ ~ Reactivc Ion Etching k used I RIE 11:~s c .i ~ r l~nI ~ ~ obrmrrl in l ~101s l l ~ ~ ion ~ n.6 E. In addition to the ECR system.rtcs and tml al!tom:~tiontrr rrtl :tnd ~ l i ! s i r for nlnct C ~ C ~ I CI ~ T P in ~~laltll~l(~lllrill~. ~ g ~ firkl to forcr clrdrons to circulate around t l ~ c rlic mapetic licld line at m NISI. \licrowave paver is cuey thrn~tgl~nlicrowvavr %\indo\r. \\it11 flllnrnc. srl~cti%ity ire illlpro\ of ran . they allo\r~thr \~vf?rplrt?n k p r r v r l indeto pmdcntIyof the source.~nse t on ~~ t i .). In addition. q o ~ mpncitivrly corlpletl lmtiorn rlwlmdt. damage s Tlrr (.rl.d1. ased in Illin film (lr sitinn. m d surface \r-dve-mopled plnsma (S\VP) sourc~s. . ion I~nml~anlment-~~ICIIICPII l m ~ ~ larseriolls prol.afcr surface.c the freqsmc?: a rpsons mupling occlzrs I~ehveen ~ l e c t r o mlr r g .. the tmsfonner. Tl~c priman il.m.lrcfrorl n/c/[~frnll TpPnllflnr~ 1ECR) m e t o r m n ~ l ~ i nmicro\%wrr v r r nith a static es p o ~ .lrl.banlm~nto i rnel ions iron1 t 1 pl. t .? choosing the pmpcr etch cIi~. tllc limits of t l ~ e mnvcntional RIE s:xtern are k i n g appmached... I I 10 nf ion 100 l'rt~~~~~rc.2 Dry Etching TABLE 52 Etch M.. <.nlistryfor rwn~ple. .-h . {n~l'nnl Inn Figum 5. ~ u l lntton>rlcctmlr.5. l.lI. the bpps~ f ~ t ~ l .chsnim and R n u n Ranges of Plasma Rsscmn t-!Llli W l l 95 ( ' ~ ~ ~ ~ l i ~ t r .x.r<n.n.lar frrq~~rnc): \\IIPIIthis frequesq eq~ialr applird micm~~'il~.~~. do .crusr !I is.trln rtclt trnl is < l c ~ i ~ e r d ~ i r i c ~nnrlluscs ap:ntict~l:tr r n n ~ b i ~ ~ a t i o ~ ~ j ~n iil ~ ofprrs t 4 w t m l r mnfimlr:tlion 2nd t \ p . plnrnla density and m e a n t densityiwde. mnfip~nlion RIE etch. .7 ~ tmllc.~.. . ~ t i ~ ~ICIvlt >l~~~l~:anis!~b ~~ I3rcss!!w I3:trty (T."L*. ECR planla s)stenls ran also In. llaw been (le\.t IL~SIIdegree ofdissoci:ttion n~lrl ioni7atio~. pm~i(lingsipifirant demnpling iwhvwn the ion e n e p (\?xfer bias) and the ion flu(plsmn densit!.\trnsivt~IY in the rnicrorlectronics industn In a p:~r.~llel-plnte nxtcsn.jected to a Item? Imn. prinlarily driven !.. O t h e r High-Density Plasmn Etchers As icatnre sires for ULSI continue to drcrense.s the clepnsitio~ films at room trrnperaturc \vitllout the nred fnr tbrrmd 8iclivation.c sol. Inn cnerpy is mntrnllrd tl~rnt~sl. Electron Cyclotron R e s o n n n n Plnsmn Etching hfost panllcl-platr p l m l * elellen..rtion fmrrt ion in tmnrlmrt. cornpsrison ~ sllw opr. y . radio fwclttrnrs ~ ~ .l i ~ l l rrtch r. i\~lernativclya trinlc. sucll a the inducti\. r separate h i x o r ~ \\afrr clwrmlr. freqttrnr? to control tllr hvo pliltlar) rnwI~. can scpante pl:lrmn prnrr.lfers to l. Dm.ting m s c s and ion rnrrgirs fi. and sour<%.r diffrrent h p r s of r~actnrs slai\m in F is 5. tl.n s a result of the large negative self-bia at the n.?r silimn.I nirlio f r < . i ~ i t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i I\ p ~ ~ ~ nf ~ t that r m~n~nrrrially. (10-'for ECH rnnl~prsl uilh 10"' fi. I~r. Thrse etchers have hie11 nlanla densih (10"-10'' ern-') md lo\r.y lllr ~ l l i ~ ~ i t~ ~ e~ i ofjsrkrti\ih and 111~ I x ~ n ~ l ~ w l n n .rlnnrd. I.lot p m ~ i d e al. otl~er hpps of high-d~nsih plasma sources.


.r.I lm%. ionhoml~nrrlmrnt energies are required to rrlnovr this pl!mer layer from tlw ndde.C.lcitor uith il depth of approsimnt. is diffictllt for nlosl ion-cnl~nnc~. ~ ~ . used mainly for forming s t o c l g capacitors.FJCO. wriation in r t c l ~ \~itlr ntt.i\-cra~e c silicon tr(?ncll etch rate on :&spect ratio. CvSi: SiO: Sir.. Trpnrlirs aitli la aspect n t i o ~ etcl~r<l are more slo\vll!.~ l e ~ .\\I crll..12 s l l o \ 0. CF)CllFJAr.m. r w s s is O S to~foml QI illtisrp mn. Fint.vcrn~.s (i.F.\IITi lines an11 spaces on a \wfer m:~int.L< a <.. .11 Dvpendmw of a~rrase rilimn trench rtch ntlr on a y d mtio. F i p r e 5. ntio of C ~ C I . r copper Ilas dn.~ilicx..~:~~~(lent etdzir~z ti..-rcsisf. Tlrr cornhination of llBr + KF.. SF.F. C Rguw 5.. tIier/rrnrn. pliama is advantnpous for a~prct rati~leprndent etclt.F.tr. In pnrtic~~lar.ud then fill ill^ tll. The reaction uf darninurn uith flt~orine res!zlts .. to h lowv-prcsrllre.o~yetl srrin.l. Bc.ae*~rr pmssillg (Fig.F.ing a trench or cxu1al in . mpper. BPC.g. usu:~Il? \\itlt .rrlio. and tungtrn are the most ppular mslrrials arerl for intrrronn~iion. \r. re..l~rireanisotronic etcltine.?..~rlmn-containing flolorine species to the plx~rnaie. \'ariu~~s mrthods Iiave h e n tried to cnhann tlir sel~cti\itin tllr in 1t:~lr-rlensity placma.c. \krtical profiles are ncl~ierrd sicle\rall pvsitstion.msprt witliin the trencli. a pawnt gasuith ahis11C/F ratio... for Clllorinc-l>asrd..ttionof ions and mdicals.. r\nisolropic ctcl~ing and l~iglr etch srlrcti\ity to the T Dielectric Etching TI. ..C. is a kc.lp:I2.LII the p11otore~ist and tends to read aith atmospilrric a . the for polyedr and gate mid? is 150:l).13). m s s teinperat~irrsl~iplrrr P thaa ~ ~ " req.I ilc.? pnttcming of dielectrics. Ileep trenclien.a set' an.. I~i ~la~m.\I ..Tidc G a t e Etching Pol.d ~tclling prrxrssrs. SF. n :. . It genentrs far rnorr:~ctivemclids :~ntl ions Illan HIE or LIERIE plasrnns.ptll greater tlrsn 5 pm..F: (:llI. r e of thr low \nlstililyof mpprr l~:didrs.. + O2 g ~ q ~ i ~ t n ris rused to k ~ n n trench cnp.F. in nonvolatile AIF. . folto lo\\?d by imnlediate im!nrnion in ileionizrd \cltrr.#sings rcl:~tiwly pwt.. Htd.F.'JO. nii~ture) I m n \\idply used for aluminum etchisq.Illld(. Other metl~ods scavrnge F radials h:~vealso h e n rlrwloped~ to Interconnect Metal Etching Etclrinrr.J B.ale s1atrri.\. lll3ri<:l~O: IIUr!Cl. m tile rr-cluircd ctcll anisotropy and scl(. C.. flttorine-b:aell rl~emistn. ~l~allo\r trrnclss.md l>rosline-l.o~ r l l .JXF. Residual dllorine on Ill? alunlinltln side~~~. dielectric etching requires agressive ion-mllanced. This snrfaw nrra can he reduwd I)? etclring trencllrs into the silimn s ~ l k t m and fillin? the111nit11suit~ble b tlielwtric or conrhctiw materials.onh: SF. e r to fonn IICI.lricll m m l r s nluminual.lrt.ri. ~ ~~l.l . i~:r.r. ~ t D ~ ~ i L W .nor pnlycidr (i.nint. An in sitrr rxpsure of the sxfer to a CF.t pl. usu:illy with :I depth less than 1 pal. i s ufhiclr diffrrrnt r t c l ~ strps itr the prMrss are optinbtd for rtrlt anirr!tmpy and srlccti\ih: On tlie otl~cr lranrl.C ~ l . Carlws-containing gas (e.. are often ~ l s r d isol:itioli. Cl~lorinr I~as Ilis a v e n I~iglr cl~e~nical rate n4tb altrminom and tends to prdrrw an usdrrcnt durdcll ing rtcl~ing..lt t~"lr1' ../CI.~lloutm>ch 5 3 l'.:ll I3CI JCl..11 s ~ O ~ tla.. sllcll ..Chlorine-bxs~rl clie~nistty (e. . t!pically by intrwl~~cing 11). h r . aspect ratio) is often ohscn.rl to rtell rapper f i ~ .Is al.. CHF.ls~d cllrmistries 11avra lliglr silicon rtcll nltr and lliglr etclt s ~ I ~ c t i \tohthe silicon ilioxi<h~ i ~nnsk.d in cleep silicon trench etching.Tllpre mat rials ~isrtallv . an..cl is in\.~IISP l ~ ( ! i r l l i g ~ ~ ~ r i m ~ d of t inp cncrgirs.F.CII. ~ l r l r n d ~ nofr... C. . Altrrninln ..~ ~ pmrning intnl\rs tl~r emtion of i n f r m l l n ~ t litles I.rnar iliclrclric In!rr. Exposurr to flip ambient is mother prohlern in ahnninum rtchin~..) or Xi is a d d ~ d Tom) sidntall p m to \ntion cltiring aluminum etclring to obtain anisotropic ctclling. lo\\. the RDi' generates 11i~h-temperature electrons snrl snl)serlt~r:stl! gcnrratrs a ltigl~ dcgrccof rliss<xi. I . hrl~ic\ing lligl~ srlrc~i\it). ~ ~ ..~ Imr.c...r.jtll n. ti+. RCIJ(:I.fint rtel. l f r l ~rl~lorine-haw1 l~rominc-Imwd l and cl~r. S o mrmnion is present cvrn after l~mlongnl\ p S U N ' to the :ambient. of a met:illi7~tionlaver is a very iniwrtant step in IC hhricttion. CII:F:.~lSiCu \v lily \\'Si> liSi:. higll-densit).lindat anlbi~~ ent for i2 Itours. CIItCIIF: . U:L< attempted.JO.ln$ Etvir.-press~~re. a CIJBCl. pruducts. CIIF.. Kate orid? tllp 1110st i~nprtant r q u i r e ~ l ~ ~ n t Eat(! c t c l ~ i nF~~prarnplr. especially silicon dioxjdr and silicon nitride.7 R-ail) and suprrinr rrsistancr to e l ~ ~ m m i ~ i tmlnion pared .. ptcllnl :md fill^' onrl lc. Etching TABLE w ~ n Chsnittries of DiNewm Etch Processes h \I.. CF.rtnl.niktries ir uuvl forgate rtrhinS tn acliirqr. cm rliminlW danlinlial mmrcion. lnllltjctrp pror~rsing is arrrl..jtlloltl ( ~ ~ .onk CC:I:F.~. &~ect mtio~l.ins at nmm temperatllrr is di~Xadt.didt!: of a DH.g.. cess i n the man~~farlurcof mcilrrn semimnrltxctor rlr\ices.il for SIOS deticvs. <x.uma etcl. nlercfore. CFJC:I> Clfi'jC'Jc..nrl> p ~i.high F mnwntmtion \\onens the a 5 %iectivity to silicon.\I dl~!~..o . Polysilicon a n d Po1. ~ ~ e k ~ r r . t l ~ trmd in p1. such as C. s i t ) .l$ 5 ) I?trhins Chrnlirtn IIBr/SFJOJS12. urmlrin:ttio~iis nLw used fnr shallo\r trench isolation ctdling.. Ila\cevrr. ttlrtin trencl~es with small aspea ratios.llrsrrl bylinlitrd ion and nrrltrnl tr. prr.g.:ly 7 p ~ nThis n c . SiCljCI2.' . C. + SF..ir(.d I k ~ Si tn. mnrarls or .a t e c h ~ t o l or ~ r w i ~ o t r ~ ~ ~ i c r t r h i n ~ e f~ I1iq11 st>leaidtyic to utilbr . \vIiicli has a w p r pressure of on!\.(th or .F.AS to illis the rcaaivr species into tlie onillr st~rfarr form SiF.. tile srlp r for s ~.g l ~ . 5.a nl~rcl~ attention as a s r a r ~iict:tllbi~tios niatcnd in ULSI cirnlits becallsr of its low rcsisti\ity (-1.nl orcoplwr. ~ va pl.35-pin TiS/. 191 dnal dmn. 1 Torr at l%ObC. discllnrgr to exchange CI \ritli F and then lo an o q e n discl~arge rrlnow the wsist. C.or C.ln~~ metal silicides ovrr pnlpi~imnl usu~llly is used . ~fItolc.nn(I a n i ~ ~ t ma( y etch p I).9% b Chapter 5. . reriuirecl ill 1 6 IIRAhl is more tlran 150 (i. HBrlO.. F:~:ure5. SF.

011~~~nl h inti1 lhc.Rotll Il~~orirlr. S i l l c o n Phosphor Concentration-1.olrrhirz:: iC\IP.ilit?. ~ ~ w n r oFd prm iiqi<tlt..alt c. as sl~rnw~ Fistre 5..3 ETCH SIMULATION rnantl.Ctiorl~.tn:trixed hycli to r i.s imrn :d!trnlirtttn> 10 m p p r r int<~~m!ln<.rili~cl.rition c~nfonn:.t?rr at tllr top of tlnr curall renl slnlPtore. TIw n i h s n t .tc11pmlt~n5.1. This k a n in\prt.\v-prms~~r(.zi.~d<litinn fltr trrnclt. is d(.ll0e Or@2 O x i d l z e t h e wafers f o r 120 minuter a t 1180 C i n r t 02 ~ i w . id :s t ~ n8rnt..-to-TiS selrcti\ih in . a t 1000 C i n d r y 02 7inc. i..? l. TI.\rt tilnt tmtnsst?n rfc11p r w s s is t11(~l~litnk<!t et~lll>ilck fimn . L*. t 5.. - ~ ~ EXAMPLE 3 SOLU?lON SIIPRI:\I i~>ptst listing is a<folln\+ E t c h i n g Example Initialize r l l l c o n r u b r t r n t c <100. ~ i vtclt 1\11.1 1 8 0OlyO1 R~~~ furnace d m t o 980 c over 10 n i n u t c r i n N2 T~.. .16 amp furnace up t o 1180 C over 19 n i o u r e l i n N Time-18 Tmperaturc-980 Nitropen T.tr it ~litnttutw n ~ fr ilwkdrtrh.lallk<*t \\.5. lop tltrn no ctclting talirs pl. (LPCI'D) tangslm ( !x I r e s niilcl? I I W for fillirtemnt:trt C\'D Il' a) ~ I~olvs ~ ~ i l a first-lwr! nlrt.l ~ r tllr cotire r is r~ I:I\.3 Etch Simulation 101 . If tllr alnount to l rtcl~rd not s p i l i ~ dt.C-IO ~ e n p ~ r a t u r c .ul .~llo\vstltc user to r t c l ~ or part of .1 1 0 8N l t r o p c n T.tny $vm I. l i Y 1h:tdc.i \V plup.~.l.d~loriar-haqrrl . to l.1~11 rate is r ~ ( h ~ r rml rrnmovc. intporetch fom~ .ol .cbo.S ~ m p c n t u r e .mm. ~ c ~ ~ : i ~ ~ ~ . l l ~ m r l d and dirlcctrir :ire pl. A ta.l'(:\'D I\.r I.P~ il: rcmowil.dli/ation 11rcausrnf its rxwllrnt drlx. llrc mrnnini!~~ nitlb an ~tvllnsl c I' ! that b:u a lticl~ \\.1.posited on top of a E N banicr l:?\pr.rate-20 O r i d i z e t h e wafers for In i n v t c r a t 11W C i n cry ur Time-5 Tempcrarure. rrv C11:lptrr hl.rhicl~ . hftrr fill in^. . 90% of t l l \\'is e t c l ~ ~itt la Iti~11 rate... If the rnntrrial at t l ~ c of tile stnzrturr is not the inntmial slx.0in strp p r m s s is ilso:~llyI I S P ~ .1 1 0~pnperarurc-1180 Wet02 o x i d i z e the wafers for 5 minute.mil chrn~irlncs \\'ar~<l \nl:*tilr r. :md tllet~ First.rate--z@ TITLE COYHENl INITIALIZE COUlENl DIFFUSION CMENl DIFFUSlW CWENT DIFFUSION COHIENl DIFFUSIOH CWENl DIFFUSION .


hqn.cli. nu. .tch r.rs :tn anisolmpic ctrh .^ i.l.mfi~. i n l p u r i h d o p i n g \ w dose mainly I)ydi&~sion e l r v a t ~ d at Irmp r a l a r r s . d.ss i..~lr ~ t c h of SiO: ." For rxamplr. -? . as. is 3.nt. 11.1. kc? on..rrrd itlw ~ t ~ t .mr dcxtrons to circalare . .ltiplt. .~l. .in to well i:t CMOS).c-n.utlrl . llnnt is girrn o = qRhn.s inrinene!: a?.it~ ol'sio? orrr Si ..n . ~ .997 e:d. t t t . a h.76 k~.at nxrnl trs~lwnltl!n-.s .c 105 t~t'~l~. ms~xvliv~~ly.r \\itla>alremming m T7t<. :Asntminu r 306 :kt o.g.to:rtlti. ~ I h n ~ ~*L. .tlItn~~l... .mtr ofSi rt nwun le~npcnhtn.~ ~pol\silimn 1..tir l. ~ r k ~ l ~ is .. n8irli~7nstn ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~thicko~c~s pl r e s i s t rcqt~iw<I erl\urc t h ~ the tap to t mrt:tl ~ a d a c v not . If tlrr micrwr. . p ~ n r r r its l ~ ~ otller. tnrt!~oclso f impurity duping. of iK1.cl.ttr oddr.Llthrn rtc.~r..md tlte profile o f the dopant distribution is detrnnit~ed mainly II? tlte t r m p m t a r c and diffusion time. b.tsstntnine th:3t the l ~ ~ l ~ l ~ n c rmx.l linc. ~ ~ l . form .rrr phrrtansirl is m.hat is tl. . ~ [ i m i n athe mrmsion iwlrrr in i\l linrr after etchins\sith chlorinel ~ t~ ~ S L Y I pIsnn:a.xnrulrl tine m a r n.trlt pnwTr thxt 1v.. rwln . tllr. w ~ ~ ! ~ iis~ctc11<~14 t h i ~ ~ l~ ~ 8 flat field oxide rrgion :and l x ~ t t ~ mnith photo~~sist. T the tt~8nprahtw :mrl E.p e t C ~ I l)nlT. the rlrctrnn a ? 4.. ~ . doping mainly hxs h e m to d ~ : t s ~ *tllp elrarix cd pmpettirs of the s e ~ t i i w n r l ~ ~ c t Diffttsion anrl ion impl:xr>tation are tllr hbr.. :.. ~ i d c ' ~ o . :L st..and the ralt.lmmn elchin< IICCR.5 (:llz what is the rrquin... cq>n.c~tt~ ttnifi>r8rnit.rti\ity "K:\l <.P 13.x l'"'rxpl-E)Rn E.~..cr a.. ~.nic chaw 2nd n.<...~rctiv*to thin q~tc. :.inyl to ctcll a .1 x iO~". a sourcrl~lnin junction of a hlOSFET).*' l.. Diffusion Impurity doping is the ilttmluction ofc~etmllc~laamounborim~uri~do~ants intorem. K its ~ ~ r ~ ~ $:+tcrmidc.~. ~ l ' . S.?t~vtktr*tio#l F atoms i"m"I. \vhicl~is discusse<l in Clvapter i .ln.. \vherrac ion implantation.. <). !.~lic m:pclic lirld R k. diffusion is t ~ s r d form a d r c p junction (c'. tl..r.... 1 .KI. T h e dopins mticentration decrrares monotonically frotn the sa&rcr.nr ircqamcy is I?.is uretl to junction (e. r t c .. n. C..I sl~nllnw Until t l ~ c e a r l y 1970s.okin~.tt m artpll.... ~ film is d.d I n F rtwns ntt~ld lx. I .l.i2.tint.mtcl.rt t.l..c .. \\llrt :ur thr itl:ajord~rtinaions luhveen trnditionnl rcactirr ion rtrhinc m d l~ich-d~nrih pl. ICP.4 tl.~dtt.. is 111. ~ .hyc. ..r i lfn .d magnetic nckl'? sn:r\s.... m n r l ~ s t o nT h e pnctical 11% oolinip~rrity .IIU - Chmter 5 EtcLI.b.~ m>tt-k~t ~~ncl l (1. \ r h m y i\ thr rlran. ~ x ~ t ilanv to. .3irm Rn .l. lyaws at a tenrpvralt~rroliil°C in a is o I ~ ~ I .19 .I . tllr ~ t ~ .. m d H . In t l ~ i inetl~ml dopant atolns nreplacwlnoaor near s the t l ~ p s t ~ r f a oftlteuxfer b)dcposition from the garpliwr ofthe dop:mt o r l y u s i n g d ~ ~ r l ce oxid? sources. \ . E<:n Irl:~rte~.he...g..lrl.. .\ I . ing d i s c r r ~ e rlevicrs and ititegrnted circuits l ~ n u s trl ~ r s r r w s w s gencnllv complr.~it~ccl 3.ilo~l.+-ti.. nrn .LC sho\vn in F i q r c fi..lllrl uith in~irtan.. . ~i.a.i~ nrl.ry I I ~ I. 9. = o..a r x r micr0m.. l RCI:Cl. Botb dilllsion and ion iniplantation are ltsetl for lablicit..61...tch u.v $ 2 45 k ~ . . c.rrqlliml for rwlninl: s polpilims gatr s i l h thin g. 3 .. I i n .. ~ l ~ ...d 10. .mllnin.

nnd Eq..~S lravr Equation 5 is often referred to XY Fickk dilfirsior~rilrrofiort or Firki 101 (0) (h) n.3 n i \ ~ n . ~ t wa lliltlid soarw is s l l o \ \ ~ ~ Fi3trr fi.~ ~ ~ n ~ s silicon. ~ l .'Tl~psemeth1 1 incl. rnrcl~nnisn~ infen.r.ri~~ e rihatom ~ n i ~ l tto s \.siciry Notc that tllr h u i c rlridng fort? of the diffusion process is the concmtntion gradient XI&.lr.ls .ition.ns.r tl. rt~maw :lncl e:ls fin^ .iSI~I\an.~ ilimn.in oIx. ralnplv o f t l ~ d ~ e n ~ i c .I solicl.nrtlir tlnr.rlnl ampules \\it\.-.n l ~ ) . hlost of tile ~ e sttldivr on p-t\pr <liNr~<ion h v n uonfizad to the {IWoiiinc in the fnnns ~TZII-GR-. ?P.n-ti~lw~ frlmacp \\itlt a <loTKrl x i d capping layer (e.1. tllP lattilv sitc an11I r m ~ r l an intrntitial atorn.*.ml.. hvo ~ ~ h ~ I>:r5icatomic di%~sh>n nlrxlols in .% d~fi11c fllu F rrs t l ~ e 1 a nanlb~r ofdopmt :~ton~s p. l I lmnvc\-t.ire I I S V crt~. tl1rrel~~cre:ttin~a\3*im~.6..~.n. liqllicl scntrcrs are tnwt <01111110111? ~ ( .rl~imis~n.rl~.. I f \ v ~ u h d i t ~ ~Eq.r.trl tllr h o t aton1 oftrn moves i~ltentitiallr Tile h z i c difi~sion pmcessofimpuri~~tonrsissimilar totl~at ofchnrercnien idPetrolls an11 l~olrs).\n ator11smallrr the is tll.torlllpdifl. . :ind C:L<I. y one p)ing a lattice site (Fig.? IPXP snl~~l~iliti(-sl ~ 5 x 10"etn-~in :~ ve tl.' 'Tllcapcn circlc5 rcl.. tlw hie11 \-:ipnr presslnrr or arsrnic r c ( ~ ~ iSFr~s <in1mcth<xlsto prweut tlte loss o i a n m i c h ~ r l ~ r n n ~ ~ m sor i o e i t e\?lpnr.ltiicy.~ion roflcienr or di/li. i?l \ V l ~ m mnccntmtion ofthc dopant atoms is lorr t l ~ diNusion menidrnt cnn I]? mntllr e sidrred to be independent of doping mnnntntion.d \\. This arnngemnlt hr t t in ic sin~ilar tlnt w ~ u for tl>~nrtal to l o\i<l:~tioa. tltc mcTltanisrrr ctllNl e tllr is c m ~ t c d$fit.rifin1rlifit.vl.:. s ~ POCI. [:or <liililsi.ilinitr probability that a lmst atom will nnluire suficipt~t cnrrw to lc. forms 3 cl:~~r-on-silicon ~ f r ~ n is tl~en u r d rrduced to p l ~ o s ~ l I)!. 4 lxcnrncs T1w phoVhmn~~ rele:~rrcland diNuses into the silicon.\s(:I.\n r reaction inr ~IIOS- DiNtlsion in a ser~~i(nnrltlctor l \ir~~ali. Tlte flux 3 proprtiood to the mnccntration gradient.~rsing l t r n \ ~a~ l ~ t unit area inn unit tinle allrl C as the dopant macentration p r unit wlll~ne.n is tllr amst popular dop:~ntfor i n t r o < l ~ ~ c i))-t!.lifiaion t~.31)... t n mIm.t:tl latticr I?.1 Basic DiffusionProcess 107 6.li. is . host ~ .O. the tile ~ 1 .r.ly:IT 11-hp? dopants. lnlticc atoms vilrate aro~lnrl cluililrriulll l. \vl~err l ~ propnrtionalih constant D is tl~r l e ~/ifi~. .rt tllr...tt no n1:lterials are fom~ed mns~lnlrdn tllr host sr~~nirnndl~dar.nisn.n~t.notCr uitIlaut WW.. n. l l ~ solkl dots rcprrsrnt imporit\.ltllri...r. lu.nrivt.\ac~a. Tllrsc ~ imp.OIIS soIIrcrs (R.. + 5Si -t 4P + 5Si0.2. :.<t. an nvctycs$ure oF ammic a11d riihsion in xs .sios.t. Tor i m ~ n i cand P _ 0 7lin I > ~ l < ) ~ [ l ~liq.ww. TI~PSP olt...rih: . a illastmtnl in Figtrr6.I.1 Diffusion Equation i f ) IIIC c u tnktur~.. l~ Itid SU. 6. an11 the clopant aklms $\ill move (dii111s~) au. and PllJ. dA scI~r!n:ltir<!~:LET:IIIIof ~ I I C ..e.k. tltrn ltave \Vt.pc it1 a ~~g pl>aspltoms.rl the atotnic tllove.rfor 8 htn-dimm\-ionnl latticx. snl~~lrlr ~ilintn: ill tla. an11 CI1 is vented. ~ r n t r ~ ~ ~ ..lnpr. .lin fit- P.O.. 3 into the one-dimmsional mntitllrih equation nndrr thc mns te dition th.\\la.AslO.andcsor in iaterrti(ials. dro.' ' in' V.iculqsitc.IRY>F iRBr.:~~ei~l~k. hsll ..:iy from a Iiigb-concentr..~ion.~.( h ) Incrstitial ~tr.t can r as (c!npollt :ltom~) tl1e cqr. s p!ing the ~quilil)rinm htticc pnsitions..ln<lrilifhtsinn in 5r. or i we o11t.:..~tionregion tnwrd a lowrr-concentration region.tomr. is Fnlr <liNitsionin g:allinrn nrsrniclr. ~ : i ~ . (Inpants <:in l r i n t m l u n ~ d sevrr. Ifan intentitid atom mows fron~ plaw to . silicon nitride)..ls:. .ntr I.ccan'r in(%'Il:l Figurn6. e vntrd trnlpr~lttlrrs..lp.. includin I I B soli~l ~ courcr7r .~. RX for I n ~ r ~.

2( rncnc~r~ent 1I1f. IOjieIcL? s figun 6. 011 hotl~ linrar (upper) . The total IIIIIIIIIP~of (Iopat~t atoms per unit nr1. ~Iiff~~sion i c i e nin cm'fs c~tr. ~lo~nillant is rliffmrion inwl~. .rslilialalc)n~ir .. intmtiti.. T A % i l l Si For sna.tjti..~nno.1 Basic Dinusion Process < 109 Fr.tnt is drposit~d ontn the srn~imn<l~~ctor and is s ~ ~ l .lrqer III:~II tlnt for intrmtitii~l si~~~ diff~rsion.rnrl mrnide. l l ~ e a 11opnnt prnetrxtrs drrprr into tlw s r ~ ~ ~ i r n a d ~ ~ c t o r ..lncl logarithmic (lower) sc:d~s. con. is 1:trgcr tlanl. for of \ar. In tla.1. rilicy. rrmclitions.sponrli~~g a to tllrcr collseclltivcdilfusion tirlles . conditions are and rip atonis. n ? fonlld to u lrhveen 0. Sol. srmnd cse. a fired .s :lrr.5 2 .. sln\v rliNt~s.4 Difl!aion cnellkient idw called difieivityl a a function of the reciprocal or tcmnnd (hl ~xlliwn awnirlp. E.W. C. T l ~ sol~rtion Fick's diffi~sion r of eq~~i~tion satisfies the initial and b o t ~ n d mnillat a~ ditions is given h!' ! svl~ew erfc is tile mmplen~entav rrrnr function and \/i.lrrc\ intr.rs.~nis~l~. Tllr definition off rfc and some prnlxrties of tile function nrr su~nniariz~dTaI)le 6.4n allcl h.. Tbns.111tstdrl:tct. o r t tile rerni~~)nl~llctor unfrn.t!~isn~.is tlie diNusion lrn$ll. Tllr \apor murrr m. L) that : time p m p s s r s .tnto~st of<lop. s!ln\%m lllr Icnvcr plrtioll of i7iplres fi. & n . Ips? tl~i~il. tile rnrrojrs of lnotinn . For the \.:xi. 3 P\: nsrl ill ~lcatlq ~~iffllsiol~ IICO I ! ~ ~ I I : ~ I I I is I ~ ~ rnecl~.a of the s~~tnicr. ~rfl t to infinite t e r i ~ p n ~ t ~ ~ r e .rn c:Jlitaa~ .in hot).\: ibncl illt(. alal ~t In itnpllrity:ltotes :ire transported from s mpnr soltrcrt o ~ ~tl~e ~ ~ ~ n i ~ v ~ ~ ~ d t t c and diN.~i dim" I W T IT') ib) Sullstitnting Eq. Edis related to hot).lint:~ins ronstiirlt 1cvt. nanlclx mnst. ~ l i f i ~is I.dnrs of E.mn. Tl~p boantln~?.' ' .l to anntlter.clifiaioanlmlel. is tlbr . This slllxrdion rnnsiclrrs h w ianpnrtilnt cmrs. tos sttrF~r(. tllu fitst ca%r.JclitTtsiorl eludrl. ~.I of s~trfa~v a mncentration during tlie rntirr dilTusion prriml. s~~rfztrr ~lifi~srd r Constant Surface Concentralion The initial condition at 1 I 0 is \v11icl1 states that tl~e dopant mncrntn~tion the ilost srmimnd~~ctoriniti~llv in is TA.rrr D is tb.~pol:~trd . or tllr intPn. centration diff~~sion mnstant total d o p l ~~lifitsian.arti\ation mPq-ill r .wlmncc~ltrations a fnnctiori of deptli for tllrw valucs of tllr difitzsion lrngh mrrt. ~~su:dl! brhv?rn 3 and 5 e\! Tbr dilTurion prnfib.r h q t cliff~~sants.ln I: aid GaAs..and tile v~tergies fonll:ition of \ncancics.l i ~ tto lthe rnc@rs q l l i r e d to Inow dowt ~ stoms fnlll. ia Cu in Si aecl GOAS.40 and 1 tltr mnwurrd activation cnrrpir. Thr \. E.ndnctor Sivc~n is 1)y IWT IR-'I In) prantrr for i. 5. 9 into Eq.t~~ts.6.lnd a f~xrd for a given dimlsion trnIlwr~t!!n. in \vl~icl~ plots.\. T l ~ r in clifi~sioa profile for tllr constant s~~rfacc wnceotration mndition is sllo\n~ Fiplre 6.thr norn~:tli.sho\~m ~ I I P sltcl~ in ttpprrprti~r) Fip~rcr of 6.12 Diffusion Profiles nl. s r ~ ~ ~ i r n t l y into t l ~\v:dr. and ~~ ~~ E. ofthe dopant atoms is dependent on tl~e initial and hottntlat?.

dini~sinn \\l. p s Tllesr prnfilcs can be appmaimatwl hy trinnelrs nillr hriglrt C. 9: 0 1 2 3 4 Figurn 6. SOL(ITI0N Thr clifT!mion awlliricnl of h m n at IiKKIDC.1 pm This c. ( b ) Sormrliml C.n in rilio. 7.' crn = 0 4mpr EXAMPLE 1 Fur tx.kncI tllr <lifi~-icm time is I hour Find Q(f1 snd the gndivnt at r = 0 and at Imxtion \\. thr s ~ t f i a wm.? r(mc1ient can b e r ohtaincd !.n is maint:~inrdat 10"'cm.t!rr.ntr.. and b m r 2 f i . .*. Tlar q ~ ~ a n t iQyt ) reprrsrr.I thin I.rprrssion ctan hr i ~ a ~ r p r e t r r l follous. The.rn C . ir alnllt 2 u I l l ' rm':s. This lrnds to Q ( t i z c. 9. LO" cm".51. wlaicla is clmr to llw rxart rrstslt ol~t:u~~rrI Eq.~tinn rrwhrr l0'"crn.ls the area under a< l( nnr of tlat.hew thr 111p:ant er>ncr.difli~sion m f i l ~of the linear plot in Figure fi.otiating Eq. n fixed (or mnstant) nmol~nt oldopant is rlrporitnl onto the sc!nlmnrlt tor rurf:acr in .75) = 4. lo' 0.66 x 10.1 Basic Diffusion Process 4 1 . ( a ) Normali.cd mmplmtcnt~n ermr htnetion \mnu clirtmw for s ~ r c ~ ~ : ~ s i v r times. is piw'n 11s Eq.ant ~ ~ ~ l ~ d i frl ( ~ sinto 111r~ ~ t l ~ s ~ ~ e scnaimnduct r Tl~e ia~itial conditioaa is the sanir .anssian bnctim vcmu rlirtmre.N in Eq.n at l(WsC. and the dop.6. Ixntnd:~n m~lditiote aw . the mrresparlding distmcr r.I dilli.' .TI.01 = 2fi(2.n.ncrntmtir.5 DiKusiota pmlilrs.4.mn ilifitsi<.\ rrldttd quanlih is l l ~ gradirnt of t l ~(lifftrsion profile Kt&. sn lhr clil>-!z~inn m ~ t b I ir Conrlnnt Tolnl Dopn For tl~is cacr. 11.a ohtainc~l s fmnn Fiqarr 6. fro111 .

dicmmn I*.g.is the position wlwre tlur dopa. tlie pmfilc of tlw dilfuw~l Iayrr. n tl. :~nd ~lnpa~ut 111~. ~ Thus.r thc rnntant n~rft~crr m tmtion cnnditinrt.d circllit p m s s i ~ ~.rrr of mncvntr:.lrivc. ib) Pwition in ~ <lc~p.*qh\r. Tlur rpsi<tanreo i a difirswl layer can he rnrasuml hytlle fosr-.yer is f i ~ ito m ~ r d nrudc.h.1. thr I siw) I k n g l ~ \ Grr tlw prp<le. 111intcsr. f.7.I = I I'XI stwad<.I~ ~al .tI from n msslantin n ~ r r r nsntnrcc is pxwrd tl~rno~lu~ outer tunpmlrs.ntration C.llrre C F is known :LS tlur corrrction L3etor.t finnetion oitlw dist. If !I.lt tltc sllrfitcc. 6. .11 tl~r to junction <lrpIllx. Tl~is step is i o l l n ~ v!. srtsiconclt~ctor ctc.\%ill ll>rn..itI~a soln~tint~ 1IW) cnl' Ill: .4 and is !.1 Basic Dinusion Process 1 I: 6. can Ily :arl 11)t.l"rc-irt cIiff\t.1 1 re. xn~trl\ in In is lsrgur than o rnd I tlrn Ftsln.di.a! l ~ c t 11-hprreginn. diffi~~ion.ntr.l~ine stir.~ TIII Lx7.. sltcrt rcsistanw.ac \r.r. lnrl tbr cxtrnt oitltt.lncx~ior t l t n . i. penrtr:ltinn oillle prrt!qx.. EXAMPLE 2 SOLUTION p.silinn profill Iw nyiunlrrl to I.r p .i tla. Tllr prohcs nrr rqrially spam.stt.lurre s is the p m l r spacing. e.oitlt p m b ~ tedtnirpse sl~own Fiparr 6. (1% TIIPqa7rtll&t lor slope\ is z r m rt x = 0 and ..% slmts tltr clolrult lm.d Tl .%..lmsitintl~IiN~~sinn is I~IIICII s n ~ n l l 111:111 ~ I I PdiNnrinn lr ~r for t 1 ~(lri~r-in . is given IT . For . ~iu>crrai~ug ~ti~r . or rpprnd~tlalvlr rninutcr.dcposition profilr can h r rr~nricIc~rt.n:tnmt.a~~mlhrh\wn t tl r tllc inner h$n pmlrs. u c r . tlw . t11:it rrstllts .th>~>cllrr <\ilfitsioatimv i~rrc:~ws. aldition.file i. = .tlso ~IiKucinn) undrr x mestsrut trrtal dop:uut couu<lition.. are kno\vn. s~)rl. ~ l ~ s t c(.o and IJ are indici~tcd 111" figur~.utin: Eq 1..) = C .kt r = -. a pn~~/c.rh.. LO $=I 1": ~i~~~ 6.? ~ttylizihly I I ~ I mmp.6.@2 (171 \\.n.tt stuns (r.lil~ a Gntr\\imi rbstrihr~tionu \rluirl! the nornldii. jnjt.nl for n ~ ~ ..%st ~ . ? concrrltt-ation rqodr tllr subrtratc concentralion C. m.-stvp <lilTitsinnprrrcss is mnumonly use .ncl.forr.u.L.2.<r p i n t nf cq!lslinn = I l l l r l r .iim~ rallwl n.6 jllnrtion. tl1(. tllr eorrrction kctor epproaclurs 4. n. x.dcpth mc. ~ ~ t l t.~iti.ltllion lo ibis rrl~x.i ubk~inrd dilT~.. or C(x.r]!l:d.lctic:il eaqes. (01 CnminS and staining. :rr illustratrcl in Figntrr 6.I Tllr jllndioa rlcptl~ z illustrated in Figure G. \Vluen dL$> 20... tile m&tceronrt. I\ srnxll currr~. s ~ d fiw drops of IISO. if tllrjullction drptll and C. ant! tlnc isnpqrriy clistrib~~tion he ~ J c n l a t r dprnvidrcl tlue dillusion pmfilr iollo\n one or the otller can .Si I I3 I I lbl ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ T?.vtril>~ i. rlr. The mmcrlion fi~dor rlrlvntlc on tltr ratio ofrlls. tltr rmi~ticifyp ) is @vcn hy r ( \\. r. For n tluin srrniconductor sample \vitl! 1lrirLness \\'tl~ntis mn~cb sm:iIlrr titan t l ~ sample dinmrter d . pn. simple equation drrivrd in Section 6.-itu stt%p. :rind mw .arrd \rill) Illat oftlw~ S I find prolil(.r~t difft~srdl. and thp mxYiu~?om !zrarlicnt oc~11 I =\ I n . if 4.l~en. \r.nost pr.ldit~sof tluc tucrl ~isrtl fonn the CmWC.rl.C/SI isnplc>ttt~l .lli(lnsan.3 Evaluation of Diffused Layen TI)? rrs!~ltsoiza diff~lrinn pmwss n n nv r ~ l l ~ l n t rIly Ilarer ~ n r : ~ n ~ r r ~ nIll?~ t s : rl c r jl~nctinn < I ~ p t l ~ ..ci diNt~sion Icn$llr. n htndioll . for silicnni tls..r. - .lrirl.pll~ i r drlinrnlc~d cl1tling:l grnovr it110 1111.alirwtof thv clifliwionprr.1.r.~iio.gion d:~rker ~ ll~.nti.. <lrlmninr*lhy 1Lt. ~ m f n r ctla. lit. I . Sot? llrr r r ~ l u a i c n tls. andawltap Viq rne.

...acquires sufficient e n c q fmvn tla lattiw \il>mtion to ]raw its latticc sitr.ni. for h i ~ h mnn.lr:c l ~ a r pa w p t o r ~ a m ~ ~ c y l iidonor \IIC~IIC?.114 + ~hrmr D!fhrrion 6 6. m d E .Iloprvr. andso k~rth. Irss than II.. ma* l a The i h n n i e r pmfile (ni.nent is detected anrl mas ~l c ant\ c analynl. fi'thr dopant difi~sion dominated Ily the \ a n o r ) mechanism.and tile irllporih distribstionI Cir! hv thr follm\in< e\~rrssioIl: As ~nrlrtioned prmiorls\y.the. This t ~ h n i < ~ ha.fllr is ofil'n nbfrm. x LO" rl!li' lor ~ i ~ l l i a ~ n a~st.).(T)tirr in 111~ intrinsic diff~lsion region.rs r.) is relatnl to thrjuection depth (x.mm-\altage tc~frhnique.r been calculated for simple ~kNusion . C. is the intrinsicvnc.tte doping mnwntration for an a r s r ~ ~ n e d iind dilCInsion pnlfile.nid<. s r ~ ' : more ~li~hOr.ll to as tllr itlfrinrir difir. i~npllritips Iw ~ I v t c n n i ~ ~ sulrrposition: tlint is. and the difi~si\ily mnsidrrr~l hc extrinsic."In tl~r I es cxtrinsic 11iNt1rionrepion.." (n Figvn 6 1 Donor impurity difi. c rvhich me:lrl!rrs thr total inlporih profilr.~tion).r . Tile dilli~cion pmfile cnn h=m e a ~ l n zl~cing n@t.E .sumrd pmfilrs.. inclllclinS lntll thr slll~.I.tllr scmimnrl!tdor lmn..rtrittsir. t l ~ ion cnmp.ity .ntr. Tor ilimll and f.ltnl i n tllr lrrt siclr.2 EXTRINSIC DIFFUSION Thr rlimlrion profiles d e s c r i k l in Srction 6.llt. In tho extrinsic <liN(tsionrvpion. IJnping profilc.ttion rllmsin~ rrgon~ inlrin%ir of . .s~ n silnplc functions. difl.. For :I @WII diffusion pmfilr.ions of n.densi~. the cliNtlrion mrfis ficirnt is e ~ y c c t to i r prnprtional to thr \?mnc). T = I ~ " crr.. .f mi.$ hie11 msili\ily to many elrmcnts. an ion beam splltten n ~ a t c r ioff t h r s ~ ~ r f aofra sen~icnnductor.8.~mncies per unit voLmr.ativc clkr<r amollg tllr srqllenti~d r silllu~t.. an acceptor \.n thr dopin< mnwntratinn is l m v r than the intrinsic clrrier mncnllm ancl rrtrinsiu cliNt~sion.It tllc clifilsion trtnprral~~rr.\surinz tllr rrrrm-hi= (ilp~citanwo f a p ..O.. is thc Fermi le\rl.1 oo~ J n. the nunlber ol\.II 111~.u~rl shdlmrr diNnsiom.r or di(r. and V is tile applied voltap. l "-.and p-t!lx. . tlae dilfnsinn pmfilrs arc more mmplicated. diN~~sion the profiles generally can IE representerl I>? the aforementioned simple CInnctions. l"'. n ~ l c i t ~ p rn unit arra o l the sample. .iismity usins :t lot~r-pint prohr. >vllirlli<a ftlndionof the tohJ impl~rin mnwntr. tllc llifl'~.2 Extrinsic Diffusion 4 I 1s lion (11..) ha5 n of t m i p r a t o r c drpendencl? similar to that of the a n i e r density that is. lluv~lopinl:cnnc~ntntior~s d At rvhrrr q is t h r charg. tllr is to diN~tsi\it? ~ m r ~ nmnwntr. \vI1e11n llost atom .entge resistibih (P = R. sllch a <boron m d a r trr . this rcpion.frati. In the SIhlS trchniqllr. in~p~~Tihwnwntmtion. ~ 6..t lnr cq.' . h ~ r C.r.llleola o rliff~lsions. is Rrratrr th:ln n.. is t l ~ intrinsic Fenni e c lewl. and is an ideal I M for p r n \ i d i ~ ~ < pr~cision e r d n l for prnfile s ~ r a t r r e ~ n e nins ~ the n t mnc-ntration o r shallmv-jc~nction diffusions..~.rioas GIII by ~ d can hr trratrcl ieiirlx~i~drntl.tcanc? l'-. GUI l r cletrnninrrl I? mr.ttrc! nit11a u:lonc): \rte can haw a neotnl v a m r ) .nr p Prcr lr file5 n n l r 4 t . secnnd:~ryion mass s p ~ t r o s m l > i(SJMS) trcllniql~e..~r) \Ve d ~ i l s i h a giwn charge state (i.B. Ilowrwr.. a \acnnr) is created.).of an electron. and there nrr intelilctinns and cmpr...mcydensity. sUclzik* the erfc or Gausrian rlistribution.wntrafi. 3 1 i s is due to tlle r~lationsllip" d eu \ i . cam~plr. Concenhation-DependentDiffusiviv The shn. !VIII.~ tllat evnn.~tinn ..ate \ n1rthn11 is 111~.. 10 100 6.n15 5 10" rm For at . thv r c s ~ ~ l lclnpnot prnfil~s In i~~g olsrqv~rn~tinl sis.lw mnwntmtion (C. E is the prnnitti\ih of the semicond~~ctnr..I dot~l. $vhich is equal to tile ilnpllrih pmfilr if ilnpllrities are ful!\.tnltrnllrl the lh1p:lnt.ri\it? \t*rslzs plwtmn mnrr~nfr.ttion drprn~lmt. cqwct t11:tt the\aw. f i p a 67 Slr. carrirr mnhililly (1.) thr sul>str.vmnre lR. the diNusion pmfiles n n n o t I -reprrsented hyt11e."' W 0.1 are for constant difi~si\ities. of ~ i .r. R > rlow conwntra.' To use t h e s cnwcs mrrectly.r.1 to .. we must ~ he sure thnt thr dilfusion agrre uith the a. tion and clcrp diN~~cions. as ~liscussed in the n p a srction. Desiml clxmes nlatine C and P 11w.) is nniquel? related to the ssrf.. i n n i d .~rtmw~r~rt~t of n.n junction or a Scl~dtLy lx~rrier i ~ l : a hxnction of the applirrl roltage.icily. D r p c o ~ l i a ~ tllc cllar~cs on &?mi.lllm. as indic.. thr a\..

and )I-hprin~pllrities must inltimittdy reside in lnttiw sitrs. tl~r couplrd in~p~lrityvacnncy (P'V2-) rlissociates to P . 55.91 is given II? .. T l ~ difilsirih i n tlre r thr toil repion is over 10.11 l ~ v t jomction i k p t l ~ !<re Fiz. tp. The difilsitity varirs linmrl?\ritl~tl~r ptrlkd prt. In tllc raw of y= -ttltc <Iiff~si\it).I.n c r ~ ~ \\it11 d ~ r r r r n i n ~ i un ~nnn*ntr~tina. st mnrrntr. Its diN~ainncwfficip~lt fotmd t o \ a ~ a C'. Tltrrrforr. difitsion prnfiles an.l.thn~pt~ l t ~ c t i o ~ ~fonnld n. supl~ C:LFP. and the snrfaw concctllration is prnpi~rtiold thr scpccN.r~. F i g ~ ~6. Hmvevcr. d of Fiparr 6. A the concentration increi~ws. tlle c l l a ~ slntes of the \i~canci~.16..rsltrr of the lint \..1 1..11. i ~u.\ th.1111~ ~ ~ r f i ~ ~ ~ e c ~ ) r l c r diN~~sinr~ difI .s. ..tlly F I ~ 6 ~sI~xr5 ~nltttions"fur R111S1. Tllr :rhn~ptnrss t!~r(loping p~ C of r. \vr Iti~vv ci~ic c ~ ~ t s t i m t 111. h e prufile h @ n sto dmiate from the simple 5 t eslxession i n t n r s h and c ) .t~tcttion \tit11 ft~r..~\iney Tlrrn.9.. Cur C d s r at IOOO0C is less than 10" em'. ~ ~i~tcrc.n dill.uall~d cxpl-t that the diN~~sion profile of pl~ospl~orus mem\.s not Iwen est~blisI~Cd.lrltllrircon."\\ltet1 t l ~ surpaw concentration is lo\v.. ~. ~ r:ISst l ~ conL ~ r . p sl. Rrca~tre its higl~ of diflusivit)r phmpl~on~scominonl? is I I S P ~ forn~ to deep jotlctions.~l pressarrr.. rlxrt to of tltr p:~rti. rliNusion mrfirient at 1111. At w n high concrntmtion ( c ~ t wdl. is about n w orcIrrs of ina~nihldr \vl>icJ~ lilr<~r tlle than intrinsic (IiNtlshity at lWOODC. s kink occurs and is follo\val hy a rapid diff~~silsion tlw tail region..LS Zinc DifTusion i n Gallium Arsenidc \\i..li~rc.I 1't r ~ ~ n son.~lIy inl!rp?n~!?nt of t l ~ c l~:~cksr<nmd m>nwuttxti~~n..10 sl~o\rs re pl~osphorus diNusion profiles for vidrimts surface concentrations aRrr rliffttsion into silicon for 1 hour at 1000'C. sshrnrn in liiyw is s 111. the dilTusinn pmfilr is given hy an r d c ( c u n r a ) ..r.9.zr c:. ..9.r.ntr:ltionprnfilrs llst'c the cuncave s h . (li. For y > 0. 111. 1tC y For y = 0. a drpic(p. I c P n c ~ . At tllis e s r r p Irvel.~ti. Thr mnrcnin tr.p s of Fisnru 6. tvc can linr a El1 4 .npor.. thr j~~l~ctii>n is linrarl? pmpllrilrptl~ tionnl to tlw S I I ~ ~ . 8 7 6 for D . ! 1 thf. Their mncmtc~tios profiles arr abnlpt. .ttio~~ corrrspnds to a Fcmii lrvrl0... Sot? that even for tlw casr oltlw br\vst surl~ facv mnwntntion.tl~p.t~ rliff<. a ~ ntll ~ r d i f f ~ s icoefficient at l~igll on cnnwntntinn \arirs .h sl. As sprn in F i p ~ r e 6...l~ tur vwanc).r!5 \r?tlct~ to :I concaw profile.nti:jl rtpv..rcli.. l ~ r c ~ nofa r ~ s dissociation elTcd. k . t l strrliacv ~ ~ n ( ~ n t m t i iO n ~ I i~% a pmfo!tnd rN?ct on tl~ejttnctior~ drpth.rr. e lvavc Zirrc is t l ~ c most edrnsivrly studied rliNusant in ~xlliam arsrnide. r 622 Diflusion Profiles Dimusion in Silicon Tllc inr:~surrd(lilhtsion cocficirntsof lmron and arsenic ill silkmn ilave.LIIII. m nppsrtl to tllc convex profilrs for a t l ~ rcar.Ciin~Iyw p trncl lnxlik~ x m c ~ ~ r ~ t rpan ~ f iu result for st c ~i~ l~ s inrrt.' of difftwivity 311d Ill? profile is tllp r:tmr . Hmvewr.n< 21.Iliql~b . . \\i.tyin\nReato~~~ic mo!rmmts on lntll l l ~ pllitnrn and xrrrnic c suhlnttiws.-qtclt< i t ) a junction <It-ptltririu.":md r r s e ~ n bctlrvel.pllrlenc~'-it11 Y 2 1. IW~IISC n. Tl~rwfow. strrp.11 r\'hln\r d ~ condt~ction 11+ r b. sucl~ the a-tubs i n CIIOS. 1'-..2 Enrinric Diffusion 117 x.. yis close to-" . 6.t<ioi~r I j arc s are intu 3 l~tckqronnrlo an olyxxitr impnrit? t\pp.l i n o.r ~ l o l ~ cllarwcl a m p l.9. of Fipnw 6.rt~i< tlas s-~rF:t<v m r ~ w t n t i o11.qwct diNtrsion in gallit~m nnmidr to ir nlorr~ mmpliatnl tl~an ill silicon l m u w tlwt thr diffilsion of impttritirs ~r~. is t l ~ e C.. tile diffusion pmfilc edlibits nnolsa lom l~el~iwior. dissociation generates o l a c e namlxr of sinxIy c l i a ~ c d t11e amptor \aorncies V-.a.cnvn in I ' i q ~ r6 .nt\. r corre~mrling tl~e to intrinsic diffusion rrgion.les that sl~o\min cunp b oi Figure fi. m ~~. .lt<. and at1 clrccmn. = 0 . \\. wntmtion ~ l t ~ c r c ~lnd t ~ .n.tlw diffusi\ih d c ~ w .llich in tlnnl rnllat~ms rliNusion in tlre tail reginn of the profile. For gold and platinum diffusio~t n silimn." ~111~1s.9.mrl. pair ' Tln~s.tvr to drscrilr tltr mnc~~ntnttinn d~pnclc~nm. \"-.a paran. t l ~ diflusion is in the extrinsic dilTusion reson. \'aca~~cies play I ~Iolominantrole in diffusion pmcrsrrs in pllium imenbk hrcnl~srIw.. tllr profile nc:u the r surl:~rris indeed similar to tl~nt sllo\m in c u m 6 of F i g ~ r e Ilm\r.C' ( y = 3. s~~rfimcv y i~ .6.m\n in mllv. ~lifi~sion pl~ospl~on~s of in sili(n11is :usncintcrl \sit11tl.l~<.. tiun .6. fmm Eq. 'rl~t.n rnld solvr it nnmrric.. fb.

.r t l ~ a ttllr vertical peertntinn is ahout 2.. the ~ ~ r ~ Iatrral p w r t a ~ t i o is~almut 2. r . penrtration in the \.Mere the inlpurities \till dil e iond mlrc 9.%her ink. b 6. asuming that the diNusi\ih iq i n d e p d r n t of cnncmtralion. 19 shrnr5 the m n t o u n ofmnstant doping concentration for a mnstant surface mnwntntion rliff~ision mndition. = into d li. the lateral ptnrtratinn is ahout sW%0: . Fimrrr fi. h ~ ~ t i o n hy Eq. .i! nnrfaw mnastmtionr arc 01. i\vl~rrr: is tloc surfacr concentration) corresponds to the rrfc d (. <lifiasiol Figurs 6.vndntaininp:thc Z msrny.w. For mncmtmtion-dependrnt dilliurivities.sriationo f t l ~ e dopant conc~ntration i 0.3 M 1i.r. to about fiSCr' to 70%.- k r r n t initial and h u n d a y contlitions.. at CfC. tlw rxtio is found t o hr redoced sliqhtly.7 hours.!'At the fiir r i ~ l lo f t h r fim~re. Ihr for dilfL. The ratio of lateral to v e r t i d pnetration is about 75%.5 C.t l ~ penrtralion d o n g the d i m ! m r ~ ~ ~ : ~ ~ k \ m ~ i c n n < l ~ i c t o n l r r r f o r r .xrc crrntnl 11: (IifTt~sino. to lo-' C.e. at trmprmt~~rrs n in tl.10 Phosphonu difiaion pmfiles" for \ariour atrface mnwntratiun. rll!c~.linmI by .The m n t o i ~ n in rffrct a map oftlle lrxation of the jund @\?n .3 LATERAL DIFFUSION The onc-dimensional Glliiion quation disnisss~l pre\iouslycan dncrihr the dillit~sion P'D m s mtisfac~oril\:exmpt at the ~ l q of tlbc ma5k \\+ndrnv.. 0 ) fnml tliis mnrtnnt mnwntratinn cun.t. tl~r hnrkgrr1111~11 [Inpine is 1 ' titnps lrnver than tlie surface m n r ~ n t n ~ t i o n\VI . Similar rest~lts obtained for a mnstant total dopant dilliwsion mntlition. t tl~e\.8 ~ v 1 a .Snn"C. For exxlnple.n for I hour at IO(Y)'C. 9.-interfarr). \anoms I ~ a c k p n n mncvntrations.I 1s L chepnt 6 DMuslOn 6 3 Lateral Oiusion 4 119 Figurn 6.11 DitTurion pm~les"of Ant in GaAs after annealing at lWODC 2.v r.11xe :PT I.ertical direction for mnmntrations three or more ordcm of m a p i tircle Below tlie surface cnncentmtion.

ant1 As are inclllclcd in a look-up table. and SOLUTION The SIIPREXI input listing ir n follm\rn: q 0 0.~n<I?~bt difitsi!ih) tellct lo preclllde the use of allal!tical hnn<ic ~ ~ c l l ~ a t i o n r fr.05% ~ O T B . a into rrrultr a n r l l r n l n is liimln. n t ~ ~at itlscticnn of <lrptl~ tltc siliom a~l. end \ a m n o .. and oddation-whded diffusion.4 DIFFUSION SIMULATION nl? \arionr mn~plic~liom arise in the ronrpnlation of diffieioll prnfik-q (s81ch a con. The diffosi\ih \allies 11sed hy SUPREXI are bawd on t11r varanc).~r fwrtinns of drpth into the wmi<vnduc*or suhstrdtr. .emr e function (edc)and the Ga.r l i minnt-.d ililh~sion d l ~ sThis is a m ~ n p l i s l ~ usins llle DIFFUSIOol command. to EXAMPLE 3 Sl3pp-e w *ant la simulate lhc pnrlcposition olhomn intn an n-hpe clM> silicon wafer a1 8501C h.1 0. n c l . are had upon tltrrr bacicquations.13. -.n~<. ~lstancr. 26 to 25 sirnultan~nt~sl~ a one-dimenrional grid specified hv the user..~ .rnu ~ ~ .. E ~ ~ ~ p i r imodels cal nrr 11sm1 a m l l n t for field-aided. sheet resistance. T l ~ e res~tltr f a diffusion p r w s s can l r r\.~T. print rind plot the in Ix~n.~Plltntiolls .13 Pht of. i the pennitti\ih: n and p arr the electron ant1 hole concentrations.7. rt~rfacre.1 1 1.r. \vl:rre G...nrmtmtion of thc lnmn is qr. the w h ~ w is the c h a q e state. riml>lcstnnmplrs. and h'l. inrlilclir~g SL!PHE!I. 3 . are the (oncentntions of ionizer1 donors and a m p t o n . .~ reEep.6 0.llIl is t!pic.zn --..ri n~ntl~stmliona fi~naionofdep~h the rilimn atb*nte.5 SUMMARY Diffusion is a key method of impnrity doping. \rr. The second relationship is the mntinuih rrluiltinn. respectively.the h m n dopinc:pn~filr thr junnirtar drpth. :vhich indi~2tes junction rh. n 4 b 6. l l o ~ glimn ih. m s SUPRE!! citr~ sin~oli~tr or onenwdinrmrion. ~ n ~ lof Fair. . ant1 tile clopant prnfile. s ~. \vhirb is $wn hy .6. .. that ~ntntioa<!. ARvr prcdrposition i* mmplrtr.2 1." The rl talues of E* and D.llly the chm~irnl. :lII ddTtaion pnmssirnolaton. Z.lel6 Diffuse boron Time-15 Temperature-850 8oron s o l i d s o l Layers Chemical Concentration Phosphorus Boron ~ e t A c t i v e Net Onin-lel5 End predeposition example b 6. ttu: SUPREXI f lo dcltmttin*.5 Summary r 121 TLE COYMENT INITIALIZE COWENT DIFFUSION PRINT PLOT STOP Predeposition Example I n i t i a l i z e s i l i c o n substrate <100.ptl>010.aluatrd o by mea-~lrementsof tile junction deptl~.-rian function \\. # is the mohilih of the impurity and E is the electric field.1 to lhe did soltlhilil? limit hy ih? S o l i d s o l tt pazan~rlrr thr DIFFUSION rnmmmd. [)nqr. which in one dinlensinn is given by wlierr E. Fottunntrl\: the SUPREM sofh\rue p:sh$c intm111ml in C:ltrpt*r 3 dso inch~dcs m p k t e m ~ l r l for difft~si(r~~. . oxidation-enlmnmd.tn nri Figure 6.. Data from twOOiS3 Boron l f c r n j ) Phosphorus l / c N: Wping (/cm3) e . cd The o ~ ! p u of th(. for 8. This chapter fint considerctl the baicdiffusion rqustion for constant difi~nivit):T l ~ ~nmplemrntar). t cimrrirr. s and S. . -. ~.. \vlticl~ one dime~~sion% is in is n' e$ ly Sot<-~ l ~ . io~~ st:l'liE\t. S i l i c o n Phosphor Concentration.dl hut tht.:lr. 6.cm-'.ere obtainctl for the constant surface concentration case and Nlnstant total dopant cares.~. respecti\rly. The ~st~bscript i indicatm t l ~ c SUPREhI girl location." TIw lint rq<~ation lor the flus I]). p . lfthcsilimn nllntntr i-clnpnl ~ i t h phrnpllnnaat r l o ~ l o10''.strdv. is tile genentionlrrmmhination rate of the impurih The fi~ral relationship key is Poinons equation.lx. SUPREM over solves Eqs. Sh.

~ion. I l t h .8. 4 Ct~nnrll C. abal is the find distrilrtrtion oiarrcnir i f the r7rrl. . depth.I pmfot~ncl . F ..lll difiaion mn h. D F X 9. ORticn. J.n r r \IctJwl ior Shed Rrsirm~te ofSilimn Epilsu'd. T ntnid \ n ~ l cwarp d~~~~ sud<lenrnlmiion in tcmperntrtrc.r-. .d'~ cuncvntrntion is held firrd at 4 X 10"1lomslcm'? \\Inat is tltc jundion depthaAs~t~me the follm\ing: 3.The . Use SUPREM lo plot the phosphons and Iwmn impari* profiles.. 10. C:m!phc~ll. Their dopinq t l t r r d c pmlile.r. C m w R y r i n n ~ ~ d P r l ~ n u l n ~ y o j & m i r r ~ n r l h r l r ~ r\\$I<? ?. . It. 7.limlrrrl . = 1.'in F. ~ d . I f :arrenic is difitscd into a thick slim of silieon doped \%+tl> I n m n atomston' at a 10" trmperatt. Urin3 ~ SECTION 6. P1. Cb.. .trier h m n I the di.dlic Contamination of Silimn \IjSn.\ \ ' c 1 r rd ~ ' Rtitnn. cm. &I. Use SUPREAI 11) p f o r r n a drive-in step lor 6 hortrr at I l i 5 ' C lolimmngtne prearpoation desuri1n. -Dilhssion ~ 4 t h and lntrnticial-Sub~tin~tion~l Eqailihnilrn. Say York.lxniti<m ~ d o r m e cat <l5O0Cfor X)minutrr i s a neutral amhient.- .Orford Unir . For rralnple. n '10..w F Ii is difilsd into a thick slice of rilimn doped \>ith 10" h m n atomx/emlat a tcnipcraturc of 900'C lor 3 hrnm. ~ ~ ~ c I I ~ I .2: EXTRINSIC DIFFUSION 7. i . $55 (190'1). CIt. and the drive-in oecttrr at LW'C for 30 minetrs. L R." > l i m l m m n En& 40.L R a r u n . Cn\donl and L \ in . . 13.~ r f f w t 08.~.lw an i~rllmrtnnt impilC+ o n device perfonsnnce.alc i v n-hpe rilic~.Itpins r ~ > n w n t n ~ t i is n ~ o Iti$wr than tlle intrinsic carrier conmntmtion ! t I . S.YX)'C in 20 mint.. C1. t h r rrsullillg rlopillg profile. t. lrnlanry Doping Fnr..' rf. 5 .. 21nt. Zc1v York. . Srmi<4~md~nrlor r . \\ilry. anrl determine the junction depthls). CI. \\'ylg. S".6.r.1.md the total dnmnt in the ..rnn d i i l i t r i \ i t y i n silirnn Problems 4 I23 rmlilfi n u r l t nlun.%. I%nI. ~ t .\mncnhm.rc of IIOn'C for 3 hours. s I. Rnrl the ~rrcentasc. 5 ~& ~ 2nd . E.4nd\sir of tllr In>puti?Atom Dirlrit~~~tina lhc Diffitrion Yn Sear for:. nw hvo pmccs~esn \vllicll i fonll~~rr.~ SECI70216. .<(? . . C.. i hi : and ~o~. \lhnt is tllr tivc diNstrion lime at tbr initial diNusi<mt r m p m t ~ ~fur r phospl>nn~s rc dilltlrion in rilicnn? '5. 7 ASTZI XIrtbal F374-9. 1 S.Y... 1515~IWI.. lmpllntcrl I. Ed. 51. S.. ~PI8yric~ P c I ~ n ~2nd Ed.vYorl\. C. K . 8.s. I Firnr Drfid.!..e UsilleSIXIS. Dillusd. l <tr. . Cdculale thc dillinion time. m I \.. \\itr): Sea Yo*..1st.. = I.X)%~ColPnm Four-Pmlr Amy.Inin. 6 . R. -Standm1 Cuicle for >Iwntinq\I'idth olltnlcd+<~." V10. R. P l l o s p l l o r ~ i f i l s i \ i h i n silimn \ari& d atonericm'.' and lhc tnron srnrlace concentralion C..1n:nrrp.lcm 9. itnrl the m r m m l junaion depth is Ipm at a rshstr.n J!mninn.I.2 11W2).k l*.fili.19 ilLJ93!. Clqv mcl G.@.mw is decrm.r Sputter Drpth ir.al? linearly w i t h t l r ~m p ~ t r i t y i rn~lcetttr. ti. change o l r a d m cortcentmtion for 1% wriatian in diNnuion time anll trrnyntllrr.es i n q e r tb:~nits iacriasic ciiffiai\ity. Fair ~Cotmwnlnlion Pmfilmaf Diflttsr~l Dqmnrs. Tltr phosphorus prrdeposition occurs at SjO0C lor 34 minuter.iiy m r n e s r n n c r n t n ~ t i o ~ lp n r l c n t .?nd Ed. Plot the h m n profile and gi\r thc n v junction depth.JiE 11*'111. of. C b r n ~ Sdid.l.sdt. SliMn. 100 L t t c m l rli&aioll at t l w rtlcc. . s .\Ill. IOsl 12. \Vci%lxq I. .a tllr xlnn... Dittusion \ \ l l n l t l .nor I n h g m t d Cimrif I ' r n r ~ ~ i T~ g t n d ~~ d. Zinc in CaAr. s X sa. srlhs~ntiall. Asstjrnr thc sill. Pn.1: BASIC DlFFVSlOS PROCESS I.. L P REFERENCES I. o r to P sion lum. 1 .n Cdidr.~ J. tetn[rntttmb. Sunl.~~. S well as tlbc cantact resistanw. rrc. ~ phosphon~s 1trati~~8~ drivc-in diflusion in silicon at IMO'l:. iw. <.d i a ~ .d j n t p t tllall . R.do\m v o l t a p . 3 PROBLEMS :\<fcrirkv dcnarr difioal( pmlrlrtn? S E C n O S 6. After thc lmmn drive-in step i n Pml.rn.thd EIUYJtl. S r n Ynrk.Sr ~ ~ l ~ t i r o Pti. urn.llill.J.rnclhi.r ~ ~ s r r . 2.asrd lillrrrly from IrKXPC i n .. ~ ~ .rrr o f r n n c m l r a t i o ~This (Ielwnclr~lcrilnd :I d i s ~ o c i n t i ~ vle c t $\Trise l o a ~. 4.d in Example 3. c l i l h ~ d o n l . ? 6.9 x I I P ' c m ~ 2.. i held tian rlrpth? 1 .tl i s the final clirltibution of if the ~ ~ i d a c ~ ~ ~ ~ n r m t n tiso n f i r r l at 4 x 10"ntornr/cm'? \!hat arc the difhrrios lcnmh . . \vh.-Difi~rion md ofzinc in Calliam Arrnidc:J 1 l!xI).-llol1:md.IW>j. 1975.%iew#ond E n ~ i n ~ ~ n ' n g ~ j A l i r m r l ~ d m nri(c r l n n . 19%. Sonin.ttr mnrcntmtion .tr. It.rv . arsenic and 1. This clepcn. Sdirr. l a h. Sa. thr temperatllrr in a <lifil. mask and i m p t l r i h rt:distriblltion dllring ofidation '4. CL. PIKIL.. Blanc.Jt71y. ilnd l l t e lillter \\ill ~ ~ f l t ~ e n ~ i tile tll~slloLl \ultasp .~1-.. 9. P. Aun9n aed I.jedcd to a n ~ u t ndrive-in at laiO°C for M) minute! l calct~lrte difi~ricln profile and the jenc~ion thc.. I!K.n .PI in Sili~>n.. For a l o ~ ~ ~ . ..J. I . It. .llualicm of Difilurl L)Y. -Xlrl. ~1 ~ ~ ~ C \I&n\v. Cmh.lR>IJ. 1941. F Y. 9. 15..yrellllm the brrnl.. rl P .Yoioir. 'Dimorion in Srmimndacton. Ix 10"..si.lainthr meaning of irl~rinsiic difi~riora and dnrrinsic cf!fir.Sysl TwI~. w n p l r i n Pmhlem Iis nnl. 5.. R. S..n\rill. I27 I4 D P Kl~nnrcb:indR. Plt. .4: DIFFUSION SlhlUWTION 9. t\lat is ti.$ x 10''.dil c n s .~tion.ual j~mr.. ^El. Ch.. suppre pllorpl~on~rn~hrrquentl? is predeposited anrl d t i w n in. k u 8 .15: r Chapter 6..til~lrr.A. md 1 8 0. 2nd Eel. '1.n. . C t l r t ~ l a t r jrlnctinn drpth and th* total amount ofdop:tnt intrmlttcrd . I ~ . ".~. I79 .ntom. . Ply. 1 1 R. Exyl:~i. t l ~ dilfi~ri\. r l de ~l. BrN 41.. STXI XII. l'1.

nn oclo\diff~sinn IL) ion-implantation technirlvnt.ul into Ion Implantation &sctlsHl 6.).list".Ilr. IIXS clist~l.ltion is i n t r d ~ ~ c t i ofncn~rgetic. tltr p r o l i l of t l ~ dopant distrihl~tion deter.. (hl fipun1. The average depth cm 1% contmllrd by adjustingthe awlerntion rnergy. \vlwre tllW nrr accf.~)rrs.: sltmvn i s Fi.pre 7.t). c h the s ~ l r d r Figure 72 Sehmtrtir of n mcdittnl-nrmnt ion implantor . ion-source chamlwr into n mncs anaI!i.* 7.'Tlle projection o f t l ~ i s in distance along thp axis ofinridenw i s c . ! ion fnllmria~ topics: prows an11admnta~er ion impl.1 Ion Distribution The total distance that an ion travels i n coming to m a is called its rongc ( 8 ) and is illlat r a t ~ d Figure 7. n~erpfom. I n this p r m s s t l ~ ~ d o p aions m i ~ n ~ l a ~ ~ t m l u nt o t . TII~ dopant dosenn bemntrolltri b y rnortitoring tile ion current during implantatio!~.' ionroitrcc a heatrd filamrnt to break up source g a r s such as BF.2schrmatidly slrmr?. tllr s. . early 1970s.~l range (8.30.into cltaqetl ions ( R .nlr by ion implflntrtinn and ImpIant~tion-re1~tPdm s s e s .ping. ~ l ~ e t l ~of t k i s Chnptrr o imporit\. doping operations have heen performed hy ion i~nplantatius.. or Asl I. as siliwn.1 Rsngs of lmplented Ions 4 IPS F 7. or As')..rid I hlP\: rcs. n. difi~siouand ion inlplantntion are tile hvo kc).imn~luctor hr. Tile ion Ixatn is then scanned over ion tllc tr.lltioll iesi<lctlw srn~icvaductor. p a$ . T l ~ e srlectrd ions then enter the amvlemtion tube.rI to the impbntation r l l c r o a thry move from 11igInvoltage to ground ~ p r f ~ ~ r e s s ensure that the ion beam is well collimated. Ion . caltses the chargrtl inns to n i v e 1 of the 0 .1.ioz~energy This cllapter rliscusses the I tl~e . I .fr. ~ l l ~ l tlrc l~rnjccit..1 Cos>pri.ire random \~riahles. whicl~ called t l ~ lolrrol.The principle sidr e(Tect is disntption cr dntnagc oftlle ~ m i c o n ~ l u c t lattice due to ion collisiom.I statisticttl fluctuation along an :" prpendictdar to t l ~ e oflicidence.7.lltinR inion .alc. sul~setloent or a annerling treatment is needed to remove this damage. means of an ion l n l n ~The doping ~ ~ s c e n t r a t i o n a p a k . o Figure 7.plantt~l. sllc!~ n l a ~ k n ghigll-~nerQ'i~:lplantation. Tlw main acl~anta~rs ion ilnplanta. a n~cdil~rn-mewion implantor. o chargerl particles into a S .1.lil~l~ mnrs and the in.r surface llsing electrostatic dcflrction platrs and is invplant~l into the srn~iw n ~ l i i s~~l.leratr.s and !olr-xlttc+iond dnpants ihtu the wmimndunor s~~hrtmtr. nunl\rr of ions tNl 5 in. TI)* presstlrc i n t l ~ e inlplantor i s kppt IrIw 10-' to ~ninimizr scattering hy giu molrcules.nin< hc tl~e same mass and the same initial enerp.~btrn~/~! LS axis is r (0. Id<lwurmnt implantation Il~r simttlstion of ion implantation using SUPREh.ried insalatinji i. -tor n ~ mergetic ions lose energy tl~mugll e collisions \\it11 electrons and nuclei i n the substrate and finally came to rest at some depth uithin the lattice. The lnagnrtic fir111 nftlte itnnlFr is r l ~ o s r t ~ slzcl~ l ~ a o111yions \%it11 desircrl n~ass-to-claargc t t thr ratio c:tn t w e l tl>n>u$tit aitllnllt bring filtered.I 1 cm' of tllc srmicondtlctor surlicv arm.. S ~ ~ ~ ~ s. there $\ill a spatid cfistribotion of ions lr.mtntion of ' r Ion distributions in thr cnstnl lattirr aral IIO\V to rrnlove lattice rl:~ma$e usett CRI .strate. n ~ statistical flnactr~ations n the p r o j ~ x i ~ l e i range am called the pmjrcte(l sbtm#lc (up).pl. and ~ r is nrirttyl in.r..oltage arlj~~stmrnt 10" ionslcn~:klr tllo fonllation to of [. Sinw tht.al? fmln 10'2 limes io~lslutn'for tllresllokl s. An extraction voltagr.1 RANGE OF IMPLANTED IONS Ion implant.lcl. butions \vitll ilvernglo [leptla canping from 10 nm to 10 pm.jon arc its more precise control and reprotl~~cibility impuriq dopings and its I r n n p n ~~ s s of ~~ v ing tempcrahre mnlparetl \%it11 tl~osr f the difilrioo p r w r s .. ~I~II!.. Note t l ~ a f l ~ e t (lose i s exprrswd a tl. aronnd 40 kV. Because the n u t n l ~ofcollisions p r ~ m idistanrv anrl the energv r t lost per mllision . There i s also . Jnlplank~tion ene@~s itre hehwcn I kr\l ..

. I ~ T d d h :t nuclr:ir stopping pmrer. tllry c n l ~ejwtrd frnni t l ~ atom (ioniattior~l. the implanted ilnpurihprofile can he approsimated h y a Gaussian distribution function: rr.)anda target hiir~l and sphere (ini7. S. the lateral pnetrntion from tile mwk edee (on the oApr nf 0. .e splrerrs mllirlr.(El ( d ~ / . The qunntihn hm k n droned prmiotrdym tlte r.4lon~: the ii*s prlpnclinrlar to the aus of incidcnrr. incident ion with lhr clolld o f ~ ~ ~ r ~ alrmllnding tllr.laiorn of1 1 ~ ~ .. hv.f I.8Up.o r the e n c r p ttnnsferrrd tn AJ?. h? on. TIIF second stoppingm~cl~nrlis~n tl.n. If E is t l ~ e crlcrpoftllc ins can = at clay point x nlnnl: its piith..mge.mce is @\.:/2ail. and the clistribation is shift& d a n g tlie I-nus by R... tllis is 11). d~tctor st~bstrntr (.a semirvm. e s or a l c \\i. :ual v? can IF olitfiin~l v..:) E (dFJtlx(. tlie maximum concfntmtion is at x = 0.\rrd~n~ensional distri. \r. ( b )T.here E.qcti alolns. / ~ ) . 14 in Chapter 6 for mnstant total dopant ~lifiusion.4.c istr.3. n i i s equation is similar to Eq. F i p m 7. Tile cleflcaiot~ angle (81and the s~lucities.If2). m a s dl. Ion Implantation hm . drcatlr at t 7 0 F hy hvo decadrs at *3a. 2% illartrated in F i ~ u r e \\11en il.12 Ion Stopping T1a.st?rize process. e stnppitll: ~ilrc~~:misrns: If t l ~ e totll distsnc* travelrcl l y t l ~ ion hefare coining to rcst is R. th. *~ f wlierc S is the ion dose p r unit area. arr hvo stripping ~ i ~ ~ ~ c l ~ I]? ~u. Along the of incidence. caltsrs drfl<.i pnxrw. and hy R\T d ~ n c l e at i4.ev?r.(I. The ion cnnwntmtion is rcqluced by 40% lmm its peak \slue at (x -R. ~e Thr avrr:tg?er rate of ~ n r r loss \\it11 dist.ll dillinion prowss ~liscussedin Seuqion fi.31 sho\ss the ion dhtribrition.rto ring its c i l r w to tlw t:~rge:rln ~ ~ r l r i .ctinsof t l inri<lrlltion This ~ . $. R e n u w of this distrihntinn. to c l ~ a m a r tl1i. 'Illus.s n ~ r q lrnns e in collisions \nth I~IPCI~OIIS tllro~lpl~ Coulond~ic int(lr. except that tlie rluantih 4Dt is replnced by 2-3. c (h) \r.ITrl clislnrlxrs man) t a x r t nllclri fro181tbrir original latticr sLrs. can \isualize the nrlclcar stopping process I)? mosiclerin~ tb? ~ I m l i c mllision behwen an inmniinglianl sphere ( c n ~ r p E . tial m e r p zero and iiinss . TIIP lint i* 11) trilllsfr.1 i\ cnnsidrnbly smaller than that from the t11enn. is t11rinitial ion cnerg. from the requimmenk for clmsrn2tion of motnrnhlm .. 1 1 ~ion lm.~llriltla! tnrgf. momrntnm is transferretl along tlir wntrrs of 111~ spllercs. to cl~. a i i s ~ on ion. For tl~is msc. t h ~ r \\ill he some of c roil implnnmtion: Ho\r. for diffusion. clrctn. the distribution is dso a Gaussian h~nrtion the form eqn-. is I.meIectmnic stoppill$ pmver. t.icIiol>.~lso r.en Iq.ind energy The riiatimlnrn e n e r g loss is in a h~ad-on collision. .1 Range o Implanted Ions f 121 7. s . a supqmrition of tlw. tlw e n e r g Ins3 by the incirlel~tparlicle M. o. cnn tl?finr .r. ran 1%-lbm~lxlit n.1 ~ 6 C * r7.~r.!~erearfor ion implantation the ma"rnnm concentration is at tile p m jrctnl range. Mi.~~tgon the irnpl:mltxl ions ' of Rplns13 (ol Schematic nfthe ion range R and projected range Rr. 7.hiclt n s cnrrgt~tic 011 cntcrine .st.ns c t l r l r rrcit~~<l Thr to higl~rr n e r p I r ~ e l (rscitatin~n).) = t .

3. I k. o*.Figure 7....\: th...PltCtrc.s.l.. ?inisin tllm the q. SLEI.. at n.:. This means thnt o w r most of t h r irnp1:mtntian mew 0 r.. ... .lss.<]8.. P 2 .I n....lur .tir.hicli S . l ~ p m r i m a t ~ I y 1 ( i ir\'l1 'fc111fur silic~n 3 X 10' (e\!)' '1~111 gala1111 for lillll. ! F ) = S . On t!..$ i. tllr rroszover e s e q is l 71x1kc\: lltt~s. For pl~os~llonl-t.r.irl.rq:le (0.t l ~ e in .O:) 91E) are bloun. h sl~o\>% projwted range (RJ.: p v c r ..amnir stoppine p v c r is fc~tnd IF prnportion:d to t11~. Thv p i n t s oFintt..fieirnt k . lIcLr .. and pl~ospllon~s silimn. H III Si.lluriom in p~lli11111 ars(wide.V.@\en rlcment 111 a sprcific iriri~lrnt enrrp. a.i. Once S. :InL.erS\...ill rln.kc <. thc ~)rojw+Cd r.IC.\ r . loss p?r n.awaitll ion mcrS\: For a . is a rrlativrl? wcxk ltinction o l ato~nic rn.ttr mnse ir.~ti q ..llie ~ t o p ~ i p\vt.7. l c r i h oftltr inr to F i p ~ r 7 .md rlwtrnnic s1oppinepnnsr. anrl . .rua~.$ll b. 1n:tin <znrr. llle cn. n~trlmr stoppine dornir~:+tes most of thr p n r w met.)for rmnic. ) tllp 131r tile tlie a .is 1 lie\'. \I...tngrmdstmqI~? incrr.lc<i*>n!c \tr>.? .vlpaftl~r imntr ~r~nntions:' t[. l ill ti.ztn11 pnljwI~~d stnq$cuitl~1I1eI. hnc..lt.ver.>plrl...cr r.. cml 1r..pin~ .l.r in silimll is plottccl in F i p r r i.lnrl tr. othrr ilarld. . ' p ~ n l .~YcrBtq tmit di%t~l~lc~-. I. (or As.n l tlw r. iind n TI.0.t. out cnln~l..r I~\rlnqrn.ploss mwl~anisnlis due to rlcrtrnnic stoppino. o\-r Figurn 7.ltirl~ o in I d P nuclear a r..: . Imron. :trr t 1 1 crossover ~ n r @ s ..1 :trr ' . far . clrrtrnriir stoppinp.' % r . .. k :)rid b.i llll'pmj('(*rni mns(. ?in SjW 1l..'or an F:.l. Also. prnjedrrl stngele f . t!.5 St!cb..] 1 )I. . .Ire m m p n ~ l l ~ l c and ~~wvally \\ithin +20%.ly Imv inn niasc rnnlparcd \\it11 tlle t s y r t silimn atom...c. and al.rsroir. ar. S 7 E i . For ~ lwmn.5 (dottrd ye ltnt..a 5tnppin.Chsllow t11rm m r p n t l i s g \dues i.llill.lr~ xton~ic u l n l ~ r .. tlmn IUO kr\: rlllrlrar stnl.\.5.:.. thesmaller the rmge.fq is .1 Range ol Implanted Ions 4 129 tllr rmssn\rr m r w is 130 kc3\! ].. $4tl1i t wlativrly I l i ~ i ioll n1.(.. TI. inittv: h r ili~llrr r!argit... ( E ) .?'SCP tltat tnost o l tltr p o p ~ ~ l dopants ( r n r p t I~ydrogen) nr bave 1:irgcr projwterl r a n ~ e s silimn than in tl~ry I!avc= in ~a!li11r11 anenide.rnm c ~ ~ n ~ s p m ~ I m c q at a.' Iltvc mmpare Figures 7 . fiOlm..lvcr thr escrr?loss..\Iqo sl...


dan~ng~~vol tltr tlmr is VD I ~ ( 2 .ur r~ridrlayer. st~mcient create a lt~ttirc to ~lisonlerr\ssttming 11~:~t 1 aton1 is displac~d lattice pl:me k>rtllr rrmaininpion rang.7.d illosg a <LIO>a s ' 1 .5 . . l o s is primarily due to narlearmlli~ons: s~~lrstantiala r n : ~ ~Considrr a 100-k\' amrnic ion witl~Ipmjwted ran?'.lpe clensity is 600A'.nnlgh m nmorphr. . The ( h ~ ~ idensit). r\s a rrsnlt of tl~r .esc22displ:~crdt. For I1r:t. 7..) Ilea\? i~.g... tlir ntaterial lwmtnes rssmtidly amorpl~nus. in) Figure 7.2 Implant Damage and Annealing J - 4 130 S~rnlamdltnor .11 hrr placrd atorils is 5280. r ~ v Iliql~ (loses of ligl~tions are needrcl to create an amorplious layer. (10 kc\' for lmranl a h e r e n~lrlpar stoppine l r n m ~ dominant.er r o ~ g l l 25 . If eacl~ displaced atiton1 nto\.9 6) id >linimiljn<clt.and it3 initi:~]nnrlcar m r r p loss is only 3 eV1:i (Fig.mlc dani.M pm. Tlte nwr.hr. tllp ~lantaer \ah!me is given lry \'. the energ\. 1500 rb2.o.10 (h) Implantation disorder cause11 by ( a )light ions and (1. 7.31 pnr (Fit. loss due to nuclear stopping ittcrears to 15 of the for r x l l lattice plaoc (i.51. to to \r.ni~.udj. To cstirnatr tllr dnsr r~qtsirsl convrrt a cnstallittr rt~atrriitl all .i)'(l500:il = 3 x 10-"cnl'~.e.l fix a diamond rtrurtlrre. .lOl1 illustnt~s l ~ p F r t sit!lation in \vl~iclltllr daitta~~: fontis a d i s o ~ b r e d rluslrr over lllr ealirr pmjtaml ctngr. Figure 7.. 10" krV/cm'l. a. ions. or d r.a3.i).5). 10'' an". Tl~nzs.c>otncstin~.lricl~is olllY0.o..5 nm for thr dicplawd ~11on1s. \\T.. 330r\'/lJeV). a ) 1mpl. nc ions lose their r n ~ q i r m thry p m c l n t r ll(*per r r into IIIV s u h ~ t n t e E\-vnhlall!: tlbr ion e n r q is rcqlund b ~ l o utllr missover ~tV&?.tltin. nm)' (60 IIIII) IO-"c~il. 60 nm. Tllrrrforr.r." cni'.Ian it f i s t enten tlie silic~n s~tlislntc. is t11r112 4 .2 5 x 5 = a~c 5W'. of 0.iectrd nlnkr a i~~~ ion.tge auclrar energy loss over t11eentire c n e w zmgc is alxn!t 1320 eV/nm (Fip.lrget atoms (i.r can use the rriterios tl~sttllr e n r r p drnisih is 01~ I I Cs:t1t1c1 ~ n l r of i i ~ i t q ~ i t ~ ~ ( I e r a< tltat llrellc~llfor mrlting the illaterial (i.. Sinw 111e spncinc: Iw. tlhr dosr requirrd to innkr :tniorphot~s silicwn is tlrr~r S= ~ ~ ~ (10~' IC~I~')R~ EL.5 A.. tltrreforv. is 0. planes in silimrt is nllout 2. This mmms t h t tI1e ausenic inn lows alwl~t eV lor ct~cli 300 lrttiw plane on tlw avcntgr. 11ca\y-ion implantation. rnrrp.t 50 kc\' !st a de~t11 1500 . CTXC+ . Figure 7.. most of thr 181c tin3 ~lisorrlrr occixus near tlw finit1 ion psition. = 6 x 10'' io~alczr' IS) . s 2 X 10. r ulliclt rlo not wusr lntticr daznagr.11 5lnh. 6 e\'/i\).5). in silicon) ic dale to rlwtronicmllisions (SLY Fig..anorphons i. ( ~h \liuwivntatinn "i the l w ~ m dineion to dl r3stal axrr ic) Pn-d:gma~ran t l ~rpmtal n~rfam.~. n s i ~ l r r1(X)-k~\'Imrnn Its pro. d. This is illustrated in Fig11re .e.\ fmitt its arigl~ ivni position.-1% of the atoms.ttetllr dam:qr h y c ~ . "R.ur l>a\r600 L7ttice atolns prr rlispiacr~l (i. E n(25..V . this mrans tllat the h r o n ion \till loqc 7. hlost of t l ~ energ) is ~ ~ \ T 111one prima? silimn atom. \I. h111cl1of t t l ~e n r v l m c for lieltt ions ie. \\'hen the ion e n e y is redecn~ to al. E : s l ~ r II pritsen aton1 \\ill stll)srqaentlyc. Tl~r n ~ ~ ~ nofdiptnt. or alxr~lt10% o i tllr total nuntlrr of atoms in I .\I.mtrtiontl.~nnrlinz. hi.. Tilr c n e r u r e q u i d r to dijplacr n silicon atom from its lnttiw position is ahout I 5 c\: tllc inri(lrst honm ion does not rrlezwr rnollgh c l t r r q frnm nuclear stoppinji to d i s p l i Bsilimn ~~~ \!.I&. Assnnting a nnge of 2. i p ~ r 7. \ic\\t. 7.'. For 100-krV arsrnir iut~s..5 e\' at rarlr !attic? p l ~ n h c t a s r of nurlrnr stopping. Tltp tree of disorder for l i ~ h ions is quite ~IiTTrrrntfront that for Irma\y ions..rln I.

. ...tllr asnrnling tn~apenttlrr drlinrcl . s s This rrquirrs it long time a1111big11 trmpcratnrv to remove 11.artcrl .l mmparcs con\.slor lr.r %).ilnpl:lst cl:.imd.in..~~..ppmprint~.dnng ~ I I Iio~a petl~.r.. .11 or.rnn in~pl:rn(itlio~~ :I Lsr~et m l n t r l ~ ~ p n l t lilrn~ l l l sof tllr nonIlni. the trlnpernture sl n.tl r.\ call ....~. htcion..r..flw clirwtion is 10 nln/nrin at 550°C and 50 nmlmin at fiflO"C..\r. The procvssinC c11amlrr..tnv. ~ t ~ n c l for RTA uith tnmsient lampi~c~dingissha\m Figure 7.and RTA l e c l ~ n o lTo.mnalri~~alios limr alad tenIpn*ture.rnior n i l n r t ~ ~in.to 500-nm amorphous layer can he r~c~stnllizpda Tc...r.4 c\: l l ~ e r r f o r ra 100. F~~ Itx. \\iihh an acli\:btion ( .sti\atr sites. .~us l . ~ t r i l .r~or . and\\~.... of c o ~ .) is dllring implnnl3tion.tl . .(~. Rapid T b e n n n l Annealing Tht.I .n1e trrnprattlw d~a in tllr-:uurnl f m n tllc l~eatnl ~ \clfrr is us~lally fmm C4XlW)'C 1100"C. .laln:tev .\.rrlKl for Flrrpllospllonls at l c f i < r r ( l ~ lI~~~:r~lnralingIx~l.Chsptcr 7. of lx.an arltlrnlirlg proccss tll:lt enlplnys a \arirh of m e v I sorrm nit11 :I wrlr m n c of ti1nr.1Ili7~1tion t l ~ a ~ n o r p l ~l.cr )xunmes amorpbo. full acti\ation can he ohtninnl at rrlalirely low tumprratares. .alnmling lwlv.v impl.Pntionnl anntqlinp..s. \vlirn tllr rlc)sr is sn. ~ ~ of tltc . li.sti\atr dopants lu11y wit11 minimal rrdirtribution.. ~ Tllc singlccn~tnl semiconductor andcme:ttb tlrr amorpl~our layrr w n ~ ar :t r<.rialp a r a ~ n r t r n . 7 2 2 Annealing &r..~~d..ml c:. ~r. .l i.icr.rlx.ron . ~ . :empentun= nleacuw~nrnt control. I~ r . F~lrIw~roll i~lplia~tntion.. ~ z ~ t c tinto tl~r l lattice sites along\rith tllc l~ost :atoms..os.".ll. of l ~ .l\ior.procrss (ser (:llaptc.trn S.b. r the s~... s. and Bopid ihrntrnl . F i p r e 7.r. frn~tt ~ 100 s e m n ~ l down to nasosrmntlr-all sl~on s mlopxrrd uitlr cun\.Ilnsr. or nluminna~ ilm qlrarti: ainand d o throoclt \vlticl~ l ~ optical ndintion p a w s to illunlinate tl~r\vafrr uafrr b l d r r ~ ~ t r The is o!?n n ~ a l of rleanz and contacts tlte n%lfer a minilnun.rntional annealing.KII ntnbilih anrl lifetinrc arr srvcrrl\. Ion Implantahon 7.are not lwated i l l sll~~stiteliolls~ Tn .r.j.'A\r%II~r lneatnl q~licklkly to is r~ndcr atmospl~eric conditions o r at l~nv prrsswr ~tnrlrr isotltemal wnrlitions.n-t~!lx.<Iinl: s arra fix rec~t. inohility... .v.l ~annealing tcmprmtIlrc drops to t r f i ~ ( ~ a Tllis pl~rllolnrnoll rcl:*trcl to thc solid-pllme epitnx)...l. tlir dose r ~ ~ l t i r e d3 X 10'' iolldvln' Ircilllsr npfor Immn is is fi... irnpla1ltr3lions arc. there am cvncems ahout the i n t d a c t i o n of rlectrically activr nafer defects d u r i n ~ the ~ Conventional Annealing of R o m n a n d Phosphomr :\nnraIin~rh:mctrristics~lcprnd t l ~ doplnt t)pr .i.IFerstress d t l ~ m u g l l ~ ~ nd~lition..2 Implant Damage and Annealing 4 105 i011s.ris nrnrlc ~f ~ i t l l e qa~:aTtZ. Typinl I m n p in nn IiTA s)xtcm are lllngstrn filamrnts or arc lamps. degradal.~.filr. inln . p m ~ . t l silima surf:tc. RT. ~ i ~ .and pl. ~ t ~ [{m.lll. sk~inless r steel. \r:~fer tr~nperdturvin an RTA ss)ztem is meaca~red\vitl~a noncontaci optical p!n.lratcl~ lacs an furnace s!strln simiklr to that used Glr tlwznn:d ou~litticn~. H o ~ r r v ~~x~n\~rntinn.hicl~90% of the is a . dtnmwd ".t.. n e w at 2.I..pr.ello\v jonctio~~s ~~:arro\~~~lo~~ingpmfile~. At a @!vn ion <lose. ~ s qit:rdal fnn\ilr mtr alonCtllu < I(x).~ n. . ~11nr:tling cnllsc~ toay slll>sklntialdopant dif. nllmlrr of places...n. . Iligllcr doses ( > 10'" ionslcm') arr I..$on . that ti.clm.%c ilrq. d i n r t r n ~ ~ ! lan: t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~.r:mn~ir.. u.~ll~.' Thr s t t h ~ t r i d ~Ilrld at room ternpcmttlrr (T.d ions a... A mear in st~rcment s>strm is plarrd in a mntml loop to set \taler temperaturv.lo5t oftloeirvtls ..st r h. Thus.silicon carbide..uld otl~?r ~anll. ~ l l t ~anneal tl. . st to wston.np. In. it1 ~rtrs.a 30-minute itnnralinc in con.~nd dose invo!vrd. is pl~nnls (losrs grratrr than fix 10" era-'.l.achimr short proe ~ cessing ti~nes using RTA.nnclt inwt w q u i r c ~ n r ~for s ~ t sl.tn. ~ ..yl f. During tllr solid-pl~asc rpitadd process.. tltr impurih (lopant atoms arc i n c r .r...!!vr. 1" nclclilion.entional furnace . (:onv. ir ~ i r r\~ . trade-offs must IIC made in tempemture and pmcrss (miforoaity. and m Is ~t. The RTA ?*ern interraws -4th a gas-lrandling ?stem and a mmputer that cnntmls qxtern oprntioa. in pnlcticr.mlir~c IiTA) is ...&q npr.vcr.cr tlrat detrnnines tempmtorr from radiated infnred enelp?: X ~ b l 7 . of tl. T!picnlly..*tcrtl~nn10" CIIIP. i d ra n n c .in11 1I1rdisordrr cl~lstcr wsldt fmm inla irnplanta....~ctivatrd11).usphoms i~nplnntation t ~ into silimn substntcr.. sac.l?.

mtcrl prinr a.sttlte. :I I:I~?P \=rip? of tllr in. T l ~ i :~pproacl~. una~ailnhlr Olllrr fmm <liff~~sion technirlut-3.trly1M'i dopant nrtimtion nt low trniprralllrrs. ~l el~ l rp and 7..h y dopant (or arsenic and a of p-t!p. s r t i r stoichinn~rtn durin? the implnz~t:itionand annealine. mininlttn~ tl~icl Oflllr ma. ran IE ohainrd L t i n s i ~ t e ~ a r i~nmhirutiom impnrihdnw and implantntiori v n c r v l l ~ ~ l t i pimplanh o~~s of le h w r IXYYI tlscd to p n .Z ." The n i ~ x ~ r rmrrirr o n w n t r a t i r ~ n that prrrlict<rlitsin? G I I I S ~t11von arr slimn nl and in t h r f i ~ ~ r c .13 11.! 0 Figure 7...n. & rliscussr(l prcvi? ntrsl!: In slnclt a cmr.~mtntnt. n bt n ~t .u s an i~npl.cs. n . wnc.. .\lultipl~impl.-..nlsrs si<~nifivant . of .3 IMPLANTATION-RELATED PROCESSES n~i.rl fro111 111~ clner pnctrnctrrs for inns.p m 5 S ~vlltro!.i. i IiW-. sttcl~L lxtriiclr ~ e t ~ v ~ t trr(>~n !tot wdls.liin~ nl:ltrri.lIP a-:lfvn c:u~ cttosr \\:ah d:tniiqr in IIIC fnnn of slip ilislorxtio~ls a d ~ ~ wIc!l tllcr.~ n srcrlt m is tlte preimplnntation of silicon \\it11 an invn ion to n r a h the v v s i l i ~ l lrin r L ~ w regon i~rnorphotls.)(I. applications. ipml O>mp. ~ t l . I i ~ r n of ... Tlrr insrt of F i p r r 7.mt.~tioo.lunrrb \Iradrdi is ~ w hy i n t r ~ r . .tiosal~ n t pnx'csrins c. To fonr>Inljllnccions in w d r c t ~ dt r ~ a ofth~srmim.. t i o n Eq.~tc:-:~timplantation.lnti a w impl.L cornlxlritr doping prnfilr.~ss .ltv":rl.. % ~ e.1 It4 06 08 I0 Di'trnm. wction cmnsirlen :I fmr..claping profile and pc..trkinq m:ttmals can lx.ansi~nts.I:l. v to .1 I.tline. . ol>t:lilttl~is p my Tn t)pe ol rt-zinn. ~ l ~ . ~r li x~ pmh. Ilm. Imrr inmn impl.rmE 1. rlnpineprolilrc. . i ~ l ~ c n rio~pl.llt...I r(n. ~~.\ p m s s .YK) "C's) thmrt:al tr. u ~impl:a~tation. 1 ~tht~nnalm. gallilliltln md .ll rrqtlir~ll stop n mvr.. rrc]llin-l!lcnts on coot~tnitlittion. :It? n 1 : ~ 4 rl~oold ~ ~ x rfor the implnntation..... dopins profilrs other tlian the simplr C A I I S Frli~trilrutionarc ~:~ nTt~ircvi. Ii~ttitrd :S i o ~ tlw t :xvcl!~ic~ttcnzlt~'olit1 an op=n nxtrm..llld met o r lllilnllfacl~rin? llmr c p ~ I>:ivt.. Rlpid hentillg \\it11 trlllprr. clnp.nrln~ror~ l h s t r a tan appmnri. Tuhaolonv Eomwriron . has rrs?tltrd in hiehrr n r r i r r arti\ation. Tlw do<? implantrd in tlle rrqjon hrPlld n deptll in i.~.silcdopine prnAlr urinq m~dtiplr implants* 7.. i >.. rw mtut mak? a S C ~ V S implants at banins inn m r r q i r s and doscs. hiehi.rnlits r~r. that wstrirts rnntrnllcd l ~ r . hand. xtsll ..ntation a n d w l r tard to fomr a flat dopingpmfilc..aliet~rsl~iit tltr RT.sbn\m in Fipln :.tnt a n l . 0.f. . This techniqor allo\r~ close m~ntrol n!llu.ldirnts in .ltllrr pr.mtathrn-wlntnl prcersrs.1 Multiple Implantation and Masking In man!.of CaA<.11 perwntrqe of incirlrnt ions ran to rll.lsf ...i~npl.3.14 shous u pmfrre.u nri~ltxp!?implantation.mts into silimn arv usrd to prn\irlt..l in a pnr. RCYXUW implantation is a low-trmper 1w rl p m m s . a d e ~ atnurpltous r r ~ o n a be req~~irrcl. In ( x i . t l i 1limps lo tcns of min1~ atl.sal 2 1 . % \vhcrcl>ycqnal. ~ \ h u tir!. ~ ~ a v l .L.I!.nr.


selection of making (b) ~ i g 7..ant is thcn follo\\rd by a d~ive-in 950°C Tor 60 minu at thr <limn n~hrtr.. ton Implantation 7.ltcrid clloice for ad\ancctl. loll i~iiplantation 11s rid^ applications for a t h a n d wmimnductor dr\ires.6 9 Tmperature-950 Layers Chemical Concentration Pkorphorur Boron Ner Active Wet b i n .?r?.r~ilt~rtion .lin apacitances in 310s de\ices.ml debiation (o.16 ~ T ~ ~ . Iligh-speerl CXIOS circaits.4 ION IMPLANTATION SIMULATION SUPRE11 nm.typidly in thr 150.ttc...11n. Tlie use of SIXIOX iixiterial leads to a sipifivallt w d ~ ~ c t i o n to of cotlmf~Ir. anrl subsequen!!:\ driven in using tl~c DIFFUSION mn~mand..5 Summary 4 141 w 7. be used to si~llulate implantation prnRI~s.to 200-ke~' p r.? tages oftllc ion inlplantation process arc olore prrcise control ortllr anlot. is used lo produce an iiosulating !n!Vr of SiO.a.ls the i~~. \lormver.tion wit11 i t p:lh located at R p from tllr surface of tl~r r m i c ~ n < I ~ a o r s su~.mine S~.).nt. To remow tlrc implant damage md to restore niol~ilityand otllcr device paramrters.. imn dlo\idr. it reduces m l ~ p l iIwhwen debires ~r~ thus Illm\s tizl~ter packing \rithout the problem of latcliup. . Currmtly rapid tllemal mncding (KC:\i% I prefcrrerl to mn\rntinnd furnace annealins b u r r RTA mn r e n ~ w implznt e da~n:i~~. HoIewr. and l o w r p w s s i n g t e m p r ..~tt. a tilore rcpral~~cible rloping prnfile. of .nl*lr. SUPREXI contains the implant pardnieters h r most mmmon ~ l o ~ ~ n t salso allows the trser to input mnge and stragle data for u ~ ~ r ~ siniplantrd hut . use SUPREM to det? is at thr lnmn dopine pmfilr and the janaion depth. As a rrsult. 1 to 2 x ]ol' iondcn~'. aal materials. h ~ cIIYi> u m t to simt~latc implinntation of a 2 x thc SOLUTION The SUPREY input listing is ilr follmo1-i: TITLE COWEN INITIALIZE COwrENl I'IPLAM C W E N DIFFUSION PRINT PLOT STOP Implantation Exmple I n i t i a l i z e r l l l c o n substrate < 1 0 b S f l i c a n Phosphor Concentration-lel5 Implant boron b r a n Energy-30 Dose->el3 Dlffurc boron T i n . it is \\idely propnwd .ss.Sirnulatccl profiles can be ion impl. Tl~is sq.I .ojccted s t n m l r .t. for tation llle pruJrctr. T ~ ilnplank~tion P profilr cxn hr apprnximatd ijy a ~~~~~i~ clist~h. arlr:. Tltr kqpanmeten fclr iiol imp13n. layer ofsil.icle an11 clisc~~ssed cl~anneling the eNmt and uraysto niisirni. O\o~tagcu I.140 r Chepler I .11 range in. . TI.~te implanting o q ~ e screating an i n t m e n i ~ l g by . The cllapter cnnsidcml R.orntioe by itrq~lfl~~tnlior~x y ~ c(SlhlOS) is a b .rtr.n. xl tllat tllr o q r n ions Ilnw projected l a n p of 100 to 200 nm.~~rc.gof tlre dopine profile.. + 7.ntofrlop. .'l'l~E>I..n.mted nncl activated using the IMPLANT mmmand.Iwa~n.dew.I oS<lrlltll i ~ l t c rtllr rilicrm . nlrSI>IOSm s c uws n I~igh-enere0.trntir..5 SUMMARY Ion iniplantation isake~methud impurity doping." w ion illralntfll from tlte s~lhstr. for barinus elementr i n silimn and gdliulnaw. impla".l e 1 4 End l a p l a n t a t i o n example Figure 7.wljt~qtnlmt i n < Lamr~ implantation.hte doped \<ithpllmphan~r r level of 10"ern-'. and 0..a hc... T h n e inclt~dr(1)~nttltipleimplantation to fonn novel clistrih~~tions. aitl~out tl~enlld broade11in. EXAMPLE 3 1O"cm~'dorr of lxlmn at 30 kc\' il rilimn xafrr Tile impl. (dlell pl. I .17 1'1~1t . that is ~ i y ino nnl tllick. SUPRE>[ a n also simulate implants tbrnu$l 111oltiplel a p . tation may callre severe c!:lnlngr to tllc cnstal lattice. Additiosall~. insnlator (SO11 trcl~nolap'. Supprne r 8 .) and its stantl. the semimndanor n ~ r ~be r n n d e l l st at an apprnpriatr mnibination of time and temperatare.r t l ~ k ellea..r~.' ' ofn ~~ ! 011mn-on.I\ .z. t t ~ ~cornFred with re the dillr~sion nrar.

rcnrr lo Example 2. I0 G I)r. ~ r .. \\1.Slv. find tltr t f l r r l i \ r n r ~ s ~lhr rcdst m. The suhxtntr is a < Irni>-oncntrdp .. thr! siliwn rlisp1.n (% 11 6 of :k r k. hkc h. SXII 1"- F. in pnwcnling lhr tr. ~. ~ .. ion dose p r l unit nn. 4 r l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 n Fmman.. i n ~ .l!cnr-junctiort form.Nx*~k Sc?nimndarlnn. IYXi. 1 7l~mnl!cd (:unsidrr.oldham. I.~t. l". ErpINn u*? hiel~-tempntulp RT..I rcsisti\ity of 10 Q-crri. '12. I t .tr~rnrnI c r p ir m 15 1.$ird Wid Srorr W r n r r . Ibcntily dnwd jllndi.. Flmum.. ~l~l~ and arti\ate dopnnt for tl~is ~nppliotion. F~cvmrn. imd icl tltr jtxsr<ion r h ~ t l t ' \I. ov = 1 .%nmrl' r l c ~ ~ n r ~ ~ pnhlms. .. 1'475 l 6 I F . .ntv mmcvntratina is 10" o71..W cnn~.4: IOS I>IPL&hTA'ITON SIhlVUTIOS c Y chlillc. \\I>:xt arc th.cl rlo.~f~f~Jmrl~ nmr.frd-fme ..Ilill. ~llm-llllplmlnl Semkmndudur h-icn.l. find thr lrxation of the mr~. .h snb.ancs i s 0.. I'LSl Zdznch. pn~!. 2 do..3 m d thc pl. f...tte.b REFERENCES I I b.mldly.m~ hlr t a %otnnr dr.~t.ton~rirt thirha.n<l l ~ ~ l .ri same rlopinq pmfilc a thr.. 1973. 7)~.l thv lloron mmvxntmtion at the p a k drpth.k~s. th.r i lto intrrxltlCv r. ~ t n h ~lun ~ ~ ~ to t i lml~L~stnlior~ p ?-petion Dinnhutlon.inl~~d 1(W-kc\'nnc \\it11 ions for 5 mintttrs \lith 2 cl.25 nm. . s dlllnnion Examplr 3 in Chapter fi.tl s\~>otld m~)rvttli~.l.r Srl~on Csrnloale~n~ .R L .A. ..!>\ th.. . nm.illt~n$c~l jttnetion. S u b r k .tticr pl..optic. A thre<hc.Sirr. ancl r r ~ o n cf :I suhmirnrn !dOSFIX: (:otnp.ik of lhr irnplrntnl pwfile.02 x 10" alon. .~ . Fdhncationof$l~mxwt. I. . (:It I I.. 6..-1 :I$ ~ . . a.1: WYCE OF IMPL4hTED IOSS 1 . \...Ilvr. Ed.t r m p n t ~ l nRT.'~. S E C I 1 0 S 7. 11 . ! f ~ ~ i m ~ d ~ r i ~ ~ f S-VYC:I.d dosr is in thr rilimn? S E C n O S 7.41L4CE A 3 D ASSEALISC 5.:.. Ssn Fca!t'?w..r(msir Cirn~it: in....:pLmomr. I:u.~ J rilimn uith .llalLud.j~ J \tllrm: (:.: IhIPIAXTATION-REWTED PROCESSES 8..sr 111.l. difimh S E C n O S i.PItyr. 1 5 ~ ~ ~ h \.(l.[ s Lrr a a l J EA.. i 8 lu7i3 C ~ .at<.. I*7 II lt.I. f . ~ ~ ..pl~n.l l..'] Eltr $1. .. b PROBLEMS .~I..4 i~ pwfcnhlr to l o w .tk ion mncrntratinn? 2. \%xlllld 10 hlnrn 0. Ed tl~~."inS ICL%l P D. 62.lti<rnr.it m . 1st llq72' ira.rndg impl.~.nr.l<l tnltaee a<ljlstm~nt implantation is mrdr through a 25-nm ratr oddc.~. 10. .c p r irnil area? Evlirnatr the lkr.t: thr rmxc is 2 5 om. ~. I Pns... ullat prwntace of thc tnt. .~.n.n profile. .~. and thr r p d n q irhvecn qllimn l:. IEEE. ir.th."L..IT3 .Llr\rr. \111. 1 I~bm-~m. For the alhstmte in Pmblem 3. ~h:. \\lr. or SIPREXI to plot I h r lx>n.11 arc. ~ u ~ s kcfi~i. il. \ " 5.~\ionof i .itr.and thr n .nsmt ion k r m currcnt of i lw\.p.*". \IrCr. Sew Ibrl. !It<.~m.t~lnntans~~ Dnra /.. 3.a l(r)-mm diam~trr .stcm".. \ l l i d ~ \ nptir. F. Thr implant cnerp i s 34 keV\\ith r <I<w lo" mt:.r\ is *MI ll.~>l rh".. ml H t h .\ss\~mr stlimn itom drnrih i~ 5. Im Inqd~dNlon.tosnl. Sonh. Iw? . ia! Ihr dvpth of thr p.'.>!L". c.lr.. Sonb. in Slbmlt: in H. cllo~latct l r d. 12-11 (19741. Arn~lrrdrm.-Jlm I 8 5. )1>11 ittt< 9. cn o 011 .~n.!fimrbnmnln... 8 D H \. Ap. Rrwanrlt .2: I \ I P U \ T D..k c ! ' h m n ion i s irnplantrvl into the silir~m v.. )I.. I f thr inmmenW u thrt-hold mltirce dtw to a 411-kc\' llonrn implantstion i s I \:what i s 1 1 tol.~linn 1 1 m ' is nf 1 " l impl*ntccl uith Ixbmn.\ for dt. &ncr osid Dniw F~i!nd.amace densiN .~. '4.^.)ntr... ~ .1-pm 11r. .d d 11 implmt~. 11 ~ ~ t .c~lcn~l.n an irrwmic inlpl:mt at 1W kr\.. ~ ~ ~ l i n ~ l ~ n ~ ~rm l~ ~ . SECIIOS 77... \bl 3.hat thirknrrs of SiO: is nrplired to m:ak yll<M)Cirtf tlr in~plantrd ions'' 7 F L h ) 46.\..plmartinn. that Ga*? uafer is ixnifi.w. R . Id. Cre SUPREhl to design an implantation strp that @\.ml Sprrd of 1. Fn-<..ftlntr p a k Ixlmn mnmntntion. < l W > p h o s p h o m s ~ l ~ silicon r!~hrtrate \ ~pd aith a dopin~mnrcnlr.t.. h ...aion. -4 rilimn p-n junction i s f o m d I)? implantins lmnm ions at 5 key thmuch :s a i n d m in 4 ' ~ an oxirlr.nI3. U i t h rrf<. is u s d and thc ph~.I f thy rc<i%t 1 2 thicknc~s5 CIWIXL~~I i I<) I)I">. A d m i r . I f the h m n clmr is 2 x 10" r m ~. I f a 3 .lion 1 ..~!.I 5 K 3 kk.

. Silicvn t ~ t ~ ~ c l t l o ~ ~ l h.ns .n!nr.tpter dr:ds with v~rinrts in otlar t r c l ~ n i q ~ ~ p s for depns thin lilnlr.. tllr u..llwtmtr.hrimtF discrete~ l r \ i e s i ~ l t e q ~ t cirroits.1 Chemical Vapor Deposition Film Deposition 1. C\'D for S i l i m n Four bilirnn so~tn~. is urerl :IS a gate elcctmlr material i n \ I C E de\icer.d 0111 OI IIIP r I..car~srof 1knx.ry is deri\.As . hp can b .rr :..~fcr. and rectioing met.ll tltc ~ .silirnn substmtr..lppr.).:) epitx<dlYun 31)r ~ ' . and sil:~n<.iion 1~1111*..1 ll VS r for t.nr.n..tciion ncr.r.. I:nm..IIIJ~i n ~ l ~ ~ c t i ~reactors. tlBZkl l ..cl~ alttminurn and silicides are used to form low-resi~t a c intrrcr..rl r ~ penclb.rt T.s thc \\iid?a I n ind1.l n. a a x t h r~ l l t w~loh.ln. t . clirlrctric la!rn. r.1 EPITAXIAL GROWTH TECHNIQUES In an rpitxiial p m s .os~nq.rl to an. \\. ohniic mntans. tllc? ~ ~ ~ t r ~ ! t l ~ v in ~ t ~ ~ l ~ 31-o wwc S~IN~RT ~I.yarrsilicr..ce. ~ r .. s. odal\-.tndl a prand tllr stllwtr.rrl from the Greek \wrds .tl-semimnd~~ctnr h:tnien.tbPrq~ for tllr rrarlinn.. tricl~lomsilane (SiIlCl.l .T in to rnlcihlrs in t11~cnstd zr".dliution. the suhstratr safer actthe swrl crytall.itn.. < t l r l ~ the rpitx<al ?~m\rill AI.! :.~*idpmC :Ire difT<.. tra!nmrl<.ln3rlnr~t"l. anrl metal fihns. ~~s..an. Slrvwpto~ .~tcdfrom the m r l t .lte :<recl.8. pl!mst.1nd.mrl often c ~ ~ t a l l o p a p l ~ i c differmt.l. for diffnsion and inn implimtatioo mwhx for capping d s films to p m n t the loss of dop.. I.renti. This chapter mvcn the follo\tine topics: \v.ning ". JIrtal films s~. S.. i s 121Tlfi'C.~..) ~IIc? tranrlcnr..nnrrrinns.Lyi.. Depndtion techniques to form lo\\..'.~<alla!rr and tllr suhstmte m.. f.l.~v.trr :3.ill ~ i~ l ~ ..r o l \trp? 1. have u dicltlorn-ila~~~* (Sil l!Cl:l.d .*). a slidduaiw mzterid for rnultilrvel olet. Tllr lnrr~lilllisln C\'I> ill\alves a nllallx...rtor s. w e use many different k n r L nftllin . hnvr heten!wpially r fay.d I I ~ of tllc cpifiuinl l a y : (cl! the X:.. thv s ~ ~ h s t rs~lrface. The p \ \ i h of tl~cnnal oxides rliw2s&CII:q.t l ~ i n films into fi%r groapr: thermal nkidrs. silirnn aIn w .r rr:rction tnt.~iflIre S I I ~~ r e(nlntnntb st~s<~..tl s ~ l plmarimtion p r m r Charadrristim of these thin films and their compatibility \\it11 i n t e p t r d cir pmsinz b 8.& .anr: I t ~ r i ~ r .1sirid itu.unllr pnxl..d thr nlost and 11.rtnidly . i f tlw t%pit. l~ ~ tt ~~lcnstal p s t h mnmpb c l i x l ~ q d Chap i to l r h in srniimnd~~clnr ia!m on x sill~Ie-cnstd s in. us rpfcrrwl to x polll. n l e hpiotl n.~i.~\11~n. -nn.S b r r r ~ w l for \'PE gnnv111. gro\<inSa sinslecr)stal la)rr or1 a sin~le. .Thr.dlinc silirnn. cvstal s~~hstrate Structures and d e f a s of lattice-matched and strained-layer epit.A*ll at thr snlrfa~r. ~ i b h t r e n rnndudilq la*.ldtL.n tctr. a ~ ~ xs 1 1 c pol!silimn films Deposition t r c l ~ n i ~ ~ form daminl~ln to r r and mpprr intemmnneaions.Cn.1.l<.tnm .ptom ipit.~n. All tnalr frotn graphite blocks.lt*ric I a y ~ n n da silicon &oxide ancl silirnn nitride aw ure4 for insul.p m i h procrsser dewrihrd i n Chapter 2 in that tla L~tiaI I.lcp. m d for passiv. On the other 11.. Poly~nstnllinr siliron..c ~ s t i d bnra mntl.-diel~tricconstant and hi~h-dielectricmnstant films.\itlz ft~nraws.Tl~r Rasic techniques of r p i t a y that is.9 itlr mo. Olllrr dlirr~n sources arr ilsrd ix.tll ~ i s ~ l r ..~ilicnn.ry.GUI rl.ssllq.dl? l n w tile melting point. a t ~ ~ where tllvyarr aclsorlml: (ci :I cl~c~nicll rr.. an 11-hpt.? ~ n t * l ~ : t a i c ~ ~ l l ~ II. Dil.IS of on G d s .Frat.jttndions.-1".r:..ptor pro\idcs t l ~ t).t. mrl ed filllls. (Sill.~r x ~ ct1alL.lrr.am. n t ~ of (qxsrr an11dopants) are trs~nsprrtccl t l t r ruhrtratr rrcion: (1. Thr epit. . ~ ~ t ~ l .rcqih. This elt.pitjui. . \\i. Epit. lor t l n. For example. Not tntl? do tltt.rll\r..).\illmn. The uanl ipifo. grout11 orhvd into the main prs strrarn: and (el t l ~ rvletiun prorlnas :tn.mls.ll grm.~ypr lr $m\\11at R ternprahlrr st~hstanti. ~nelric rllnpcof lllr snlscr. folln\w. mi.tidr (SiCI. tin^ r i s r to l.ttion.zrial gro\vfl. anrl s mntact material Cur dericrs\ritl~ 'anw Inu.

titlltinn . I InLxtures are on n. The t~ ul. it n n take place in eitllcr rlirertion.) are ltsed .clupnt is intrrxlumd at tllr s. silinm tetn~dllnridr n r n ~ t n ~ t i is n hi~lt. rcaclion i I !tllr hletnlorp~nic m'D Xlrt.remov.sill t a b l~l.ac(or ~III~~UIIS it!rlrocl~loric . il t:.\..unr time : the silimn t r t n c l ~ l o r i d ~ el u daring t. Gr~mus i Fie.\ for t l ~ c d l i ~ ~mlnponrnt.1 EpitaxialGrorvlh Techniques 147 of .l). dnp.16..sltrr. ill llnr ns o ! ~ rt>. tlrll\.riinpto epift~xinl o \ \ iof ~ ~ l g11li11m n m i d r i s a As.t~rir C\'Il (\IOC\'I)) is .2.)t. 1ligI1tmlpemtnres.m l l n l t en?$os.t s i ~ I .t r.2 slto\$r l l w efli..pil.~ I M ant1 .mlln. arsenic) and tile rnowrrlertt of thrcf! atoms t o r s a ~tl l ~ ledw sites.llich r tlre tl~ nt are )Y~PII tile s11dace ndsorptioll of 110st atoms (silicon) : < \vc!l s tlte rlopant :tton.~cicl. h r i n inmrponted ~ f ~ t ~ ~ . film Deposition 8. 3.~:alric cotnpO~mds rrnson:ddt. i f tll.I .ct o f tllr collcentnltion ofsilicon tern.. for t l ~ nnrnir r m m p ~ ~ n rand gsllir~m nt cl~loricle iGaCI.LS\ r H Si (solid) + 4IIC1 (en$) ..ir. rlilx)nne (B. and ~ into t l ~prowing 1.licw pltospl~inv I'H .l r mi.~ction Eu.. + 511. .II.rttlr. I and aninr i.d or rtclling .tt~ Ii~lritrI? \\it11all illcrrming mncrlltntion of silicon tetra.licyl1. rlllori~lr.in tlw v \ v l l nl'si~imll !l.. \IOC\.lction of sililun trtn.(?.!e Il!rlri<lvs or imlidrs.stion lakes pl:~n.tction.' n Sote thnt ini. I: i ..\n ..ic.tll\: thix rtrl~in:open~tion h used for in situ clrnninl:of the silicon \ d e r prior l a t. 'CnqAzc(inrc in tlzr n.{<..tI1? g o ~ i l ~~~cR. a m o tm etclring.e : tl~r..ntn~lI!.. hut tllnt (10 form sti~lde n~~lalorg. :\rts.* ~ i l ~ ( ( k i l~ um-ur.D lr. and the ~ o l l i m n cl~hnides genen~led) .I In!dn~q. 1 is rr\miblr: t l ~ ais.rcl~lorirlt.r~~tional C\W. s u.. One approncll is thc use of hs. plnry.~lorg. r p i k ~ ~ igrllrvtll reqllircs relati\r$. F i p r r 8.g. its direct t n w port in tllc u p o r pllase i s not possible. + 4GaCI.tlo~rgwilh tbat @vm n Eq.~pplic~l tllc l ~ c t r r o r p i t a ~F l II of Ill-\' 11-I'I ~ I ~ I ~ ~ I I I I I ~ hm in i..cl. Llalilir con\.r "f a~ok..b rrntlt. n.mt r l l r n ~ i sfur anine is i1l11stratt. ( ~ a+ )PII. Silit~ms 11sllid1~ ~ l t r i gro\\n in the ~ o ~ ~ ~ .nclion terlrlwntl~~r~~. inlorn t i fmnl pmnits .) is used a tile p-t)pc dc~pnnt.rd tile r l ~ e ~ nt~ntt~rt.3 also sl~ons p v ~ rnr~ehanisrns tlic surfncc. ltion ctted in F i p w 3.~cy~.i\i:J cro\\il~.d hmwil~ 3. + 611.Is(. and e. l llnr n. is ntjrlll*.r on L ir.ke . al CVD for Gulliurn Arsenide For e:l!lil~m anrnidr. Rr!ond tl~at... i3) + As.ting rc..a cotering r l ! ~ n~. fl<rnll~ t r stilrts to clrcrmse. .lp.nsrrl on pyml!iic irartiollc. AIOCVD i s ilistit~g~isl. . cl.tvltrrr tlrr molt fc~ction dcfintul the cltio oft).10).\sR .146 I Chapmr 8.~c \sit11 h > rstensiwly .1". The ovrrall reaeg rn tion 1t~..3. a mtr~ilnllm u i h t i ~ p r.s r. the l>wicsehlp i s sinrilar to that shmvt~in Fiqlrt.7sultq ~ !a?c~n is s.tt..d in Figure 5. i s rr:lrla. tllr prrcntnor.~~ for e ~ c lcl~lorinr~ t o ~ n silicon tetr.<irtrl [loping rnn~~~ntcatioo. rl-hpr dopalrts.lrl. .\ s thv mn(vntntlion of silico~l r t c ~ c l ~ l o risdincwnsrd.s0f:1 ~ i v r spccirs to the t o l d n u m b r o f lllo~ecll~rs.~rihi1.d \\it11 I l \ ~ l r w m tllr d i l ~ ~ rto tallo\v rensonahlr control n f Ilnw eltes for t ns n 1 <lt. 5.. R m u s r gallium orscnidr drcomposes into gnllionl and arsenic 11po11 rnponation.r prr. ctcllinS tllr n oftll.irli sllrnn : ~ F i nlrr c i n nrlsorkd on tlrp s ~ ~ r drcnmposin~. + JGa& + I ? H C I 4Ast1. o The o~r. \.l Fimlrc rllltlridr.: TO $re C r ItP iI adrorlwd iltonls sltfficicnt mobilih for fillcling their proper positions within tltr c?stnl latticr.. ~ t l l ptl1n11R .LT in&.r..lddition:tl rn~~qr.llso a \'lJE p m s s I.n.tyr.I. I thp of t c t n i r r g.1t (In not fnr~rr st:tl. try i ~ d of I t is important for tllosr rlrmrnts t1.

In genenll.al~ish-\acuumconditions (-lo-' Pal! hlnE c%n aelliew precise mntrol of hntll cliemiml mmpasitions m l ~ l[aping pmfilrr Single-cr)ltnl.!nt p a n m a r r T r in o vacuum technologv is the molecular impinsement mte: that is. r2. Tile trmpcntllr of in eacl~ oven is adjusted to give the drrircrl evaponltion rate.t)~r. in the meofG:As gro\vill. G I ~~~ ~ 8. T l ~ c s)rtrm represents the . \\.~\S. nnd silnne (: . lnultilnyer stnictures \\it11 dimensions on tllc OKI.md +n. T l ~ ruhstmte ILoklrrrotates c mntinuo~ssly achieve unifonn epittud 1n)m (e. MBE uses an evaporation ~netlloil s \acaum system. an electrol~ is nscrl to evaporate silimn.) for the ancllic a m p n c n t .llp-hp dopants..Incan be n~inu~ ~ u t i ppiti~\?:the G a t s is dopl 11. An import. ~lnless there is I pre\iousl? depositr(l .j% to in in thickness variations). tlte mndtstor 11ctrmstnlctll~~ harinx thin 1:iyelr from a fra11ion ofa !nicrn. heat. The ovcmll rrnction is n (4) ASH.12 Molecular Beam Epitaxy \iBE is an rpitaeal p m s s io\.also uxrl f o r n .4 slto\n a schen~atic an hlOCM) reactor.. GRI y r r .. + Ga(CH. rigomlrs safeh precnutions arc necesr.ric2tion &semi. in 111~0c\:D \1 pmcess. clcanlincss..~s m ir tr.\j-mnt. 8. \ ~ I Iere it to the . . T l ~rat? is deri\rcl in :\ppcncli~H t and e .d. (. yp 8. i p miv-l with . Thus.~iains mmpounds.~ting layers..ility separatr cfi. t l ~ c XlBE n~rthml enitbl~s prrcisc f:.t\p dopant for Ill.~8tM~ III. n ~ ~ p c r a t ~ ~ r pressure.e a sal~stmte pl:lcrd on a prapllite suscpptor Iusing radio frequency Ilealing. Dieth)' [z~(c. 1. The i?\rlridrs ofsulf~rr selenium or I nnd metll!ltin m .p.. 0 is the angle khveen the direction of tile sourcc and tltr nornlal to the srlbstmte s ~ ~ r f i c e .ln . a of 1 wndlr is l.~ll-nrrasoenw like and exllilrit a cos8 emission.).msported in \.iI. a l n E grntvth ratcs arc quite imv. low telnpmtures ant are there are no trnublesoll~eliqui~l ~or In sources in the reactor.. film Deposition PO\II G.sion ovens ma& 0fp)~ol)tic boron nitri(le are used for Ga. Iw grown Itsing hl BE.\Z compoe~lds. AII tllr. . A p!~ol!tic reaclion forms the GaAs layer..I~Iare t!~ic.dozpnic compoan~hsucll as trimetl~ylgnl [ c a ( ~ ~ for tilr pl~~iu.g. for e.ltimate in film llrposition mntrol. Onc or gun rnoreefli~sion ovens are used for thedopants. The c h e m i d rrlction is indllced by ins th? gases to 6 k ' C to SOOT aho\.are a n use tnet.umplr. F i p r e S.tpor foml into the reactor.Ilylmsen carrier g a . For a silicon XIBE s)stem.'T!picall!: of the metalorl compound is tra~~s~mrted quam reaction vessel I?\. an overpressure of As is maintined..h p dopa~~ts.no.molrc~~les impinge on a unit a n o f t h e sobstrxtr pcr unit time.ll component m ~aninr (ASH. i d . I~mvman). t r i ~ n e t l ~ ~ l n l ~ ~[AI(CH. or To gro\srGarb.):] and dietl~~lr~~lmiu111 [CII(C:N.I l l cllPmio.5 sham ascllenlaticofan > l B E .\s. AT. of the molecular weigl~t.and the dopants. The impinsenlent rate ( 0 ) a funcic tior. ~ t e t n orgallium al.148 b Chapter 8.). to a m. wl~ereas that for ATis zero..1 Epitaxial G r M Techniques 4 141 F~~ . +l% dopinxvariations .olvingthe reaction of one or more tl~ern~xl beams ofa~tonc( or molrcules wit11 a cr)stalline surface uz~der elh. Sincp these mn~pounds higl1ly poiso are and oftm mntaneously inflanl~nahlr air. sucll as AIAs.!~ n~aton.yi n t r ~ l ~ t c i n g n ~ dopants in \-... r and cnn he expressed as' 9 = P(Zmnk7 .rlr.Gn..\rII.ir.&Ision o m s are l~oused an oltrahigh-vacaom chamber (-10.1. elm. Tile a(hrantae:es of usins n~eti~loqanin that tlley are volatile at mOifemte$. For cab.!.llmr fonn. chrnai~l an11 cl~lorido nsnl to clope chml is into GU\S to form scn~iinsttl. since tllr ~tickin~meficient Ga to GaAs is unity. and in sit11clvmiml cl~nractcri~~tion n.\' compounds. ENusionov~ncirl~ave rm.I I. 4 G u t s + 3CH. sllcll as AI.ltert.' P..

Cnlorlatr the Y R E vmmth ctte for tile i.it MI R.Vnl. .lhr impingement nlte is 2. and in is the ~ n o l e c ~ ~wejdlt.ries I.lnl to ilnpl: r il~e dopant (s& ~ h a ~ i7). ~ c at prcsuws d l . itnd the doping profile r.wys to clean a surfitce in sit" for MBE. The average dist. and the svcr:xec tltich~ess . it must contain on the average on 6V o t l ~ emolecule. molen~les d l collide wit11 one anotber..fftlSi. The mean free pat11 (A) is tben .. t l ~ c doping p m s is similar to the \:rpor-pl~ase gm\\ll~ pmcess: I\ f l t ~ x r\apon~te(ldopant atoms ani\. Tllerefore. A \r.in Pa.llu: Asamc :tn efi~sion oven geometry ofawsA = 5 an' :md a dirtanw I.nfengetim 1 h h v e r n collisions. and ~ to o n for air molen~lesr q u i d e a t molecl1lardinmcterof3.iA)at morn t r m p e n h w .64 md thr numbrr of molmles per unit areax is 7% x Find ihr t i m reqttin~l lorn.mee \ t m w e d by all the ~nolecules h v e e n successive collisions \\it11 each otller i dePined h s as the rnmn f r c ~ path. EXAMPLE 2 10" I'a.folln\\wd In. film Oeposilion 8. at 3 M i.hrren tllc tap ofthe mr..92 x 2 for . Finr mntml of t11r(lopine profile is achieved 13. ic xlro o It possible to c l o p t l ~ epit.r arwnic (:k:i.roccurred.8 .\. ~nt wonurn mnditions (-10.\.k2Substitutinq V ~ I I ~ S of r.m inert is zas to sp~~tter-clean sl~rfnce. and 10' Pa pressltr~.r\i:d film using n lo. stant in J K .!I) is 69.1I arr olintrre<t.lllt flux rr1. Imv-ellcrp ion ir.e oxide and remove otlar akorlwd sln. JI.L?s of^ molecole in kg.i2 for Ga and 2. It can be derived from a simple collision theon: A ~nolecule Lavins a diameter d and a velocity vnill move a distance vt in the time St.ln tc 611r<luitlt galli?nrnm m i d r at W'C.:: I ~ it To innid mntaminntion orthe epitaiial layer. Thr kmnmnth ntc i s l Notr that the pm\rih rate is rrlstively lcnvmmpamd with that of\ Tllerc are t\m r.1 Epitaxial Growth Techniguel 4 1: A more rigorollr df. mllision wo~lld r a 11at.Chapter 8. lar TllerPfore.in be exactly contmllecl. Ilo\ve\rr. a rnor>olnyer f q .o~~ld C i O km.al rate olpdlium. ll~crefon.-c!lrrent.1 Pa fi. thr molenllnrdi..~tore the annmling to reonlrr tltr slld?ce lattice structure. the \vlatile itrvnic~aporizrs Ira\inca ~rlli~rm-n~b fint. be A. The volume of the cylinder is The moletulnr \wight (.. 4 During molecular motion.of ealli~ln.lcl~ to use a low-earrp ion lwam of . ( at a systrm pressurr of 10. a lo\v-ten~wr.n and lhc callilrm amnide ~ ~ b s l r aof 10 cm.\IREp m s s .5x 10r' I'a krrplliatn tmd 1. rolutiarl.6 r 1t1" rnn-.T is the trn~perature d e g n r s Keltin. of SOLUTION On heating galli~nn ancnidc. Anotl~er into appm. SOLUTION The time rrquimd to film a monnl.nlv only pr<+ sure st 'XK)'C is 5. hlBE can use a \\icle variety of clopnnts kwnparcd \tit11 C\'D and hIOCVD).mrkr ofonyen is 3.rs at a fi~\nraIllr of lattice site and is i n c o l p n t e d alonfi the p w i n g interfi~ee. k is Boltzmann's con. nlerrfore. a.riwtion give5 p is the pressm. it s\treps out (\rithout mllision) a c: der of diameter 2d.. \\hen the w l ~ l m r is equal to 1/11. Iligh-trmp~nture b:&ne can deco~npose l ~ nati\.. it is o f p a r ~ m o ~importance to rnxintain ultrahigh.? r\.llpyp and EXAMPLE 1 .i~p>ration t r or diff~~sion the wafer. atljusting the d0p. 1hv pressures inarkcd"Ca-rich* in Fiplrr 2. Setting 7 = 6 ~s the .I monulaycr is 2. ttl~evoltlme awociated wit11 one molecule is on the a age VII cm'. arrird mtr can l r clb~ur Tile from thr inq e (Eq. 51) I multipl\in~ hy .. Tl~es.' Pal for the . Thc ra&%w dcnsit).The molecule S sr~ffen collision with another molecule if its center is an)~vllerr a \tithin the distan oftl~e center of another molecule. 10'.atoms i. rn is the in.' Pa.7 x jOlr n~oleculrdc~~~'-s for oxTgen (>I= 32).a>er(asurning I N % slicking) is obtained lhr impln~cmmt r.ltive lo the flux of silicon iltolllr Ifor silicon epitarial lil~ns) r gnlliu~natolns (for palliutn l n r n i d r epik~xkdfiln~s).r r Since there are n molecoles/cm3. Till73 Kl into tlw almveeqnrstion giver Tha p ~ i rate of~alliurn h menidc is g m ~ r n nI)? the arri. lx.

./.s~in thickness).tn~plr. rdsr disrp is lue:llicns \rill occur...1 stnrturrs ~ : I W hecn .\it11 the sabstrate.R .. For sufirirntly thin l..h ~ e x Fnr silicvn layer \\it11 a relntivrly low doping conentratinn cxn hr gm\\n epitxially on an 11' silimu s~tbstratc. Fim~rr s l ~ o wan SLS i~a\inc uith rliffrrrnt eq~~ilibriun~ co~~st.*g r.usminted . rnntcrial I~n\ing s:amr Intticv mnshnt. For thicker Tiltns. iftlte rpitaxial 1.~ibdiff r n from tli.al srnlicvnductor sttbstratr.int IIIP:LIB of mntmllin~ duping profilrs so that &\ice and cirr~rii the pcrformane n n I.I n f I .tlnal 70 net...loyrnnic mtnpouncb surll as t ~ i m r t h y l ~ n l(ThIG) or~trietl~ylg:~llitl~n li~~~~ (TEG). An inlportant exnnlple is the epitaxial grouih rlfAI. a t.i\slayer on a C. F i m ~ r r 3.. > inpl:$ne latticc c~j~~stallt b. the s~.ryer ha< a srn:~llprhtticrronstant. III~I<IIIYI . ..~yen.&.fron~ 0. clt1a...dly stntchlred in:tterids can hr ~ r n \ \ n XIRE.tclb is crllrrl s ~ r l n l ~ ~ r .r r n ~ i m ~ a h ~ r t o r s substratrs .x. n.. d i s l ~ ~ i ~ t iatnthe. t . n singlecnstal selnimndtstor layer is gmnn on sin~lc*-cnst. . (P.Js on :I Gm\s si~h<trate\vl~rrr foranyx hchvern 0nnd 1.TPrent sernimnthe r are ~lurton. 1 . i t trill Iw dilated r in t l ~ plane of $n)\r?li and ror~lprrssedin a direction prpmdicular to tlw intrrfaw.llion-frt.. w r ~ ~ ~ r / n l l ii\ ~ ~ (SLS). that :m idr.n!\it11 3 I w r i ~~CSSlllilll the elrrtmll lllrnll free pi11l1 l ( : 1 x ( -. superr lattice iir :III artificit~l oi~r-dimnaion.~l nrocrss offen one imnor. D~fic/.IXYLTI (bl hrtrrwpi.d qo\rth.. the Nllllt' littticv llllStRnt.8 ' hvosmiimn<lt~cton rial nit11 a neriotl of nlxlut 10 nm. C.\rlopn~rt~t5IBE i ~ m in rrpl:lcetl t l ~ p u p Ill rlelnrntal S ~ I I K V Shyma. so h i ~ l ~ q u n l i ~ are r cr\stallinc materids can be oht:~inr~l. .llrrr the stlhstratr and tile film I~ave a z .u tllr crilir~nlin~. Thrrefore. opti~nizt~l.. interfcacr.2 821 STRUCTURES AND DEFECTS IN EPITAXIAL LAYERS Lattice-Matched and Strained-Layer Epitaxy For cnnv~ntiond la. Tllrse h o cases Arc referred to s .. L'numnnl .s~rhs/rolrr. Tl~esr nrtifiri. tile is. This :tppn..vy to .ne~ t7riIory (CUE:].-. it \rill h~mmpresscrl in the plane of rro\tih to mnfornl to the sr~bstrate ~.m a t c l ..+. For t l ~ r latticr-rnisn~atrl~rda e .llr c. rxmnplc.S .ltirh is a priollir stnlrtllre mnsistisS of .A rrlattrl hetcrnepik~rial stnlrttlre is tllr s f r o i r ~ c d .. . and rials pro\irlr a ne\v arra i n srn~ico~~doctor especially for l~i~l~-spercl pbotonic applic:~tions.tnsi<tom.q~h r. i. layer 011 1 silimn s11\\~tratr. spacing.r hand.lnd hrlemjllnclion fiel.Si. > b > o..Si. q>ifn..I 1. tltr *rprr/nlfi~r~.Ga. Elir~tic forces then compel it to dilatr in s dirwtion prpenclic~tlarto the interLIW.R."md icl ~.6 Srhcn~ntic iilnrtmlion of in) latti~~. . rrspcti\.~ tl~r Tor wstrrn. epitnkal layer and t l ~ sr~bstrate hvo r1.al l)<. Fnr Itetrrorpita~y.itll i..' hpr ~ I is in On tht. onn t ~ misfit rlislncatio~a gt.. 1 1 1 1 ~ .ely m Fimlrr 4 . Tl~is o f s ~ n ~ c his ~rI r I v I Istnined-layer rpit:n~.11 nrocess.crni. n 1nttic~-tnatclred rnitaxi. strained-Iayrr vpit:L\?.rt?m~%. T l ~ srrnimndnctor I~tyrr t!~cst~bstrate e :~nd are tl~r sntnt. and tllr lower curve is for a G. For er:enplr.3 )ln!ltnin I3t'r:n~s~~ ~ ~ ~ v .l ~ t ~ r r . er.ot~~ (5IOhIUE) .sc itslad. lq.. To .atinc 18ltcltliin I:~y. o s ... strrinrd. ~lirl~.ra~l~ntlor..trr r r q ~ ~ i r r d .CdtlwcI i~~ohility incrci~srrllritka~e or ctarrent. ir idantical lo llse l a l t i ~ ~ .. ~ t l ~ intrrfimcx-s.. lnttice n~istile matcl~ s r n ~ m n ~ r x l i ~ t r td~ ~ ~ i f strains i n the lyrrs. l . For 011 silimn.2 Structures snd Defects in Ephaxial Layers 4 153 TIlr ~ ~ ~ b ~ ttrznlwrnttarrs for hII1E r. Altllolr~ltcIosr1y nklted to lIOC\'I)...rr fhirknr.~noc~ilxxi.?\.. k sl~o\w lattice-rnatchrd enit:Lw \r. cpit..~. tile total nllmIwr o f : ~ t o n ~~ s ~ lstnin of the rlistortrd atomic tmntLv grows.dte-n~. I .~tr.r\imun~ i t a d tl~icknrss ..~tr.u~ts n...i!~.l. it is cnnsid. nition.matchrd.llrrr n.rt of Cajjs by less t11i1n 0..l~ivlltlirrr are NIc(.:t!ized interfacial and stntcture is in:lintainr<l.ss increars.e-rt!~ic!arsses for hvo aterid rid ?stems are shmtn in F i p r r 4.. In t l ~ cilxr r. ~Lm.u\ sahstr.nrr 10 n m or 1k. . homnepit:~y by defi.n~nrted.tl I. \. u. t. T1ll. if tllr rpitaual layer Iias .:sll l. and 822 Defects in Epitaxial Layers Defects in rpikainl l:~yrn r l ~ p t l rlevice pmpertirs.tnir lnttice sparr in: or IF nhlr n~drforrn to adopt a common spacing.ty prolx~ptvfmtn the n~l~stnltr into tla.t c ~ l l ~ ~ ~ ancIl r ~ to of ~ prW~*ssil~g tt mnipositi(>ns1101 obtnini~hl~ rmln I . 111~ latticrmnstant ofAI. Iolfirc-rnnlcltrrl q~ilnxy d sfroinefl-layer q)itoxy. This stn!c!<~rrs!~bsta~~ticall~ redt~(rs s r r i ~ s the msistanrr .for Ce.~. * 8. The l>omuenitaxi.I. e :.nill rln.lrprr lattice constant c and iq flerihlr. + .1% sItn\vs ~ I I P a e in c u.. Therefort. Ut~rlpr l ~ r s ~ m n d i t i ono~ s . groun inn stntctttrr \ritlr I common lattice a..i. T l ~ drfeds in c p i t a d la!vn can in3 r categorizrd into fiw groups: 1. V rn. mi<tr rr fit ~lislocxtinns nnrlmtr(l to rrliew tlw l~orno~eneotts arr strain e n e p This tl"cLnrss is rrfrrrrcl to . an r t .linrd-li~yr r tllickn(.. the epiti~xiallayrr lrntst he qoroan in s!lcll a \rc?\..str..n. and at sonw point...d periodic stntcturr constituted by cdiifc:rcnt mate3.oi<Itllrsr drk~rts.c]c .Gn. ?trancrl Cl*.. T I n t : i are st~llicienlly wlatilr tllat tlwYa n .ln. ) l c r l l ~ r l c r ~ i t ~ Tlw critic.aly ~tnique eloping prnlilvs :lnd ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ <\l ~ r:itn Ink l ~ m ~ l~ ~in ~ l .8.... This implies thxt atomic lmnrlins across the intrrfacr must k mrrtinao~ls. zsIII~. t l ~ hvo sca>imncInctorsmust ritlrer have tile r. nlld thr gm.md ilh~strntetl Figure (I..lnd iS also referred ~rr~i~.. Xlany novf..:'> ~ t i ~ ) ~ : t l e \!11E. .r\i:~lI. Tltrs? matehy rrsrarcl~ Iwrnlit nr\v solirl-statr de\icrs.h.s~finel . defects can n511lt \rill r in re.npr.~h31 11. ..\ li~dllrr <lt.. ILC~ZIC \!BE. Ilnrntrpil~r~? sln~durd~ll!.'Tlle upper cume is for the strained-lnyer epita\? o l a Gr.< r. c f l i ~ t~. tho Tllrsr dcfcrts n1.I ? Figure 8.13%.lng? fmlll 4W'C to 9W'C. .

misorient~d nnd Any arrac of an cpitaud film dorincpo\rih may mert and mnlesce to fonn tlnc.8 illustration of the rlmmntr slarr tl~e direction ofthr str. usrs .Si:.~~inl n.~. LL/-.l~icl~ pl.-L.rs or nuclei mntaining stacking faults. 3. To avoid these defects.3 DIELECTRIC DEPOSITION Depositrd dielectric films arc i s r ~mainly for insttlation and lxssi\:~tinn ofdiscrrt~ ~ \ i w .sition ~tletl~cib: idrn~~pl!ericprcssorv O'D.. l n e s lnrger tllm 1 t r tlw critic11 ILtwr thickness. Epitaxial l a ) m mntair~ing high intentional or t~ninrPn tcntionnl dopants or impurih. ~ / m n ~ interfnce Odde precipitates or any mnta~~~ir~. PECVD is an rarrgwihnncr<lCVD nirtl~~wl ia \\.~IIS. Their formation is due to s ~ ~ p r m t u r a t i o n or of implrritiw or dopants.on Si. rlectri~ll mrchnnicll ppmprrtllr the lnr! ~ ~~ ~~~~~ ~~ inlet. Thew arc time commonly used depl.zin. a ~ d punnprrl out at t l ~oppocitr end.iqAson G A S . 5. sncli s the rmmable reaction of Eq. ?pit. Considc. t Sulntnte ant1 formation of a rtminnl-la!r*r ~ u ~ r l a ~ t i:\mn\r m. ~-.I Itot-\$:dl.-!J~ I G o r in Inecmn.nt gxsr:il~. Tl~r a< edge dislocationr ctn :+lwform in .lm. l d and i n t r p t n l circuits. they uill retain their If flllil~an~~lltd spncina. Tllese c h t ~ t e n and n ri stacking farrltc may malrrce with nom~al ~ ~ c land gmw into tlip film in the shnpr of an inwrtrd pyramid. rd~irrd-prrs-t~rr marercrpt that diNrrc.toms ~lvscrihrd nlklit or edge dislnations.*re ht-Id \ ~ ~ r t i ~in a lslottrd qunrtz Inat. and Ga.1% b Chapter 8.l l ~dspor sitinn n t r and film itniforn~ih n~or~l~ologv. - Cndnl laver F i p m 8. ~ ~ b 8.~wnam e r v is ad~lrdto thr thrrnlal c n e r p of a mnvcntiond 0'1) S!T~CIII. 1. D + n . In addition. T l ~rr~~~irnnrlnnor r r \ r a f m . P~~cipitnlei dirlncotior~Imps. is he:dnl and fix-is intmllrml at nnr rnd . l l s ~ c l tlw at tor like the one sl~o\\qin F i g ~ m i s.L.:stor tl~:~t rildio lirquenq (rfl he:~ting.' Tltr rluitr?~-It~lw is 1101~ W O I ~ I S F aI ~ \(..i s t ~ u n r d : y r \vl~rn l ~ I a y r thickness I m .&.sc defects.ttion the at the interface of the epitaual layer and ruhstnte may cause tlie formation ofmirorient4 cIustt. I Erprrirnentally detprminrd critical la!cr thickness for drfm-free. and the intrrface \\ill mntain rows of misIlltic.' 2. and pl:~cmn-rnhanml O cl~e~nicd rlcpnwpor sition (PI:C\'D.7 Figure 8.tlie q~~i~rtz-lllhr hy a tlrms-znnr Iilnl. Dnr~onole groin bmmrlorifi~ /IL. mncentntions are suicrptihlr h~ t ~ cdefects.o111. s l~ 4.?nt the f t ~ n ~ ~ c .l<rtingadrpositionpmcrss am the st~bstc~tr tr111prr..:III it is aclji~c.? h n d r d :.rations in x.arc hxrned in the h r t r m p i t a y of hm latticeinn~ mi~mntcllrd sen~imnducton. In . ?mntr:r<t ton mld-xxll rrarlnr sac11.itum. Film Deposition Dielectric Oaporirion 4 15 ' . & l ~ ~ ~ d ~ s l m ' n tThese. * ! . the surface of the s u b stmte must hr thomaebly cleaned..str~incd-lap rl~tqolCd.-. an in sihr etchhack may he usrd. hoth lattices are rigid. low-prrsst~rc ' D (LPC\'D). I~orizontal to in . or placnla deposition)..

ntls :11ld prnpcrtirs of silicon clioddr fillns. plement thermal o d d ~ sA l a ) ~ of a o d o p d silirnn diodde is u s ~ d insttlate m~!ltile\?I . ..~htre pmcl%ws using TEOS and and C\'D w o n r 10. Sill. ..~(. ri.. \\:If?n are pl. i 4006C bs resistwm heaters. ..lnplnt.eraSe is a rrstllt ofrnh. The d r p ~ ~ d r oofrthe delnsitinn ratr nn TEOS pi~rc tin1 prr<sor? is to (I-P*').s . Properties of Silicon Dioxide ~ .. SiCI2kl1.. ~fi1.hpn pltosplton~r cloplnr: compounds arc.II.. ill tor or .. The E..lr(orla. \vhere I' is t l ~ TEOS partial pressure . bec. at~nospl~eric-prrssttrc low-tr~aper.)...?tion.. An rf wltage is applird to the upper electiudr."as sl~o\\n F i g ~ r S. SiO. \vllmnx E . I I I S ~ ~ . k tllc :. sitinn (31~)-5(YI'(:I.s an..nic. for ~IIcTEOS for e<l renct.ll.. ~ ~ \ ~ r trnllwraturr and film cl~~:ilit!. esprcially for large..1 I I Figun 8. silicnn rlioiidr is fnnt~rtlhy rt~:slillo ~lid~lorosil. l n ~ i d e hvo par.iyrr of nlun~inlnm. ~ l . d r p s i t r ~ ~ srwral ~ P ~ I I W L S .r.-products (131 -I: .j Deposition hlcthods Silio~n dirl\irll.\tit11 nitmlls oxiclr at rrdt~wtl prrsslirt. For inl~~rrnrtli:ltr-te~ny~~lurr. radial-flmv PEC\'D reactor shm\n in F i p ~ r Y.prition tt'~np.: ...9 llO!dCT (b) Schematic d i a w r of chemiml vapor depnsitinn reacton.ih tinder low rh.ntun.~mm l ddcposition reactor.unced surface i~>ohility Ilirrllrr trlnyc~turrc.~uset l ~ hest electrical r prnperti~s obtained u i t l ~ are thrrn~dly grown films.>o is ~ n t ~higher: almr~t1. +611. and thr dcymsition cite lwcomes r ~ s r ~ ~ t iil~dr(u.d arid. ..illy gm\m fir111 oxides.in I. odrles in For li. ~ ~ t r ~C Lo n .+S~O: Jpll. E .~ein~sil. +X):-~P:O. + lq.nilintr.It redllc~rl r c s ~ l r r an LPC\'D renczor (Fix.-TEOS C\I)oddrs arc oFtcn arrnlllpanird I>? l~l:~~am-msistorl to p n i t plannli7i1tio11 ULSl pnrrssine.wIuen nrnrx. . wxasionally a rliKusion soorws. .l rs t 1 Ilr~tlrl O m >b hnmp 1 1- ca inlt../kTI. o r boron are ~tsed ~s.4 eY \r.<lnddrs :u~Ialn~ostzmrn p h l . l'llr lo. and to i n c r e a r t l ~ r tlliche tlrrr~n.v p in prmtltrr of llrr silane-oygm rmctisn nukes it a suital-l.ndrnt :dl~ of TEOS press~~w. hlll.~a. \rtllereas the Irnsrr elcerodr is grorinded. and the aafers may Lwrnme rnntan1in:lted if Iwsely adl~rring deposits fall on thenl.lr pr.llih and leu tiw.. similar to thr pmcess in epitaxial grmvtlt.3.~. rnnlpllsrI. l ~TEOS mnp. clian~eter \vafrrr.rmw reactor ~ h Pamllr~l.. 8.l.trtinl prrsst!res. drpsilion ( : M 0 " C I . (lirrct mrr.) Il. I ical reactions f i r phrtcpllon~s-clo. or diborane). . I \:tporizrd lronn a liqnid sourer.' Iirun~tly. ( a ) Ilot-\\dl. Ilmvr\vr.~.? n~.lne.~I. to mask ion implantation an11 diihlsion. its capacih is limited. C\'D oxides are ased instead to mu).. i"I.*rc k.9b consists ofa qline d n c d g l s s or a l ~ ~ s ~ i n u m chanlber sealed wit11 a l ~ ~ m i nendplater.r e l e c t r ~ l eThr main ad~xntaxe . +O.PC\'I> n.9 P\' filr i~ndopr. T h r slninkaSr ofosirlc filn~ durin$ ansmling is :iho a h~nction ofmonc c o n c ~ .).. the dqmsitioe rntr is drtcn~~inrrl the by rille of tlrr sllrfacr rraction.IS a final passivation layer oIpr de\ic-s. fi.l I? drmmlmsinx trtc~etllyh~rtls. .I S 6 r Chapter 8.6 d'for ~ledo.. ~ rlrpo~ition r ~ :it . srmd step m\. l 1 i 9 CYI) tcrltnolq'prnilws in r oridr filnls \tit11 l ~JIi confon1l. silirxrnclio\irlcc. ofthe silancb-oqyrn rraction is qnitc lokr.rrtl. Inmntnct. ~ l ~\:.~cedon the lower e l e c t r ~ l e \vhich is l~eated r h w r n 100°C and .platrpl. ~ i I ~ h r t ~ \ TEOS. Oxides doped p l ~ m p l ~ o nttni.x. ti ~ slbo\\n in Figlrr 8. i'lle deposition n t e as n function o f t r n l p r r . Pl~osphonzs~loppd silirnn dioxi~le used both as an i is lator irhvren metd la)vn and ..).' In x+~~a.~ll.rti\alisn r n r r p .lO. HPCYI~ISP of their pnrosih 0. .rpr5 . i s . I 1.I.nnrtl I. radio freqlxene). ~g nninp..11.l~ t ~ . prrsmt.r l ~ p nxirle.3 Dieleclfic Daporition 4 1..d cl~ oxide and 1.. Film Deposition 8. r to ' m~tnllb. :\t high p..rirs ~rr rv(-E. v h o ~ ~ . ofthis reactor is its lmv deptlsition temperature. thr fil~ns. bchrren the elrctrmlrs. .:dmut 0. is ~ ~ . forlllr. R . at Tllr oridrs can hr dnpnl l q a d d i ~ stnall anlotlnts of thr clopiint hyrllirlvs (pl~ncphinrs. +ZH. SiiOC. r e d t r d pn.lsl I.~nrl ir r I:. itl~vttGO Pa. At low TEOS partial presstwrs.onnlb tllc of hioli~r r m p r r t t ~ ~require11 for t l ~ c t rr rr~tctios pwwnts its ttw ovrr nhls~inrn~n.FI. ~ l8. s furnminl: both SiO2ant1 a rni~tllre organic and oreanosilicon byprrxltrcts.tjncl c i a t ~ ~ is r l ~ a<f<>!l<>!~~: rhc(nxl~1 Altorninarn < S~(OC. fillns ~ I IIn.. The padel-plate.~.11rithrr at atmospIlrric PrmxIIrc ..1 lists (lrpositioa .1 Silicon Dioxide CYD silimn dioxide cannot replace thermallyrn\tn oxides. 111e SIIT~.I<P hrmlll('s 11~arIyl t l l S ratrd \till) ndsorbed TEOS..is suitit a l h for pol)si!icon gates rrqnirinq n unifunrt insal:ttin~ Iayrr uilli q l step mrrm~.+ rlrpositcd ovrr a l. .~tl. l~~l~ are allel nl!~n~inr~m electmles. m 1 ' 1 ~ .D rr:L(.t. Tllr rf\olta:e causes a plasma discharp.~:ltion ~ . ill) 1121 Tllr drposition prmws cln Iw prrfunnc. The reaction gixes flo\rf throagh the d i s c l ~ n r p r o n ~ f outlets locatrd along the rircunlfrrence of the 1rnrr.tenrpnl~llrr drpnsition ( 9 0 ° C ) . .C\..

It. .'"I s.1 R o w n i e s of Silicon Dioxide F i l m ll~t~n~~. -- SiO. . . I-I6 SiO. ..~llv <:rown ~. t .t l w ~ l ~ < . l S i l l . . .46 I0 >l(l .1 1. ~ . 0 9 - . 3 .-. ~ ~ ~ c o ~ ~ ~ ~ h ~ t ~ k ~ ~ l TABLE 8. ~ . .t 4.wc TEOS a1 7lXI"C SiO. ~ t r d t .1 5 1. Ill1 2. + 0: :.4.

Isitimn dinxld? (P-E~:L%S~ hlrwd drmsited at low tern.32 Silicon N i i i d e h is rlilfi<?~lt In ~ I I I ~ nf 1t. In . 5 . m nlitnttion t.o.) lilnlr ran h. u a ~ s c l i q ~ ~ l y s l ~ ~ a l l of :I ~ ne amount pl~nc~llorus tlnrs not flu\<. t . dar illg r.vrr at mnrmtntions ahorp l.Jung the v r ~ i c d ~ ~ t 1~it11 l ~ ~ ~ s icmck i ~ the l r ~ t t ~ ... drprndc on annealing tirnp. L ! V silimn nitrirlr by t h ~ n n a nitridation (e..m\jll~s prLrllrllt scriltcll pmlrrtion. trrnprcttllrr.P-elzu fl~m. Ila. l~:tvc:~ stcpmv.? TI-OS r l m n ~ p s i t i o at~rrtluwd pressure gives n srarl\. Thrrrfore. also silic~m nitride o \ i r l i z ~ ~ s a ~ t ? ~ s I o ~pn.n. . l?!tlts c:tn drpl. Fiprr h.. w~~~i~t~lyhighrrpl~ocpl~on~s to 7.rmf.tg+ <trnnlarto 1I1. r l ~ rirorit (. Ho\wver. . I. nll~minum) n. " ~ l l s .tl!~h. J . r.t.lv<tlt his11tlrnsih (29-3..innl h ill? :tm\:d .llnct r $ a p c t t ~ l arcpottcm! m.. . I.irnf. m i l l c ~ t :mrl hiell cm\\ih tr~apcattircs.\l'rlt\ sndiu~n difi>sion. o f q t p p mrrAer is tl. ~lrpnsitrd an i a t r ~ r r l i a t ~ . rb. tltr nlrtnl film 1r.ss. l XH.ter d s c to ntpi~lsllrlllrr inigmtioa. slllcne dn.g."' Tltc anslr 6':~s a itlnction oi\rright prrcent ofphozphoms m s l ~ o in ~ ~ p w 8 a Fi cdn br appmximat~d h\- P-Glnss Flow - ~.d I? w I i .sit $ilicon llitridc at t r m p r c ~ t t ~ rlu*t\vwn 7Oo'C and Nil'C.' 'hll mslplrs arr I~eated strnlrl at 1lW"C for20 in n~inutcs. I i l l ~ o u ~ used to m w r tile h v r r rnrt.l!ns .1 gIcn1'1..~iclll.mit ti an. .sr m\rrin< a pol!~ilirnn strp.ttiorn.Splu pt~nn~s concvnlntionr o r 6 to k ul? 8. Fimlres 9.hnrn rnclnl I:tyvn. nt4. r r t ~ o ~ i rs i.ltr c ~ s drd lrc.tlttopnmplr? is itrtt:tlly r q u i n d for the drpnsitrd silimn clioxidr nsrd :u an insu. :a bk.l:fis l:+vr indicatr ho\v flmr incrriocr wit11 plmsphnnnr rtep mnc~ntr. ionnrtl I.and drp. l ~n.r c. I n t l ~ ~s~n~ples.ttar lx. T h r fil~rls ran lv tlsrtl :a nl:nk i i r tlw srlrclivc odrl:.rl the :led p n ~ l ~ l fonnrcl dt~rine rr.pnsition.dcs p l a c ~a!ld tllr step rovrmgp iq ..121. diclllomril..nlril. S ~ c t l l ' l I3rc11~sc ) f t l w dc~pnsitio~~~ p r ~ ~ t o silimn~ .I hnwr d ? t l ~ i t ~ CVII ~~t~t c ( 2 . tt~r :tntl conmtih o f l b r filnl and tllat thr correspond.1%.~mmoninr r x t . LW m~rnxh. pttnct>llon~s n crntnlion. Si~nilnrl!: thr I~i~h-tr!rtprrnh. F i v m 5. Recxtrw ~ b o ~ p h ~ ~ ~ . ins :mglr i t l I i% nln-rt 120". illlil prt.* sr~l(x. ~ low trn t r e . tlley s ~ w ns gw~cl1....taion l r h v r c n 1111.lteri. up sc the ilt~rrmine angles oithr P-o. s m .~rsi\-.tost.tinn ofsilimn ln%:a~w.lc.l.2 at? iuright prrcrnt'. g.dtirr.i C .~.~]layer is mnGlve. irk?dt.f. Thr.r.d m\rr. silicon nitride . cnntrnts.SOIL.ltin~t. ~ h : ~ r l ~ r d n ~ .8..d pwssun.n. films can I r urn1 (Si to 1):~~~ir.et in F i o t n 9. 111t l ~ c LI'C\'I> prtrx. h r . and d sllo\v snmplcr of P-rl.as will) pro.g.N.rs 3 nloisttlrt.:lnif. k 2 .lil#trrm:i\ r~r!rltimnl an o p n i n g that nl:iy m u r in the lrpprr nletitl !:rw=rdur.tnnrding . stoi. and 1111.+r~t~-nilmus re:adioll dso r ~ ~ ~ ~ l t s odclc in rullionnnl co\'cngr. no s a r f .. ~I ~ tIIe tlist:~~tc~ tlw top S I I ~ N Y \\'is the \ridtl~ is fmrn and oftbe o p r ~ ~ i nThis hl*..~mlcrl~i~lcsilicn~~ v l ~ . pl~mphol cb the in 1 1 1n~iclr i~tln~~pIi?ric ~ i~nd nloistum..ll. l f a r nant :an nnzlr rrnnllrr than 4. l'la~ma-drp)~itnI nitrid? I. Tllra.t e n ~ ~ (7jODCI~ P O V pnxrcx or a lmvIry r n t t ~ rL tr!rrprmtllrr (300'C) plxsma-:l~ristrd C\7) p n m ~ s ~ ''"T I I LPCVII I.-nnyrt~ <lr.ill .\vntsd .at n. uith amn~onia.~ .m.<. w r rrqllirr a plro~phon~s roswntmtion l a q e r 111 6 \riC.<itr(l ovrr l:d)ricatrd drdccr and sm. c. ttitril!t. klmvr.s. the ~ .XI. the P-clil~s flmv prmvss IIS.. r tIo\~e\. I.t.rc thpir finel p.m~ . a ~ tl~r rn>r~l o\idirinc. ~ nl chinmrhic cu~llpcition . n .3 Dielectric Deporitioo 181 .anirn to thr diftifilrion of n:ltrr :t!d r smli!trn. filrns llrlnsitrd \I? p~ssn~a-x~sistrd are TMIIs t ~ ~ i c ~ ~ i o !:111d h:lvcn.r.% sl~o\ts sample ofsla5s that c n l ~ t .5".13 <h~n\s rmss sections o f ~ c s n ~ ~ci l ~ t m I I I ~ ~ ~ O Xphotopphs lour n? n I I ) ~ ~ nip-<I.

reaciingsil :d ..r?n 1 x 10' and t x In' \'/cn~.stlrss oieppn~ri~t~:~trlyd!nrdc~n'.. A suhrt. n > ! r n t thr ImvB material is 2. car:.arirkd C\'I) pnxx.3. tmn\ 20 to 25 .5 prn thick and 13 lrm for long.I.l. r . a11rl reactant g s prrssllrt~. depend. is the d i r l ~ d r i prrmitti\ity A is tltr arra.ulll.\'/c111.rnlilti\ih o i lrw .t.%)Or oftltr time drlay is rltw to t h RC <IPI. tikPI intcrmnnection ard~itec+ure minimize tlte time delay IIIIP top:mritic resistam to ( R !and capnritnnrr IC)..1-I.limnn l t n c ~cIt.t or !. .rsr.l~icll of makes rap filling more dificulll or dwrr:~qine \\irine I ~ r i c land area (\vhicIt rrsults in t l ~incr~. n~aten. ill rlischnye.ih..p. ~ 1 o m s i 1 .o f p m cvv.l. tlwy rrquireamal. ."Therefore. prrlllwl hv plasma ilrp>sition. :it 0'2 ltr . . 1 ~ h fill. GIII by . 8.. cmss tillli and po\!rSr consllnrption I$ ULSI circ~rits.~tPr y r l r ~ e n Filnls \\it11 lo\v tmsilr stress (-2 x 10 ' <l!n?dcnt'l can L+ h .l>ilit). ~ s i t ~ ~ l than 200 n n ~ ~ ~ Filttls thirkrr el:.d ~ p o d t c d g ~ are films. .4sdmirrsizes mntinur tosltrink dmw to the d e p submicron region.mnt. The plslnn nitride tdso n-irrrrrl to . pnxluas drprnd stronely on depsitiol~ mnditions. : O s .. ~ lSiO:. d n i r r s \\it11 p t e len$lt of231 nm o r b s .. is I. Imvapacitancp issue.qxtw.0. .~ .lnr mn. lltell tmsilt. irm. w r input. r d for tlw intrrmrtal < l i ~ l e cin L'LSI circuits. nc.~ l a t ~ rrarlnr (Fin.. n.riterl !I.ttion drl.lrin~ rl~icb~ess the interln!rr dielectric (x.~s. Film resisti\ities range iron1 L' to 10" Q-cm. and d is the tl~icknrss the dielwMc film.rl~Tr. . i Figum 8.0. in .ntrations of I~\rln~rprn mntaincd in p l s m a . Tllr dirlc~tric ~ ..ltewk and ~ . \vl~rreas rlielectlic strenglts a r r iwla.L< SiSl used in srmimndr~ctnr pmcrscinggenrrally mn..of intrrmnnrct psis~t r ~ A I I C Y ) Tl~rrrfnn-. natr in h~~ni-nvlF is ~ C S S Tltr . es~mplr. Tlw m. ~ ~ l ~ ~ .. Tllr radial-llml: p ~ n l l r l . O ine on silimn-to-nilrne?n ratio..where h E.qi~ti.nnntt m. strengl~ 10. . low depmition trmpenlurr. Somr artltr prnmising lo\\.oi~ilimo nitri~lr m." TABLE 8. tllr pl. ~ h .~?at tltr mrtal intcrmnnrcts lxc:iuse of the incrrsed RC lime constant. r n p ~ ~ i v ( .u)ti:d nuntkr o i l m 4 matrkds ltaw I r r l t ~ m t l m L . ar sl~o\\n Figtrr 9.a.. 9'3111 is used to drpnsit t l ~ e filtns.ml"d.. r wnn.2.PI?.t is ... rtdr.I rrilctiltg sil:~lte il n i t m ~ r n .sal rase of intepntion.N(I. Rotb .il.nd its Jirb~ctrir .% \.trgon pl. l~iglrplanari7atinn inc Im\. ~ ~ t ~ ~ iicl LPCVI) is n a n ~ o v l ~ o u t dirlr*~*ric n>ntniningup to i ~ .nr s.llly incrrasn r uitlt i n c n .. pn ~ . simplicit). l ~ n ~ .l.ntr gain in dmiw speed at tlte gate lrvrl ir ir!!irt by the prop. n H Illan 1 n k ~ .2 Low-&Materials . it b not ray to lower tlte pan-itic capacitance by incr~.nl trn?prmtllreb a1n11t111. p m p l t i c s i t l ~ intrrlayr d i r l ~ i r i film and IIW it is fornled h a w to meet thr o r c f r ~ I l ~ n ~rrq~~irrrnrnts: (lirlrciric mnstant. ~ ~ t ~ ~ ~cttio. for gap filling. 1tiqlt capabilih.ds\\itl~ lo\vdirlrctricmnstant (Imvkl.an . %.3 Low-Dielectric-Constant Materials .ither CVU or spin-on trcl~niqups.trc wquired. N P l diel&ricmnstNI~ t ~ and pt. ~ ~ . ~ i n ~ trnmpr~~turr. \vhich is near^? ~ 10"' 10tilnts tllnt~ . T l ~ drposition nltr $*ncr.o. c of R q m l i n c tla. .-k mntcrialr arc ~c s h r *in X~hlr Tltese ~natcnals b e i t l s r inopnicororpanicandcan lr~(lrpmitnl ~ S. . Imv residttal stress. Tl~edideetric pcmtilti\ihis M ~ I I ~ I to tl~r I pmluci ofk anrl ~.? crack htcnllsco~ 11. -I\ rill. ~ the r h \ i c p intrnonnrrtinn nrhmrk hrmrnn a limiting factnr in determining cllip perfomlanu tttrtrim stir11a dmiw speed.~ \ nlo.14 CalnLted gat* and inlrrmnnpd delay vcrrur t r c h n o l ~ Kenention. of Ions intrrm~~nwtior~s.?\.8 3 Dielectric Deposition < 163 . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ i . s Rrd~lcing RC time mnstant of ULSI circuits requires intrrmnnection nnaterids thr ~ i t ln\r rrshti\ihand interlayer films uitlt lmv capacitance. Note that C = E.. f ~ ~ . silicvn nitride is hnncd citllrr I?\.:.ss. ..\I and Cu intprcr. up to in For in .

--C . I I ~ asI alkaline earth metals. I*. T l ~ r s e materials are sllo\n in Tahlc 8.d iner?:LSins DRAM den.. IicIect~c Con 25 40 17 4 . especially for TABLE 8. there arc tikbn.15 hla~imarn time to brcnkdm\n wmrr oddc tl~icknc%s~ar lml!.fUSTl B.4 High-Dielectric-Constant Materials I litrl.i~~lX~ PI..t.d ~.. and Oi a the starting inatrrinls.3. S r .~. T l ~ e II area of the capacitor can lx inmn*.(. As a refrrrncr. ~ ~ j r f l ) .3. ~ ~ + .s are considerel in Cl1aptc.\II cixr~its." F t ~ m l r r l r . .illsic RC 1hr pnmllrl :\I s.I planar stnlctarcv..7 vCl.l.*I. For a @\.in!. (i k ~-c2. .:tl c I:yr ti\rh .. is c...nr invn pmlmsecl. . ~ < ~ ~ c:tpacitor in a DRAXI 1 . ISTO! ( h . 8 10' 4 .. s u c l ~ Elre eatill elrmrnts.. maintain a certain 1to s .. tnnt~ri.-.!O.)11~ ns a . ...tr\. t l lsrlectr~l inprt tllc "illlllitions of lllr nl." Pol!~ilicnn is clearly superior.. ~lielrrtric tllr mest.71 ~lie~lcctri~~tl. Hmvmr.S.8..I.~Umulnnllo\vell leakage cur~ to rent and t l ~ I.we~I IK usins starkrd or trenclt stnlctures..~i.d I~idl-k rnatrri:ds h.gnoF I I)It:\. l ~ Z r . 40 IF).liclrr+ric mnstant in t l ~ e r. m a is rcrlu~~.ired lrrrakdoun \r. s s sine <.. s l o r .. ~Itcn>forr.wnn4itc Si.~.~ntn i t l ~ e film r n ~ ~be incrr:ard.css...ltagr.cloprnent in X10S technnlogv.ninl..(D%TI ( P h .0.5icln x (1.4 Pohlsilicon Deposition 4 165 EXAMPLE 3 wMPLE 4 of l a x .5 Llln ill cnnr a. ..~.. esprcially for ll?nvnall~ic aw r nndonl arrcsr In.I~ of c.M 2 >IOMI d(nm1 Figurn 8.:.~<cons T. uitll siv. or one S ~ rlovcl ail11 nnr or nlorr donors.Z~.Sl~~. for .UYI SIW)-IMO 1m O 1 . sucl! as lh?riuln stnmtiuln titanate (BST] and Irirrl rjm. filln .wrmsLitc i~ .r:.1 i. . h ..4 POLYSlLlCON DEPOSITION Usin$ polvsilicon ns the gate electrode in hl0S daices is a sipilicant de\. u r e aluminum for elecs tmrlc rrliahilit): Figure 8.r 9..~ls also q n i r r d k ~ ULSl circuits.7111 deposit1 r c be . TIII. Y:O.TlI. A 'l':1:0.tcit:tncv for propcr o p m t i o o (r. st Sc$rr.~lO. TO.iilimn r l t d d r md b all aluminom rlrrlnxlc. and that for SiO. One important r e a o n is that polysilimn s n ~ .? :. ? t 8. I i\ 2.I~T~.~ ~o ...E lrrl- la- TazO. ~ I ' L ~ T I ~T Pl~!>lc.g. a .9.c~. is in d ~ n n ~ o f 6 to 7.. ! TiO.3 High-k Materials hl~tmialr nin. T:tntidtll:~oxide (Ta:0... the dirlrctric mnsta Si.. l ~ . In a ~ l d i f i ~ ~ .~trsdoprtl t r i t l ~ or inore .en capacitance.nitlm titanatr (P%TI.. .irrs 11. l'amrlwtric .ap.15 sbo!a the maurnurn time to hreakdmn for capncitors with both plysilicon and alrtrninum eleamdcs. SrTiO.~ccrptors..tCI. These stnlct1rrt.Ingc of 20 to 30.'Z~ 1 ..5 p!n tI>ick TI. rnutn d is t ~ a l . . . - - 140 3M-5M . . 8.S.I CVD p m ~ ..I I ~ I I ~ T I I I I I rrqr.

ll<.mt nlr F~v.artor..... .n.\let& and inPt..? rlifFf~sio~~. ~ ~ tllp d. ptntl.itlar tnt.. \lanrs tllr d~qwsitiorn at frrur drpavilion trmprnll!ln's.lps : ~ tthe Fmin Imtlsd.11~ is ~.n .r. Pol!silimn Mn 1~ clopcl I.. a... T l ~ e current and e n e p can l r ion indt. l~ t (~ ~ t ~ stilt.~ inrrr.R.? i. . ~ n s ~sI~:tllcnvj ~ ~ e r l i aa11d 10 tlrls!lrc o l ~ t lm.on.. ianrl qfiutl s i r i n c r r m ~ to a size Irhveen 0...rr than filI)*C.1\$1%..~l !trvs invludv tllr ~llilllll~~l~*(ln'~~~~~ll~l~l~tom zind lliS~... c.ttap tr. sollnr I.<. .r .(CL5 n.lr.KIls . F 8.~.O.r are p b e d in a c l l .tn.. shprt rrsist:mw of inlpllnt(. At Ina~silane ~ mtr F'*. l F . N+. Canirr tr.pre<~t~rem s s r s .. tvhc.sstm in tla. ant1 spultrrin~..p. Figure 8. the sp~~tter-tlrpsition is to to ntte use a tllird el&r(~le that pm\ides Inare elwtmns for ioni7->tion.. .rc..lwl~iti~rj~ prnlx. t . 1 I O ~ \ilx.1 .L. tlw cleposi.5 and 1.. ~ L d oof\ . 1 tllr .TiN.t:\l presslln.. p~:umaspray drpmition. T I I sputtvrcd matrrid ~ depocits on a w f r r that is placed facing the target.J I.nptrr 7.i'lt c..ln.. ~nrltcd n reshtanw heating.\! rim of I to 3 pnl. il.tr-v:uie< .riral \upor deposition (WD) tact.... llcnw.tIlinc-pn~ir~ cnl!!n~o. I . 1 1 this tPlnprr..& .. Sinw the target and \rafc. in c u i t ~ but tlrey haye i r e n rcplac~d sputtering for ULSl circuits."~ inn inlpl:tnt..s tim.Isnllrce of ions is >lcuelrntedto%.annrltling tcmpctntlln. c.lnr< c7esP a v r y II~SII resist:inw in the lisl~tly i~rlplat~teel pIvsilicon..~r~lpcrntt~n's ' Ic 1~.. Al..tir. Rat11 p n w r s r can deposit pl!silimn on ..l!c?+t.ft.lition. . ~ . hy In ion l r a m spotterillg.f~. .i...ltpn pnl!-ilimn is clrlx.~ r .orl ir n.I.~ i l ~ ..rior t i m ~ h n ~ ..n~r..rt> E.~itionnh.. AS ~ i q . ..m Fr n.<ls of tion.5 Metallization 4 1 ~ 7 TI. \\JlicIl is (~ssentii\lly inrle.implmtntion.xwcl to IlE4c(: ~lt~rinearidation.' At highersiliInp .lin.r nitnr:. irnplilntatin....ci sincle-c&td silio.. rt.... r t dqn.. rcsistnn'.. In &heating. the stnrctorr chanses to cr .l mmpor1nd5 SIICII a Ti.site<lat a t e ~ n p n h r r of fiOODCto 6JODC.n 1 {..d l)rc. METALLIZATION Physical Vapor Deposition Tllr most canlmon metllocls ofph).d prl!silimn. r .~ inn gwes 'Illrills drppitioe.ill.. ~ P ~ f i ~ l o ~ ~ n t x . h xl (i.. tile p....This StruQllw r mnsi. in (:ll. I)c'posililnl :It n'dllcrrl pressore at ofthv i rcI)CP.n...~ rrnw ion dtxr into 5M-nm lnl~silirnn! XI kc\:" ~ ~ ..lpilirnn +. ..t~ :. soarw mat-rid is Isnted above its mpltinx p i n t in m e\aorated I nlr e n q w ~ ~ t ratonls then travel at l ~ i gvclocih in stmisht-line trajjprtarir$. tiott fill? i< t ~ n to IP pncticd.. CIS. ... ultr n~ethod incrcae the ion density and.0 pm..17 S I .cl ~1 . tt~ t~s i~ . in ta mnqh.e.tjnrt c..I tllr s.l..i..s n rlillllrll midllrr of 20%to tlw r ri].dric:ll field.. gx5-phisr reactions th.5 "(t~. loll d m (em-'1 figure 8.~~i.l i ~ ~ t into .1.r.lnlwntsrcs tnurh loa.~.n Pr..{ .o~tmrnnlorl Imnv.npl.al~llllilllflllelcctnxlrs is d. r ~ f i ~ m to l . . . TI..~nt:~tios. h mltllnnar s t n s n u ~ r r \ l t l t \ u. and Tax can l r deposited Ity P\'I).3 pzn at . t l ~ ~l.sit.( in i t l a d.anrl :alncalil.. ~ tlle mnirr l~ r t n p s in*mmcsattlntrd \ritll rlnpa~tts..at..wt.f. soure ran rl l~ IK._ h.. Ev:tponttion m l n ? \r.~ rrristimn of sins!?-cnstal silimn osd of..tt ~ ~ .III .1% sho\w a standard sptlltrrinq ?sten... Pnl!sili( 1.h.\\Iten t r r n p n t u m ..r strurturc .:I ~ .rtiotl.flllrsn t~.~x a t l ~ r intr.l.lhmin~ l ~ e and t deposition step. Inlplant d(>st.7 P\'. . ohstm'rd itftrr rlopinq and itr:ttin~..m to 0.I.. ~ i t x ~ ~ unifom~ity t ~ ~ i c ~ l l e s\s~eist ~ l i5l 5%)..rv espi-f:/kT). g c u ~ reach a fin. ~ l t h o5" tile ~s u 'C.I(... E ~ ~ n t i o ~ and r ..tr of pnl!rnstallinr grain rancin< in rim from 0. t:lnw drops nlpidl!: a p p m ~ r l ~ itllats of implantr. Another mell~ml to IIX is 8. one op'nltes at a pn7ssilre of 2 to p 5 1 : ..d to tllr sil:lnr prrs-lire. r. f i l ~ l l l l ~ i l l .{i.I.\.....lrerlr~~tly acljratetl. ~ .iltCr.-. thin odde t~ntlrr (..) ion Tlr.vrlllte larget a d impinem on its sc~rfacr.~ .5.a.ms. c3t1sine ixwr i~nilbm~it!:At tc... trllitt. or\rith a fmtrecl cltrlm!~ I lram. . ~ t ~ . slmv Pnrrss ~ I C I ~ C th:tt : t Yf ~ the pnl!si~imn stmdunSaredepsition temperahzn?.ry... At higllrr tmlprnlllres.. .l r a m r\npontion.l! ncUtwing d r p s i t I x ~ c n ~ n e l sienilia~rt... .th!re mye. :. . .tltr lw.~.l r a m evaporation s e r e used estet~si\~Iy earlier generations of intrqratrrl rir.lll~ ! l l i t ~ l to t. rn~rllnonl?( 1 ~lrclllsr ofits lo\\rr prnrsxio~tc~mprnt~~res. ..I . ~. nr. ~ m htllnt h..8.. pl...n..c.w.rtinn o f .l .xi.11 64lI)'C rind fiWec.it ?rle npplirtl fr.C h a ~ n 8 Flm Deoositlon r 8.UHI-nn~ lx.:.llvn .I preferred a cnt. is 1.n pl~nspliontsis <liffusrclat 95fl°C. x ..ldition . tlw initidly drpoqitecl film apppaa a r n o ~ h o t l s rvhm drpositins ayun hrlmv Ire pm\%ili rllnfi~ctrristinsimilar k..q ItwIPr sil. lo to \ ~ . . and sil:me drpletion MTU~. uccua. I<nu.l sntilnnny IIS~IIC i~npl..tl.x<lmwr r p r e s x l ~ r more target material and less mnta~ninationare t n n s f r m d to tllr unfer. or tl. ~ t ~ .lPr(.

.r. s o n r r i n e r \ m b nttsr the top oprnin$nftlle iiolr to seal h r b r e apprrci. n apahilih tllat Itas bern r!e\rloprll rlsillg a rariet).~.llm thmre i rubstnntial gas scattering. + 2\V + DSiF. I\ sol~~tion this probleli~ to sputta?rat s to is vel? Imr pressures.e\rr. ~ l ~ ~mlur.rly nlet.nar? rp.lyrof\ V ~ n v on Si hut not on Sir4 n. Rlm Oeposltion CVD Tunnsten T~tngst'n is llscll imtb as a mrrtsrt plug and n a l i r r t .IS.nr.7 PO-CIIIfor Al and up 103. often \rill) imver electricat resistitit) tllarl tllat fronl !'\ID. ~ ttlir ~ c on i ~ sputtered at hy placins an arm!.t rmllltplll.5 pQ-cn~for its alln!?il.ITt f. The higher the drposition temprmturt. and the less CI incorpmted in TiN (-5%).resistance req~~irements. I I he r e ~ l a c ~ d silicon. Onr of tllr n~ajor nmv spplintions of C\W metal deposition for integrated cirruit prah~ctionq in the arra nf rrfrxcton. + 2NH.. as the mlrrrr.l.tlrr.s pl~sse the diagram of the AI-Si s)5ten121 1 atni. tllp pmlrlemsof encmachment and a mrlgl~ surfiiw . S. Aluminum also adlleres u. This pmhlrm n n h r overconre hy m l l i ~ n .tems tllat n n sustain the rt~:r.3 Aluminum Metallization Alt~rniult~ll its iilln)~ urn1 r~lcnsi\. 8. sl.. Illex n~etals s:rtizfy tlw lo\.lSraplb): Tliis process.164 . Chaptar8."' T ~ plr:~%r 1 P rli81m. clrpositrd 11).52 Chemical Vapor Deposition C\'D is ntt~ictive metalliwtion lwcaasr it nflen coatings that are mnfr~rmnl. elirninnted b m r ~ s e I\' w thew is no 1IF hy-pm~lud generation.:~ tinn p r m s s can deposit \\'rapidly nn the nlrcleation layer..fmr. reaction. Tl~is 1.#l>k'm:lteria .~sic e C\'U setup is 111" &?me a? tllat use11 for rlrpocition of dirlrctrin and pl!silicon lsre Fis..tmrl v. ~ . + H.l to :a .uons for :I nide . Tllr b:~rir I by or cltrmistv lor C\:D \V is as follo\vs: \\'F.. + 4H: + 2TN + 8HC1 2TiC1.i l o t ~a Iung-t~~m\v s sputtrring s!steni. makc it a rlesirahlr tn~.90).lsplar distribation of incirlrnt flux . g m l for has step mvrra:e. Usually. Since altmlint~m it< .~II i ~d ialrcl tivities (2. + 6 E N + 24HCI + i\': Z'TiCl.le. ha$ ~ > ~ I I I\ridespread spplic.is n m l d to acltirve gmil tl~mngl~put. lo!(. d w s not haw p e r f ( ~ selecti\ity and the HF ss I>y-prc..~ctionis responsible for the encmachment of the oxide. . H JN.19 slr~~\\.rrr are hro p.. h \ v pnlnnre C\'D is cgpablr of p n x l u c i n ~ w ~ ~ f o r m a l coverage ovcr a \\irlr range of top* step mphical profiles. a silane rerluction process is used as the first step in blanket \Vdcpositinn to serve a a n~~cleation and to redlice junction damage.~sed.%. After the silanr mlur3 layer tion. a by sputtering fmm acornpound target or hy C\Q.d11ns 11:t\1.J. fonnirlp tlrr . p / ~ m . since it is a liluirl that h i l s ..r. ~ the >.strm". + RSill. n.nl a1 its allrqs at a rate that -In ap~m:lcll1 Jllllflnill.l ~ ~ l c can 1. 4. g:s scatte ring is less important. bo\\.. gm.5.. well . and mn mat a l a ~ nnmlwr of \vxfen at a time. unifomlih and film p m P erties a.is pmN'SS pm'ides a llucleation 1.r ilr. Tile silane reduction p m s gives a high depsition rate and much smdler\P grnin size than that ohtaincd \at11 hy~lrng~n the rrductinn p m s r . ~ on ortllc The deposition t e m ~ m t u r is ahout 400°C to iOO0C for NH. tile s~Iecti\.petronpl:uma under more nrefird conditions.: tlleuarkne a tll? flllx 1mwLs from the tilrget to the substrate. \\it11 NH.cYrlr.r fir tlip mtzgh surl faw of depositerl I\' films.1Xr. for . In addition.t~lmx.j. t11e 8. tungstm's l o \ t r ~ l ~ i trim1 rrsisti\ih /5:3 @-c1n) irr~clr(. Tllesz hvo filctoni are s l i n k ~II & . of mllimntin~ tnlws jr~stalwre the a d e r to restrict the depositing lo nomjial 5".. IIIstancLud sputtcrins m n l i g ~ n t i tl. and ~ J I P targ~-t-to-s~thstrate distanw can be greatly incre.~g.lrn relates tllese hvo m~npnnents a function of teolpwhlre.dt~d tllr t of re.. + 311: + \t' + 611F (Ily~lmgcn redttclinn) 2\W.d r ~ m ~ ~lrr lP\'D or (:\'I). ill~~xvi~~~tlleirioni.e process starts from a silimn reducticln pmss.tmn naotlnrzcr (ECR).'fractory nahlrc. C. allimlioo a ~ l d their Junction Spiking SO!II~~OIIS Figure 8. of s)r... T l a AI-Si ?slrsi r\l~ihits as .zsi. -+ 2 TiS + RHCI 123) 1%) ('5) . Iloav\.?lli?-. At these pressurcr. and sc:%ttrriogof the flux 11).2) -- firld. 11 ~no.. On a Si WnhCt. For example.sp. or NHJH?: 6TiC1. Fmm silnnlr eeonletrical arCarnent. sil:.tlon III intcmtrd clrrllitr :lnd an.- ~lepmitnl its floor. + 3Si + 2\1' + 3SiF.c.. O D TiN n n prnikle hetter rtrpmve.5 Metalli>atian 4 Is! ("11 (2.r l .~~ ~ .rI. r w \ . + RNH. m : than P\'D methmls in deep si~hmicron w l ~ n o l w t C\'D TiS be depnsitcrl"" usir. the . mrtal deposition. wing \s'F. T l ~ r s s!rtems a11mv r for spattrrinqat working pressures of less than 0. this dlo~vs angular distribution to he arratly narm\~~ed. redl~ction is hiqher r and t l ~ 700'C~ for the NJI1. Aton~s in \vl~ose rmj m o is lnorr tllan 5" from normal arc ~lcpositrr~ the inner sufiac'~'~ mllinlaton. thr h m e r : ~ tlrp E N film. Spnttrrin~ with it mllimator is sl~mvn F i p r e K.talfor OW in inlr~ml<vl circalit fahrintion.lw:the lrse of a stnnll ti~rget-to-suhstnte s~paration.rl. to c:lphlrc and spin1 e < l tmm..\I filn~ 11. l~ydrogm.& a s~nallrl.rtinns for II drpoPitian of.ttrring isanother tcclrniqur used t o c o ~ ~ t m l anp11lardistribu~ the \. + S . .1 Pa.? TiCI. CITY EN TiN is \\idely usedas adilfr~sion barrier metd layer in n~etalliwtion n d n n he rleposit.ing~~llirin~c~ tile spl~nering in the\icinihof tarset. gen reduction pmcess pro\i<l*s excellent confom~al covcra<e of tltr tnp. \VF.ell to silimn di~io~ide. (silimn rnlttction) 2\\'F. n.n. Tlrr h. n . 11)rlmgen reduction is used to grow the blanket \\'layer.01 - 8. prn~turc. + 6Hl lsilane reduction) (2..

~ u m n t r l \VUf d r m c the ~ l u m i n t ~line fro111 tltc rdcf 01 .o f siliwr~. the dissolution of silimn does not take plaw imilonnb but rather at only a f m v p i n t s .in33 1.. c l t u m t r ~u i t h rilimn. is a rhallmv jnnction whose drpth is less than b. n i ? r r f o r r . thc difhsion of rilimn into alumintnm cm 4 short-circuit thr junction.5 n i C $ a t 450-C.8 r\i%. wsF pi " tiv~l!: RCCIIIW of IIIP r ~ ~ t P C trilc~ . wl~vrt."' EXAMPLE 5 Let T = YN)"C. u. and O. I l r r r . F i p r e 8.J lint. silic~m dis\till solve.h of e i t l ~ m6st. Thr drnsity nlio is ?.S is 0. c.20. plrtely saturated with silimn.: <.Xl 0 10 I '31 30 40 .25 ~ i ?at 4IWl"C.tnd 1-112LC.~ diffusion in d e p s i t e d aluminum films.\ at? : ~ t .\I m m p s i lion. Consider n l o n r .o r e(amin F pl?. urlllhilih ofsilicmn in nlttmintlm is 0.innenline tcrnper:~tnrc. d m w l in F i p r t .iir Aluminum \\ill fill a depth n f b = 0.35 pm from which rilimn is mnn~mnl.19 Pl*zwrliaprn o l ~ h d~m. tlt~. m c i r r i s t i c ~luring a l a ~ m i n u n ~ p ~ i t i t ~ n ternl p r .d. The i n v t i d F i ~ r r r 5 . U.l~irh silimn \\auld be mnsumed is 4.~ln~nin~x!n t ~ n . thr contari point llat thrn..e haw = elonr. andp.hut :tlso o n the vnlurnr of r at r ntinllm to 1%.X fdl 70 50 'XI IIRI mmir F ' "limn Figure8. t l ~ minimum n i r l t i n ~ ~r r trnlpecttare. .mfr. Fmm Eq. arrumi ttnifwrn disulltttion.va~nntinn by :* . One uay t o minimize alrlminum spikne is to arld silicon to the alulnint~m co-r. 111. thr.356 Si and N'I.16. I l l ? effwtiw area in Eq. Assuminq that this lend11 of aom.~l!~!ninum contavts silimn. 0.LIIP<l rvrrrctic roaq.+. and H = I pm. .nirristic~: is.27.1ct. is .-fl)'C. ZL = 16 pm'.an :+nnealinc tinn~r .t = 30 min. 111" silimn f r l i f i ~ r r <list:mcr. n f a p p r .t r m i r tlmt o ittq p i n t lrlou.~nnralin<. Find the dcpth 6." Ifth? consumption t&es plitc? u n i k ~ r m l y w r the mntact area)\ (\vhereA = ZL for uniform diwlutiani.!IP~P\C~ .3. In a p r a c t i n l situation.inurmilimn r nstrm.rr. ' .Alter . a l ~ ~ m i n ~ ~ s ~ in ntntact l n1et. the volume of silicon m n s u m ~ is tllen I (26) a41erep. 1h. 2 i ic l e n than t h r aciual mntnrt arric I~cncr. r e w t i v r l y . 1 9 shoas tllr solid ml~thilihofsilicon : J n r n i n ~ ~ m .vi4)32!kT) for sil r~ nrte. SOLUflON The dilh~sionmlficirnt ofsilimn in alttminum st5M'Cis a b u t 4 x 10-'cm'lr: thtra. b is inttch larger.7C6.W"C. Z = 5 pm. 57C Tlac 111r1tin~ n t %of pure altlrninurn anrl pure silicon a r e 6Ml"C . is the (lifi~qic~n 1) cwffirirnt c i v ~ hy 4 x 10.Rgun 1 2 Dimtsion of silieon in nl~rminum 10 metdliration. m n r c p o n d i n e to n 11. are the densities ofaluminum and silicon. ~l ne Tltr amount o f silimn d i s s o l v ~ xilll clrl ~~ not only nn t l ~ snltth~lih l l ~ . At . and S b the ralubilih o f silimtl in aluminunl at the annealin!: tempmturc..~ m ~511t.sum is mm. intn tllr . dr tltr n t n n on t l ~ e silimn s~dlstrate lnllst lw limited to Irss than 5 7 7 C . V I l l i.21 illustmtes the actual sitlnatioll in the #I-n j ~ ~ n l i i o n of :Ire3 dun~inum penetratinp t h e silimn at only the le\vpoints \vhew rpikes are fnnnvrl. the depth r t o s. :MI :arc:* Zl.slrlition f r i t h r r m m p n c n t lo\vrrs tllr y .ifill pm.

-trmpmturr min-ir)rreclan llilli~sionis thr priman \. since an I.n..lt . incrc.tor f o r l < c t r n m i ~ t i o ~ t he related due cim to thr o j n r n t rlt.inel voicls \rill for111 in otlrcr reeion<. l~itjst \\it11 nlq< tit:ulilll.. Tllr s m n d ~netl~rxlto patten) tltr dirltylric I. I?.t?rr first is and fill m p p r r metal intn trencl~es.w o ~ c .n.lrrmr stnzar~re. .. of s i l r ~ i ~and p l ~ ~ i l i m n .Zk-c).. :rnd its p m r adllrsirrn to rlit. I.. .rh a SiO: :mrl low-k pol!mcn..~ncrthan .L.Jlya \ a l u ~ E.~ t o t n sin 111rtalcilndrr tllr i~llluc~~ice ) ofalrrent..4 dirlrctric intermnnn? stnlchrrr is hy tlte a dan~rnct. S m r n l difirrrnt trchniql~es f>~l>rication for olmaltilrvrl CIIintrr<ntinc~iq lmn I~:~vP mpnrte<l...lcnrip m. follor~wl lartd I)? drpocition ofTaNICu. tr.8 rrampn>trtit.r .pvr.. Thr r r m s m p p r mrtnl on tlrr S I I K . cont:. .p l.find. s ishing.lrcl"c :an.dn.:. Tlds pileup can sl~or+. ..d to reo~orr metal on tlrr top surface. I I I I . ~ SOLUTION Figun 8 2 Cm%~-w<in!rl '4 ..li. tn . .ln~crt.r such to rt. ' ti. 1XlTFI ol'acnn<l~~c. fol.d~lcd in thr in i t d is is tor:" One sprrial h l ~ e f iof t l ~ e u d il:tm.55O0Cfi. l i5 (I. llas I.4 r.sisti\lr).. metal inltr in sonv.of CIIis 1..Inm' illtcr~nnnrclioe mPtalli~.l.<..<l its .y~ tItc ~ 1 1 sltisfics t l ~ r hy 0~ solt~bilityv\tirelnml.circt~it :acIpwnt c v n d ! ~ c t o~vherr.. to n n o v e thr rrcess nietal on tlir top SUK:+LY the dirlq..l.I tljr . t t t w up t a .. tn~sclws lor metid lines are d e f i n d .clsiclr of olsterinl transport. .rti\.. ~ ..5 P\' is obtitinrrl for d e p s i t e d dsniinum.ml chip m~ti~ifnc~llring conrlitions.~o foiltin.hd\\itl> lmv-k diclwtric 1 s 2 Tr\ inrtnd of r Sin. m n c ~ t l i l t ~ .lnd trt~nclteq tlw .. and t h n.tl ~~ s .i.~oscrt~c pmcrss. Barrier m ~ t . usinc 1 n . .u. altcn. l i ~ l ~ ~ " ~ .lll io~~ ~~..ttcrial . lr Chemical hfeehanicd Polishing I s r e n t ?ran.." The first metlaxl is . s. ...rk.Then a Co cllemiral mcclranical p l i s h i n ~ pmcrss is 1ts. .laln.. This s r c t i o ~ ~ c disorsul y p r in<. ~lll.. its 1.s. IImvowr.r 30 ininatrs..r~r 1..~? \nids c3n rt-sttlt in an uprn circttit..l~lrl etched in tllr intrrlayerdirl~<ric (ILIII. PVD.. r... rtcllinp mrllanl ora stal. Tllis hrrripr mvtd 1..11thr il~lllllill~~nl the ~(1. 'This indiof c:rtpr t1t:fit Lm. A \~\\th l Cu\\ire~srri. N al.~ril. on Al. .ct.t.. romr 1 what p e m l a p r of rc<ltlaionin tltr RC tirnr mnstant uill lr i ~ c h i ~ ~ ~ rt. ~ nf s 11 is \vcll kno.f 9ilicll.~rscs thrnugl~ llbirl rr~rt.. c ~litl~om~nln.~t I<.g. : ~r and im.tl.rt . lllr e l ~ c i r o m i ~ ~ ~ t i o n resistance of alt~lniettrnr n n d ~ ~ c t o n In.ri\li\il).atinl:o\iclr sitnilar tnAL..l ~ ~ i t r i d c surll .. pi~ssi\.\rpwilpr) I. .>1 1 ~ \I. vl..r.lr.tlv~. is removed to ohtain a planar structorr \ritlr metal inl:i\s in lltr dielectric.. rial to AI in ULSl circllils ha$ dr~i\vhi~cks.trrirr nlet:d I t ~ y Irhtm. it it? and iliehrr r l r c l r l ~ n l i p ~ t rosist. Vur tlre <III.< ion.II.rcwnr trcltniq~~rtllat dw \ia pl~lg nt tlie sntnr m.nt p.an~l n'.ririr of and lrave CIImatrrial in tlrr lrolcs and trenches. and olrctmcl~rrnical~nrtl~rxls.kti.p...7 pRcm. r.?" .O.. This methal k also ho\\n a a . t. it n111st not react \\it11 d111trintt111. j r l ~ s i t i o t ~ .l l ~ i step is fi)llmvrul I? rlavmirol rrtrcltnrjtrnl ..cn ihr alurninxtm and \in\ ':lh. ob\'iolls clloiue for .nl is lo i r l t m l .lteri.l.~l..I(. (Fits..rrrd I)? =in Dnmnscene Technology T h r approach for bhria~tinp. For a hpid <hm.41s. n.nrr n111s1 I mrrt tl~r fi~llo\\ing r q ~ ~ i r r r n ~ ~ : i 11 .'r 221.. clefit~t.ll ..n ..4 Copper Metallization until ll.iSlllr c. ~ ~ ya.tallirntiol~ itxllchni<lllr.>?. mpperAou. xs its t r n d e n ~ mnrrlr ilrldc.of Al i. ~.lnd.LI (i)nni~tio~l IW comp:ltil~l~ the orrmll p n w s s .L% the i n ~ aline and tllc riskofxia e l ~ l r o n l i p t i o ~ ~ is m l n m l l L~illlre 7 . rqions \\ill pilc up.~~r o r dual dam:ucr~re procrss.I convrntio~lal mctlad to pattern the lllrtd linrs. C\'I). d i s n a s d later.r metal ions. TllcTaN layer sewer a%a difTnsion barrier I?r.lc..dcondrlc'tors in intrr. - EXAMPLE 6 If\w mplan. s 1.II I I .r and pn-r-cxrtsmp p r from penetrating the lmv-k clielerMc..ltell circllits.x.i.I 0.nsih I]) and thr acti\atioa r n r q I? Eywrim~nt.V \vo1111lelraractrrizr the self-difirsitm of sieqle-cnstal alaminunl. .ctn. I t ~ t t hy thr tnnsirr of t s o n ~ e n t ~ ~ ~ a rleTtrons to tllr psiti\.s.hvc.I \IOSFET nilb $8 I?arnrrmrtd h. tile .. ~ ~ ~ t o n :rrr r r q l l i ~ t to lo\vpr the RC time drlny of titr intrrmnncd . 3. r l t t a ~ i ncopprr c. ~ ~ r .23 sho~vs 1111al e tlw dam:rwnu srqurnce for an arl\anwd 0 1 il~termnnfftionstnlatlrr.lopmrnt ofclrr~tricnl mccl~rnicnl plisl~inp: (CXII'I 11:~s x m m r I incrc:~sinf$~ important for inl~ltilr\~! istrm)nneCfio~l hralrnr it i v tll? only t<clllln!lT? . rrirn to lhr t m l w r t of m.~ctivv ion rtchine IRIE t 5tms lu-inrr clr~vxili~lc (:I.5.ltinnlxc~or[. lo\vrd hy dirlcctric clrposilion. ? I ~l?Il~r pR-cm. Ib. n frorrl the \\I. tlre den. Il'iS) II:~vI~ 1wen P \ : I I I I R I ~ :II)II fo1111dto IIP stithlr for mn. .t lligh wrn. L p w r~s ~ .. lrwing tlie planariretl \\inns and \ a imh.\n t1111t Imth liicI~-mnlIuei~iy uirir~g ~ m . F i ~ t r 8.1& o f a fr. the nw nzrar.siska!~m~ ~ I I IsiIi&n.

~ 1 Figurn 8. Tnhle 5.nl wm stnp I.icl. 'E. I -~ Diclwitic Si. The C l I P process mnsists of moxing the san~ple surface against a pad that carrier s111rnhrhvrrn th? sample s~lrface and thr pad..~l arc iu~tmpir. over l a w or small structures.icin< Pialcn Slo>vr.5 Silicide sits.5.1 sl. .=-?$ 0.ut is not desirahlr &.:cr CMP \Y..5 sliaus a mnlparison of titasiunt silicidr and mhalt silicide. To remove I prn ofoxidr ancl a n.d n t e and thr rerno\ltl m e olil lit!~r . s. spvcral metal silicides sl~o\\~ resiskity and high thermal stability making tllrrn suitable for lo\$. and CoSi.d attack or fracttlrin~ the pieces of sllrf. ( r )Trcneh and \in drlinition. ~ n l l .. CSIP Orhilnl (:SIP linr.ltin<uafer S l u Feeding ~ Drippin< lo pat1 rudm n l r o n ~ h pad n~rfaw the Dripping to p d ntrfaw Lh%n Dmrn Dmw l~csisli~ity Siliridc*!mct.illK lw.5 A Comparison of TiSi.rfaw lu.ccl: tl. IS16 CnSi: .Y (dl s c q u r n 1 ~ x to fahricatr a Cu line-stud stnlcturc r~rin:: dud dam.lid.rfacm. incll~dine r t t r r ellbal danari7ation h . ~ r<. Iltc o~iclc is Find rt~mwal mte.IU olrxtmsiw x < s ~ + a t n l r~amaCr tl..11: n ~ s p ~ t i v c l ~ . $2. to native ondr Silirklatinrl tcmpmlarc (C ') Film strcqs l~hnc!cm?) 2.) t l ~ e 11lcdi~lll key ennl~lins tr:mslrr of m~cllanical tltr aclios to tltr.56 TABLE 8. Sdf-nliqell metal silicidr trchsoloq - . ap. ULSI :ipplication..m.I.is TiSii and CoSii 11. r l .nt otrrirr Orhital n~ainrt mlalin~ \vafcr carrier Lint-ar aqdn. Silicidrs such . either done or\rith d o p l pnl!silimn (~x>lycidr) s aimy tllr gate oxide.alerid s.~' I". One inlportant applimtion oisilici~le e i fur the S I O S F E T p t e eledmle.ir.mn.sirrd planaiz~tion. Dlr!dnr . \lechmical pillding done may tltm~+icnl!\.. makes a flat sllrface across the \\holr wafer). ~.37 1. >areI r and 0. hioh points on surfac~s..rce into :I s l u m \vllew tile? (lissolve or a n off n w p t R I ~Thc p r m s s is tailnrrd to provide an enhanced material removal rate from .tw.c .ainst ml.*lvr F. r Silimn fonns many stnble metallic and semimnducting mmpounas \ \ q t l ~metals.1.l mtia SilicilrtSi mtiu Il?ncti\x.23 P-s i o Ilcsi<tstencil npplitvl. to n.nl lOt:. ( b ) Reactiw ion rlrhinr: diclcdrir and resirt ptten:ine.e .rnc. that d l m n ~ l o h aplwariwtion (i e.IU n5): YCS SIXLW I 5 x Illlo Y ~ D 53L~XWI 1. tllr C \ I P srt11p. .d a stq. ~ ~ t l &. It oi l m. Three CMP appruncl~~s s u 1 n a ~ a r i 7in ~ l are ~ Table 5..5 ~nim~I<.-.ChspCer 8 film Deposition 8.. k.l: and (c) llle s l u q \vllicll pm\ides i n t l l cll~miad mcchaniml cfl~rtr. Figure 820 Scl~ernatic a ChIP pdi-her of TABLE 8.lve ~ n c o n a hIm\. rnll~ced drfect d e n s i h and the avoid:i~lcr plz~smadarnof ase..rl.m\.ad\xntaees ovrr other h w s of technoloeies.ne.it mlatin~ wafer carrier Rolar). 8. IIw odd? rcmor. h w ztffrctin~ planari7iition Iwaitsr most c l ~ e ~ n i caetions t the .S.:rr. . the.i tin~c 5...crr arc tl~re* mnill parts oftllp prne-IS:(in) ~ I I P t ~ r l :1"~ ' ~ ~ ~ po~is~. (dl Ca dcpitiosr follmwd by rhcrniral rn~h. Films Pnrlxrlics XSi. hletal silicidrs have heen ~ ~ s todreduce the wntaet r~ristanw thr source and e of drain.resisti\itips ant1 l~ arr nenecdly mnlpatihle uith it~tegratcrl circuit processing.5 Metallization 4 175 I. Cu linr r.4 Three M h o d s d Chemical Mechanical Polishino (CMPI Slrthrrl R"l. loosening the nvaterial for enhanced cllemir.di.h. Silicirlrs lmqmc important mrt:dlization materials as de\ices l r m ~ n snldler..I. and intermnncctions. tl~r gate elrctrdes. nud Fig. a c h i c ~ the dr. i\hrasiw particles in tllr s l n m caaa mmllanical damncr on the san~ple surf..p.tnial plirlnine.m.2 x 10'" . is (1.

c tllr ~ .~~k.176 r Chapter8 hlm Deposition I SOLUnON nr rrriqti\i?\. depo the sition olmleting is . L \ ~ I Io111ythe silicide. t1b#~nn:d n t Colxdt siticidcs1 1 .l:..I~l.the lnnn d q in: profile in tho oxide and nitride la!urr. n. SOLUTION The SUPIiEM input listing is a follmrs: TITLE COWENT INITIALIZE CNENT DIFFUSION CMENT DEPOSITION PRINT PLOT STOP Deposition Example I n i t i a l i z e s i l i c o n substrate <lee> S i l i c o n 8oron Concentratla-lclS Grow 488A oxide Time-PO Temperature-1090 Or! Deparit 800A CVD n i t r i d e N i t r i d e Thickness-0. is l..d>ilit) Ilo\vr\.ichr. Tlte matorial deposited may be either . m \\rll a. I P . ~ $ a ..t ~ ~ ! n l wtl.tnrl l ~ i ~ l ~ .08 Layers Chemical Boron Net End Departtion Example Aftrr simulstion is rnmpletr. tl~en cnstal orientation must :Jso be specified. CVD appmdmitlrly 4 ~ : \thick. ~ ~ ( ~ ~ l l ~ st.. Like etch simrlation.~trinr(.Inin during l l ~ siliriclntian pmces.~tio~l. This krhll ~ elinlin:4~er t l ~ t -t ~ p n to pitttrm the nrntlx.6 DEPOSITION SIMULATION SUPREhl may be used to sin~alntc depsition pracrrr.\~1cn are mn~narr .Ri. l arm 10 ~CYIIILY the c~~nt:ict r~~sisblnff.. sinslrcnstd films Gill l p Fm.IS:In apern-cont. u. 8. h metal la\? r r ritl.~t-sp~~ttc~rr~l rntirc. L~pp>se \*ant to simulate the deposition o l a ~ ) A silimn nitlidc on top n l a d~ o t i h lqvr \\T.7 SUMMARY ~ \ S I I Iprocess. .xl rll~linc silicid. tt. stmiglltfonvartl.. fullcnr.lr is fiInec~l. the tcnipernhmre must l r qwificd for SUPREM todeteminethepraprr polyii~im grain size. tl.lininS rn\ironlllcnl.lric11 deposits a piwn amollnt of user-sprcifiwl material on top of tlrc nlrren stmctorr..ll s:ucl. and :trlds siliri.In:d osidc md nitride l:tver thiclnesrs ol3i9 vncl li00:\. or~ly$vllrrr nlebd is in mntilct \tit11 Si. i~c mnioni. rrsFti\uly and drpicts thr lnmn inc". mrtalarymuc C\'ll.rr.vII .rr .. T r fi.: Thcn ~- ~ ~ sl.xr nl..<ivti\ih.v Sl!PRELI to detenninr lhc final oddc and nitridc l q e r thichnrr. stnlctllrr.r ULSl circllits iwcilusr of their lo\\.r Ppibnjnl p. ml.~tionin thr 4 oridr lnvr b 8. i \ \ $ ~CJ ill tll? t ir.. resisl an. and molwtll:tr ~ ~ ~ l n .isi!!$ ~natrliatsk. If the ph silimn suhtrnte is doped nith lam" at a lnul of 1O1'cm-'. ~ ~ WidcI? i1~vrsti~.~I?ilih. and :I hug. Sinlulation is cxec~ted wing the D E M S m O N mm mand. prinriplr. Higll-quality.?6.sitc iwl!ridr satr stntcturi. tile substnte d e r is tltc s m l ... . In the epik~da1 ~IwmimI wpor d e p < i t i o ~ ~ .rpor.s ull tllr unn~ndcd111r1al. the rert~lts rhmm in Figurr 8.. tto tllr <nu& . irrinSIecqstal siliwn is deposited.rr~oal ~ m t u r e rt.. the imn is dcpositrd. n. :Ilnollnt of sil.tnd . blmlern selnimndllctor device falr~ication requires the use of thin filnls. Sillci~ll..s pmn.is rr~llsl the pnxluct ol the rhrrl .fi or c:<..el).slt is sensitir native oritlvr m a.rd I)? siliridr sinic or1 thr.n a tempmtaw 30%1 ~ 5 0 % at I(nn:r than thr lnrltin~poillt. ins Siliri. If p l p i l ...rl ~ l to . l ~mmtnon t ( ~ l l n i q ~ ~ ~ .~ p=R.ltPl~ I I L ! ~ heell ~G its 1 . tIIC. d o p e d or uniformly doped. .



Film fnrn~ation oftrll is -50 10 IMQrLipr IU' 1" loq I to to prn Bipolar Collaor (0. injwtion lmer a an optid . low powrr dissipation. lll~lst c~l+.ipter rlisn~sers cornhinations of tllc buic pmvssrs drscril~rtl the pn in our elr:uptrm to f.r of the relative ssiz*. Irnllu. sprcific pmcrssi~lg ~ n t I I seqnenn!s arr drvt. of a component in an IC chip.qrs r r disewtr ilmices c o n n r d ~b\. sitv t r .nce for standnnl bipolar tr~nsistor ad\iincrd bipolar and rlcticc.w . Schematic top\ir\r. aratrd bysa\\ingor laser cutting: Figure 9. The chips are srp.cistor. brc.m mnlparison of a \wfvr to individual mmponcnts.~l t c l ~ i ! or~LlGA i l i t l ~ o w .r8).r of a single XIOSFETand a single bipolar transistorare sho\w~ Figure 9 .el by lewl. it ~~iscussc. dielectric. sacrifici. and metal fi1111s c (C11:iptc. iltlcl :t th!%stor s a i~i~I~-pn\vt'r nvitch.dct.1 ill11str81tr< intrrrclationsl~i~h v r m thr major process steps ~ ~ s e r l r thr ir I-.trtinc m:~trri:d. and indtlctors and The prnc~s~ing sequc.Chapter 9. 2 to gi\r some in persp?cti\.s fonncd on and \ \ i t l ~ i na sioglr.~~l~allo\vjunclion.cmtrrl rirnrir.\v11icI1in tum is often followed by anotller impurity doping or lihn fonnation. I'olisl~rtlaafrrs aith a sprcific resistidty an11orirntntion arr llsed thr \t. m l nrr ad\antages it~cll .ation of a semi0 clltctor u.~<sociatrd the T c wit11 tllrrr t~tnsi~tor families: tllr hipolar transistor.\\rr applintions grnrnllh. ne\v intrrmnnrction materials.rls!+trrlls I.nnection panritics. le\. . onto the surface of the semiconductor wafer.r in. The final IC is made by sequentially transferring d ~ e pattens f m n ~ each mask.IIS :~.5 to 0.~s~ integrated C ~ V U ravn~dclun. P I I I ~ ~ O l (liscretedr\iws. tlo~vrwr. a t I\IP:\m diwlr i t~sml i~inirmaaw grnr~ltor.31 sllmvs asepnntedchip. and molding) pmcesses Tl~r. Thr filrr~ formation strps inclutle tItrrmdl!.s Tllr prowssine sequence for XIOSFETs.r. \\it11sprcid empl~xsis CXIOS and on mtSrnor\.s n ~ pmcrssing seqllrnce for I1igI1-performanceXIESFETs and ~nonolithic e n~icro\ra\. capacitors. dingr. of O ~ follo\ved by litl~npphy (Chapter 4 ) or impurity doping (Chapters6 and i). This 41. ~ ~ l ~ ~ r ~ .ifrr's :m'.~~ingtVSt.l ~ chapter considms t11rt.(7o\\n oxirlr films (Clr~pter3) : I I I ~ l q x w i t r d pnl!~ilimn.20..w (h) 1:mitIcr k) Figurn 92 5i.ll fabrication of IC resicton. <lt. c. inclndin~ r ultr.i~nt. . Process Integration 4 Process I n t e g r a t i o n \licm%:t\r..t.' ICs l~a\.lyp:rltrd\\itl~it~ IC: chip: a~ld dm r an (e) mluction ia prI~t.Ijor IC techaolopies .dl wiring irngtI1: (b) ft11I utili.cn? . Ren~use l ~ keyele.g.e & IW.~hrimtion. ~ . lo) Scmimndudnr uxtrr. each wifer mntainr h a n d d c of identical redanplarcbips (or (lice).I. (hl Chip. IC f.Bricate activr sn~l p:ssi\se mlnponrnts in an 1C. After pmcrssing.III s solnn~. photosic.:I) mltjrtion of tllc i~itcrc~.tml srnmimndttctor suhstmtr : t n ~ lititrrconnrctrd hy :I mrtnlli.r ICs T l ~ lllaior challengrs for fuhlre microelectronics. ( c ) MOSFET anrl hipolar transistor.i55 nnlm thick) B. In a<ltk. Prior to chip scpmtion. rlrctrnplatine. inductor) dc. an11tllr \II?SFET. For P ) L ~ . eacti ellip is electrically tested (see Chapter 10).~osc IC ail11niultilrvrl n~etalli an tion mn a~hct:lntiall~ wduw thp o\rr.? lnicromacllin: thr lrcl~niq~~rs.lnprd to optimkr its prfinn~~ancr. and isolation Xlicmrlrctro~nrcl~anical systrms fonnrd hy orientation-drpende~t etching. tllr 1IOSFET. t r ~ r ~O~ ~ I IC is t11e transistor.~p:~ritnr. ~~ltrathin ovidc. behrren 1 and 20 nlln on each side. Spzcificdl!: it mvrrs the follo\\ing topics: Figurn 9. Ixatlse u i r ~ bonding is a ti~ne-coosun~ing error-p~ :tnd oprcltioa. Lithograpll? is generally follo\ved by etching (Chapter 5). arc on t h r in. \vllicll is :in rnsr~~nl~lc. . rlr\im n n I clost. of lmth : ~ c t i v ~ transistor) and (r. u ~ix. sinl~~lntion IC f:~l)rication of pmcpssrs using SUPREXI F i ~ r9.tn~nic?5tenIs 1. (4 ...s fnbrirxtion of micrnr1ectrornrcllanir.1 Schematic llm\. as sho\\n in Figure 9. tion.\viirr lxrn~linp.ttioo pnttrm.Defrctive chips are usnally marked \sit11 Tlr rlrsi~. hp'cal$.n.\im.

mc~ 1 kn5. iotu bvo parts: t l ~ sheet resistnnw R-.ul. :\I1 n a m v lines in thr lar~t. jilq sl~o\\n tile H-R cross srction) is by .<lttrof a resistor 90 pnn lone md 10 pm uidr.h v ~ mat~rial is of tl~icknrss p. Sisw the srrnnr ferent crotnetricnattenls in the n~.m in (MI). or the numbrr of sqn~res (cnch square b : ~ an area of \%'xI{') in the resistor pattern. hut n t h r r 0. \\: v 1 . nt riti~. 5. \ dio\iclr h \ ~ qmw tla.3 sllo\\~ top and cross..3.nrl .d repion oftlle bar is ~ i r c n of I. s ~ r rils~tl. m tional resistance to the IC resiston.Gisqtlnre~. the resistance is @\...ncrntra. If the \ d u e of y..The sheet rcsist.~ sucl~ tl~ose as sho\\n in Fimtrr9. the meandrr. ~ doping or. s<plarritmi* haw the ral \\?. T I I ~ sl~eet resistann has itnib of ollmns hilt is co~i\cntiondh. t.. t l ~ p \\l\idtl~ ortllr resistor hut . the rlrctlicfielcl lines at the l r n d s are not spaced uniforn~ly acms.ISI Chlaer 9 Process Integration a)esi<lcr111~ a r .. a K ...~pr For mistor.and the. determinedl\.. A R -R m. EXAMPLE 1 Find the t. of a 1101% and p i x ) is t l . is IIIP roohilit). wherr g 7 yp(r)fl. tion. ~ \. P.d m dresistor lint.zck.65 squares. \vhrrr IV is t l ~ uicltll of the bar...~ oppnsitr mndtlcti\ih t!p? into tile r\?lli'r.. the nattrm dimensions. c = g when L = \I! Tlic resistance is tl~ereforc given hy lor' \vl~ere1Ig nsndly is defined by the symbol Rz and is callrrl the slleet mistanw..r irwd~ayd nvirtor in Fiosn 9.l tlli~t rlx dPPtl. ~i. the distrih~~tion and ofl~ix) known.Mfied units ofal~mcm. \\'r can \\. are can ated fmm Eq.ponrnls 9. .r(lonzl \ie-us of h$n rpshton f o r n ~ <1. .3. (wlrich is a hlnction of tllr llolc mn.en I)? tlie ratio Lnr'. Tlir hlOS capacitor can Iw fabrintrd by tlsins u I~cavily chrlrd n. centc~tion).rfacr . .sl~.sit a resistive Ia!rr on a silicon s~lbstmte. 1~ thr : .d aress for thr time lrinx).q~l~~ eocl rtcliin~. vrcl~ d mntaci correrpnflz to appmkirnately O. m tcm tllr I:lwr by pl~otolitltom. rlrtrrminrrl h? the i~nplantatinn diffilrion) p m e (or wrs: :md t l ratio~LnV.ulls o\-t. !. is ~ .1 PASSIVE COMPONENTS 9. Onw tlw \. neClm tile r r cnnk.ur crnwv~ledtoward tllr inside corner. .fa titin la)vr l> of the 1 1 ..l.. Fiplre 9.I1 <.1 The Integrated Circuit Resistor \vhrrr 5 is the junction depth.otltrr 11% n hiir sl~apr.tll! on a silim~t r s~zI>stmte n d i ~ tllcn i l ~ l p l ~(or iliN11se)imp. hm types ofcapaciton arc used in intrStatrtl cirntits: NOS clpcih.rite r0fi.~ union dr 9. L is t l ~ lend11 of tltr har (\$.~lurof H . kno\\n. nftllr tllta s. The end mntan a r e s \\ill intmcluce addi.m r a drlx.<.. rile dillrrential mndudpnw ... tlte total mndl~aanee ile e\.lc~nyresiston in an intemted circuit are fahricatrd sinil~ltanenusly d e f i a i ~difhy . 2. h squarr at t11r Iwnd dars not m~~tribulte rlinctly 1 square.illcl to tllr s. For tile h~ sho\\n in Fiptrr 9. - ~~ ~ .\.!tl.r..r is tllr conductance of a square resistor pattern: that is.@on isllcll Agum 9 3 lstrernkd cirruit n t i r t n n . is I 1 1 .rs~11.n and )'+I jllnctions. The total rnncl~~ctancr tllr entirr imp1nntr.I IC n~sistor.w tl. call also define a n i ~ ~ r l ninva silicoll \\i. 3 billion mn.nrt.3.then pat. it is convenient to srnanttr tlw resistancv ~. I latter appm:ic1l: One 11s x meander shape. prncrssine cycle is used for all these rrsiston.12 The Integrated Circuit Capacitor Raically.a~..3nt:rt< .1.

lKv is c o n ~ i d r n l rI~io....icm.Iler l~ tl~an that of a XIOS c alad.~pncitil~lm clic)arirmnstnnts arc Iring sturli~l.) 5-nrn thick T+O. the lo\wr tile loss from reskt.:rl!lc inrrF. CII.l on s i ~ i ( "sil~r~tr..s~cx...r tl~in-film spirnl ind~etor.itt.urcr. rpgjon.r. ~ l .41~ cletailn1 The fabrimtion p m s s ir m~uidrretlin Section 9.rllyre\mc biased: that is.llere .nnd t~lt!nlrrof .-aloe of. t l ~ top metal r l e t d r a the other plate. ~ tar lur:~nsr tllr 1..K.& is h~rtl~er.u c n ~ of inrluctors can be lal)ricated using IC processrs. an11Cr.'tIFtl~ tl~r increr fsilicon clr\icrs and nch. r a ~ l i c i ~si~~it~lation itnat 1xa ~ ted tmls e 1 n p l o ~ for llotl~ d circuit sior~~lation inductor optimimtion. are tlre rmistances of tlte silicon s~lbstmte asociated \vitIr the rnet:tl lines. .l~ol~ate intwltr~liadudance t l ...) is Ciwa I.doe. of t r to and tile inductanc? l ~ ~ ~ iraluct. and w i ~ r e ind~rctnncr. L . Tire first is to tlsr lo\\.11 illdllclrlr 1%~WPII :lqi '-.acitnnce is essentiall! i~~de~x. silicon on plnss.. Tile top alld cmss. ~ form n \lOS r. ~ ' C .r of elmirons on s \lOS capadlor uith an area of4 pm: few n dirlrarir of l a ) 10-nrn thick SiO.l. (471 I . The thinl ." L - fl.. ~ 1 ... wI~. h~in-film iarl~rctnr.rionl ..lar .~~. as . etcl~etl the oxkle.9) d is tile 06. 11 is tl*.h..?~kin... Tllc otlrcr is to use a tliick-fill11 tnet:~I 10)\vor resisti\ih nretsls (r.rxlis tl.. the of line-to-line apacitancv..~p. illtPeratcd circ~tits (hlXllC:s). Tlrr spiral pattern can ba defincad and ctcl~ed irtetal 2 : tllc on u second cnd of the inductor.....ntm.-re 1'. 2 10"n'r c ~ ifi) 1111111- is tll(. \letale is rlepritcd alld is and in the \ia llole is filled. ~o r to c.inS . . of silimn dio6dr (the didrctric constant E. : ~ ~ tile to nlcl~latr s t r p t ~ d i raptrcir:t~lff r&tall(*.p. Ilrnns. .RSxIO " I ' 1 ~ ~ x 4 ~ 1 0 \ .. (b) \. tlrr n~hstn~tr.l..l[." k: h rr\vmabinwl\\itln r p s ~ x d t l ~ n. C.ausr of ptc~~itic resistallccs and cap:sitancrs.is the inllerent resisti\ity of the oletnl.\l.llo\\rd n ~~rctnllizntiorl . figun 9. .lwtmls = s. but v... Figure 9. insulaton uitll 3. region 1 .in I I P ~ cx. ~ = O 4. clrfined (a1 \' @=s-xAxrl I i i I =3. tl~r rrsist.nlt:~geand 1 is t l ~ l.-JI junctio~t ctpwitor are s11o\vnin Figure 9. thick o..L$ Si. \vllicll h:l\te dielectric...lrea. or ql~artxl r r d ~ ~H.~de>r Intul(r.lL> I r i ~ I ~ . Ae to replace hl) to rrdun R.. is in ilmrir.-\. and $ .it?. of c is rial.r. . The series resist...r . r 9. nplcitnncp pr unit art.* oin!~ )I.. .9) to reduce C.l f l l ~ rnrt. hvo-level-~netnl spiral ind~lctor. ninilciotl ion impli~ntatian used to for111I 11' rrgio~r ~ I I P or is in \\indn\v ..nell.lp. the top tie. l ~ a~p.a tlliek n.tide la\.a~ional..~nd fwqarnry rcspwtiwb: The 11i:Ilrr the Q \.jX10' .. and r is t l ~ r.~roci:~ted < srries resistance. to n* Tool~t..ide la:rr is tltrnna{lv T..idr To is t h ~ m a l l y groun or clepnsited on a silicnn substrate.~t'r 1 .a. and (I.nn0.. Process Integration 1 SOLUTION I 9. and l e s w the htt. 5 L. I. silicon on sapphire.wl~ere R.0.. I SiOi SiO..cc<..3 The Integrated Circuit Inductor 1C inductors llave brnl \rirlrly usrcl in III-\~-IX.-.uk.. :\p+tjunctio~ is sonr~times osrd a s capacitor in an inteprated circuit. A thin o.~ppro:lcl~ all rlscs insl~lsti~l< suhstrnte (e.icI. ihl p-n her of trims. c~~piacikltlce tl~t. side S C W ~ S a nl.duces 1111.r tlre performann. TIN. tlrr de\ice is usrt. 111errsist~~mcc tire s~tbstmte.ls~ ~ ~ ..m:ls tllP 511mlllldinx tl. dilficlllt i t ~ ~ . ~ hy step.1 Passive Cornpanems r 187 orid?.tc. The first mrtal is tlrrtl depositPll and defir~rrl one earl of the isductor...pr is tllrn tiler. \vl~iclt is defined a L d R . m s it.(l tlle sr. .. . brcause this stnlcture forms part ofa hipollr tmncirtor : a npacitor. The capitcitnnce is not amnstant.<ia.. Sonle appro:~rl~es lor inrpro~ing l ~ e talue. S5 x 10"' (:..erlllnlbilit).ndest r of tl1e am..nor? attention in silimn-had radio fre.~trrl junction capiritnr.llPrr is tile &Lirlmric prnnittivih. an important fiptre of merit is the quality Laor.is t l ~ c appliml rrrprsr .4 lo1 intqalcd UOS c.9xlO~"C NIIIIIIW~O~ cIccirnns=6 .. The Q \.. ~ ~ il m. r s an r.anwmmt ill .111rlcross-swtional\ ~ R \ Tofn JIOS (aPCiLr top arr slar.~nn..f r r q ~ ~ \la.1. . Figores 9.SP~I . h ~ ~ lo llrr ~ ~ ohtnin 0.. 11ne n~rcl an11Re. Sest.rlnore anrl .:hapnr 9.jrl. TI\(.lid I m u s r tllc lotver pl:~te t l ~ cap~citor 111mleorllra\il! dopd n1ate.4 lines.sit. k>I.lr cclllatio~~ to estin~ate squaw plm~ar tllr spir. : 5v x I0 ' nn =6..tpplicd \vltasc is 5 \' for Imlh cscs. I .. as A via l~ole dcfinerl litl~ograpl~icall!.. it is man.-dirlrrtricexist t Q corlsta~itmaterials (< 3.nonolit~~ie . To ev.. s t a v+ndow is litl~o~n~pl~imlly and etched ~ ~r . tilrvrl irltrrconllectio~~ c l ~ n o l o ~ te rs iraw started to rcci.UUIIP.silnr..inllo. ~ ~ tlre divlcrtric.1etl.in vaclll~ln x 10-' kll~n)... Q...i. Innst popl. ill ~ i 9. TOinCrcav tile T. or 11~.52slro\\s the equi\dent cimit r n ~ l efor an IC intltrl tor 3 .70 as11 b shots. fonn .i\..9 to 25 m . motller dielrctric is deposited onto lnrtal I.9xR. tile p rep..I. r ...l a silicon-h:~vd. .. IIIMIVI fnr t11ia-fiI111 and illdncton 111usttake into acrount IIIP w s i s t n ~ ~ l~ c of t ~ 111rtd.lrea.111ius of tlle spirt11ill 1111'tPn. .stnte. 1higher resisti\ity tl~an s dors the p' regjoa.Ispiral itillduetor...p.uilt-in p t e lotial 6 r of the junction. respectiwly.s.~ \.I-~:. .? Thr .. 9 I~ .zc. ~ t ~ .? plate. <. EXAMPLE2 \that iq the s t a d ehsqe and the numbc. and th.uin to r a (\k + \..uncr. i also . sue11. are t11r mnpling capacitances heh~cen nnrtnl lines aarl the s~rl. i fro. sillll. i (b)Chanens fhr dil+ctric cnnstant from 3. TIM.&j I O I ( = zi3 8 : .ser lieearly \\it11 f r e q ~ ~ ~initially atid then drops at lti~lrcr ncy lreqomcies k... of 7 and 2% r q w t i r c h : T l ~ 310s ca[..icbtes.iluate the indnctor..

. what is the w(1111rwI radius ifthe num. ( b j ?+. I r r of tunlr i~ 203 SOLUTION :\rmnlinc tn Eq.In IC.ral and \.6 I1~dacti<m the hnrimntal atd wrtir.b). <loped (-10'' ctn-').: loc.'Tl~e main differrncrs in a bipolar tmnr si\tor in . rrsldting in an a~lditionrtlrctludion in area r r (Fig. (cl r> n.lnr transistor nf in I ]#lnr.ia strl.9.rirs redsla~lcr t l ~ collrctor.ljorprowss steps tltat :Ire iisrd to &lbrici~t~ d r \ i ~ v tllc s11m\11 in Fiwr. borird l.ti<m ikol:tti~m. wmparccl \\it11 e discrete transistor.%l pla) is thmnallYg r n w ~ the uabr. .:i!. 111tltr n~id-IY.or <100>-orieaterl.full..2 BIPOLAR TECHNOLOGY For IC :~pplic. 9 .2 Bipolar Technalaw 4 189 ("1 Ibl (cl (d Figun 9. lr and dl S d w l oxitlc iad:gtirm4 (bl 1cr.~pacitmlwlrc.%) hcettsr tlie base an11cnllector contacts a l i ~ tllr isolation region.1 The Basic Fabrication Process EXAMPLE 3 For an in1emte-11indwior\\ith an inductance of 10 nll.tverlimmsions in the snhrnicrnn r@on (Fig. \$*ere pmbidrd hy p-?~ jttnctions (Fig.dIs :in< tic:d isolation is prodded 1.7. For an tt-l)-n bipolar tmnsistor.li?Iltl!.dent cirntit mulrl for a88 intrpnted inrlltclor.1 An cqttC. Figure 9.~tion.).nlls tile 11. a ~ ) Xest. Prior to 1970.lation. ' 92.1 1 ~ " &iW. k ) .fi illustrntes tlie redaction ill r r ~ I I Psize u f t l ~ hipolar tr. pl~rpoce this 1:lyrr is to n~inin~izc sc. A thick of dlr of r iO.~y~=r. 9. thrrrnal oddr t \<a*tlsrcl for latrnl isol.7 sl~o\\s prrsprctivr \irw a oran 11-11-II hipolar transistor. l Figun 9.h p collcaar.of n r p i d intluctor on s silimn substrate.umumt of Io\\*cnrqvanniic ions (-33 -10"' olii? b i111pxaan~c7~ lid! into tllc \\illdotv rrgior~to serve as pn.r 9. y v i a l l y \ 2 S I and ULSI.~tions. 9. In 1971. fi. the startin? material is a p .u :I t>pical slirrt n:xirla~lw orapprosin~atrly 1 R D . the "'-1) junction.lnt of silitnn cbodde (3. polislird silimn \tafrr.. l) >.deposit (Fig.tnd entitter stripe wvidtbs 11.t e ~ n ~ r . I .. 9 . the ~t emitter e\trnded to the \valls of tllr oside.Tllp lint step is to f o m ~ li~~riwl T l a a la!rr.rsprctive\ i ~ w nlno? :\-.ertic. but also the pamitic c.!lu. t I ~ i g l ~ . restrlting in a sd~stanfiil rrr(luclion in dr\iw size (Fix.Os. the size of hipolar transistors ~nllst ~ for I n ~ l ~ l c rtol lltrPt llicl>dvnsity rt~quircmmts. and the l a t e ~ t l p isolation r e o n \ws . ( .9 for silimn).cr~lnpared uith 11.!.. This srdion nov s i d r n the 811.p p srd fonr~atice than can be o b t i n r d \\it11 1>-#1-j> bps. Ir.I. Osiclc iw.5 ~ n Srhrmatic \in\.t ! ~ . are tl~nt rlrctrocle mntacfs a n :dl Tile n~ajority bipolar tr~nsiston of usrd in ICs are ortllc ~I-~>-II h~ I m u r r the l~iclter nlobilih of minority carrirm (electmns) in tllr h u e region rcsslts in I ~ i ~ l ~ e r .I \\inrlo\v is tbrn oprnrrl in t l ~ r on A pmisrlycontroll~~l .:\t t l ~present tinie.msictor in rrcrnt !ears.Iss * Chaoler9 Process lntepration 9. ~ t ..oxid" w-. 2 .irrs.3).F i y r r 9.a!lsr ofthr rnlalkr d lric const. the dr\icp size.s reverse bksetl \\it11 r e s ~ c to the 1 1 . TIIPlateral odd? isnlation :tpprn:tcIt not on$.ttrtl on t l i ~ s~trface lbe IC \\%~frr. 9. hot11 th? lat<.\'.al dilnensions of a l>ip. ntno~ls ~ .e~itinteractio~ls behveen dc. and . ~) \vIticll 11. 9. in \vhich lateral isolation is prn\icled I?\. * ln~. all lateral and wrticnl dinlewioiis I ~ a \ hern scaled dam. c I l l > . eacl~ top or and transistor mtlst Iw ~lrctricall~ isolatrrl to pre\.~ dloiw of cnstal nrientnlio~lis 1101 i ~ci tl r a for hIOS devices (src Section 9.. 6. Rw:a~~sc jlia clions tile "tical are fonnrd insidc the sen~ico~idnctor.

l(c) ~ t .r.r. tlte nitriclr may the the cmse damage 10 tile silimn surl. F i ~ o r e 9. The pl~otomistis removed. implant (d) (4 Anmic impla81 Figun 9. Tile seinnd step is to deposit an u-hpe r p i t a d layer. (or clmn. ib~ Epilxial Ia!vr.9 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .olt:tges forw xr in<)rrquiw tllinllerLi!?rs (-3pm) and hiqI>~rdopingS x 10'hcm~').i~ ~. r a l o \ ~ . id! Emitter and collcvtor itnplant~R~ I~I .. k and (1).0 Cms-vdonal \ia\. Chid? l i n ~ ~ . anrl l m w l i f l t ~ s i \ i y i m p ~ ~irct. Boron ions are t l m i~nplwtrd into tllc rxpose<lsilicon antar (Fig. and tltr wafer is placed in an oxidation furn.190 chapter 9. t o a t l ~ i c h e e suclt tlv~t top of the oxide \rmmes rnplallar with thc oriend silimn slnrfac~ ininimiz the to tllr surface topoppl~):This oxide isolation p r w s is callrll local mi.tcr dtlringsuhwq~~rnt higl~-trrnpent~~rr S C .rr.~ O V of thin oxide. Because of segregation eflectc. ~ nitride-oxide l:~ycrsand a b u t llalf of tlle epikuinl layer arc etchnl lain< a phalorrdst ~s mask (Figs. . is wmr ontdiff~lsiall fronl tllc bllripd I.icv. Sinw the nitride layer has avely lo\r.i nfbipnlar transistor hhricntion.silicon (LOCOS). (oi Buried-layer implantation.Q r semimnd~~ctor prevent \\ill fa) Bomn bast.90sl~o\vs cmss section of the isolation odde after the rr:maal tlic of tlw nitride layrr. 111e tl~inl step is to Cnm~ latcr~l tl~a oxirle isolation region. ~ h ~ r rdietal circuits (\rith tlrrir lo\\:r\.aial i. . ~ m c s s Integration s 1 a crnss-srctionnl \ic*v of the dc\icr after thr rpit:Mnl prrrrss. IWl H w . 9 . The isolation oxide is ss~tz~llp xro\n. This is calld tl~e clmnriel p' .ir. ~ . W .oridation rate. ~tnnristord i ~ lo)~ ~ iu3lalion.1!. If nitrirlr is ~lrp~siteddirectl~ontosilimn \b~tltout thin oxide pxl. (dl Chanstop implant.tltat tlier. t m ~ ~ m t ~ ~ r e e pp m s sd h o ~ ~ l rrlrelployd. Amlm ltse d n ~ ~ iinit11tllrir l ~ i e l ~ r r ts voltaxes for amplification)require thicker layers (-10 lrml Imvcr dopings (-5 x IO" cm-'i. The thichn~ss the dopine a11d mnwntmtion oftl~e epita\ii~Iaw mdetern~inml t l ~ e I! by ~~ltimate of the clevice. Collm~rrlIy:~~limn-nitriducl~ition (-IMnm).\I) sl>oolrl l a ~ i n 1 1 1 ~ Iw d b~~ticcl lii\. To mininti7r otltclifftaion. Sot<.r. thick oxid~s be gram onlgin the areas uill not pmtrcted 1>ytl1e nitride layer. (-2 Figlre 9. step.lycr into l l ~ rpi1. itad s I i ~. h tlrin oddc pad 1-50 "rn) is thenr~nlly m w ~ tll?rpit:~~id g on I:t)rr. (ci Pl~otomsist ma+. 111ostof tile implanted horon ions arc pt~sl~ed underneath the isolation oxide to form a 11' layer.vto~?) SOI because tlte big11cu)ncentnlion n i p .!otion of ..tl.~ ofbipolar ~ fabric~lion. Tile oxidr is removed and the wxfvr iq plawd in an epitaxial reactor Tor epitaxial gro\\th. 9 .N) SI (dl Figurn 9.

v l ~ i d ~ I I Il in PXWSS of S~V(. oprralion nrust lx Eacli oF.ntll tllr rt~rittrr n be approenlatt~l!.~ wxfc-rt~srlt~ss.l:. F:&iltlrr generally \till i~ppmncll. s. TIIvd. Iri~~-~olt. Tltr cnllcctor doping is pivm 1))..cu . tlris. I.wd 1:tlr.r .. for ilid<dricisolation is \ l t r . an11 ~110\\11r mlr Pmitt.n (Swtion 9.rr arc six filnl fonnntion opemtiolls.ltnl fn>nzotllrr (!P%~<M 1 ..I. of RII? one 01 (llr o p r . Self-Aligned Double-Polysilicon Bipolar Structures I l i e p m v a slro\\n in Figlrc 9%-r n k anotllcr l i t l ~ m p l r istep to ~ b f i nan oxide +on n c r to s r p a n t r tlrr base and cnrittrr mnlact r?*ons.r an<lcrpwva I~i$.9 to fornr tllr 11-hlu.Tl~ir \ I O S m o q r ~ t i l ~ l ~ C prcxrqs is w n 11wfnl61r n~ix<.~ \ is fon1w.ch i~ntittrr.lllpl.~t ~lifil TI>. ... ..KLI hundred snits.\.r.II the ~ t t ~ i t .. ~hiF. tltose in i:iplrr5 !).. r annrxl~r. ns x.lmll. ~mllrr+or llnpinen ~ e ~ ~ n t r . itsod B...d SIhIOX (wp.td~ing.tivv \ ~ t y to reducr tlrese rffmcts is by using a rcrf-olig~stl stn~ctttre. is . ~ n d . I . oriel. a Calrssi:m distri.. ~. ~ .d on an ori<lcI n . 1 :\ftvr nni : tii~~~ l1>1.~clt.ttir ~ I I .1 In). ... I . II. Tlnr main nd\mtagr ofthis f ~ c l i r ~ iis itsu c l>rc.. n I) h..ak(l~l\n ~ ~ lticll volliagc IYI\VP(. ~ ! n ~x ~i... .Tllis p r w a is r:dlt. ~im:~use ol'tle rnnccnh. ~ ~ l l t v t ~ r ~ r in F i q r e Y.I?x. .~tions.~ is. clol. ..* or Iyc.tion~.Iv.vr). Tlte most r.silir....e pr. ' 9 . sir litbomPllir .r. hxsr.~ .. tl>r . emittrr.:.t l ~ \v. I. Ikw dopin? prnlilr lrnl. ~ t r [n. I (or3 n.llt.er lllal i? hnlly isnlatc. t l r odd^ lilxer arnund ib p r i p h e ? and is ia~lated 11 from its rnmnnn atlntmte l y a n' .ll. \\rol~lilin 11 silic~m an i. n i t c ~ r ~ ~ I .~liotr 9.r..lt. or SOT.l:lr p n K ~ r stllc.kcts of sit1~11~-c1?staJ n i m r ~ d t ~ cI n~ ~ ~~ppm...<.ql m . awn \vithin the isolated boundary wl~icl~ inrrmmrs not only tlw pzmitic rapncit:src~.tion fnr ill.s ii*).9.. s. .l. Sinw tllr top silimn is so t l ~ i t r .d ilaidc :I <llW)>-orirntccl)I. .crlr 1..~ ~ ~ lr instdator.Illat lhv i ! ! l p l ~ ~ ~ t r d \$ill wtcl \\ill) silirnn to inmr IItt.i?e 111 applications. h'~.*l o y c c n ~ .zwsbrcatlse nfoatdifilsion fmrn the buried I:?\rr lion 9 2 2 Dielsctric Isolation In . pnv.qqt.r.. This t~rl~niqn.d (Ilt~l. .c.xt.. Tliis civrs risr to alarcr inactive clr\irt. deriw is ~ ~ l . inhtian sclwlne described pre\iously for t l bipolar tnnsistor. l i < ~ .rl:.itian h? itnplant.riclc .. (7llh.lfc.ctor ... but :xlqo the resistance tlrat d e p d e s tmnsi$tor priormancp. ~ w I. A. dilh~sion. T l ~ othrr p r w s s r s arr .m. srs t (Itis . .tl!1~o5t ~ ~ 1 1 1 1 . ~ ~ ....1 Id). zgc r c ~ ~ l ~ tfi mg ~~ l l ~ ) ~ : ~ l l t is~also :innv:tI(d otnt in tliis prwvss i ~ i ~ .r pmfilc. ~.. t ~ and t l ~ cnllc~*or. I prcm.fftr.ttirr svitclting tr. the epitaeal doping ( 1.. itntr etcl~ingoprr. ...c.. 8..ll sotlrn..r r \ C~ r i~ also mmpatil~l* with mwlern CVOS intcgr.11rl and refillinSit witlt oyi<lr (Fig. zs 9.~ tlrr c o m p l r t ~t~msislor of l along a modinate perpendicular to ll.33).thr isolnlir.. st larger depths..sr~. u .1 I . ~ 1 in I:im~rc 9 7 .rp inn r ~ l ~ n ~ impl:u~t.trn.d 1111.t(io~t-<kpn~k~~ts i \ i h o f a ~ ~ i ~ .g<!n l:\vt. the dmice is i.LCC.lt..t!.d I~igI~->nlt:#sc l>iel>-clcnsit? :p:uncl ICs.r.. ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ...l.1n. 1 1 .* ll~rotn~ln r tllr.)wr is to oflxx.~0lnfion.-tc~n~.its rtlm. Jlo\vc\rr. l l i o n ~ .~n~istor. t h ~ TI..rth.r~ n...<I p:rssint tlmrn... adifferent ica. fomr inatI:itin< tul.inc pn.prrwtt(. I:?\.tilt..~ttlrr (1%.<l llotlt its C ~ I ~ I I I s~~l>str:~tr. : s .r.t junciion lbnrird la)~rl. ~ r . .lnndine nviKlnlnn I.. cT. 9. I. ~ t is'finLrr 9.. and n collr.orl r8!lslr:$t~t s i n ~ ~ i ~ lr. a <lit. ~ilrc~. wcs i l l ~ ~ s t c ~incI'iq~rt.OCOS pm.~ t d trencl~ (Fit.d8. tlrr IV.ti 4.giorl is m a i l s forna...sx srquc..

The p.t.^ ... ti~s .I.' -. Iwmn <liRtns<?I:at~~r..14.3q...I.ttr ~ ~ O AIthin i:t~vroftI1en11:11~ i d ir ~IIPIIgnN71. l i ~ l i s iw~ tn r to fnnn the emitter region .t.d u d \rill1 homn.l. 1 suIxn). openine 0. ~thicl-rrr~s . .lrtiltq. \ t l ~ r n sirlo\<dl-spner osi<lt.y. 1 ~ . ..t t ~ p the scli~:~liw~~~cl ~ l ~ l ~ ~ ~ ~ l ! s i l i w n 2. is riltintr 01lamn I Fie...nrlt rvfille~l p n l ~ ~ i l i ~ nSIIO\\?I in Fi.4 pnn ~fsidr<tall oddp 0.. ~ ~. tlre seml~li pol\.tT. nnrl a relati\:elv .ntortllolr to u>rnrd ~ q r ~ * Ce.rlclt. ~ I . c~c.I:L.zc \rrtictlly. nprninx in t11e CYD usidt* and pi.rtioilsidm\dls of tltr I t m & 0.. :l r~sttlt f t l ~ o u t d i ~ t ~ s iofhomn f m ~ n p)ly 1 into the ~ o e nt~ the all.. ~ ~ i C n t ~ l is the rlot~ble-pl!silim~lstn~cture 1i~.rn<lllitnrlr {Fiq. :.~~.I.an .\\il~> I P :c.. ahlt. I n w and emitter ot~t. and fi.~w 11iN11sio11 source to hrtn t11~ s t r i n ~ i ~ ~ I.tnnvl stop itr~plalltof h r o l l ill Ill? imttom of^.. rxtrinsir p.jth n.].<.r p' pol!silimn lhue mnt:tct (Fit.e r l t ~ n ~ I ~ lityc. ~ .jilimn la!~r is <lqxxitrrland implilntr~l nit11A o r F Tllr rr' pnl~silicvs d l ~p>ly2' is ~jser! a a solids ! 1 I s pl. n. the extrinsic ar a nqott ail1 In. lint pol\silimn I. o d e ln!pr.pit:~~ill! A twncl. Tla. . n~I)rtr.. ~s Ir.i~cvls w l ..!I. I..l!rilimn.?tl.c{ I .lrl odd?.. 'J.~. is ~nntler 1 rmittpr~ mnllrt..19 !)I wit11 n.dl~ r l l .l\. .xicl. it fills the tlte c~.c:.rtr... is tl. the intnnsicb.. 9 1 3 I..r rt+nn ir tlten b m ~ r rtltrnr~elt l dopant o~~tdifftlsion p l y 2.. t...ti11 1%..l. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 1 . nllms the fal~rication emitter r q o n s smaller than the of rninimtlnt l i t h m p h i c dimension. a ti<. Finall!: Pt All11 is rlcyositrd and sintered to fomi PtSi over tht.. ~ ~ ~ ~~... wnrl. RPCXUX.cyq \tn~'<tnrt~I ~ I w ' tr:~n<istor 1t11iIton a111 1 1 .tio. Thr t-ntitlcr nl.f (In.. the n. ~ R I .~u.n. This a n P s to self-...ww 9. .dim lllc intrinsicnnd mtrindc ha* yionc.id. uuyl s r ~ i ..itlt~l tn......:..8ptn a i d e will sl~rink a b u t an to 0.ou.I). 4 ~ l ~ ~ . \ f t r r t11e mntiwt is c l v w d In rtSnto\r an). I O S P tltr themla1 oxide m u p i e s a l a p r volume than ~ tlw ori*nal wltlmr o r p. . !ilk)... n. ~ I C ~ Y Process Integration .... n r ~ .. .sel .r mst:rcs. a.- stntcture .. .... 5 .... tW. 1 ~ ~ Fnllowin~ oddc tltr step. t for ~ ~~~t . o lor thr cln. i Ftc..1 ( 9 .l pl~siliws rapp-I I!\. This .I.~c. TI.~u~re@onform& tningion implan. tnncl.71~tlt c..r is m\vr?d \%it11 rbemic:~l\ a p r deposi.h ~... f ~ .. Inl!~ilimn rmittrr:~ndtl.. p~l!~il. is ~ I:t>~r.\rapid tl~ern~alanned from for tla.tctzd p ~ is ..r mnt:tct uitlt the intrimic bmr meion tl~:~t f o n a ~ l n r d . :\ ~ b d l ~ ~ e m i t ~ cu tr.. ... is <ro\rm.lifi~sion I. Srq.icilitat~s fom~iition steps the olhdlmvemitter-lwe and ml!wtor-h:~rr junrtioss. ~ l tlacn q \ % m o w r the ~tcIt?dStnlctllrP.4 on ..lc .bride is !ltlVk t3vicle ~:ll~pm%rt~:~tt~ly pntl is y o \ \ i ~ the v<.r~rrreons arr alco forr~trd cltlrin~ tllrr.I . O ... ~r.21 thick pI. d ufthir oxide d r t r m ~ i n the sparing behwrn the e d p s oft]..l\.. T l l i < wlllaliymd slntd?ln....to n1..tell pnKrcc IS ~ vto ~ K ~lI X I L Y .rvk is used topattcni tlte emitter resinns.2 pm tlrick is p \ \ 7 l on each siclr..ll...utd t l a emittrr e l r c t d e ..lnd ~ .a. :a soli<I-plt.l ~iatll IIIC.I. . f i l l t ~ a i t l ~ l ttnrlnlx..>. n.+I1. n*..:t~+ive etc~lillC ion ~ ~ the 11.t)rr is drpositcd nntl Iten\iIib.n cl. TIIIIS..t.-I . l. I)..pie 9 I:$.

) Aiter stripping the pl~otoresist. 9.\vl~icl~ sdF-aligicd nit11 rrsppct to t11r RI~I.I. anenic ions arc ilnnlaated in tile rllannrl re-cion to dt.all I(: trrl~sol%?..~pacikuln~..L+ iortlir arrrnicinipl:aat.Tlbe <1C1)>arirntation ispw.nl.5 \.i]r ions. frrred over c l l l > because it 1i.+s tllr <lt.IIy ..5 pin. :mcl to drive in thc lnrnn inlpl:~nt.1Ml.duc.c ~ sllO\\5t I ~ c ~ .c\e the thrrsllohl vnlklee 1c.q1re9. ln tlw ~ PnrkI+..r dr\iccare.lre Fipl~re 9. (forJ)-krV ng AS.to latvml s t n ~ ~ c l i of tbr ilnplantnl ion. so~lrc? dr.5 \I)..~t a bipolar transistor. 9. T h r first step is to form tllr oxide isolation region using LOCOS t w l ~ r t o l ~ .r ~ ~ t ~ ~ n s ~ n~ t ~ t imkc l:ltmll r ~ i ~ .ll odde isolation. 9.ptinn ol'. liKl. 1 n ~ fol~iib is to fonn tlw sourm wddmin.'At this rkiec.\icv is sc:~Irrl down.'junction is required in the bipolar tmnsirtor nlr dnpillg profile in a hlOSFET is not Xs cnnlplicxted as tll. a silimn nitridr (-1% tin!) deposition (Fig. to incrrm the thrrshi s ll~r l lrlcl\nltepc to a predctmninrrl \slur (c..v. is o.14 Rrrltta!on i n the an? lt. dedms.5 nm) is thermally grnm follo\ved L?\.. ... .cre.tly (loped I-10"cmn~').1tion nnd also iu a xettering !ayer nlo[.. l \vllere the nitridr layer is rrmo\. .15 \\it11 Fi~gure for the hipolar tnulsistor and note 9.lc lcllpll 7.Tltis sec+ion nmv mnsi(I.g. lo? m.~~I. t ~t lator ht\twn 11. ~ ~ ~ is a Iluried-l.iws arc.lfd>).5 1 pm.~ l andi gate-so-~w o ~ ~ p l i n e c .j ~ f ~ ~ ~ p m s s r .) t l ~r l l Thc nitride l:~yer covered hy the pbotorrsist m:uk is sahsrqi~cntly nnt rrrnovrd I! rtclting..ual tlie git~ e1etnlli7.3 MOSm Technology P-*a.7.l is rrn~mprl.rl~nnnclc. 1 1 .lioin).5 pnl and the m n r s p o ~ l d i ~ ~ g m a \\% a b u t . t l ~ (Irvicv arm s l ~ r i n k Ivss tliali 1%of 3 gatr of r to tllr arlv hIOSFET Dcviw nii~~iat~trb~ltiol~ c t r rto ~ l l t i n i l rTIIF p t r lengtll sill is e x ~ l .The t l ~ i c b ~ cofs tlir field oddr is h~>ic.911 0. s1s. Conlp. s to The second step is to p r v the sate oxide arid to a<ljitstt l ~ tl~resl~old r wltnp.~frr.l? sin~pler its bwic stnlctllre. To process an n-cllannel hlOSFET INJIOS). The Basic Fabrication Process r i g r e 9. pol!cidr (a c~r~nposite of nlrtal silicidr anrl [nl!silim~ri.pol!siIimr~ gatr .Tn.'Tlie actiw dmicv area is defisnl I): a photorrsist mxsk m ~ d lnron dvanstop a I:tyvr and is then i~nplnntrd l ~ r o ~t ~~ maipnsite nitridcoridr layer IFiz.LS the gate 111steri..~ ~IOSI:ET. The mlnpositr nitridr+ddr layrrowr tlle :~cti\. i<rrlsarei~n~lanted c l ~ m n rregion. :\fter t l r s ~ tb l*?nmiml IFi&9.s art. .xq. 1~n.dion i n the size oftl~t'XIOSFET in rrccnt years. .llto rrduw tllr sllrrt rrsiskinw to :~lmi~tW O .11a \Lpnl?cidr) I. ~ ~ x i c i k ~ ~ ~ r:l ~~ c he ~IIICII s111allrrIllan the g:ite.1Fn). I .\(OSFET is m. . I ~ I C ' are only ovrrlnpl~iepor tllp gate is (Itlt. to lp.u dexiff MYXI . -0. polisl~al silim~lu.ction9.tvrr s c..15 sho~: e p q w c t i r r riew of an n-cl~annrl MOSFET prior to final i~~rtalliz~. .n r top la\pr is a pl~osl)l~ona-dope(l silimn diodde (PQ:L~s) l ~is 11se(1w an insll.. s.13. mnsidprrrl hrirfly in S~. The tliird stcbp is lo lomi thr gale. tllpn.nsidenl. 0. .10 ~ of ~ O S F E T <lr..iyer n'-.in rnhanwrnent-mode ~~-cI~antirl lnmn clrdcc.9.~r.'. and mntrol uftllr dnpmt in distribntion is also less criticalnl. <lCO>-orirnte~l. For a deplrtion-omxlc i i c l ~ .iyer (less tllan 10 nni) is growll.s tl~an p n in t1w mrly h\voh-first cx*ntrtl?: TI)* futurr trnllv 0.tionin the dcbicr area F.~x?hI\ n d t ~ m ~ l I of the MOSFET :r< thp gate leneth lrniniln~~n~ ft-:ntt~rc latrr.nsun. t i o n .tlte \nfer is placrd in an odrlntion furnacr to grnw an usillc [ c ~ l l ntl~ejirlrloxicl~). Altlloil~h in lboth de~ices use Figure 9. r0.~fion(-30 lie\! -5 x 10" cni'! to Timl 1\11.-rs t l ~ c lnajor pmcerr arr esrd to fabricate the d o i c e in F i p r e 9.. u a ~ d iloicl. tl~cre no need for vertic2l bolation in flit S I O S F ~..u an i n t r r L ~ v density dlat is almut one-tmth that tmp of < I l l > . ~ j g1.o~.lt?.. pm). e stel) r it s e w s ns a III.c~! for s ~ ~ ~~ n p l rsteps to mill. l s i O l l . Tlir p r m s s sequence Tor this step is sin~ilar that Tor the hipolar transistor.is a dnutic r~. redt. mida tl~io cddr ne l..dl?0.~.in br used . h pol!silimn is dcpoitnl and is iirail. .tllCp ~ m ~ t i c g i t c . thin F?d to \ o d d r (-3.is dlo\\n in Fi. For . doped by cliiftision or itnplaotation of pl~ospllonlsto a h-pirwdstert rrsistanff of 20 to 9 RI2.a~liyd. the st.lill (Fig. 1 This resistance is adcqliatr for hlOSFETs \sit11 p t r lr~i$l~s larger t l i : ~ ~ For SIII:LIIP~ 3 11111. i!.zrtinprnntrri4 is ap-t)F.7 tllnt a .g.

( ~ l t \ h lhas I ~ P L~P\. n 9.t\aid pssiblr <!:+rn:lert c ~l ~ c * t ftltin g:ttr oriclt. ilnla GI. > ~ I ~ ~ ~ wnstn~nption.lz an\itrl$. orllsi(lt.n.' T.Fr.scc<l(i. ~ l l i z ~Ai p nl. n.ricstrcltnsin~ rd S\lOS tr~rbnnlom: For most larpr slt~mories.rt. r n l ~ t a layer.u. P-elarc...lnd' .? (SH:\\li ran r~tnirl stoml <l.ty~ . - : I I--+ I.f t h .L< ~vII~ : I II~ ~ drph~tirlll-lllo~l~ \IOSFETs. chips II.c(I I?\. of ~ tnnsistor 1 ) ~ h h (y.r n~llslllrlplina. ~ ~i .*\IOSFET \\irilh n 5-ntn c:+tcclridr can uifhthat -1. (dl (01 ihi clrywtion.l71. toernor). Si>ttnrmd clr~in.? ) . of tllr r n ~ n p l c ~ t ~ d i. or rr.PCd. vfrll..ction. nl.\icvs tlr.--- --s?12..ltria sln~rturt-.rlly :I llip-llnp cirruif th. /.l irl(k.ll : I ~ . TIICSRA>I is Irnir.~la<r r<riirarr r. inrh. c t I I S U : ~ ! ~ ~ I:.\~llntv 111:1I lllr. Tlw drplrlio~~-tn<xk hlOSFF(Is ran lr n3pt:~ccd rrci7'!I t o n f ~ ~ ~ ( nundopc. 9.~VPhrrn d r s i ~ ~ l.: cmw-sc.a 10 .trwmrn\r>ll.ter is 7rm.llir r:tll~lom:Icrrss nlrnlr..cl.cy.:unlact ai~r(lmtsre rlrfinvd :tnd rtcl~rcl tlr. hn.tilrn.lntl f:~l.t l ~ r raa<lnnl :icww nlernrtn. 17r. In .~norics (lc.if rztll sloW o r ~ p o f i ~ l ~ ~ n l .icll lllr (r. I\ st. h r i o o s aicnlor).t11r. in wl. are can !or clieitci. lr! (:urn Figure 9. rrtrir\r.19* * F a I r l r r g Process lntsgraf*on 4.?.i Rhhl. . rr<{.\.onr:~aizrtli11 a iu.kr)..\IOSFI':T ( d )Top \ir-vof thr \IOS17ET Tlw l i ~ St I ~ is n ~ ~ t .rs .n.\\rbr stlpplyis OII.17 NJ10S fabticllinn aqt!~nc~. 1111. hl<.. \ \10S17ET i..? :I srnno!ll r!lrfa<c topoprapll!.rn~d.. n~ \Fie. - . four ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ : ~ ~ I \lOSFlCTs ~I ~I < fw> . 9.I.<S ..~t store diqitnl infom~ation dnfa) in tcrnts olhl!v !l>io.L% clcntm . P.. 1flpcy.ul<ltllr corr~spot~rliee. i r and at.c shmln in Fie~zrv. pn. rtornl.lsc. is rnndc.l) in nndom nrttrr.pntlral or ils pIl!sic. <. . :stivr rlr\iw i1rr.. (.I ~ !>it ~ l i ~ crll II. sur11 in \ l :tlt~min~tns...(II:\\Il orf:aaintion i..11 ilvpxile<l:tnd p:tltt.litrit<+ : a lonS np tllr pl.rn ilnd llvaf llnc rtnl. 'rllv $itIc c ~ n s t .r. ~ ~ l c ~ o l t ofillblml~ltioll f isit r ~~~~~r . n4ls art.rrr<!.p .~I. ~ ~ p l t o n n\jdr ~ l ~ ~ is drpositrd over I t n ~ ~ 1P-glass! d t11r~ r ~ l iwlfvr :IIIII is flm.l! lon.I ~SR.32 Memory Devices Nh:tf i' ill. \ic. l ~ r a t i 1111.lltrislors.\%l~ ~ l . d\n:i~!lir cln~~n111 l l l ~ ~ l ~ l a l 111~ :ICYY. \vakr to Rib.ninlllrr.(l pnl!silimn lo lr~i!linli~c ill r l pu. tlucll.c.. ~ q c ~ n lllr ntu..tl * i m .a1 6 \I\'i<. is sl~mvm F i p w ! ) top in 9.~lr.sfmtc.ll.1% sslto\\~tll? rirrllit d i .


1 ~ TIM. \vllidl call Ix..?tios (e. I I'I:\\I . ~ I O ~ I .la? gate of t l ~ l o w ~ NMOS device..:."" C: f (I. ~ l c ~ n c l onn tl~r i ~ applie. .c. 1 .l. p1111Iic 11. atrd.~rg.t llw dr\icy* stores I l l ? d:ltil.. 1 ! n w I u n li. c ~ n i a ~ ~ ~ dI~~aI t IoOr~ (l'\'SSI) II.'" . pl~otor b Fip~r.ttiun and senicv mjrh or lllr flllllrr.. # r < ~ ~ rctt.d~ti<t~. n . c2n I* nlrr. 1.3 CMOS Technology F ~ q ~9... .c. r?ild and \ \ n t t ~ ~ 1t1l l r o ~ z ~ ! ~ lluf to :a n.ay a a crlltml role in tllr ~lol.... .... ~ A n c...ill#i ..~tion t111. r .c gate vnlt.J m.cl in nunlrmmlr appl~cnIC tile data tions..i11~ .IS I r c n c r t ~ .. inrllldit~g tc~L.I.?lr:n~.t>1:. Both doices are r n l ~ a n c e r n ~ ~ ~ t .111t 1:11111rn.l~ ~ ~ ~ s I I I ).t!~r~~sl~c~l(l :~IIC!tlw <I. [. 11...~ ~ ..t. ... . I ! .t.: l i l t ~ < 1 1 1 1 \t.i I!.2119pi).~~ I ~ .!J.y . ~ t1 ~ t110 .vm l.. t!.11111111 &11!1II.7!. i 9.tict..ol:ttilr i s r t ~ 1 n ~ tI..r PMOS d r \ i w is cannruird to .~trslnlctlln'. ~ nle <It.tinp~alc...i!.l tc.lli11fonrl.. \ 1):i:I.*viwr~.ie.p.cc state.~. p~nos:llpl~oto$ finct*q~riritq..3 MOSFElTochnology 4 203 I Figura9m \ Il<\! : ... (rl \..ria~.i P ~t r n ~ ~ t i ~ ~ ~ .. T l ~ rliapraln at Ole imttonl o I ' i p ~ r e c r $1.~..1. .v?nrnn . In' nonvolatile mcmon 1 1 2 ) xIV?S i>fcitltt.m t n l r c r HOSFETs Smtrrr.<\. .~~ntinn.)r-.2% sI~o\vs CXIOS invrrter The sate n l tl~r rr a 1rppr. nomalatil.111. tick~t.". 13srd. s~rs~. trl?\isior~... 11t~:dtIl r e 1p. or Tllrwlel~tl~r cxrtl rt. ic~rrl mohilr ndioi.1!#l. rr. & I Drcin ss..)ntilne.trcrr IK. <. orlr collld ston. arid :lecess c.* I~~l~!i\nlvnt rirout Zonrnlat~l~~..htirrlt-data cardi.r hpc.3.ttc.~lltm!.d prw!.n. .:rl/\witc t ~ ~ ~ ~ c h i a c s .n...11103..ltz.v~t l sl~ifl t111. mp. . . R l r ~\vrll-il*\im~~gI 1111.. Sor~\..:.srit~$ lllr unit (CI'U). III mntr:ut t c t11~~li111iterl ~ vulnmr (1 k R i ittsidcnmr~\.I.22ilh~rtnitm non\. w r .M kB. t l ~ rim O ~ I I I P no~~w~lati[e r 111e1110ry~111 increacrd to IC.cntnrn~~niwtir. I I N I yntrq.. 1 (:111. . \ i 0 1 $. IC cilrd \s-i!I likrly p1.ttir (nlrll : tlltnt\inlet lirllli 0 a or r a can lw.'.<~. statr ( l ~ ~ i) . pa!mrnt tculr. ~ i ill prt..torI~.~)1(\ v." .. o. sllrll :I5cTllltlnr pllollrs m d rlipitnl csmmm%. stored c l n .cl~. illu*tr.:..~ction< ( ~ I ~ ~ c t m~n i c P credit c ~ n l ) .lil>. . . o t l ~ r irlr. FIc~. 'ti1 crc~<t. c l ~ :n.. chip c:~r(l. a r r.~ it1 \~o~t:tc~-. tl1n41oI(Ivoltas(..22 is 11: c:..s tr~l~phonr.r tl1v ~ ~ . :. t1.I 9.:.ltf.TI). & figure 92( -7 ':.ntr.. is also c:*llc~l 1 11C c%ar<l.l.i \ i I I I I: . .ip.i.i~~t..triIrIymT1 i~lrctrnnic IIR .tr.ol:~til(.. .~q(.llio Pip~n.I).~' 9. .t(lllti....u.lc <~lrctmlliCs c)strllls. ilr>fir1). I.~...

Process Integration I 9..\5itic hipolar tmsistors.-. o \ . I to groa~ntl nonmodtstiw...~-cllsnnrlXIOSFET in tile 1) tub a r r identical to t l 1 0 ~ prr s rlc~scrilwdprr\io~rsl!. + A'. r is rss?nlinlly clo~~blr to m:lkc . 11.-. J J . 'Illis slntrlurf. The C\IOS inverter It= a unique feature: In ritller logic star?. cloir to V.and the n-lul. into t I ~ e suhstratr to form tllr s o u r e ancl drain re@ons..nt~.In Ilti5 CLV. anrl n :. ain m.ermn~pensate l ~ bnckgrotzntl clopil~g the n s~~hstnte.arnrl . p 11th. ~l is.. BW...r.lYrris thermally gmum on t l ~ e lmtto~n \r..md onlya. a ~ I 1 0 ~ 1 1 i1l l liipllre 9 2 k ..h ~ r The dopant COnRntIa.t\wr. seI. > S. :I 110 tion is nepdrrl in cithcr nflllr !\uin tubs. a$shmvn in Fiplurr 9:&. 7 7' eqrtnls zero (logic 0).s are p11)~inlly isol:ttrd hy thr rcfillrrl trclsl~.nnrcl by tllr ShlOS n ~ ~ ~ r w k l rregions.. ...r. an altemltc appmacll is to IISC an .20. l o ~ i n ~r.nohilily will l d r ~ c ~ d rh rl~ n a s e r c inobilit). or "'(BF. (:\IOS drt. dc\ice supplies hwe a r trent to thr n-11-n.is dctrnninrd by tltc ~ o t .nr cT.dls of tllr trrncl~. "B.~tr(i. nrpdcd to n ~ n tkl ~ p-cl~annrl i~ XIOSFET. In the prmssing.rlr tllat is zssociatrl1\\it11 p:lr. and an 11.l~icl~ rcfillrd hy is tllrlt (lrposited polysilirnn or silicon riioxidr.cnnles a major limiting factor. (01 Circuit dinram. m d Figire 9.. llielter cl!mnrl inohility c hf.~\.\-:I' linr. poiver dissipation ix. n n ~ s~ l n c is r tndc-ofll.ld of111~ tub just drscriln.llen hotll d e \ i c ~ are 011 d r ~ r i ~ ~ s s \ i t c ices n g ~ s l~i a sipificant alrrrnt flo\r tllrouoh thr CMOS inverter.-.rnellip~ ~ t sIces.11 is formed in tllr silicon 1)). :IIKI \iw \....erm in a positive ierrlback arnngernent. A'. \r. the n ~ ~ o ~ l x ~ r o f m m pp.1 ) ~ ~ ...h p r s~~l~str:. n-:rr:~~crpower dissiipathe tion is small.~nnrmtts.I t. t l ~ P\IOS d ~ t i c e turned on r r is (the gatr-to-pund potential of I'>IOS is -I.tr. colleclornftl~r llle p-WJ. n. rcell) is fist inlplantrd an11 sohscquenlly driven into the 11 s~rbstmtc~. is call~d twin frrb. ". atrend1 nidt . \Illen tile inplnt \. ~n tllr rnmplcxily of pmcmsing nllrl 1111 rnlti~.In NMOS circuit. and ITTn t e r t I? than pa E m for tllr S\IOS dr\icr (hTlc. Low po\\rr mnsu~nption the I I I U ~ L is itttr. Thcs? panr%itic ile\io. ~s in An effective prorrssing tecl~nir~ue eliminntc tllp I.mlr....3 MOSFEITechnoloqV4 en! Rgun 923 CornpIcnwn~a~ (CXIOSI in\rtirr. one device in the series path frr~m $ .lr.Ilc tnnsistor li. is st1 state is . obtninr<l. m hll C>!OS circ~~its thr pote~~tial a trol~blesome hwte for pmhlmm c3llnl lntdt. the :.tdeptl~clnlx~r than the u.~p current cxn h. 111:rt . tllc .crcnmprnsxtr for tllr l ~ a c k ~ r o ~ i n d .and r t . \. t l ~ nllmlvr of strps to ~. and (11rh'\iOS is ~ I Ined . :tsd IJ tub. Tllr current that iln\w in eitl~er lllv ..%consist af .sho\\s the rlolniw a cmss section alone.' H~cit!t<<.. V.r sputtrr etclling..~:. In 11oll1tile JI-II~I.11.dues.. tllc output wltage (1') is ver). = ed I on (V.p:.l.rr tn~tionnus st IF hidl rnoclel~ o\.. .. I t r of Thr s ~ ~ b s r r ~ ~ m ..n ts r s for tllr . n oxid? I. tion l~lust r Itich enouch to o\. in 1nstr.gionr.~munrI thepchannel drtim~.t~. and \ tllr SJIOS dmice is oK Ilrncr.e is than I ).~i~..). Tl~as.. (hi Circuit laynut JIOS i. This I.l.es r r i o ~ neeativ? rrprrn~ssior~s a CJIOS circuit.ttrl. .llly the tllresllold wltasc is ab111 I14 I1. n .2411.1 c Chaoler 9. nppro:sl~.tlnr cll.eTn.:lnisotmpic reacli\.liicl~ more nr~ati\. and \%. This trcllniq~acan elin~inntc latellup Iwiarsr tllr rt-channel and ~~-ch." In tlnk trclmip~r. An approacl~ using hvo srpnntrrl tubs inlplantrrl inlo a liSlltly rlnFd suhrtr.hF ~lr.l ~ ~ to ~ft str.. = 1 .) is at g o ~ ~ norlat small positive \. clopant c~. s .lte. For tbr p c l ~ m n r \IOSFET.donq clottrd I\-:\' line of ib). i\s o ~ ~ incre.l p in )~-t?pP ndi'Sll"l1c.stive feat~rrr oftllc CMOS circuit. c ~ ~ ~ .a small lrakaee cllrrent..rll as tllr p-n-JJ tr:~osistorfonnrtl I! tllr PlIOS so~rrcvf~lr~io ).tios p \ w r r o n s ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ t i ~ ~ . P\IOS (aitlt I : 0) is t ~ ~ r n om.)' ions are implanted l -.mnel dedn.t.~lehup 11) proMcm is to ILW dwphpnclr isolation. on thr order of n.. i.is sho\\m in Fic11rc 9.~. TIIP 11~tailcd steps for trencl~ iwl:~tion sonle related CJIOS pmcesses nrr rlircuss~d ~ x t .. Fieurr I):23 sl~o\\s Ia\n~!tof the CXiOS inverter. ( 1 4 c I). > I )' Thrrefore...it11 tile thrrsholrl tnltaee lrTV zero for the P\IOS de\ict. .nrr. .h. \\lien thr input h at I. cl~anstop fonnecl ~~~ldrrnralh is t11r hrld odd? . a p tub ii~lso called a 1.ohage (V.IIISP oftlle 1) tul) an11the additional StepI . (:nns &ion .k... Undrr appropriatr <nnditio~a.l. A cl~annrl n implant of "As' ions m:ay hr itcod to atlj~~st ~ tl~rrshold tl r voltage.

+: pattcming tile arra: trencll etcl~ing oxirlr gro\~rih: and refilling wit11 dirlectric materikIs.25 pm fr.\r'ell Formation Technolo!?? 1 11 h i .rr the sorf:lm).l: TI^..il.. it clws not z~cnl long time or . .~.stlch a$ mi.~uspof its lliell rrsistallce to polislling..linrll !....?:w desi~n \\..d. \wII tain rl<. 921) and :.2i. rl .n.llpl. 1 . the trrncll area is etched (Fig. it needs 1li~ll-tempmh1r1!o :r pm rrsri..ld ofdil'iusinn i.e ~irnplnnlation is ~ ~ s (i.ntine <lrptl.r JIWl kc. :tcti\. a ehanstop implantation can he per.~l..cltaolw cn. ..ricalion.mmt nmhlrms Anotller exa~lrplr sllidlo\v-trencll (llrptll less tllan I pm) isolntk.lt i n tllr r. Tl~is drrp-trmcl.rntional tllenn. tllr p. . rrralsplr.lrlcanlaS.l rlwn.mcnl of Ill? ellenstop i~~~pl.&c. 1llipl. m (he d latclluppmhlrln CUB tnini~r~izetl: the ellanstop n n he fonnccl at tllc sanlc time a be (b) tilr rptruFr..r.1 l.v.2%). Rrforr refilling.ron mcroacl. .I tllr n narros.dlV i ~il s n.npla. Tllp nrr.. is called :I rrfmgrofl" ccfll. isobtion stn8ctore...~~ i Advanced Isolation Tcehnolnev ..c[~ lolls lliift~sio~t (lonpr tllall S Ilolln) to achirvr tile ~ tinlr p . 9. the oxide on the nitride sl~oul~l he rr~llo\~ed.stfi>tr. .eII depth witll~lif. .26 sl~o\ss prurss sequrnre Fnr i o m i n ~ dmp (lnrprr [Ilan3 pm) ). and le~ ed To n. .~...on mlrlR: TIIP l>rnlilrof t l ~ c in tl~is can Imave a peak nt a wr.t III*.vll pnxvss rxl.I~ tizllc3. tllr nitridr acts a a stop layer for the CLIP p m s s .e region is r ~ d t ~ c IX.nrl~ of isolation tr.I.n.rO(Ps tPIl. is used \\.per4t.. . ~ is for in Figure 9...4.9.C~UIP of tlle letcml rd 1" adrli.1 tllrn refilled \vith wide (Fig. .pafiwn <lifiLud urll.". thr firld-oxidetl~icLx~rscs~rl~rnicron in isnlntion spacings is ~ i q ~ i f i ~lSs .." .ncrnad.n~t.1..I.n l~t ~m~lg o tl... tinn. a I . n .y :. \\l. 1 .mdp-l)p r e t r g n d r \\'rlls is nrolllld iOO ke\rmb k..tl. . r. u ~rnluce t l ~ e c l ~ a ~ ~ c r o f ~ u r ~ cfromltll?drdin ll~ t l ~ e s o ~ ~# ~ .? nctiw (~lsually an. in silim. Thert.... : tl tl~icknrss firld oridc grouil in uidcr spacings. tl~is m s s . j t l ~il.3.~ n n tnr . Sir><? isolnand tl~e tion material is drpusitrtl by C\'I).."" Figure 9.lcw tllr . iorrned..s lnakr it ~llls~lital~l('cll-p-sllbnlirmn 10..1'~~ dlo\v-tr~nprmtuw s l ~ o r t .. arc foer st. rnrw.~e or nnrloped pol)rrilicon: and planarimtion..tturcs nnrl smaller) fn[. .. to 3 u l n I. Since tile ion to tllp desin. p . redncing processing steps and time: a1111(c) Iligher\Spll &ie ill tllr lmttorn r .. After ~ .\: n.llt..~qes over tllr coovention:ll \!*ell: (:I) Ber~tase ofl~igb dopine olfi. Fisure 9 2 5 shotvsa This i n l p o r i t ~ l ~ ~n tilerrrtrognde \\felland the mn\. tile fon'..n1~~~~ChIOS.i~srsnar'rtoto~~icaill?t l l (lrptll.ptl. and it elin~inates liitcntl oxidation and lx.. 0 In isle I .. .. ~. !. Bec.. . ilrss tllall ? pm) trenc!~ . s l ~ a \ . shift.flip mn\rlltional isolation procvss (Section 9.l dIP .. After patt~ming (Fig. r. firnW.luxr l l .c . Since tile mide luu overfilled t l ~ e trrnch.I .I tl~c i~r~~>Iantittio~~.....] I.-trmpemtnlrr a p r m s s .ils so.r-l+:-. 11 ..P~\: r11ention14 Prr~io~~I!: adssntagr of iligll-cnew i n ~ p l a t ~ .. \vl~ich discussed in Srction 8.Ir]rlitina$ ..701tilg~. for ~ ~ tcmpcfiltllrp oxidation of silicon nnd long oci<Ltiontimp res...270).n ncia tllP JmttoII1. ~tllm~ I).t higI. ..~ avoi<~ tl~rsr problcms nod 11:rc I>~comr mainstrc:tm t.d dpI)tllinrtr. can tllc rrrrllt i. I. i is t)IHt i t it rm rPdllwtllr IItefiJ diN~rsion and iacwasr the device densih: The r e t r w d e url[ .. ..s ..rc to remove tlle oxide on the nitride a i d to gel a flat sarfnec (Fig. Cl~elnicnl lnrcl~aninl pulislling.II rr$isli\iy is loarr Illan that of tile mll\~lltiollnl tllP \veII. .5.alrWFII i~r~plnntstio~~...l ~ i $ b ..rl\ant.llinn lwrnn for N5loS) to tl.l s~~l..2idl. 9. 2iln..e. \\i .sPLdi. isolation can k used in lntll adc~nc~d ChlOS and l~ipular rl~\ices for the trencl~-t:p DIth\f. Trr.1)has ~ir. ~ .. t11rdopills ~nmlltrntionis 11iglas~ .t i ~ n ~ t~n ~r it~ld mnditinns.llr disad.

ncv . ( a ) P.r ~ t l ~ r n i ri.?\?r can h remowd h? H . sinw Imrnl~ n ra~il!. Sole that the 1%of the s~~rl.r1ol. the tl~rrsholil \r~ltage P ~ I O S for {I. nilrid~/. .rn. n l f u r use r t . ion implantation of RFI is mm~nonl!~usrrl.rt~lre w ( b . . icon for ShIOS 1 F i ~9.s<r .s5 l to 1111. I l ~ e arc n l ~ t h to ~ r d ~ ~ m effect: rnsc of rapid tl~ermal r~ d r this :innedins to ndsm dtr t i ~ u e hiell t<7rnprmtur~s c~nsrqst-ntI\: tlir rlifitsion of hornn: at and.? z -0. InLcc nlrn. and the large lealilcr current at thc ofC statr. Oxnier lmv.rxsicd nwcl~rnicll polidli!l<.25 ltni Thr most notice.~n.PO. This pmrtration is r-nliancwl in the pres..m r Chapmr 9. tltlr nitride laxer anrl tllr ohid? i.mmbin~ n \rifh n i t n w n .nv.' for rljlfprrnm i 1.0 r.2%).. pml* ~l~ tl>i< l r n o n c c ~ n . ~ thr polishing.u~nrl rolls off Inow sln\vly in the deep-suhmicmn r@me than in the hnried-cl~annrl dv\ice.TIte buecd-hp? P\IOS suNen in wrioos s l ~ o n c h a neffrcts as t l rlrdm size shrink helmv 0.lr\ice opention. ~ a nnew p. onr can obtain a d : m ~ p . inlplantation..illv\i:~t#. acljustc4 by tmmn i. <br..r: rrth~!llm~l l n h v l ~ m n P \ l O S DIIV10 llteunrk funnmo ~ cl~.mn :ltnnlr at the intrrfnt~.Tjlimn gaB for P. pol!silimnl.~cv ahcr rl.\dinnml C\IOS rtnnctttrrs \rill) dual polyili<~m gate. and Gate Enencering Technology Figure 928 !ol A mn\~cnfiunal lonpd~nsnel CMOS an. r r s ~ ~ l t i n q it 1 sltift.I rrm. IISP of n i l r i d ~ od~lr s11ppr<. mint (DIRL).1t1erning with p!s*on. .h ~ x ~ c l r a r t n e l ~ I o ~ witltout the h r o n 1 a~ljljllrtmrnt .V fmrn 1.q I . 3 p n mtl less. .~cr .0 VI ltns to lx.l!vr ofpol\silimn to of trt1' t l ~ v lr.aw-cl~annrl \ i w 11' pnl\silirun snitahle for d r r p . m ~Il m r n r s Irss mohilp: anrl thr n ~ n k i n ~a rnultil.. Henm.r\rr. ~n ctrhinl: rind ch2a.).2%.3 to -1.rl-~atr ~ stnwtlrm arc requirrrl:p' po!. in . r 7 . T l ~ i >n. poI!silimn for lmtlr PXIOS and NMOS gates.xntation. h m n penrt-cltrs earily fmm thr pol!rilir~m t l ~ r o r ~ t11r oxidr into the silimn suhstmte gl~ at hiel! ternpcnilorps.in. a t l ~ twl111~11p r i n k 0 3 r sl~ to . tot.?cls clt.npI..~).' top. .nt fllnrr l l t r n ~ t wunr and dnUn Tu . Process integration q Chemsinp i (c) I ~ (dl ~ Sfl. e n n nf an F atom.. and n' pl>ril. ~l ~ a h b phmo~nrna sltort-chitnnrl effects arc the 1 roll-ON.A comparison of \ for the serf..iltlmnCAI.of t l ~ hto ln\.Jl. boron pmetmtion.sisl 0... and HF. cl~antlrl the halied and rhnnnel is shntn in Finlrr 9.. rpcprr(irrh: This initial pli~nnrkationstep is brlpful for the subsrqnrnt pol!3ilirnn pat.\IOS. ~ Ilm\.ws.rkest l ~ c r cl~annrl of the P\IOS a btnriml hpe.. r l ~ \\it11 ro~~ To f o m tlir p' pl!silirnn gat(. C:l~rmiml (r) \ymr drprsitinn (0'0) to o-irlc wfill I$I planarwrf.lalion firr CSIOS. This nukes tl~e s~~fi. so lll:!t even with t l ~ e gate \nlt.29.lrh ~ $ 2 7ikr.~d~ (ill. as sllo\~n Ficure 9. drain-ind~tnd for . tc~n~inq plnoarimtions of the multilevrl intenonnwtion pmcr.irnplimt~tior~.

~ SI. (:~Ios.tnlr.llv. i~nd t\~i~i-\r.vc l. (a) Ibl Figure 9.... tile 11.in~s ChlOS and bipolar c l o r i ~stn~ctrlres n o ~ ~ lxltll ..l tIIP hiIx>litr tmnsistor :an11 I...an l. i~npl:tntin thr sn~~rcc*I<lr. TIIC liyrr I>\. is tlte lwsc cttrrent of the bipolar tcinsistor 2nd is ~ c l l l l l to tilr clr.nl. 93 MOSFETTechnology 21 I ~ H~(:\IOSis t t y ~ ~ .5isl RiC\IOS c m Ilavc a 11i~lt1. Figlrr 9. in s.lit~ tl.rrent c.<l.pa' ~llosk.s j. is tllr . C .l.i$. I~ \vlirw:s 11i1mI:ir t < v l ~ n o l ~~ . I).d.r I n~ ~~l~. !nois<.l :~lttntinttr~~ ~nrtzllimti~~l. is \rnfrr..(:\IOS caliibits advantnxcs i..n..o on tl.lin n~rrt>nt .. hs fi. Tllrr athlilinnd ~n:rsk* lnnCvrp m s d n q tin. l ' i .. 'L..nillion . . n t m n l I.31) rll. F "01.~rv2cin..tag.nnt......l~.itCl. w:sOII tOnllllllin~ IIIPSL' h$n difkrr11t IPCIIIIOII*(.I'hlltll C\IOS iind bilnlitr ilr\i<r.. o \ \ ~pcrwer dissipntion tllnlr 1)ilmlnr. Ij11riwl~1 i5 fonll~<! io~.ti. TIw initi:tI t~iateri:~l :I j J .uidn hiSllrr .clr 1 ~TI. rhr p' region h r h:~rcconcart car) iw kjrrnr.r ei\. Ilxr cllrrnlt is h. i s tl~r of C\IOS...S is 10 Create an IC cllip I.s.sk..\. ~.. h . ~l.acli\ of HiCJIOS.:.:aid :ulalog~~:lpabilih n rrslllt. illlpl~tntilli.~~l<.wtnpc..lin inlplnnk~lionof tlw PMOS. ~ prlonnarsc... ..l:.ant1 I X I C ~ I clc... tile sn~~rtr/(lr:lin impli~nlntion ortllr XUOS.. siy. F~~.ilnlar. fonnrd \t+tl.d 111~1 CMOS.d hy t l ~ c ~ i l ~ ..!I. rurnmt to driw (or to c l ~ a v rt)l ~ c neat load. i.".li byCr no. pcn.r ilissipjtin~t.Ir.r.Tr is tl is c ... TIIV:alrlitinr~:tl cost s l ~ o ~I)? ljustihc.".. ~ i t l :I..aclti~. ~ ~ C\lOsI. chapter9 Process Integration . prrfnnnanlr r f o r t l ~l>ilmlartn~nsistor. l.al... Ibl Bipolar ChIOS iRi<:JIOSI lo$c gate.I.tmt d<..3.lrr p lnwk..~isity..~ I .. .31 mnip:trer ii HiCMOS :ttlcl a CXlOS logic Catr. c n m n t clriw r.ll'iiytlr.. the speed ..~sk:$rc ~ ~ Tit?!. tllr.linr41 .inl:sFrrl.......I I r n. lwltrr perfor. 9.I.This UISI diip is Ll>ri=ltrd u s i ~ ~ g O .. ~ ~t ll..t > ~~iliwtns~~l~str:fit~-.rll :I prwv\s for t l ~ C\IOS is pcrr.~n.ri.cl \ r i l l .s~ .n~sip$n...n rL. . \vllcn.qxtl.rrtrr.tllr .(:\I(>S invvtter thc. is rnucll i n v r r l11:m 1.(.:.I f 1 lo rrdllw m i k t o r resi~tRII(~~...n~nts. tltr cr)llr~dor clc~. is the ci.Il~irrn~~nnvssor (Pmtilim 4) 1Il:tI I~:L*an ansib of ~ ~ ~ cltip cr.~ n ~ I :trc ~ .. asfl comp:~rrtl \\it11 s rl:~nrl:sd CMOS arc tltr wain iln\vl..otlrr pr. I."10 - . . rcssi~~fi strps.31 ("1 ChlOS lc*c ptr. S i n e h..rma&. ~ d r nr~~d .l to prrvt3a( p ~ ~ r ~ c h t l\ ~liqlttl!..r slx~..Srs .. For $1 RiCXIOS in\. C J Iaddition:~l r ~ I ~ tn. and llbr pc8lycrnitt<..ilit!'.. and the :I' rznittvr can lu.. 11......$\.(. tllat m. ad.lll 10 inCmLY1 thr dnpi~lc lc\.


pi<. ~ . I 1 95.clby .-cl)stal suh5tr. prm.r-Iran.5.c amlclrr.9.lcl..l. gnlm.t~ tisl\t ilin~ensio!r. Surfnw nncnm:icl. rn~~nients liostil~~ ~rricnx~l~vtrnttia to dc.rrncrs nnd tndr-ofls hchvffn stnstt8res rnnrlr imm 11ulk awl Illin filni mntrri01s. n.ire dilficult t o m s struct.ttic can ~ ~ .1 Bulk Micromachining Is hnlk ~~ricromk~cl~ining.r nac!nl~r.d rtcl~ nnrl mntrnl.\icps arc of micronetrr dinlrsrions.s* plllrmir.slr.d S ~ I ~ ~ I V .d I~f'isIrts of S \ . s s . T\vo-ri~lr.>lstfor oprration i s cmi.rtion spnsan .tio.Figurc 9 .arr p ...of1 .ll stnrctllrr \\. srnmrs.~a..inS a 1131. w. Fimrr 9..e st srlf-isf>l:ltr. r \ i w ( t .\im-q. llscs Wo-sidrd pnnYc*. a: I.lrfin. Tla! pmcess can pra111rrmicrnslwcon h ~ r r wit11 lntrral dinnensions in tlir nricromctrr m s e and stntanr.md 1 i i 10) (dl 9..lcicprocvssi~lSsteps: litl~o$~ipl~y.~l in slnacturer an.rI~ rlr\in.r rnernhr.k (h))..~ne.52 Surface Micromachining St~rfncc-a~icromacl~ined rlr\ices arc cnnsln~ded entirely from tliin films. Often. rd isol:~tioxl tmlabrcvr filnctir.I dnlplr. silicon? n111lx..and clntil~rr. hut for sensors ilrr r sa&~~rr-nticrornacIii~~vd dr.ining prnnits tllc fahricatio~iof stn~durnll\. x msor rrr . T \ p i d dimensio~is I)t~lk-~nicro~~~acl~in~~l in t l ~ tnillimrtpr xinp.nr n l l l ~ r~piu r msting. Simplo rnerln.I. .11 packimp.# l r ~ :svct~chla.3 LlGA Process LIG.35 ~.4 is n Crrznan ncrnn!m for lilhogrnl~hic.. 5 ill~xstr~trs a f:thrication p m ~ .tyeredhulk devices .Tl~rLLCA prw and ccss is basr~l .m fic*.. . inolding.aid t~ l~nt pro\i~lr I~ik~-rr.O r i e a t ~ ~ t i o n . nlicrooptin.miml rtcllisS trchnilllcc .lllk-microls.itll one ridr. d large sillsh. biotecl~nolom: .tnic:al clt~nriotl ~~red Is or rivals.'' of I I 1 9.~.ric.~.rq{onnntttg. TIII. \r. films ..ta to .alw.are fiihricat~d cn~litncrcidly11).lk s.-my ndi:ttion frnm a s!ncllrotron.TIrun.3.s~Iil. Free-standing anid movnblr ptrts can be Ethricalnl insins s:~crificial1aycs. elec~roplating.t~ilclingblockc" of Illin films.sol~~tir. co~nnlrr e \ i c ~ In. ~ t t ~ m on tllc l. micromeclt~iaics.. crrali!. .inL. Sitride drlxail~~ la) silio. ~ dSi~ridr ) w~no\:d o n 1r. \vttil~ otller sirIr tltc is ~nclosrd n c1r. Its potential applic3lioss w r micmrlrctronics. .l&rrs~iultil. tl~is trcltni~lur.ltr*.ites l~o\v sacrifick~l rtchine t~cliniuurs l r usrd to create an ?lrdrort. ol$>nn~#ng. rilin~tr nl1. an..lx. stacltine ar~d d s natternine Iav~m . ~ncnrhr:inrs.36 ilhatr." consists It of llirrr l).td. era1 (di&.ssing.~ne. or "l.vc.I ? T ~ s l~nn<lwd micronirters fro111a \arieh of nlatrrinls.tr>inl daxicrs sllrll a s <liaplmrgmpresnlre srllam. S I I ~ a ~nerl~.mresisti\.lalorj is sl. rvutd to tlw i i ~ r i ~ ~wriablrs.

Litl~ofli~pl~ic plttrrrbing is rlonr>\. : flmvrr.D... at. mzing in Imm 300 ltln Inore than pm in tl~icknrss..I.itla an .37 A" x-nv resin. fmm I..*cr..lee.n. is tncnlly cnnrll~ctive srarf. EIIW FiprCQ.!.isl~l~collimnted x-ray mdialion tl~rnn~ll x-ray ~~i&%li..h5tritr .~~..R. ! sltapcd trencl~ stn~ctr~rclonard i s thr thick wrist a l t c r d c v ~ l o tnzttment I Fi:. :.An exanlple or the LlGA p m s s i s sl~mm Figure 9.itltextmrled CTS. is ~r . depsitrd on s s.

a r r sirnn~l. Deposit an 800-A silicon nitride layer on top 0 1 t l ..%!.step.9.f h t . r ~ ~ i c m e ~ ~drrircs. 14.fthc L1CA p m s s is tl~r ill>ilit!. r d p \ j ~~ l ( ~ ~ ~ o t . . filling the trrncll s.:):. cLr in ~ 1llisti.. l .41. ~ l r r f t ~ l the si~ntllationof x cnllbplrt~IC filbrintion fnr s p c . ..21s . r r c p c f i v ~ lThis is nrxnmpli~l~c~~l c i ~t l h . TJrr ir. Plots of thr doping pmlilrs in the pate (section A-A'). INITIALIZE rtatrmratr in 1111. 17.nat I(KXI-C Cor in oP 7.rf.l .vlrtJl cl<u. sourceI(lrain (section B-8'1. SAVEFILE rtntrmcnl n ~.d .ltrdl!.t(. 18. mivpt tli. Ilp to t l l c p l i l l t 31 \~. tla.6 PROCESS SIMULATION SUPRE11 can I? edrrtnr!!. . Drive in tllr so~~rceIclrain implant for 10 n~inl~trs 1000'C in dl?. Crow a 400-Agate oxide. Rmpcn thr contact holcs.).nsi. 9.:3. 13. ..r SUPRE\I inp~tt drcks.. firld rvqinn.. ~ .tt it si111111.37~).llntioaof thr S. In. 0yi1li. ~ orillr.kc.. ( ~ rl~tninine tllr sanlc degree of (lesio.pl.e ~ ~ ~ l inctl~nl.<..r s i? w n . ~ ~ ..l.ttonl m~alacti\rsurfilrr.srt11rr.ri. % a nlold tl. D ~ s \\it11 a bigll-wsirtibih <110.lr.sist (Fig. s o ~ r r c r l ~ l c ns~fion.(.oftl. Elnlchlrr is simttlnterl minq a tnkd of 1k.lrr<iLs thick m b ~ r l k . crntrr of the. Tile fiftl tlw r n m p l r t * iit..to ( . i.r.lsn.5 prn ofpol!silimn. clrt lint-s A-:\: B-B'.1 prtrl~~rts. Deposit 0. w a t ~ tbr*e-dinlensional stn. to ( l I ~ l r ~ ~ l ? ~llan). :tnd nrlrl (section C-C'! regions are sIlo\\~l F i p w s 9. illitkll s~7lc~lrntmn l ~ i ~ ~ i n t11e racliation n m . n 2.. nlrt.\lOS pt3i\xili.lmi. Implant lmmn into t l firlrl~ ~ rcqions. sotzrce. tllm . 1 7 snrl is n . ~ ~ ~ l ~ t ~ d ~ m. !J. ~ i ! t ~ t ~ l a\cisl shm!n trt iaiti:~Il\. TI. and deposit al~rminl~tn..ue to pl~ w clftlle Il:~. Crow a 400. Dopr the pnl)silimn \\it11 phosphonts usins POCI. Tllr lint clcck sinlt~l.. . tllr i. 8. 3~h.(. in Tile SUPHEhl input listinp is a follo\n: 5 TITLE COM'IENT CM ET O MN INITIALIZE CM ET O MN DIFFUSION CM ET O MN DEPOSITION CWYENT OIFFUSI~ CWYENr EC TH ETCH c 9. wrist (Fig. f l ~ .adivo rt.:"n. Etch dm\n to tllc silimn in tlw active repion. ~ia rrcprrti\c4! Tls..brtn t l ~ t . and drain w@ons.giotts.i the lirld refion.39.40 Temperature-1000 Dry02 V Deposit 800A C D nitride Nitride Thickness-8.cv r ~ ~ i c r o ~ t ~ . I . c\vl~ilr c l ~ i ~ . g . t n t c t ~ ~itnd S I I ~ I S ( .lrfntl.ll.$llal plating b.. O p n mntact holes in the gate. Strip nitridr from a r e a o ~ ~ t s i ofthe aeiw dr 5.~rt i l l ~tltc result'i fnnn 1Iw I>nt drck an11 wl~. t I the pqmsed ln. ~ciln 11si. TI>. hy t ~ tc ... 1 1 ~ 1:is ~an ~~am~lr. pad layr.37 and E. i is~ l i ts..nr! thin1 deck and <l. ~ T I H ..&. l i d c mctnl .cnstl\. ~.rflt11e lid11 rrfiio~~s 3 1lo1. end 9.rrtir:ll rrlions of thr in 9 ~ l n. I~nplant aneoic to lonn the so~ire/clrainreeons. ~ cllo\\?vcr.il. and t l ~ mold s r p a ~ ~ t i n n r steps I I I : ~rr~11lt clrgradntion of ~ in ihr o r i ~ n a alol(l insrrt l J l r l . srcnnt! :trld tlfirt! <lw. 6. ~~ T l ~ onrnplrtv p r w x s s c ~ l ~ l r ~is c r f O l l ~ 5 ~ : r n a5 N O Polysilicon Gate-Deck 1 MS Active device region i n i t i a l processing I n i t i a l i z e silicon substrate <lo@>Silicon Boron Concentration-lelS Grw 400A pad oxide Time. p c n t ~hrrc in F i g ~ ~9R'i.~rtd cotcrcr/rlmin rt.r sinlalatinns repwwnt 11.:on gate prncrss d ~ ~ ~ lini Slrtion !~.c. 11. .iDltlSI..at lllr rnd nf t l l r fint clwh in SRVP t h ~s.llr13rl relw.ll stnldun? is formed Thr n~.40. d TI~c. S \ / ~ rnr t11r pntr md u ~: s ~ u n ~ ! a l ~ "rroinns. l ~ d TIIP cmss sertiorr of the d r \ i r r to I. pad 4.lrl rtyion pnmssilq..\. Deposit p l ~ o s p h o n ~ s . 16. 0:.. 11s a t 15.1.kis ""* 1I. filr i. ~ I I t~sirne I ~ sawd StnKrr ~ ~ I ~ It h r hlrr in tllr.<.~ ~ n t r . sI~o\\n Fiwln>s9. Iw ~. Reflo\v the P-glass at IOOO'C for 30 nlinutcs. 14.. .~illq f i r m r ~ ~ t t l t iplx%ti~. drticr.lrr 1 ~ a si~n.. p l i ~ ~ q ~ri.~ ~SiOi ~ l o p r (P-glas! over the \ctfir sari:~rr.ltv% prncrsring in 111~.e lllr - 3.ln ht.~.. .r.llidl 1 1 ~ 1 pW w w crtltlencr divt*rqrsfor t l a ~ gztfr. !).:37rll.~tc..Fim~rr .$on nf tllr de\i(r.. Ilnplant h m n to sct the tl~reshold voltage of tllr J I O S F ~ 9. Etch the pol!lilicon in the arras outsirle the gate rP@o". nnrl C X ' . rrsprcii\vl!-. . r i ~ .A SiO. This stnrvtllw r.ttrs prw+winqin tI\t. 10. F.08 Grow f i e l d oxide Timed80 Temperature-lBBO Wet02 Etch t o silicon surface Oxide a l l Nitride a l l . T l ~ n .hpe ~ i l i s~ l .rli..Chaoler 9 Process Integration 1 1.

SO .07 Implant arsenic for source/drain regions Arsenic DosemSelS Energy-150 D r i v e .str implant arsenic for source/drain regions Arsenic Dose-5elS Energy-150 Drive-in arsenic and re-oxidize source/drain regions Time. source.25 ~ ~ r n ~ e r a t u r e .2 Layers chemical Boron Arsenic ~hosphorNet End Deck 3 N O Polysilicon ate-~eck 4 MS I s o l a t i o n region i n i t t a l processing I n i t i a l i z e s i l i c o n substrate 4 0 0 > S i l i c o n Boron Concenrratim-le15 Grow 400A pad oxide Time-40 Temperature-I000 Dry02 Implant boron t o increase f i e l d doping Boron Dose-lel3 Energy-150 Grow f i e l d oxide Time-180 Temperature-1000 Wet02 Implant boron t o s h i f t threshold voltage Boron Dose-4ell Energy-50 Grow gate oxide Time-30 Temperature-1050 Dry02 HC1)6-3 Deposit p l y s i l i c o n Pol y s i l i c o n Thickness-0.5 Temperature-600 m p e the p l y s i l i c o n using WC13 Time. and d r a i n regions Oxide Deposit phosphorus-doped Si02 using CVD Oxide Thickness-0.phosphor-le21 Reflow glass t o smooth surface and dope contact holes Time-30 Temperature-1000 Deposit A1umi num Aluminum Thickness-1.2 Layers Chemical Boron Arsenic Phosphor Net End Deck 5 structur ~i1~name. 5 Temperature-600 Dope the p o l y s i l i c o n using POC13 Time-25 Temperature-1000 Phosphorus solids01 Layers Chemical Boron Phosphor Net Structur Filename-nmosfieldinit.Chapter 9.2 Layers Chemical Boron Arsenic Phosphor Net End Deck 2 Gate-Deck 3 Source/drain regions I n i t i a l i z e s i l i c o n substrate Structur-nmosactiveinit.30 Temperature-1000 Dry02 ~tch contact holes t o gate.phosphor-le21 Reflow glass t o smooth surface and dope contact holes Time-30 Temoerature-1000 wsP o l y s i l i c o n I .30 ~em~erature-10S0 Dry02 HC'&3 Deposit p o l y s i l i c o n p o l y s i l i c o n Thickness-@.Str End Deck 1 NWS p o l y s i l i c o n Gate-Deck 2 Gate region I n i t i a l i z e s i l i c o n substrate structur-nmosactiveinit.75 C. Process Integration EC TH COmENT IYPIANT CMENT DIFFUSION CWENT DEPOSITION CWEKT DIFFUSION PRINT PLOT WEFILE SO TP TITLE CDmENT COIHENT INITIALIZE COrrrENT IMPLANT CWENT DIFFUSION CWENT EC TH CWENT DEPOSITION CWYENT EC TH COmENT DEPOSITION PRINT PLOT STOP TITLE CWENT CWENT INITIALIZE COWENT ETCH ETCH CWYENT IMPLANT COuYENT DIFFUSION COuYENT ETCH CWYENT DEPOSITION CWUENT DIFFUSION Oxide a l l mplantboron t o s h i f t threshold voltage Boron Oose-4el1 Energy-50 ~ r ~gate oxide l r Time.75 C.str End Deck 4 N O P o l y s i l i c o n Gate-Deck 5 MS I s o l a t i o n region f i n a l processing I n i t i a l i z e s i l i c o n substrate Structur=nmosfieldini t . s t r Etch p o l y s i l i c o n and oxide over source/drain regions Pol y s i l i c o n Oxide Thickness-0.6 Process Simulation 4 421 ReoDen contact holes Oxide Deposit Aluminum Aluminum Thickness-1.str ~ t c h o l y s i l i c o n and oxide over source/drain regions p Polysilicon Oxide Implant arsenic for source/drain regions Arsenic Dose-5elS Energy-150 Drive-in arsenic and re-oxidize sourcc!drain regions Time-30 Temperature-1000 DryO2 Etch contact holes t o gate.i n arsenic and re-oxidize source/drain regions Time-30 Temperature=1000 Dry02 Deposit phosphorus-doped SiO2 using n/D Oxide Thickness-0. and d r a i n regions Oxide Deposit phosphorus-doped Si02 using CVD Oxide Thickness-0.phosphor-le21 Reopen contact holes Oxide Deposi t Aluminum ~luminum Thickness-1. source.nmosactiveinit.l 0Phosphorus s o l i d s o l 00 Layers chemical Boron Phosphor Net COmENT ETCH CMENT DEPOSITION PRINT PLOT STOP TITLE CMENT COWENT INITIALIZE COYYENT DIFFUSION CMET O HN IMPLANT COYYENT DIFFUSION COYYENT IMPLANT COYYENT DIFFUSION CWYENT DEPOSITION CWENT DIFFUSION PRINT PLOT SAVEFILE STOP TITLE C MET O YN CO'IYENT INITIALIZE CWENT ETCH ETCH COYMENT IMPLANT CrnYENT DIFFUSION COWENT DEPOSITION CONVENT DIFFUSION CY ET OMN DEPOSITION PRINT PLOT STOP 9.75 C.

\Idm~v-llill.ri.Relerences 4 123 Figure 9.tle \vilb itltcrmllnedions using (:u and lmv-k m a t r r i a ~ .li~r-Frrrpn~"l ~ ~ ~ ~ bllrer. .>t. 111.[mrr.tv n(1 1 1 . 7 c ~l.er l ~ i ~ h .l (1!199l. For r dcldlrd di<cas$inn IC i.I.SI T.f.K. CII 2 J D... Y. For 100-nm ChlOS t r c l l n o l n ~a goo11 ca111li&1ris the tile : ro!nbitlatiotl o r a n SO1 sul. .r : i ~ usin$ litlloer... Lv. . b 9..lplly n"tl~11igI1Iycollimstr~l nllialion.. surf.. IL.achinin~ ilsit~g oricntation-depend(~nt NI etchitlg pnxrss.< i)rqlca n J C l{n.~ sllrr . Mdr*w- 3..7 SUMMARY " FET.. cI.<!2nologg. and tllr LIGI\ p n m s s l t s i n ~ r . g . Y ~ ~ r k ..l!'!. h .lce micro~Il:lc~li~ri~~gsncrific.: fl'dn~ni*.~ ~Cllan<.ierus. Specinlir~arl etcl~ing tt. Cbmp 2 ..slr. ... Ctrnbti~Ip~.. s. ~ :. ~ n r Ripl. h -lsol.md tile hIESFET wcrc dkcasse~l (letail. ~I~[)iol: i)~rlRi. C.l!~ ~ ~ k . Srr. T H. Zrhlldq.. TI. Ed\.rlnnamol.Tmn. S ~ ~ ~ ~I%. Smv York.ili r~.li I . It iippcars tllnt the IIOSFET \\ill he in the dominant technolop at least until 2014 I)ecluse of its stlpriur prrforrnanw ma)pared witl~ bipolar tmsistor.~$ on inlcfntiol. 11..for S C ~ VIlri~lttr s P$. \. ~in C.in S.d l i t l ~ o ~ m p land etching tltr ~ic trcl~nologirs from IC fal.l~lopt~.. .d I.Ir. IW5..aTtci~~~~deR:'lEEE arir fl'rmw X. Camhndgr Uni\r..v~tl\\:Y.i!nl Cimtllr.St. Sn.. 5. ('!.40 I'!UIul tljt.. I M ... REFERENCES I.rer C. .. t.. I1.lE\IS llns .bs.. 33.nn.. . Y Liu . ~ b .M.Sf mml @ Y. Itill. XIELIS is still :in enlrrging liel(l..~tn Fn-. Ed'. <. i t -bqrn. ~ ~ ~ .. A! IO!Sl..~tiu~~.-.1311rrI.ric. . p i !lit.rr. llv. . n . I37 ilmJJI i Figure 9. I n l q h ... 1 1 . ~~~ l .l.39 I'!.cl~niquesIlave alw Invn drvcloped for MEBIS: balk n~icmn..~.urlS.j~l>l: I ~ ~ I I I I I 11: ti.

Plot ~ 1 1 c d ~ V i i c i tb+.-Pnu IEEC . \~l.<h D. \( Srr. SECTION 9. I.~ ~tl (~ n > ~ ~ Slnx?~>n.. .\loftr~nl i Sc8tti... I!>% Sov... To ol~tuin g~ml a inlrrfacial prolrrty a haNerrrl I.? XO :hi ai. rvrio~. .F slnclt.ttcIc I\ulation CMOS Dr\lrrr: IEEE Tcclt. (:.r~imltn.3 \ and thc tltn~rholcl ! toltagc i s 0. ..~.inimum air'.ithr C\rcr. . S.~~.lo. use SUPREXI lo sin.~.nl.. Y.i = . ( h l p-l!th implant. selective n xnnrce/cIr~iraia (cl ' in\plant usins phot~rvrist nwk.on.irrr 1f:EE 8..n~l nilridr of 0. ~ C C ~ ~ J ." lirb Dig..?.. dirtanw Irhvvvn tlnc w n t e n .. I S S .1.i S ~ : ~ l ~ ~ Uilnl>r~Ih.ing ... -(:hip ~.(I ( d l tlln.?888<lt8ec?r f ~ 7 \y 1~.: i.ft~.srl#-ln. .I mmplctr slrp-llyslpp s r l of mavks for tlw spiral inrlo~clor\ i t l t thrre ltzrnr un a \ sllllltn.~I '9. ~ .. Dig.m..iidc tmnrhton.. S. l l ~ ~ ~ 83r*. .at. I f the. 6. S\IOS p t r rc. 1: TY : .5 nm and (hl n T:L:O. is s 400 cm2N.lcmr i. ttlfrd b r pl!xilin~n?(d\ llow is a w\f.l h ChIOS structttn. .c . I .I . AM..~~~.1 l." S. {!<.Spcp..23.~ (Ir) Dr. Sl'PRE. S :.r ll. \Iclnru..\I IlL'r.IECE z.~t~d <ilinln \wfcr..~~l.?.+..and <lr.?tion I:tycr m n ~ i $ lof I-pm-hick alamintlm.prtl!2 it!irlnpnl [wll>~ilimn trr. II 1 Plt3.l~ :. and 1111LTlmnt is l l t r otbcr inrnlalur is n~yli~lllysmall. .hlOS t r d l n o l has S..tinan. 13. S I S f.glirss <lqmsilion.r alx~vc flontir~~ c ha% .lar stntctun.I.at61 1.mo.?.~r r c m ~ ? I V n .l. \'. 111 r <l~n.. (cl h4n-tnb drive-in. .rk. I'tilsl?l~~y.m d ~%.sinq (a) . The issttl:tk. T .btc. ICW I(~.. Plot the cmss-swtinnal\~CWS of a h v i n .. Y:qdxtho. !1<>>~3 1)..ip.a~g.la l..rtinl rnns srctions: (it) tl~rn!~d) PJIOS sollm.) -20.crter shmtn in F i ~ l r e 9. r ~~ ( ~c ~~~~ In.r Tccl~nulr~: ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ ~ q . Sc. lrzl can I".sk~lic\ l i r m n ~ o t oin . \\idth ~ i s 1pnl. 11 ..\lOS cttmcnt d r i \ r (rcristivity of daminam i s 2... p rt w>lllY\'. ..l. R w r Inltc-w. . \f0"!:3!3. ~ ~ K ~l. w bscs i r t m thin a liclrl ~xide. ..5 x 2. T. the i l t n 4 ~ o l vcnltrKer h a n ~r. I'ig~w1)s.tcr.tngh lhc SJIOS mllm..r 4 of 16. \\llal purpsc oftlte ln.. r d . <h.ick R~fin'eaw . . of 10 nm. ~ ~ l ~ . ore a 13' do \<T polysilimn gntc for PhlOS? 14..-rticul.Asrr.is 3.! mnstar. 3 Y)C P 110.s<oc' 10.r. . 19% . llnu n. 3. ~ \llB. c? r ng .\1:1.l \\I. '11. ilnplnnt.asol.(l!lS7s.. -Srs~iuln~cB~ror~ r TwllnoloS\:'in S. and (1. of the follmviinq stager of pmcc. 11' Ebrf-lcl.ttrtirl and ro~bstratc. . fA. and tlw n~rlalli. vnlt:~eeshift of thr rlc-ire cncrrwl hya r ~ l l t a w 1 \: applircl 1 thr. \\hat is the h r n n lmetntion pmhlrm in p' [xll!dliron PMOS? Ilmvar~eld u cliniinatt...I II~IICS >ttwpI>y. (dl nonsrlre(ivc 1)' soum/clr:iin impla~t.\pl~tl~tinn R~~"l~ttion..lclng \. 1597..s.1 ..! 9 \ (7 \G! .vli.<l\.*' .t.r. TS. Draw a rnmpl?to step-hystrp s r l of ma& for the CYOS in\.~. u~~~ n (:\IO:FETI.131.) a suficiaraly long time that1 illtltc 1onil.nnm rn r 1)icitd Sign:>l PR~\.6: PROCESS S I M U U T l O K -19.\i<r.r pol?ili~*n ggc is urcd for p ~ t len~ths tlratl R pm? :t c Irrs anotl.. \ttslli.n pwh. ( h l 1111. .lnr p r o w s descrilml in Swlion 92. llre oxide ll~irlmerrs 30 nm. ("1 tltn.. t l ~ sh8r(in): mateliitl i s ap-t!p.I SECTION 9. I in F i ~ l n 9.. \'.? I?) \\h:. Im ' I.t-lld. . I 6 C.md I\'..1 Vtvhrn n Ipm' cms scctitm aluminam wire is n m i n g lhc madmttm cttnrnl that can lr nnpplinl h? thc S\lOS trana sistor Ilo\\~long air? can lr nllm\rd? Usc a simple qnair-la\r: Ions-channrl m d e l to predict the .~ s i ~ t ~ r m n t i )and . 12. ommcnt dendty J in thr 1cnrr. For a rhrcl rwirtancr of I k Q E . i01.I) a balli.un nqrmr. in .l ~ linrrl.r insulaton is )I ? 0. JIP.7 x 1W' n-em).. the pt ~ i s 11Y) thick. Bfi.n \l.my~ ~ ~ i d . 1 1 . .) tl.. n.hicv. i I. lllcfollu\. fligft. -4 \IE\lS .pm-\.r fi.m*~n.. and .tric stn~cturrs (.. II *. n fIt.I~~~y.~r \ \ i l t ~ snv Yo&.. Sw.t.\.L\S LIn. .E o i~ ~ t in ~ t f \!..ri. h O ! * of^ Y R \V ( : p 1 . IJctw t l ~ c cirwit ~ l b ~ ~ r ZLIKIcrow wctinn of 2 cl. i . Ell .6 \: Fin:dIy. fifibrintcul on n k 2. 1 C..rtr~nqrlo . .~..1 \Illat ~ I I ~ ~ does P.1.r insul:ttnr lrrvrnrr ne+*bI? small. '7.~atr thr [..aitr hrr r tlidn SXl r If v c . IS 11.n the Iliglll m.rrristnnw thal n n lu.ssins. it? ! n 15.mrd dc. .md 5 Il.~.Mf i s the 18. nnrl pa-ring I 1 t l ~ m t q h cla:~nnc.\ I S . ~~ \<rqr \\rllt I3 11 t ~ ~ 1 I)\.r P\IOS s.:me. Thr sour<". "Dwp Tn. rn3..lpacilr.pF \IOS r.. \I l:llt~7Ja.S). p ~ ~n.. -<:.. 5 .gl. l l P PROBLEMS .*-lnn l h a.S o i i Ar.4: JIESFET TECIIXOLOGY l h p:tridL..I:kt. tbr ntrf. .. 17.~.I. 1 Tnmb in . ~ I .rw the t ~~ mf d l . a e m r that the nlwi~num voltage 'Imp thnt ran lw tolrr.lrl~tm>r \b.. SC-V snrL.d cmsr srdiow: (a1 fmnl lhr top of the C~IOS p m r s ilrscrilnl simulrtr tllr l..l.ll<n<inc5tt... cl(m> ~~rirntati<.irer..<Il II.rnfilcs (1.. is d i ~ l i n ~ 0tmakc bipllar transistors wcl 1IOSFns in G : L ~ ' is R tile it 1l ~I. . rc t. ~ !r .?P. I!FNI . f~i 1 61 II!IU) . ~ r~rl ~ ITET lr!r flcornn Silic~.7nm.(. it l j <l . X. Plot the d<Vine ~ ~ n t ' .!l.1 Chapter 9. find the tn.!Jr.l thr n. \I:\. I'ny p..t i . d. I2 I \I Hnm.lrlc~IC~ l i~ >lc ~Bipol... lInn\v .. -. pol? in In Fi~n1n. . S..amp~d : t m <I<-iw tcanslstor.l.ttnl Cin. 11 R I ~ .. .s<..r Yt>&. 2.. pmfilc..~ o i .%Vfi.sior~.l.q21p..nr nttmtinn to the cmrr spcfion sl><n\m F i p r c 9 B for )nlnr xdo.rr. I W . ~ ~ l .. (a) \t%"s I i'rl: ..lltql R. " . Process lntegrarian .d it. (t. (1.. ..r .r \ .filjffinrlt prnblnrr~ \\I.5.5-pm digital C... &~ or .L ! ! Ed.)I-F.vl.t p. c ) fmm thv top o ~ t l mllrrtor N'ntM. I ~ I4 \I.r'v . Ii!:mni~.1. 7?sfing. ll.. r l i s 10 nm.).xyl.~.'(lfilin tlw rc $ (1.:A~s~tnrc i that thr rvtinimtml uindmv s i x i< x 10 ptn i d tbr n~:rvirnnm 2 irsistration crmn arr 2 pm..r \lrmhnnr \:Ilvr. ~ ~a d TWh8~"k-: .. and s (0 P.mhri<>tion \licmrtnlRam V~inq L I C Prmrr.y>r l~nm11~ p ~ r i t ~ l is dc irh\ru. usnl in S\IOS . Cnlctllale tlw eNrcti\r oxidr thickness i i t h c rtsckrrl gate dirlrr. ~\snmntc that w.tr*cL~~.lq: ICEE 13 lM6 lcl%:.1 C .1 I!&V?'. So&.~l .<#3r. \I &C .~ ~ \V. 5 n.ttnl is 0.nclt in Fi$lrc9.5 mm chip using 2-prn linm \\ill> p m pitch kc.rnntz. Scu.. . Rlrblx.ak s r l for.io~. 3 0 i I!lS9l. A 0.. r n f a <s s ~ ~ l l m ~ ~ nnrl of ~ h isolation t ~ c l ~ n o l o ~ . ..1. ~ w . IFEE To m t:b.r . .I3rl.~ ~ \ ~ "?<ip~n n t ~ ~ ih! ~ 1.nv thr doping profill along : monlinalr p(. In1 flcrrmrr l>n.: F J ~ ..(10 and ~ l .lr.!her R<zlnts of lhr nnA Z.29.E.n8~l..nrk~ rlmntr .di~ni plc ~ h v ~ iand~ d . I 1 S F . ~ iLs ..ti use U ~ H E \ I S l..r~ n. ~ .ing . ) 2.rvlic.. .. lirrmrd lq nnvnic itnplzmtati~rn i 111~' o iiosr/cln: at 70 ke\' tl~n>ugln gate oddc i lZ nm.I ) &I.p~in srlf-nlism.\bnnnl. 0' fin...~p w@on.l!imirlc l e d in F i w r r 9.. Drriwl n m.h.. 5241..lnnrl CZlOS I'nrcrs Xrlall. 131. 3. 1tlvnti& thr potrpnsr of the li. :I . S<!.1 I .\ 1 ~ P .rir. ldI l'm 19. . S l lk~t.. .lt~-[xllpilirnn hilx.eion or thr saarrr. ~a. I rtal fll. .OCOS t e c l ~ n d w the . Drcrilw tllr diradvimtrgcs of I. 1' S/cnl. Far a flnrting-~ate non\nlatilc mrmory thc lmrrr innllator hm dirlrcttic mcl i s 10 nm thick.$Ilrllnl~ilil~~. S ~ m b nl!sivcnih 1957. .. l!l%l I n NMOS pmcr.P n ~ r ~Elcen.-Tiubn.tc.~~ ..I Eslisl..wza!lcldnr 1.... n t ~~~i ~ t~~ l ~ vTcttwist<>m. unntnll gate br o 25 of 0 0 W..rn.

ll.? tllc prrsrnw of short rirc~iits r d aroprn circuits usins rinlnlr resistilntr inr.tre and svfhsarr t p c l m o l ~ 1. l ~ l ism* Sectinn 10.tnc~. ~ ~ n t .l eirnlit ! i r . l'mhla i \v.dihpr<xlllcts.tion of ope11 circuits throtlglt incre..c i t h ~ in clir sitr.ty I n ! i ~ I d1tigI1-qo.hntll:tci.I ~v.rvpnl t.ll~ t r n t~ t l ntu t~t:atvrials sttppli~s .nicl>t.mrnts.r italir.ywrirn~ntis . II.i Yidd r d e n to tllr prnpnrtio~l i ~n:tn. .tt<bs tlir detcc.c1ac :-I!.' .llmvine rubsrninr~s..r. l pnulltcq* to :I s . Ftn.~IKI srninq S its inputs :ln<If i n i s l ~ ~ l I: . n u l p ~ ~arc.variables ~ ~l tl.an c r t r ~ r n r l y r s r l itool for clism\. includr. l ~. For i. l ~ m l t ~ cs i I!) ~ t ~ ~ c t inptlt mate. mntaminittion.pmrnts in mmpltter i1anla.xllilih in tile a 11 a a. S p i f i c a l l y i t clircussrs tile follmvn inq topics: Figure 10..ll p m s s ~ mntml. pr h. ~~l c v~~ t l s~~lplrrir pn. i ~ ~ c l t ~ l q . ~nvtrir.T11rsrcnncrpts arr disc~~s.l~.. . Elrctricnl mrzsurrmPn1C p r f ~ ~ r n a v l test stnlcturrs are .5).' Usinr! s n r l ~ t(*st stnxtltrrs.rlmnin inan..cf hv ilrzr.tllP itnd i t ~ ~ f i t lTC s.tnt#fxa!xing m5t: T l ~ lliqhrr tllr !iel~l. iu op~ can cr.ni.nsivr~ m:muhrturi~i? otetllods. <?. ~ n r : ~ t ~ r ( ~ m r o t s arr prrfnnnrd to avsrss t11r pwsrncr of drfrcts. 1 1:alllitil>n. tlt..itvrns .L.31<v m i r ~ c .n!~:u>cv c\~r. ~IO~X~II~S. Yield i s in\rrjcl$ [>rnpr~rtionnl to tltc tnt. :and i n t r n n n n ~ irnaniton. nn inq intecr.1 Test Structures ticlrs.v!iir?r mnform. ~ ~ o ~intmttcxl ~ ~ ilr ~l i.tI sctvim>r><lttctr~r ~-*it.r .1. \vhich can l i n f r r r ~ I.rn~.rse~lend-to-el111 rrsistalm.AS .IC Manufacturing \I.spcinlly drsigned trst rlnlcturrr a n oerl.~ li ~ il itlm. nf tltp .lll..~~IL. I i.. incltidr oxidation an11d r p s i t i o n pm~sses.3.se. Tltrsr r ctnlchlrcs.ci-ict..1. ~ h r .finwl :rs lllr p n n w I??rvllirh mu.~. ". . sinolp tnnristnn.l~~f~r~~~.cr m t n p e l m . lines behv?rn dic (SCP Fig..urd d r t r n i . dct:til in tltr fr.:lt ~ n f l t ~ r n r r tI~t.Jihr. wlllrlar pllonrs. ~ l l \ \aninn mntrrrllnhlr p r m s s mn(lition% .rl lo rnslrrr <luxlit\.l p n ~ lAs 411twt~~tvdFiturt. 10:~.. insol:\tt)rs. m ~pnxlurts isttch . t l ~ u l l l n n ? llrille the l:%tc.s r or in thr scrilx.. T l ~ r w hpid inlermn~iect stn~cll!rvs s11mti1 test :are 111 Fizorc ln..:anistn &.Ira:tjor mrrl.~+~ri i q .rral PC114 distribated acrms tltr s~lrl. 10.l~T~.the lo\vrr t l ~cost.ta\ r l ~ a p t inn ~ ol ~ tllis tvxt.r<t~n.+tumc l>nul!~d f ..~rnf~t~rs tnrasurv q!t..ir~l in omn.s\.f. or a t l ~ csoltrcrs.~~IV~~ Tltv qx.1.d+~ctnr \u:~fvm.r.!rinq p m v $ < . compaterr r i ! t t t m l w l rn.t@n?.li.stml b??irl. r 01.d cam.\I. mealder stntrtun fnriln a ii.. I ts I<.timnl st optimidnq tlnr [nrt-rffeciivcness ofcli.ww 01 . ~ ~ cia1cll.r.tt ~ t ln msrtl 1 .mtrfxitl"n? i s .~cturing l t i o n he ~ i e ~ w l o l ~ ~ . S~lclt ~nc-nl~r<~nlents arc pvrfonnrd Ix>tlt ilwiatg ..l ! t ~ ~ ~ r l l ~ f ~ ~ ~ < ~ ~ r i r l g . i ~ i n p 1 1 e iimpact r nu n o i t l ~ l[xbr.my !a: .. 111ntrri:lls1w ( n n \ .dit!: l t11:at .rnul~tburin< n ) r ~ IS ~ w 1 p s mst. e r t ~into fin. sin:rs gle linrs of m n d ~ ~ c t i n g material.r c!vsrtilu~% r:~rll i l l l r c r mnwpts. clrctriczal t r s t i n ~ < l f t i l r 1 final prrrluct i s cntri..\ k ~ .b.tfcrs hpical? mlifaill se\.?lI!.<oipnx~~sst.~rmnic n. .. p~.l~l~l~.\x.m<litt t l ~ cntlrln~rion tII. Tilt< cllilp18.s arise in I .I kstiog wd .no:: k1. t11(. Statistirxl r \ ~ r r i o l m t d clesiq is a l..~n~tl o pmlItC+s tl1:it p r f o r m :I< n q u i w d hv a set 01 specifimtior~s. :\ <lt. 3niI t[i@t..l. also lino%\ii I>mrrwmtllml trlorlifon (PC>lsl. w \vrll .' I'rmss qunlih r:ol be d ~ ~ c at \nriol!s sta~es rnannlhtc%!rin~ k ~ d of tlsrouel~ in-linc !ne:~<t!renlrntson PCXI stnwti1res. ~ r c totltt~r a l kt? p n r l ~ s s r ~ tnt~stt. Ou:llih :c.I n~:~nct~.11 n~.amnle.*tin< is ne~r.tr ot1tc.!n<l lT:>l.y>ir.tintnining iui~lih oftrn invoIve4 t l l O S P ofst i~llc.) <. tIt:tt ( rna!~!~&~~turinc. hlOS ctpacitors.&r p l n c ~Thrsr irbrlndr vlectri.tctc(~~ristin. c w i* t.rtr. fnhriration prmss.da~atcany o~.2 I:ktnfim~rd1inn pnxl~tcts 01 .Iappm?cli Inr n ~ t r n r . and mst i G diwrtl? imp. of slx~cifi~:~tiuns d t h r n311uctiono f .lcw*.

r~c..r c.it o ~ l q t in 10 I * 10. rt-sponsrs .tpplt~~ittiou.n prorluct.. .trl<litio~l.1111. the rhip in .s: \vItivlt :F andoI wwr l o IC*. t. \ ~ r r ~:midoc. virct~its.. I thr~ic:rlhipn1.'Xt~~ex:!~n~plcs dno\m in Fiq1n. t ~ v ~ ~ ..\icc opemtion at 3 1 ~ x ~ t v n t irt7ci!8w.trl~ i .n. l).4 r.lwtlwr thr cltip tvstr<lis a heir or m ~ ~ n rlc-.ctr(mic prodh ~ l l!rl :L< tltr !~IIIII:*II h~!! 1. tlte u t ~ t l i n ~ d~ i r dn. psttvm .\TG i\ I ~ S V10 apply : ntr. t i ~ trr n n parkoyirr~ rr&n tn the srt of t r c l . Tlw tnitjor f i ~ ~ l r t i o n s t l l r . is i ~n t p \ t r i t ~.tl lrsting is to pnsllrc Ihsl ill1 prmluct\ p.prdir.~nttf... elcrlronic \n-tt.tnd n.r. rt~prcscllt~ v t l ~ IhiIt~re rr$on.s arc 10.itrr ufpmcrss qtm1. Om~tput l rd This n~lt~a..I p a t <h.rious ntppl! vnltnwc aurl o[w!r. Elvdmnic p. ~(or~ ul.iv.. ' :~ l ~s r I > u r i n ~ r : rh~r~rfioa. ~ . I n n 411ncm plot. .1rlv in nrr!rbnr?.~<ion. l:ip. Figure 10. Anoll~rr in:tps .<t!lts III'~?IW wprmstd in :t \:t"<. and later n. 2 I . catalog!cd.r.6.tttenl Kenen. v r n uscf~d idenin tli\inc nnrl isnl. inl1111 < ~ c t ~ t s sent IIBNIISII by the ATE l~ tr.~.qut~~~m~.5 C:cll map rhmving roa~npl~~r of C?iltxn.~ ..rrr>nllllr nw~lts. ~A- .rr*h? nidioS i r l tl~. Ill? i ~ arr..4 Cv.tr.ntq.. 10.pt is illtt.II t h "skrlrtal . and !ii.rl'onl~ to tile ni ~ p ~ i t " ...is often n w s s : t n ~ IpIr k ~ r m t stsh tr..11 st.nm...cnt."'niv packac~.fined.ikc tltr I d ? . I n . hil18r<.npcatrtl k.cma. m n ~ ~ ~ l ~ .tlin? <lr\ict.4 s l l o a ~ b~n-clir~tr. ' h l ~ ~ u t p ~i~ llv wll ~n.poit plot .\TI' iirr inpltt p. i s tllr TIt.lsurrvnrnt \ti~nolus o the trxt z~t ~ I l clup .t w t p-ss rl. I -__--2 I*.. 1 : .tnrl pnrtrdine 1 I .rat<vI 111~ 1tllitp illity 1 ~ m~npilerl. I n n~ ~li.. nin.J h.In.tn>pl<.4 :and I1l.cl c\rlr.t!r.*i<. TI.I. r t ~ s r ~ n ~h l~i rl c ~ ~ r < ~ ~ n n (n~ ~ i nn <molil)<.r..lir. ~ t i n~.sis of l i u l ~ s . Tlw n181nlvr:and srqI!6*ncf~f kult~res u 111~ 1 .<.~livc.nrr.$linS. p:8rtirul. . ~<'nr. n d ~ @ p ~ pnKI.iclt tl~c..~ls l> tIw s\. prwlnvtq \>:>YP "Inii~.l< .s.rtem" :rs w<.2 PACKAGING h w l \ clc. Fimsn. p t ~ l p w fin.d on a.d c n l l ~ d ~l.?t? at \. ur it?.lvi<lcr an vlr. inptlt p ~ l t e n I~ .icy.-lx. ~ .. ti~m.tltmms rnrl dc.lot for a I~!.fcn h ~ s ..L< ~ ~\~trn!. tlt.I Figure 10..~ l i r \nl!~~v~ i c01 n ~ a r~~lx.of irl.n.of < . a X.* 10. r .inafncit~"no pr<Krss hnltc.~l o i o~atpt~t sip:$tttre .lc~<l it.<.rr.lcl.ar o f ~~~~n 511rncm1.tinc trmpr:r~tnrr5 to cnrntn.12 Final Test ft~tlai.1 ~ zoc l 1 .SSPS that :lnd ov~nn-tIC\ sit]. tlwu.hof~t?i:s.i.I timt.. '.tl~lon~. 1 ..ttt~I q t ~ i p ~ n ri.a.~. . tr.tt t l . l ~ e t t p tvm. .? is to cr..mpnred \\ith . ~ l v s i ~ n r tFor i n t e g r : ~ t ~ ~ I ..trtt~rinji final arl.a.\pslm\n F i m ~ n 5. I n either o n c. r i <otntput r r s ~ m ~ d ~ tc c t i o r ~ .br@~~c m \ i < l ~ ~ \ "nrnr. . cl. in n .@ort i~ r l ~ c r tllr ~ l v \ i w sl ~~~l \ r Lq i n t ~ ~ t o o ~ m~ ~ ~ l v ~ t I>lank ~ ~ouIsid<~ r ~ p l t ~.. ~ l. I ~ h r a o f v ~ i c t i clrfcct h y q .cl v arc.arc rrad nnd m ~ n p a r r ruitlt c ~ ~ y w r t results.rc. p.< (. 10.

tm~l into p r k a g c ~ .ttionprrx.10 1.<srq llsc a r!ianlond saw r. t.V ~ nxi<. n s r IIehvwn Ira& Imvmcs tidlter. inininl.cl fn. 7 rr.10 ~n and 10.trnon<l swilK. n for!t!rtl :lrn>llldtllc pripllc~?'of thr diw during f.dl fnur sirlr5 to furthrr incrr.t* t. ~ !I.11.-r~cr\c.t lx~ckaqc s i tile q ~ ~ a r l flatpack or QFP i F i ~10.itlb lends pratntding from hrhVl.nti:all$ 111~.. T!.mrl IBXOs.net. Tlat. ltas thr.S).ct. adhrsive s I ~ v < ~ tirylnr film.IIPIIl ~ v y t think ofintemrld riwt~its..~ligwrl n \\itln the y 3 l . rn t l ~ sp:tcing . \Ion.nl. I l j e d~tol ~ ir1-1inepack.2 Packaging 4 23 1021 Die Separation pil~kil@lll: m ( C S P . it.r on andscrilw in ht1 tI1rr .ttrs. tlw d i m are r ~ t n o v cfrom t l ~ t~~ylnr.rw ow a numhrr ofaPpro:rclirs to tlw p a c L l @ no f sinel? ICr.' Figure 10.atic or wmmic.10.is tlwn n m l to r i t h r r rrrihr tlnr n:tfer o r a cut rurnplrtrls t h r o ~ n ~ h :\fter sepa.I tlsin: a ~li.rcr .~c.n. I n m l l ~ n ~ o n p nrtllo t l .n~ tltr l ~ n l d r end p l n c ~ d tltr.571rj%fncc emstlf packogrr*\r. \\it11 QFPs.mpli~l~nl 1 . t l ~ r r e b y allowing l ~ i p l ~ r r dmsit?. d e v c l o p ~in rr%pnnsr o n l t nerd for l ~ i g l ~ c r .l ~ l? T r ~ in I<Xinc. ~ packqe e a~ ior ICs. ' . strp in tltc I\ lirsl -- 1022 Package Types Tl.. ~>ressurt-. \trntt. l n n l r ~ . tltp ~nilllufac*lirin< )irld [ I ~ c m r r r ~ p i d l ~ RGA dhnrs s TIIP itizher dmsity anrl takes up less space than thr QFP. mountpd un l m t l ~ sirlrs of the Iward.quickly I w a ~ n lltc p r i r .. tllr \r:tfvr i s altacl~ed :. I n contnst to 1lIPs. On? cuznplr o l such . (PCA) and hall $rid array(BGAI p t c k ~ iFig5. d pl. nomlwr o f inp~~Wonlpnt (110) connrctions. RGAs n lx. IS tltr p ~ c k a e r no st p o p l r rrnixion \I.rn of wcunic thr (?x~tnicpl. arcc.~l. :\fter if ~ ~ n l > i r q . t l . sept~mtml ~l r The <lice t i ~ rea(ly to ~ n pl. r i~psidc-<lo\m :t soft supon port . n i must In.v p. tion Tls. \lore recently. c3tion.~rred c \villi ilmut 200 for QFPs. \viilll tllr latter called tlle CrrVlP VIP CrrDlP consists of a DIP mnstn~ctcrl hm piccvs nf s s ~ r l ~ ~ ~ c l ~ e d\r. This rltezms that the packaw can In. 331 p m in aiclll8 t l j .t.\ ~ .11 Rnll @<Iarr.rlrttmnics packa@nxinarkrt. to I) of u . This is done id~lngr i l w lmnlpl t . r~urlvnt %vp.91. the need for grcnter and gwater n~~mhers ofU0cnnnec(ions 11.d datl>i~qv t l ~ e to indi\idu:J dic.rthrr tllnn s diaalond clic rrrilxs. u mmp. i vitl. a:&r i c r. irlenn tifietl I? the solrlrr h ~ ~ ~ onpthe 1)ottom of tlir p?ckage. l ~ DIP u : ~ l ~ % c l r ~ pt . l l t ~ rtlwrt 1 t w 1 ibppl. 111 tlln p n ~ w l u n .. c i c t ~ ~ i i n s \!:~li-r alntiq Ill? c r i l ~ i\ i the s lines..a<lr ofn rorf:tcr-~nount~l 11 package donot pnptratc t l a p ~ i n t n l cirolit l m ~ ! (PCRI upirn wliich it is monnted.trl rn:tr~\!r:tm.111 cnql ilm\.d m s i h int~rcnnnvct than the DIP apprnacl~ rnltld prmClr. I)Il'rnn I*lnarlp Inn< 1d of pl.A< t ~ s t l. I0. :mrl II:LC r l o m i n : ~ t ~111. is tnot1111?d :I l~oldcr IW.lerl to 1 1 ~ ~ ~ r l r ~ c l o p r n ~ n t ofpin @<lam). TIle . and HCAs c i n h s t r densities grcator t l ~ a n 1000. rrspertiv~lyl. .~ tl~ttpack. ly Figure 10.p-cka~r' Figun 10. but its ~ n a n t ~ E ~ d t ~ rri n gw i s p w i n l ~ ~ r e n tInore rrpenriw.rm . iJCi\s Ilave an I/O drnsity of about Mn.9 QII:~.10. I n tile 1~1iOs .and !I iliwrtira~r . \vl~ielt lrarlr on .slvr of the s l ~ h s t c ~ t tpssilllr. or 1)IP IFic. 1 1 lc. tlhc st~l>st~~tc. o:r."~.tr.

.~ortic Ix. .. e ~ p s ~ ~ I .tdc ant1 intrqwsrr I. M r t h d ofatt:lrlt~nc . ~ ~ . 1cui~+!mnn-ntio!~i~l rguipn~mt 01:1 and w.. pa& facing up\nld. Iltlwl~ips o ~ ~ n t(se* i c ~ lSrctian 1 . clamp pulls an11l)n.wv t l ~ m 110 connections.IS~.r5t-tlley are ~. 10. CSI'S \ : fnr C ~t . r technique (Fig. .hmnin F I ~ I 11).ctronics!sbn~ k i n g ~n:tn~~f:~ciulwl.ination of t11t.111 ti. p m s s is still time-miauming since each <\ire must l r attached indi\idl~ally In t l ~ rA~nnocn. ntl~er tecl~niques. or tl~ennommpmcion . edge of tile Innd.[ . of 5 . n>trlt. l ~..r (:<nadded 1. h l ~ tl5(l9C:.:tud opmtion. < Cl~ip-t+p:~ck:a.~rsen. ICs are fint an.~gc a and r ctn ~ ~ ~ ~ n t n h t t thr rrrtlwl nonpl.vtnsion and mntnctioll oithe I I I I ~ ~ ~ ~ . Tl~rnnosoniv to Imndrrs arc w i t e f.~n t l ~ n vC:\PV :~r.nnd i.I pnn. d ~ m n d ~ ~ cadhesiw. In tllis :~ppronch. <XI tla. l an i~ltfiw~~nic ~ \ihrxtion at 20 to M k l l ~ cntrses the 111rtalto drk)rm :mrl f l ~ ~(r\m at mom t r n ~ p e m t ~ ~ r c )the tml is cuwd tr..n\-rntiuznel ftillyp?ck~g~l Xvo rrst.lrc is ~ w ~ ~ ~ p lIIW~t r~ tl ti~tttn.le p~xlucing tn I0 Innds p r srn)lld.nbr .dl ~ .ler intrrmn.cts ..~ rn ~ ic ~ ~ .lcl.rr ~ l i ~ i ..!?!.ieh n is t r .l.the capillary is lmveretl. tecl~eique ICr i Tlir nsrd to lnnd a hap <lieto a pcktcr 1 :a vi~nificmt 1s rffrct on t l ~ ulti~nate r el&rid.r on tla. c~pillary raised.~.~~prc.. . tape-:a~ton~ntt>rl Imnding.ipsnl:~tcs firti-Iird silic~~n prim to ~ l i c i the t11c cIits n~ ~ ~ ~ . As . tlsi. forming n ball.rr is m. IC: ~lir itcpli. ~ .. S e d .aks 1I1e\sin. aRrr tllc lnnd to t l ~ package is forn~rd.dl.%in.cl grid h..g. oitr. inn(Iing. and the hall deforms into a"nai1 head" due to prrss:!rc ant! heat lront tlir c~pillary..~ tmlper.l!x. 10. ~l .>l.hpir. Ix>edin~. tilerand m:d p m ~ r t i r . Cltm.~l \ibr..ln In.n takr tltr h.~@ng l ~ chip rcllr pnrkngr ICSP).~tiot~ prcssuw are lid and to c.illc<inrrJin.. and tile bonding interface tempratare ranges frnm %O0C to :lWIC). and \\ire is frd fmm the spool itnd positionex1 ovrr thr p~ckage is substratr.ss t l ~ C T ~ . \\'ire h n d i n q IrquireT mnnruiing gold or 100 duminttm e i r m hchrven chip bonding park and eontad points on the pachgc.re.I:~1. t l ~ pack. IC used to p m i d e tncJ f. used in an ~ I < * m n i c ?stem.arhnl to the suhctntr urine a t h r r n ~ .~ltinlf c a t ~ ~ n ~ s o f t l i i s ~rl IC.npiwki~qcs 111rgertl~iln20% ~ r c a t rtllall tllC W ~l r 110 : m 5TIlo 1 ! . I I ~ Prxtcrnal in t S A.n~lin$p.hl. [ ~ n n t tornuit lxunl <luting.~n~rx.\n IC elwt hc inountt~l nntl bondnl to i~ pnchee. ri~rchanical. n m m n iq ccnerdly a m u r ~ ~ ~ l i s I. i~tr~?ions t~xtc~n~id (r..it p ~ c k ~ murt he attaclld ge tn n printnl cirnlit hn:~nlht-forr thr IC r.. . ofttlte>fir.llich is tltrrl lo\wrrd into position . The bond to the pacbge is a rvcllge Inn11 p m l t ~ c I)? drfonnine 1111.ination of prcssurr n~lcl mpirl rneclmnnic. rkiric. d ~ f i n.~~m-in..tIlis tllrn positionrd ovrr the chip :.r lull Elrh. is tllrn raisrtl mid thr \ r i p is irmkrn near r till.ntal ultfiuonic\ihr. 1. is two Tlir s~~hstr..'O(l0C.~tion form lu)nds to (Fig. a fine \\ire (15-75 pnl (liameter) is frrd from a spool tl~roagl~ a l~eatetl capillary A slnall h!rlmgen torch or elrcirie spnrk tlwn indts the end of tlw \\ire. nfthe ~It.L cnnll.a~tomatnl.llcrln)oian.ssio.al....I 0 <~. wirp is fed frotn a spool t l ~ r n ~a llnlr in thr imntltlte ~gl~ ins twl.ork I s so t l ~ hri<.unt..'Altlion~l~ . and tll.for islll tcstingi~~rl i q t l.tt:..v un~Irrprcssllrc Cnnn a\rrld.. appmacl.inrtyl I. (Tlw sobstx~tr maintained at a t e n ~ p c t t u r of 1SliC is r h>..14).ndin.:tri~ .n~lingrrprrsentr a lo~vrr-trtepmturr xltrrnati\r that relics on a mznl.nniclr .11 m~lt~lcts.~ic bortrli~~g .m intmnntartion fr. .l.3 Attachment Methodologies . [:St'<.u~intl and st.! .lrr. is the oLIrst attacl~mentmetl~ocl and is still the dominant technique for rllip uitlv i. 102.I.ty. ilnrl tla.lse tllr lnctal to no.15).. many ppnirs mnnnl \\itl~stan<l trmpr.vr r e i r m l h~u L r c l 1pnckneir~e.linetl :lt : .nu of ininint~iriz<. !t?til t l ~ r ibonding tivr r )nl~l. the.. n i w r n t d r w b p m m t ill p~rlt. or fliprl~ip hnncling srv Fig. r ~ . \\ire Bonding \\iw k.Ien~.?mritl~cr l l .I:.lt. l !l.u.\sire l uith tlir r d p of 111r capilla3 T l ~ capillar?. wl. a. The Au or Al \\ires are then attached hehveen the pads and sub stntr usinc ~ l l t w n i ctllmnosonic. IO.. r a T14cn~loso. 12. p . ..n t rl.1hlrrs necdrd in thl2rthr mc~m~npression Innding.ilityl fleiihlr rnouglt sn that the p7ck1gnl rle\iw . The 11.:. ~n:tnuf:nrtn~rr<l . .! t l l r lr.<*. Oxidation of Al at 11igI1trnlprratnrrs makes it ~lilficult form :I g o d l d l at t l a rnll to of tllr \!ire: in addition.

ICI ~ anmatrd.1 i.s at irl*zc.!i.lil>. ic) \\'irr l I>nd. A l i ~ l l m ~ is tt1l-n n nrLnnlplislle(~.v~"l<.. Ik>ntlin~ \!in. clbip$ . Imliins.r brrn~ps (or soldrrless n~aterials such as epories or c n n d ~ ~ a i adl~rsi\.rl.2 Packaging 4 2 ' Tape-Autornntcd Rondlng 'lhpe-a~lto~n. T l ~ N l p p r ii.ltirq. 10.l~ere thc chip.\I% is that all b o n d arc formed sim~~ltanenusly..ll-. r tnkr*s Gnld bsmps are fonnnl on rilhrr sirlr of l l ~ c or t a p anti :are ~ s nto lmnd the dic tlic l to tltc lends on thr tapc.~l.urc and ini 1R! rlltr.lcjlerl tile lmnd pads to inn11 the solderlrss bumps.L~I. However. ..atis arc drfinrll litl~ognphs i. tbe bump fal. Flip-Chip Ronding I.\B) was d ~ w l r > p rin 11. ~ ~ l flip-chip technolop ~ ~ l ~ involves stencil~printing of an organic polyller onto l ~ ~ . . Since humps m n lx located an)~\.l\ich rignificnntly inxpro\. thrreby d m (.:. lhrlp and MI<<.rl on a flprihlp In pol!mtsr tapt.pr:ttrd mpprr intcmmnraion patterns (Fiz. hllnl~s. TAB. hft~.rornrtryof iw idl 0 l~. I'rcr. TAB also require? mtdtilayrr solder bumps wit11mmplcr metalll~qy Crnmdly Illerr i~llrnps ~ s r g o l dcopper x tlieprimn~cnr~stiturnt. bolld packegrs to printvd rirct~it hnnr~ls. A bi~l~-conducti\ih. t l a r r b its rrnrlrring TI\B an rrtrrmoly a~stomizc. procrss itself is fairly complex and capital illtmsi\'e.ld\\ice i n s mpillnr? :ljl Ball forma. l n ~ final bond is formrd I>yappl!ing pressurr and heat to tilt.~tr~! lmn<lin):iT.\\ill~ ~ or s tit. (rl \\ire Irmh.nditcq l>nxrs<. iust~:illylmlyi~nhlr) uontnininc.tching..es) vr lwatrtl m r t l ~ st~rface the chip. ~i<. A ltrnrfit of T. i~llncl~m(. l*. i ~ g t pads ~ ~W.ulium or turrgstm s r n i n s . flip-chip lnndr of on i:y rnsurcs that the intrrconnect distance behveen the chip and package is m i n i m i ~ d . .'ds u ~ r t. or printed circuit lmarrl.l. ~ ~ : .ler is stcnciled onto tlre lmnd pads of the sul)stmte.l1.ralicsing tl?e 1C pads lo metal inlrrmnd nrction stripes on l l ~ lap(. l o flip-chip procrssing.tllo)inq. rrliatl ~~t.ric.13). apanicular tapr can only be usrtl for a chip nt~d package Illat matcl~cs intcrconntvl p t t c m ..16 Tnpntnlomatnl I (:111.i .~~t plaw I. a tile (el (0 Figure 10.and d ' Xx~l tr fi. The 110 tlensity is limited only 13.1 lnndink' .. hility pwhloms c m rcst~lt.orgnnicpol)~ner is then ~ p:-tp .. chips are placed face do\m on the module substrate so that I>:lds on t l ~ e chip are aligner1 wit11 those on the substntr (Fig. Elrctrinl mnnections are madr \ia sol(1i.mrl rcprnitions nlmvr thr IC. IO.15 (el liltr. I n atldition.a\onir ix. n...l(il. 2 ~ rliif~~sion a hamvr to prrvrnt .d.' (nl C~.' F u r l mtirlrs uirr to thc pnrka~c. 10.rs mnnufact~~ring~ r o u g l ~ pIlowerer. .r Figure 10.(l procrss for \vhicll thr bonding crptipmrnt is rrlatively erpensivr.>IC. \\. tl~mughput cnmpared \\. L .ilr ~ a n i c o pol!q.n~I.111 1 Ihl 1cI Ourrr 1 a lx>ml b1 Id1 Figure 10.10.iP bonrling is :I direct interconnection xppmach in wvldch the IC i mountcd upsides do%m onto a modulr.? tlirrmomnrprc~ssion(Fig.trc fin1 mountr.tl~ mire bonding. and t l lend patr oarl ~ tent n n ro11t:iin h ~ m ~ l r r ofsmnnrctionr.twn~r pnvrm lorn. d lgios is oflrr. \vhich are tllcn cured.14 Thcrmcmn~~n~ssion Imndinr: pnxvrs. The <i. the inininiunl distancr brhvmn adjacent hond pads. unlpss all thr leads are coplanar. h sokler reflow plocrss is then osed to siw~tltaneously fortn all the required connections.d l x ~ ~ l l'l>l.n . l">.. ~mpro\ing I\ ..

10.3 Statistical Process Control




IC ~nanufacturing processes must IK.stable, repeatable. and ofhigl, qualiy to )qeld praf. ucts \sit11 ;lcrrptahle pcrforma~ice. i~nplicr all intli\iduals inWlvetlin ,nar,,,facThis that tllrinf :an IC (incllldinl: opentors, engineers. and manage:elncnt)must mntinuouslysrck to ilnpro\,e nisnufactl~ring process otttput and rrduuc v>rriaBility. \iarial,ilit) reduainn is ;~cn~lplistlecl large p:lrt by strict process control. TILLS seaion focltscs on sfolisriml in proresy ci~ntml (Sl'C) techniques a .n means to acltieve hi~li-qualiy prmlllas. SPC refers to a p v e r f ~ lcollection olprd)lcm-solring tools ilsed to acllieve p m s l stabiliy and reduce wiriahility. Perl~aps primary and most tecl~nically tlbe sopllistimted of tl~esc twls is t l ~ control cllnrt. Tlie control cl~art\mv e developedby Dr. \Valter S I t c \ ~ l ~ ~ r t of Brll Telcpho~~e Liboc~tories tllc 1920s."For this reaon. control chart^ are ;dsaoftcn in referrecl to as Slterchnrt corllml cl~ortr. A control chart is an online SPC tecl~niqee that is userl to detect tllc m t t r r m c e of shifts in process performance so that investigation and corrective action may 1)e underhack under control. A h ~ taken to bring at1 incorrectly heliari~~g~nanuf~ctaringpr~ss ical n ~ n t r o cllart is sllorvn in Figurc 10.19. This chart is a g m p l ~ i d l display of s quality cl~ziracteristic l ~ heen meacurrd from a sample \.enus the wmple number or time. that a T l ~ chart consists of (a) a cenler l i ~ ~\rfliicl~ r s. represents the mean value of the characlimit teristic correspondins to an in-control state: (11) im 1r11l)erconlr~l (UCLI: and (c) a / 0 1 ~ ~ # - ~ 0 ! l t / i(LCL). Tile control limits are selededsucl~ iftlie pronss is under tnil that statistical control. nearly all the sample points w i l l plot beh\'een Illem. If the \;lriance oftlie ~lualitycharacteristic d and the standard de\iation of tliecliaracterictic iso. tl~en is tile control limits are hpically set at +30 from tlie rrnter line. Points that plot outside oFtll~ control limits are interpreted as e\idence that the process is out of control.

c l l c a t e d ulndinq tool

I>>,. ,,,.a,*, 17,
Figurs 10.17 T,\B ppmcecltnrr.' ( a ) Leads lmvered into position ;and aligntrl ehwr lmnding pi ih Tml desmnds and pedorms hnds. (c) Tml and film ;,re nised so a 13 .:v I!;? c:m 'Jc. mow

103.1 Control Charts for Atlributes
Solne quality cltancteristics cannot he ensily represented numerid!\: For erample. we ~!iay conmrned with \vl~etlier not a \\$re imnd is defective. In this case, the bond I)? or is dassified RS either defecti\.e or nondefmti\.e (or equi\:ilently, confonninc or nonwnlom~ing). tllere is no nunierical \alne associated\vitli tl~eqoality the lwnd. Quality md of cl~ac~cteristics this h are referred to as nttril~trtrs. of v

into position.
Upper mntml limit




Figurn 10.18 Flip-chip hondinq.'

109 Statinical Process Contml


T,,, comtnrnonl? usnl contml cl~lrts attribr~trs the drfrcf cl~nri c d m n ) for are (or till. r l 4 y - t d,n.\-it,,clinri (or t,-cl~,,n). \\lien n syw.cifintionis not sntislipd in a ~ ~ ,,ct, dpl;u.t or nnn(~nfonaity nr.,? result. In sl~ch ; s r S , it is possibtr to rlrwlop mu. c tml vll;trtsrort.itla,r tJw total ~ ~ ~ ~ n i l w r o ord l ~fdried s f t ~ e~ ~ t ~dlenrih Tl~rsr dlnrts xqucne tl1:,t tllr prescn(v of rlrfects i n santplcs ofconstaat size is appmprintel? modrlpd h the ! . p,,,~.~,,, r/,,rtril,t,,i~,r.'.ill \rhich tllr prnl>ability a rlrfrct wcllrrillg is $c~\.PI~ of hy




IKL=ii-3 -


\vllere r is ~ I I Pavenge nr~nlher defrcts owr m gmaps of sample sir*. n. of zero. For the Poisson ,<hrre is tile. ,,tl,n[rr of drfeuts md r is a constant grcnter tl~un ,listriblltjor1, is lntll tltr alean and tarinnut.. TI~~rrfore. ccl~nrt r the wit11 i3o control limits i e Ejrrn hs ucL=c+3& Centerline = c (2) LCL=C-~&
;~s,,mine that c is LSIO\tn.iA70t,-:if these calculations yield a negatk'e \ d u e for the LCL, the stnnrlanl pnciicv i lo set the LCL equal to 0). I f c is not known. it I I I S Ibe rstimated s ~

S u p p t an IC rn;muC&ddc(l~rcr ln cstahlish a dcfcd denrih chart. Tsvnty clillrrrnt s,.,mplc3 wnls of s i 7 *I = .5\clrcm am inspec?r<l. r total of183 defec(srrr k,lmd. S r i ulp ihc u<lrrrt firr thi% ~ and

fmm an o h s e n d ivrraze nl~~nlwr defects in R satnple (5.). In this c s e , the control of clrart 1nwn1c-s UCL=?+~& Center line = T; (3) LCL=?-~,~

Thir is thc entrr line for the u-clvwt.The rapper md lr~\vvr control limits a n l r fotlnd from Eq



s u w the in.qwc%on of25 rilimn traferr !ields 37 defects. Set up a c-ch.:? ior this situatil
SOLUnON \\i.ntimale c ttsin-g

10.3.2 Control Cham for Variables
lu many caws. quality cl~aracteristics expressd as specific nnlneric n~eas~trraicnts. are r.~tlier tl1:111 messing the probability of presencr of defrcts. For rumple. tllr thickness of a film is an important characteristic to Be measured and mntmlled. Contml cllarts fur s more infomation reg~nling rn;u~nlkrturcontinuous \fariablessucl~ this can pro~ide ing process performance than sttri1)utr contml cllarts like tbr c- and rt-cllarts. \\lien attempting to mntml continuous variables, it is important to mntml hot11 the mean and \~arianceof tlie oualiW cl~nracferistic. This is tnte hecarrsr shirts or drifts in , , either of tl~esr parameters can result in sipificant mirpmssing. Cantrol of the me.m is acl~iew(l using an i-chart. and vnriancv can be nlonitod using t l ~ e t m d ~ n clmins l tion a in an s-chart. The names of these hta charts orieaate fronl the an~npl? s rrlrnn if) and .samplr vorinr~ce \\,l~icl~. (s'). respec(ivelr: are S i r r n Iry

This ir the enter line for the c-ehnrt.lhr upper and Icnver mntml limits ran l>rfoltnrl fmm Eq. 3

fi,llm\s: ~~~=F+3fi=5.13 ~~~=~-3fi=-2.17

Sin* -2.17 < 0.\ r set the LCL equal to 0 in this care. ~


Suppose \rr would like to set up a mntml chart for the nvmngr n ~ ~ m hofrclefects e over a sample size of n prcilocts. I f there \\.ere c total defrcts amon? t l ~ 11 samples. thrn r tile m.efil<r n l ~ m l r of (lefrcts per sample is r whew x,. x:, .... x,, are obsen2tions in a sample of size 11.The square mot of tltr sarsplr vari:mce is ino\\n a the .sflrnl~/o s sfn~~r!flr(/ (/c.~~iolinn ) . (8

Tl,e plramrtrrs of a . odried densiv chart iu-chart) are then @en by l

103 StatisticalProeers Comrol



Suppow n vmmles of rim 11 :rn=mllt~Ied. a Iff,, f,.....?. - a r r the s:lnlple mcnns, 11,~

TABLE 10.1 c, Panlnmr lor ,Char(
Sample Siw ( 1 1 1
2 3 4 5 6

h a Nomator for thv true mean (pl is thr ~ m n d n t r m C p ). >r,l~irlt @vrn I,? . (i is


sinm. F rstiatates p, it is usrd KS the N.ntrr line of the?-chnrt. It can nlso b shown" th:,t if A qlldih d l a ~ ~ c i r l i r tis c ~ o m ~ d l ~ < h s t ~ i \\lth~ u l ii h o t a hlo\vn nlenn p imcl standad ck.,i.ltiorla. th.n F ix : r a o n n a l l y d i s M I ~ ~uith < l 3o ~ t ~ n~e:u~ and stnndnnl dr\iatioa on/;; Thta. thr wntpr line and mntrnl lilnits for the Echart srr


0.~213 0.9.llX) 0.51515 0.9591

0.%93 n.51i2i 0.9i.Q 0.9ii6 0.9794 O.YSIO O.YLi23 095.3 0.9'445 0.95.54 09%2 09569 0.9476 0.miS2 0.9USi 0.999? 0.94%

Center line = .T


Sin* a b ianlinomm. it must also he estimatnl by analyzing pmt data. Calltion must he ; ~ ~ p l iin ldoinc so s i r w s itself cannot be used directly ~s the estimate lwcause s is n not an vnhiad estirnntor o f o . (The tenn tr~tbio.~rd referr to tile s i h l a f i ~ n a.hich tile in

e q m v r d \:due of the estimator isequal to the p m t e e t e r Iwingestimatrd.! Insteads a&lall\-cstitnatrr r,s. \vherr r, is a statistical paramrter that is dependent on t h r a ~ n ~ psiw le iuv T ~ h l c 10.11. For ,n s2mples ofsize 11, the avemse sample staadsr~l deviation is

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 li 18 19 20 21 22

It turn? out that the statistic Z l c , is. in fact. an unbiased estimator of o. In addition. the standard daiation o f r is tml Iilnitc for the s-chart can be set u p as follous:

24 25

06. information, the con. Using this

Center line = 3


SOLUTION The salur forc, for n = 5 (found in Tahle 10.1)is 0.94. The o p p r and lmvcr control linnits fix E can be found fmm Eq. 12 s follo~s: s
U C L = ~J=4.14pr +
c 4

\\'hen.i/c, is uwd t o &mate

a.the limits on the conecpondingf-chart may be defined as



- 35 LCL=,T--~=3.88



C m t ~ line = r lmver mnlrol limits for s can ir found fmm Eq. I I % flolmn: CL=.?+3-:\L-=019vm I c:


Stqqmw i- and reharts aw to hr -tahli<hd to nmhnl linm\idth for a lith-ph! pmorss. Tivent).fnr. ~IiITcrcnt samples of size n = 5 lincviclth an mrzurcd. S l l p p thc p n d awlage for the 125 lrnn is 1 0 1 vnl. If; = 0.09 mm. what are thr mntml limits for thc r-ch:trt'

ti. \vl~rn.rior to Mrthod A.rs determine the ~ f l j c t sof srvrr.r pnxluat qu:dit!: or Iw. an. pRKVS 11ndt..riloIrl~.~l to \rrinblcs on a pivrn I.: M.cs k n~onitonrl u ~ l m. Applicittioa of ?...ttr.. L. prob:bbilih ir rrpresrntd hy the sl~adrd region in the l i p r e in tllv : l p ~ n d i sInt~qwlatinp . ~ ~ os I.: p +&.ncliri.o procesws.and l l ~ r n i t h ra m p 1 or rejrct tlnr.s . hrv rncthmk.~~t~ .1 Comparing Distributions Cnnrid~r tla\ield data in T h l e 10.vi~. r<~lr.rvrr.. S I T is I p:\ssiw approach in tvllicl. . i ...r of trials in e.rrvtI is a lest o r series Of trSts t11. reprrsent t l ~ mean yields for thr.d~mri~ P Y P ~ I ~ I I I ti~ne.id~resnit11c piknm~ter\ . Hn\vr.tn<x~l ~ .195 is t l ~ e . ~ tnwt infltwntid p m s ntriahlrs.r. TA8LE 102 Yield Data Imm a Hypothetical I C Manufacturing P r o e m \\:tit.1~. NV might illso IF intercsta~d ~ l ~ t r n n i n i ~ ~ ~ a .*PS (14) \\. ..ir ilnpnrt .thnl :\'? To mnwr thk qlrestion.s i ~ t~s vsi~ t t ~ mrnt i~lmt~t \.. In r~a.~i~t~c i e n a ~ p n l l c h qf elg.lc. ~ t i dc~sipa. I~.. .~. \t.".iSO\':\ .A IqFtllr5is trrt is ntl c\nltn:~tionof tile \xlidityof the l~!vtl~esis ttcmnllrtg t. to detenninr the prnl>a&litY colnpntting a piws statisof Thi$ tic vilh a wrixin nrrrnlrr of degrers or frc.. cqwrirn<..~tirn(t/~.rrliEcsn~nt condition. to tiiv 1 1 . and M. 16 is calletl th(.) l>rol>ahility t11c nf rlistril>tttioe..Ilo\r. it is aften importlnt in IC nlanufi~ct~~ring i~pplic:+tio~~s ahlr to to hr mlnparr w. i me:llls tllat there is only n 19.bvllrrin~l r F ~ r l r n r i r... .~ch d r t e m i n r \vhethrr tlbr rlifirrrnn lwhvwn tlte nvo mancg.th. it might not he comyt to imn~nlint~ly mnclude that %lethod B is snperior to Xletlwxl A.~tclyclc~tt~r~t~inin~ tn~ l. ~ r ~ ~ ~ f a r t ~ ~ n h i l i h and p n x l t ~ drrli:lhilih The folio..irre. l~slrl rcdttrr. nldl an ~ r I~!potllrsis.Y/.~~n'nu..xpvriment.tt~onin pedonnino.tl~est. hlorm\rr. ? = 1 s d q r r r s of frrnlom rq11al to 0. ifinl tnctllocl !\lrtllml R) save an nvenge !irld th. i arll . = 3.. S .~Tii!l~l~~s in cbnlrr to obsrn-r tllr rNwt of the cl~..' . - 10.llr t ~ .ssr(l the F n l h ~ i n g in Inannrr: ~ ~ 11": p = p..mIl.stflli. it~\rstic.rt.nKv.\lrtltod A) and a nld. F I I ~ and r r ( l ~ ~ r v d cost. = P.~l~l~ and thc.~t.\w find tl~at thr likelilrwd of mlnputing a I statistic \\it11 91..m~t%st ~ . s l o l i .. For thr )ield c.m.ty./ . I CC O ~ ~ P ~ O U O/I~ wriottc~ the t1t. hro (lislc uw tril>utions. The \. n. This :ipprn:~rl~ 1 a c 4 t I fur r o m p a r i z ~ ~ is mrtllwls. uun use i\ppr~xbxI.lpprn. to f i ~ c t ~ i r iprocrssc-s is simifi<xnt is 7.d in i ~ ~ ~ p l r z ~ ~ r ~since~ ~ q S I T . Using Eqs. . 11..30% hither than the standard n~etlml.tct8mnq prrx~.l~ich r~ hm lr.rclo~~l.+ictl pnxr<swntn. and c.. of The drmoninntor of Eq. 16 and 15 then giws \~d.n%'. \vl~ere statentcmt !I.. some criterion.. .lw (AX()\.I l ~ y p t l ~ r stest...atheir optilnam settings.vrir. e r p i net it is mntriv:~lrlrt l s t t l ~ rliNc~rc~~rr r obsewcd w l ~ l d d11eto ~ w r i r n ( l ~ ~ t ~ l IK* emor. s~ .otl~cr in aanls. ctll I*.2 Analysis of Variance The previous e ~ ~ n l psho\vs IIO\V we migl~t h~'pthesistrstitlg to m m p n . s (h. ~ ) ~1~ . Rot11trrll.. tool I..A statistic~ill ~ ~ ~ ~ is a.itr.90 :in11 s.rlr~i<nc..dexprimmts nlnyl~elp ill&.. l stat?.4.alnes of the sample variances are calcalatt'il using Eq. P M .nrr.\ 11f unm..ntal rlrsiw is a pnrrriul er~gin<willf fnr inlpnairg a man.r. 0~ \.also hr 1r. ~ ~ .. wv wlrct a random xtn.lt. Exprinlrnld desim '.tud crratiltg in$xlrlsto pndirt rfliu. 7: r.thnl A S I ~ t h nB l Yirlrl l % l Ylvlcl ('TI \vltich is rerered to i the /IOO/IV/ s ~.4.195..es. ~ I ~l I.lt involve p.. (I:. \nri:rh~lih. ~ ~ ~pnxx.:p*p<. are the sample means of the ) i e l k for each method. + PI. are the nllmlx.ll. / ~ y j ~ n t l ~I(. .30 m d I... tt perlbnn:mw.ltc*s 10 \r:d<. front Appm~lis R. and ?I.56 a>nfidrott h ~ !drtl~ml t R is renlIys~~~(. ~ / i r n l s i ~ ~t ~ ir fI il ! ' ~ ~ b ~ l~ ~ This of l ~ p ~ ~ trst. I i!ythwr arc rrpr~. r To evaltlntc this 11)'pt~lrsis.dPnr.plr from a Tn is populalio~~.?obtaind fmnl an IC m a n ~ i l a r t u r i n g p n w in t\. l the is\~Ilat d r a w cii any\ dnrs t l ~ r d. in^ wtions illmrtnte tltv use n l ~ ~ x ~ r i n ~ d e s~i t . . h ~ I~!pothrsis tmt GIII lw rrprrsentc<l: r u H..~~ l hods in IC fabrication.. = 0 .ILrtrul.. st. ator errnr.. to clesip ~s pnxy. where and y.aal crlurinlrntal dc.ml distribl.ren the Inran )irlds is due to pure c l ~ m ~ c r . o r r\. Ultimatclv. The v:d~le0. number oirlrgrrrr offwr(Ion1 for the h!pnthesis test.i.: p = pm c ~ l l c d ttsll hypofli~.qwrilllelltal dc-sip1 trchlliqnes can ie:lrl to impmpd \it.?!l nunachancr.c 10.sl \i~rii~l>lrs i~lti~n. thp n w l t is rr~h.tt \vas 1. Ilmvcver. tvrts on tla.<.\) is :I.xprrin~~t~lnl w q t ~ i n active intrr. tvr can Iw 30. = 2.<rd vwi:thility n..is cnlled t l ~ e the is thr and okcn~n/it:rI~!ll~o/hmir. co~npule appropriatr test slatistic..sh satnple (LO each in this caw). ~ ~.x .llncs f s = 3. l in pmcrss con&tilms in pnrtical.J"c chnnrr Illat the o h s m l ~ d l i f l r r r n ~ ~ c I)rt\\. IY(. Ill? qa?stion to he anmvrred f m ~ n e q ~ ~ i ~ n ~ r n teti.:P. tn thr considen~hlp \ariabilihin tllr indi\idu:d t-t reslllts.lr h a w a siplilicsnt impact on pmct. irrfunn .~lic reqlliwd.l .. resvctiwl!: o \\i.icvllecird prn\idr tllat hlell~wlB is rcali? Iwtter than >lt. pmluct.nlt~. \ve examine the avenge yields for rach p n ~ w sThe mod..ul ..here p. i f i d mrthnl ( \ l e t l ~ n RI.4 STATISTICAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN ~. T h r proper .qs.tions.sip~ closely intrrrrlatnl.rs were Grbrirat~l of llsingnstandnrd methml (.Ll.84 is 0.I pscrllent teclmi~lt~r lor:tcmmplishing t l ~ e oh~rdi\. Smti. pnx.ss qaalih A!~ol!~vi. . is an ~ f i t for . q l r nppropriate test slatis a is in this caw is" 10.. 11.65.

Thr sum of squiues~~%thin for tllr ttll tn. TABLE 10.10.tnrr.jd.r i p s (I:IIVIP~ t l l r n l ~ . Ixfiom .sl'onding total d u e .. h m \ n S: tltr m.nt.?. I ./ r ~ n t m w /o/. quantity. and i = 61. ..ul. (in .s (tr.I). - v.enrtm must in' mmplltrd.n f. = S . = 6.. <lrlprresof frcrdon~ 1 1 1 ~\itl~i~t-tr~atm(. rt2 = n . L " . T .. nf ~ ( is 4 2-1.L<cs . + S . ~ v v c ~ ~ .3is sho\\n in T:ihle 10..:.re erlsal.. nf Drmrrr of \lwn Squaw .-~' .llmn. The total I I I I ~ I ~ Wsan~ples s ) w 5. Note that in lntll the Sum of Squaws and llryx-rs of Frrrdonl colnmns. ii~.~ s ~ c t i v r lan. Thr JIIIII l ? \ ~ n t h ~ sills illis GLW iS tllll~ i TABLE10.3 Hypothetical Dded Densities [in em-'I lor Four Different Process Recines Tllc mnlpletr ANO\'. d." n. l.l. ~ ~ e J The ~t~ithin-rm/..s of\i..nlar format mllrllrcl an AA'Ol'A toblr. i ~ z d = 8)... p a t r r tllu!~thr \-.yr <ofitll 24 s. sr\rr.. n y..l<*tt.l Cn.\SO\:4.\ tahlr pmvidrs a medinnim~ testins thr h!-ptla~sis that all of for thv trrptniont rne.rlnlrnnt is .. v.l Rnal quantity needed to cany out anal!sis of tarinn(* is thc pmlrvl rstim:ttc of the varinncc quantified bycacl~ u ~ n vl~lares.(.~ I.and topal nlrnn squnrrs arc tb~rrforr S u m s of Squarer T. tn.is the treatment mean...-~. . w p n r m t the lth obs~rnttion the lth twatlnent.r i. tile values for iwhverll and \b%lliin treatnrents add up to give tllp corn.tt..cl..~nrplrs l is = f em-'. = J.lirrcl an %~ for its co~np~ttatioe... Thr ANO\'. = 6. ~ 0 .t .~qrorps. cnlld .t nnd tot:tl stlnlr of sqllnr~~s.te~~zto sqrmres for all trentalents is atr11 f ANOVA Tahle Oow thr panmeterr just d r s c r i k l havr heen computed.. \\ill . . i ~n~pn~st~ntsl~~lntl~rti~xl 1~ ..1 k Ir tllP n s ~ n l hof tw.5.. .l .I. \vc use the To qtlmtic the deviations of t l ~ e I ~ t n z ~ e .tti<)ns\\%tliinand hehvrell diffilrc~~t treatme~lts. ij. This ad&ti\.\ tahlr that cvrrrspontls to the defrct densit\.5.to quitntify clr\i. sm.v.tl kry plr. it i c s s t o m a ~ arrange them s to treatment averages from the p a n d 3vemqc..rc fr.~ in Talrle 10.-mxr is or rqtthslently. u ~ nwr.tlllrl.1.lns . Note that the srunplc sin! (.ttnlrnts ( k = 4 i n this case).iq.I =~n..*vtv~ h\ arnrv r ~ n.. n~r e uithin-trmtmcnt..s.4. q.&NoV.~: = 61. = A' .\.(y. ~ ~ l .4 Statistical Experimental Dasign 4 215 Each slim ofsqblores l~ns mnci:~trtlnnm1n.tr) is trill? . = I%.ren-trrato~unt.triation nf tltr \ia rliat~~rtcrr a!i/hi~it l ~ in&... is the w r n p l size for the trrat!nent in question and I . S. b.j.and tllp m .-o.-~)'+~~(y.... = N . s of Thir I is the ratio of the sum ofsqualrs to its iusociatc~l nulnlrr ~ ) f d ~ q r eofr irccdnm.1 General Fornutof lhe ANOVA hbls s..f rr7rmn~.. ~ . Thr g e n r l fonn of the ANO\':\ tahllr is rlrpictnl in T n h l ~ 10. 8 I . m.I) r forrrlt tmatrl)rnt\>lric..ts pramwrl uitlt tlrr s?111(' liPri[w.nninr~ v l ~ ~ ~ttll~&rs c w [ ~ ~ # ~/ c i'e s ~ ~ vtwips or m tr n . tvhs. n l r s ? panm?tm. r . I r t y. t n ~ a t ~ ~ Thr fnr ~ I~~..r of d r m c ~of frwdoln n~rl.=k-I (21) v.T11r treatinPnt I ~ P O I I S m1-2) .. j .m.s. drfect dpnsitirs n ~ e x % u ~ ~ ( i .ic+tcyltlrillS firer clinisnvlt sets of p n r r s s n .e p m p r t y of tllr sutn ofsquarrs nrisrs frunl tllr akeh n i c identity Finally the total sum of squares for all the data alnut the p n d sv.l.wldoh is given hy nrta in a tal.~ 1 ~l tltc .

lrr.4 Stalinical Experimental Oesipn 4 147 nuu 18s AIMVI Tabla tor Via Diemeter Dam (illlll ~~1 I. the ntin .mcrs exist aolonp t l ~ e 3 rot~r different processa in our ewmplr. ..r+.t.l~irlt \:%riation \rill take placp.This nirans tllat there is eel!.NWMl(i. d.20 . . is drpositinn rate i D ) in snestroms per minute. it O. full hvo-le\.Q"'Y Fn. The \mioes factor level mmbinatinns of . nl... (ntas 1.ind i). e. is the a\rrage deposition rntewhpn the pressl. rrprrwnted b f l ~ + and . (1. w ton a v \~rimI sintt~ltmmus!\: a opposed to the more tratlitiond "one-\:~risl>Ir-at-a-tin ne" trcllnique. ". a. Imt-I .F>lhesis \vt*re tnle. Tuv of tlw most iniportant issues in factorid rxpprime~l llal ~lrsi.vlgfl..I .. respon on (njcl~ !iekl).. \\'e intertlie pret tllis rrslllt s sLo.3. + (1.l.m is lligll.h.l~at rloes llle data mllrcted tell us ahout thc effect of pressure on deposition ratr?The e h t of an) single mriahlc: on the response is called s lnoin #~d. .lm.y of lewls c l r p i c t ~in ! r l 1I1ca fin1t l ~ r e c n l t ~ n ~ of this tahle is mllml :i. + d. md d i. .llere p is tile main evrct for pressure.t. the Two-Lmel Factorials TIP mges of tllr pm variables invcrti..1.*re?mplo!rcl in mmufac<uring lo s)strnlatically and efficirntl!.ffn the .\. ...*t. In grnerd. .. l o s F:eorial r ~ r i m r n t adpsips .siyms..r< N~II:L!.ms :ur in f. Y- of \Iran sqtn. Tllrotller mte eflPds for tclllperalure nllcl flo. TIP choicv of t11rn~lrnlxr fiavton directly of .siz!~$rfl~~c~ (LC.el L s t o r i ~e q x r i m m t is 111~ ~l dirfermee kh\. ~ ~are m m p t ~ t n in a siniilar nlsnner. In a frrn-/m/ fndorinl (lc. = z 3 .6 tvitl. 111e. hIatl~eniatieall!: this is rx-ressed (24' p = dn.qxriments.(KU(i% c 1 1 ~ ~ ~ ~ is tll. ~ ~ . + 11 = 40.ywrinirnts is that all Iac..tnd +I.) (d.6 s h a ~ a 2' fia?nrial eqxrilnent for a CVD p r m s s .0 s . r <lW& of f m l ~ ~ t ~ .5. &IU.r-6mum.111 I. The three facton arr r tpmprellorr (TI.~hles.. Tltr unif!inq feature in statistimlly desipetl e. s imtlm mount oiinforn~...t.The response k i n g mras~tred t l ~ e (Pi.Ile ...10. .c.3><'!lt> \\:. Tlie l ~ i ~ l i rand loucst lrvrls of r a c l ~ st lactor :In.20.xplore rlf<es f a srr ofinput \ari. + d .wvape deposition mle \~-I~PII presum is lour.rl factorial a e p e r i l m s t with 11 Lwtorr requires 2" rxprrimentnl nzns.S6 + 0 - - .hen the pressllre is 8) and the awrage dcposilios n ~ t w l ~ m prrssrlre is IOW c thr Iligll (i.. p r f o r n ~ factorial e.. 9.F . m c t h d used to m r n p ~ ~such a main The te effrct is to find tllr difference behveen ilrr averase deposition rate \. of V m ~ t i u s nr *mw. %>.~~l. i shorn in F i p r r 10. ).m< cllomine the set of facton lo he trricd in 1l1eexyriment an11 cpecifvirlg t l ~ e are n n w s o\vr a. an investisator selects a Inred numl wr To a of l<r.ed F ratio of 13.\ins that the werage evert of incrr:nins pressup frnm its lo3wst to its lligllest leWI is lo increil(e tile drpositio~i by40.56 Jbnlin.ire of great p m c t i d impoltnncr for IC irLm~~factnr l ing applic~tions.d. 4.= ~ w [ ( d . ifi..6 nllll b. rrsprc+i\.e.. s.ttion irnm a lirnit~l n~~mhrofe.~ffccts nomhrr of erperin~ental the nlns (an0 tl~erefore mst of the esperinleot).rl k 9 9 .x ~ r i n i ~ n f a l d e s E tecllniqrnrs . nrns 2. ?2* $10 5. uwuld follmv t l ~ F distribution \citl.I.. a orjndnn (such as pmcessioS tempen~tore).scnpt of the F \idt~t-s thv 1:1blrs) for 1 1 1 011scn. 111 other aa&. .= 3 . llle minil mum snd n~aumom r r r k ofrach hctor (nonnalizrd to take on \nlocs -I . r ns TABLE 10. + rl. Int~qwI:$ting fn~rn App?n(~sL.ptnl in kctorial experiments c m he discreti7~d into minimum. A pmprly d r s i q ~ el x ~ r i m e n m n minimize the n u ~ n l x of experimerllal t r runs tlast \auld otl~rntkw r required if this approncl~ r m d o m s m ~ p l i n u r r e usc!(I.6 Two-Lavel Factorial Exnarimam \\%at can we detennine fmm this factorial desip? Furtl~ermore. ~ sure~that real ilini. Tl~us. finr s.cIr for each of numher of \nriahles (facton) and nrns e q x r i n ~ c l ~ c i all possi:hlc rnmhinationr of l l r iewls.49 Factorial Designs EFrimentd clesim is an n ~ i i mr ln r t l d ofcnnductingeywrimenh to extract the m . tre. s Tirhlr 10.tt tllc ntr.yrilnent. 3 in ~ :UIdpSnys .8 $4= 13...I tl~rre-factor eqxrinient cln be represented pictorially a the vertices of a 5 c u l r . IIir n111lI ~ > ~ ~ ) t lis discwlited.. prfAssllrr and ~aflow n t r ( F ) .e 10. and "c~nter" ievels. respectivrly) are ustvl tosrthrr in clry possihlr mmhination.ly T11r 11ispl. ./c. 6.fi 1..adors s. t e l 111aill for cacll variable in htv.irrn~lo!t~ O.. . iutd ~esis .. = 5. - F Ilrti..$ip~ ~nof"~.~n~ s.

let n = 5 and considpr a 2' factoinin~td ilcsign rnatm k tint arran~ed !vll.le(or i n l e d i o n :it lltr l t i ~ h and imv Imrb of tlie tl~inl Lactor.97 Aw TABLE 10. cfli~cls WR.m the lint f o ~ cntrirs in column (1) are obtained h\. Tlris is not aserior~r shortmming. ~ . sicns.d d + 1 + 1 = 6.t rl. ~ hlll~o~~elzi:~tesalgorill~~n I~ l'tl~ir l mmp~ltin~ i.9 ~ . ~Ienotrd t ~ l e ~ ~ n : c ~ l t r .q nlgnritha~ prndllrs n quicker m r t l i ~ofm~npr~tatio~l l t hat tcrms in . B S (27) fistorinl drsipl.rnpmit~~n.lrn& in tlnr avrrilge t~~~nlx~nttttre .llc The grand nvvmgc ofall of t l al~sm. ..llillg Ill? pills s i p s in tla*d?sifl.ldori.:. Ignoring Iriki-onlrr rffccts is mnceptudly similar to ignoria\nh. thi< is cal soft\v:~rep. It c:u~ lr."d \linitid>.llly a\aild. t nfintli\illlial facton a % ns tllr interaction ?ff&s iwh~w?n 5 \e l' factors. not Iw used tomtiniatr quadratic or l~igliernnler 'Ihc i'ptes Algorithm since l~iglier-order effects and interactions tend to l smaller d ~ a n r lo\vnr~ler cffrcts(ie.l~. tile two effects are s:iirl to be conJo1~11~11~11.i w Tlte pain.l~~differrnrc or hrh. . : \\. n i e ftd1 fadorid iimplcmentation of this <I?sip\vo~~I<l require 32 eqxrimental is in sran~L.f t ? l : l ~ ~ ~ r n l t ~ ~ ~ ~ Fractional Factoriat Desigms is p.ill lr T.. Tllis is illestrated in T a l h 10.s a rrlati\r.skagcs. T i l e s psckages mlnp!rtely . .?l 11s. This intmrtion niny ailm Iw tlronsllt tical rxprin~vtltsis .ion (ID)coll.I Taylor series expansion.8.<< oi. t h q canrffms.tttlre !nail1 effect ofany kctor can be individudly interpreted to ntlis.\cts \\itb other facton. of this int~rilclio~ip m \ ~ l c I.first \witingtllr design nlatrix for . \l. ~ ~ ~ ~ r T B E 10.md n. l ~h i ~ ~h $tile effpets ofthc P X T interactiot~.?P ~ .~cco~nplisl~rtl urrln1si\. tl~r pro\idt. I is ~ lpns~..a\.X 675. ~TxFintpfi~~tions ohtined in a sin~ilw . .. rltlrt \. II. The only dr. To alleviate thi5 mnwrn. This 2" d r s i p is minnrc 2nd plus siyms. tlic time or resottrces .trw*ttd it) lire inrer. one need on]. rial desip.. .iti\plyc-:~<ily pmfr...7 Illustration of ma Valet Alaorithm AL . nlk intcndion defines tl~ea\vr.. I.. n.~ ~ n ~ . etc. P T F y (It 11 2 (31 Di\isor Eflwt ID .r.n.l.. For cmm. follr phis sims.trr al. n.d m = S .. Horve\.lr s~tisti. . l x .'\ied" together to fom) a fifth mluinn.4yhy mtnsterci.~n-st~%lqnt. ~ ~ ! .. g ~ IC ManufacNnnQ 10 10.. For esa~nplr.el factorisl desipi is that tla~. These are c o n s i d e d in s ~ ~ n e s .rt is c a ~ ~ ~ ~ r f f l r l d n r:\ 2* rfitctorid drsiin do r "a.d designscan be used to rstitnate thr main ellrrts onlv if t1.n inntrix..%-rn ~ ~tat.ly atrni~lltfon\~anl t mr~tl~wlolow for I . ~ bnve r~sed FT relation to rlefine m l ~ ~ nF. d o wl. nlain efiects tend to he larger tl~an hro-factor interactions..l%vl>ack 11SinStllis in I.145 0 1 .!'.d m = / d + + d + d . \\l~ell tlbis l s l .asl~ion.? . . fist di.f . . particularly if tlrere are more than tllree 1x1 'on three-factor inteiactions.mvnrt in tlir ldmtific:t. Full or fractional hr. rather t11..trmciion. tlr mrtholir. a zi' fractional C?clorial design only requips 16 runs. thr srmntl mlrlfnn mnsists of st~cwrsive pain ofrninus and rlltls gmeclted h!.ncr is ~ d kt ~ t e ~ ~ n ? .0 H 192. take ..Ihne 1 % ~ v rnnv~~ntion.hrx.. .trcli<nurto calculate the e&ts and interactions for h\~-level factorial eqxri. in Ilmv tl.~~r.ct wjtl.).raI.rln i5 .dl\: tllr P x T intrrilution.. hcton. .~nainintg irlcntificntion\.rr.rivc<l hy I I ~ . first rlr.clilli.h ~ ~ f ~ r ~ ~ x ~ r n t .hor . alridi tend to he laxer tlzan ments usin: tltr methixi just described.t.ss12rt.I 2' roll factorial design in stantlad order. and thrn moltipl!ing those mlumns to obtain a tl~inl w mlu~nn fmm rnlumn (21 To ohla~n eyxrimrntd effrcts..4 Statinical Experimental Design 4 24 .-' It is in~porktnt note 111.addinc tlrr pain tocetl~er.t.itl.er. For exa~nple. k t is tnocl~ a l e r i?t iligll 1~111pr..rtive.It lllc h!Tl levels of pk..mclure is tllat s i l l c e .Lstln. .gns. fndolr requires only 2.ntiot8 o f d tllm.een A disarlvantagr of tlrr two-lr\. Hmvever.w is no mi<lencvtlnt t l k~ o r inCr.unn~e<l mnlputer Tn implement this algoritl~n~. It is @cn incrrmm eqmncntiallly wit11 t l ~ e number of fitcton.89 (26) c.7r~.<ns thc deposition rates for ratcl~ nrn.i0 1543.\v of hir morv conllrrorl packacc.d. IT. This cnlls for a I*' fractional factorial altert'ottr ... the tl~inl mlumn consists of four minus sims follotrd h\. ~ .i 11:Jf frnction.ind t l ~ F inain rffmt. tlrh ~ ~ .n\tr: om no lonscr the l r ~ ~ s t i ..ttrh: tlw Ynfc..unnl from wlttrnn 11 in tlir <anIe W. ing l~igl~er-onler h . and col~nnv> ns ol~ta~r !31 lrd t c r ~ ~ p r n t uvariables.tntiT\i~r$ htn or nlore facton inlrmcl.number of erpcrirnrntnl runs .s incllr<lcRSII.murs.ragc prc'ssllre clli.ciitte top n t ~ ~ n l w r t l ~ o 13 tlw from lxlrtnnt nulnhcr of t. andl so Tlwn pltts and ininus s i p s in t l ~ four columns of the 0 desitp matrix are racli "multir ' . mnt. and tllr il\r.IV.jro~ionnl Jnrforiol designs are mnstn~cted systrrnatirnlly eliminating sorne oi the NIBS i s n hill I)? PxTxF=(ImF.!.. ~ ~ ~ o rliffen.. it sl~ol~ld pointrd out tltat modrm and!sis of statis.renrn iwh.(. . t ~: m .:"lablr to perfomi four deposition eqxrin~ents. . tlie ned ~r anrl eiql1t required for a 2' htll fiictorial d r s i p .rrl.~inrrl -t~l. tc.. d are f. .nright a h o h il.cv ~ ~ ~~ - ~~ - - - 91'1 20i. SAS. Suppose ur only hare let? .klitllr c~&.llc~d:~tions. l~igll InL'.*l.~enr.0 Illustration of ? 'Fractional ? Factorial Dssian for CVO Example .sp~rimrntalcffects..-P X T X F i.t..Isn iltt. pn.tl design n<tlt r.b ~ .ul\. e qr r sia the To illnstiate the nse of fractionnl factorial desi. and tllr wm:tilliog~li\iron\\ill he 2'~'..ati~tns.Ire dC.ch pair.This new design could be genentedby\\nting the 1112'desiq lor tlrr pressure 11 (:ol!~nin Z l 8s <.o-level f:~.. Find?: \%%. Fortun.n.lllrrist? the ntwssity ofprrfonning my terliona band p x T =1 .rdonlrr ahen the first column of the drsign mntrix consists of alternnting rims.~tl~~~tr~:ctic:dl~~. A k. % . :dmnrt .lllln~s it is at p than (3) rntrics hy tllr Divisor rnl~s~nn rntrirs. .s...ulotlrer look at our CVD erpcrimcnt. ~ I I \ T I ~tlie mlu mn the P for flout rate. .

lrtP1.. ~ ~ ofrl~lm c .ik to 1nn.icl~the XI drfrcts can he dist~ibt~tecl the C circuits. cess.dunne. misalipn~ent. ~ m p l ~patterns.. critical arm is tllr aria in a dcfrn mc.ppl~ic This is illustrated h F i w r e 10. F . Untlrr tllrse wnditions.lih. ! l'icld mnrlrls are t ~ s ~ ~ a l l y presented as a hlnction of t l ~ e avrragc.& rci p:~rticles).umplr.iclt actad memtlrllrtrl m:+~~ufistt~lisg>irl~k e\nl~~ated.A pl.E..&.... chip. many random sourws.silvof photoli~llo. 10. <lcr.. F~~nctinnnl is deter.. u ~ d and time dcfwt bps (such a5 511 = mrtal C3) opm. p m s s r s or l~andling.9 TMh Table for Unique raulr orn no ma ti om Coml. and tliat ear11defect results in a fzult. .t yipl~l 1".flmrra.... . c$. q. nlpsp conrbinations are illtatrated in Table 10. Far r....r o l ICr).u~t~r:tc(uri~~<!i~. and let .rfOrnlill~~~rmelunsmrr n i p d u c t s . .lnlltf..o..nn<lotllcr f. and c~?stnllo. the prohahilit).d pnx~.ield "i ICZ is usually cl~:~r. opens.! 1'icl(l r nominal p r i u r ~ n l l l w sprcifi~ltioll. the n u n ~ l x ofn<ijs r to distribute the M defects among the remaining circuits is Tlius. p:munetric !irlel tor soit !irldl.-... rnc~lc~ls also c. r ncdnrlnpmmt ofn~mlels toestimate the hmction:ll!ield of ICs is h~ndamrntal mm.situations cbscrihed I)!. ic*rraft l ~ c A rnow crmrnos n~wlrlr .mtifv tlti5 that r<~lationsl~ip dcscrihcd next. .~l iu ~ ~ i ~ l ~ r r j r r ~ orj. r.. III? number of pbotolitl~oprapl~y usrd in tlle tnm~tl:actt~rin~ ic stppr pro.2w .. holrs.I . seratcber.. sllrh p m s (listerhancrr ofim rr~lllt l ~ f n l ~ o rl s ~ i ~ uninrmtional c...im . b12 = metal sl~ott. Oitrrl rcf<.I nlehicaping or .li.n. he used a .ll. rlrfol.~rtrrirrdopct~ i r r ~ ~ io s short circuits nued In.l.5 YIELD . .vl. n u r n l ~ of defects r p r unit arm ID. For cx:tn~plu.n cfior~~tl yield I..1 Functional Yield Itf..e. clt.21. virld. tlitw Illerr arr ant1 I ~ . pill.trr three circuits (Cl.I~L is cldfifilml . ~e on if tllcre ..\I be the n~rmher oflmssihlc drlrct ilprs.9. P i n d a d e Cywz pm~i<lrs emllcnt drniation an of this model.in IC t.lr(uring proccssrs can irad to de~fonllntiolls llonn)nfnrnlities or fi.. is round to contain no defeffs!.tttcmpt to qa.at l ~ prmntngr of~~r. Pl~!sicatl~ tllcx. ifpartielr 3 ill Figllrr 10. tlrr nt8mlx.p IX. tllr pmpoltlou oilidly litt~ctior~al (lmlucts.111~. Ifone circuit is removed (i. including mnt:rmination f rom quipmrnt.... wherc 1 is tllr fillrc1ion.~l ' !irhl.it llns fallrn inlo an area in wlticb it catlsrs a sltort Ileh\.' Let C he the numlwr of circuits on a snhstratr (i.. pmwr mnsttmptio~~l.21 is large rnaug11 and conrlnctiv~!.r(s. T111' pwsenrc ~ f ~ .lrir..NlI tllr tn.~cton..tic p d t t c l s or pm-sses. or r.jt.rrrd to:^ 11. . c tr h\.pl~oloresistsplatters and flakes.zc. >ield did p ~ l t j r m t . and airlmrnc particlrs.i!.ccn 111~ hvo nlrtnl lines it l~ridgcs. tllp f. i~1 . to C" = 3' = 2 : (29) possible w! in \vl~icl~ as tllese tl~ree defects can he distrihnterl o\. c n IF? a Yield are i d to sllpprt d ~ c i ~ i oinwl\ing sew trclinolo$es and tlie idrntificittion ofpmbl em.rring )I%%a high pmlclhilily of nrultinl: in .inibtion Cl c e C ? Combination CL C ? C3 mnk Kpvn 102l \:brious In which dust partirlr~ interfere with intcrmnnce mxsk pane can . .pica 10.h.tqc.. Tla.Inark imperfrctionc. cl~lrnl~inroptimnnl ( cquipmellt l~ti~w!tioli.l. that a circuit will contain zero defects of an? t p TABLE 10. fla\\s. ho\te\rr.. .t . h13 = ~rletal to 111?tal2short. forenmplcl. :s prr\iously mrntioned. are Poisson Model Tllr Poisson )irld m d c l a5sumes tliat defects arc uniformly distribatrd acmT a snlwtnlc. tllerc arc C" n n i q ~ \cryr in \vl.. I n sotlle cxws. srill E. 1 ft1Ily ftllldional prwl.II pm\irlcs atctzcite estimates orm:u~r~C~cturing n n lirlp ere.rnlils tl...t dpn.1nl!ielrl.antif. ~ ~ critical anra is mmplrx.e.i.rr tllrre chips. functional yield is sipificnntly aWected by the prese'rice \ o f d c f ~ ? sDefrcts n n wsult f m n ~ .. IC Manufacturing 10. The rrlationsltip bchwcn tllr.)and ~ I I P rrilirfll orrn (Ac)of thr electmnic q s t r ~ n111o t l ~ e words. It ilrpencls on lhr circuit gromrt~?.rl ll.lt..l.s~.:\ nlcvlel ~II. C2.t pdorn~:utrr slx~ilicationsfur o n r o r mow paranlrtcn (sucl~ noiqr.~.r klrtlt.. drf&s inrlrtde shorts.

Swl tlw ~ ~ ~ x l l . In this tlistrib~~tio~l.nust Lr s ~ t m n ~ over dl circuits and substmtes using ed a n o r n ~ d i ~prnl~xhilihdcnsih h~~~ction..~rgc-areasabstrntrs arc its tno optirnistic..isso~~ naxlrl.' ~nstr:ad.trihu~tion\rouId k a lwttrr rrflrction of tl~r..) the uniform hluvhy nlsxlel. a p .e. ~urphy's Neld Integral R..) (3'3) . 11 is gcnenlly calle~l cluster pnm~~leter the hc~cnsc it increases .qd-A7ArD.j?D)." TIlr ganllna distribution is @\.. This function implies that the probability ofobsening a lo\\. and shown in Fipl~re 10.221..cti.asumes that/iD) is a deltn fu~lction.qtn.1 thr t r i a n ~ l a hfwph? model.23. !iel~lciln then be calc~tlatrclusing rl TIke the i n t c y d Y = Je-""f(D)dD 0 ne poi. that is.arial.e11.iliy of defects is loat (little dt~stering). h'a.. or lltr h l ~ ~ r pinitiall!. @vrs F. . tllr t .habilihdrnsih functions for lo) the Poisson rnnlel. is 7 tion.. tl~is J' lwmnles y = e. - . (34) Various forms of/iDl lorm the basis for the dilferencrs behveen snarly analytic4 )if malels. drnsity fnnction.]-' D ~ . TI....here a and p a r e h\a p a n m r t e n of the distrilnttios.en hy (41) f ( o ) = [r(=)p.D..ill. .. r \f. Ilnrler thew msditions...nodel is mmmollly r r f e m d to i s tile t~egntirx bino~ninl mulrl. the !ieLl is drtrnnined f m n ~ 34 to Lr Eq.n annrl. Me thereforr propred t l ~ ~ q n n e n t i a drnsiy function given by r l . tl~tm sincr i. .'" Stapprr Itas likm~ise derrk~prd and ap1)lied !ield n11xlels esizlg the gamnls dezlsih function. 10. 2nd (dl the crponentid Srdv modrl..rry to derive. tl~c !irkl is the nanllwr of circllits \titll 7rm clef<~ts. drnsity function. ~ r r . Therefore.r \\:is isnablc to integrnt? the )ictrl ietrgntl with I C.ll is Eq. i ~ n the ~ ~ r g l t i v o ~ t n ~l 1)inonli.invvstigabd n usilorn.' r n l i s .rpllY lint pmlmscd t h ~ the \ n l l ~ of thc defect densih ( D )should not be mn. is callcalated b.%lthouJ~ the Seeds mwlel is sia~ple.. p[. this isodcl has not h e m niclely used. tnw dercct ~lrnsity distrihntio~~ tlie delta htnction. if I]. Okabe. 1 of r i a ) is SIIO\\TI for several \slues o f a in F i p r c 10. the $111iora rl~nsit! r. If a is ili.W l~y in rval~~stion t l ~ c of )iclrl intcgrnl for tl~r itnifnrm dmsity hmctior. ~ t l r ave&e drfect densih is D. and r i a ) is tllr garnm:) function. .itll llecwsing rarianw in the distriht~tionof defects.? Poisson modd .i~rssi:~n di. z sl~mvn Fipnrr 10. Ilmve~cr. defect densih is significantly higher than that of o h s e n i ~ ~ g higll defrct clensity a Sobstituting this eqnnentinl finetion in t l ~ c Murphy integral and i ~ l t r p t i n ) i r l ~ L ~ s \I+IPTPD..%5? C h w e r 10 IC Manufacturing Slllmttttinr!Jf = C:\. fnr l a r g e .2Z-.~ . and Shin~ada remg\ized the p h g i n l nature of delect distriln~tions and prnposetl the gamma prohahilit). Using this density rune. tll~ll the ." ' ~ \\....$ the a\vmge defect density a before (see Fig. This h ~ t ~ c t rcs~tltrin in io~~ the !$rI(l rxTrcssion The triang~lar hlnrphy )ield model is ~ ~ i ~ luse11 t d ~ in indnrstly to rletermine the rly y effi. hlothcn~alically nlrarls this .hc sppm. " (c) (d) Awn 1 0 Z Pn.~odclderived hY sn~hstitatitlg 41 into h111rpllyPintcv. The s 1 1 . t r stmt. yield predictions for 1.)~pn critiod awn is srn. yw..v(-A.)' = e.aults). II~<IIenolqi~ to to cause f..~~~~~~ .IIISS~AII htndirrn std~stitutedfor/cDJ.ct of manufacturing prowss defect clensit\.Ilr re:sanrd that D .. ir.22). AD.n~odxlclS simple iutd relatiwly e..~ rirclli~s a) ltarr i r r n defects.Da. .:lcllrs a l ~ ~ hlnction. The p?nnleter a nlllst tlt drtemlinecl..rronahly of!ield \r.wn h111rphylntrr hrliwrtl tlint a G. Ifo\vrver.a n !ielll computations r e s ~ ~ linsa rircrrits. = ~l~~)iel~l .irbl e5tifnate tl~at overly 1x-ssin~istic is mmpnrrcl \\it11 a c t ~ ~ineirr~~red nl data. It pmbides a re. t ~rnins mmr D. (1. big11rnorlpl~ nu%faults) a a l a slnnll propoltion olhi$~defrrt dpnsities ii.d m d r l n d r l r ~ s tllp to .rimated it using thr triang~~lar function sl~mvn Fierrc! 10..

. is t11e elearon mobility in tile clianj! of nrl.ickn.and shtlrlanl rir~iations .ifi) Tina. ~(XIOSFETSi t ho < I .the tl~reshold voltnge of t l ~ e tnmsistor. In 111r Monte Carlo approach.jra to rna~\ufn<zt~ritig of itrr prowss \..rr is the \si~ltli tlie dedcr. it is possible of 1ftIlr critid area and defect d m i h are known (or can he .ial ~nodrl :in excellrnt gened-purpose )ielcl predictor that m s he used is for .d \\aald I~avr n l u e of I. w < h) = J ~ ( ~ ) d ~ (.rll iOII: the o t I ~ e r I ~ :the tilriabilih ofdrfrrts a c m s the wafer is si~~iificant rltlstmrin). These v. 10. .is f t ~ n r t i n ~tl~p of ~ oriclr tllicknrss . and If.of IC rnanafactllrill< proceSS?S.vl~icl~ turn manifest t~lemselveras variations in filial ?stern per.md \. \rzllereas lilnctiond yield measurrs the proportion of functioning tlnits pmduced by the lna~ilrfactllri:~$ process..stem.ns C. in fonr~.t nrieh. ...qintnl of to rne~plltr p e r c ~ n t n p hlOSFElS msn~~fac*lnr~.:~IIIP nf rIL.21). C. randonl procrssie:variations can lead to \*?in< levels of ?stem perfr.). result of t l ~ r s r mnrpl~tations :I final perforrnanw ~Iistribution the one rltm\m in is like Fignrr lo. is its length.. Tl~eseperfomance variations lr. the znanufnct~ring process to facilitate and ?ncouragr design lor tivan~~fncta~~hilih 10. p.olt. is a fimnion of tllr tl. channrl.tri:ttions. once the o v e ~ ~ l l ~lislril~ation a even o~nlputmetric is loimm... tlw of that a hch\vrn h o limits n and 1. This probalrility density function can tl~rrt use11 to mmptttr tltr pmhC pn~lion h n s i s t n a having .<r of tlw oxide (11). l111*?n tl111shc r l ~ a r a c t e + ~:r~ n ~d vnqinq ncror<lilingto nonnal distnhtltions \\itll melms p.. (nl..%/. To ill~~stratr Monte Carlo t c c l ~ n i q ~ ~ r .<ions sul. It can he shown that" (b) \vl~la... ] f ais ~. !ltr\\.and V. if we \.). .ulcy (such as speed or noise level). 1 is the applied gate \.. A comnloo methml USHI to evaluate paranietric)ield is Bf~>rtlr Cnrlo sin~slalion.~ge.sto t l ~ e Seeds espnential ~ n m k lor .mil tltr ptmnia inmlel wrluc~. ambient humirlih. (Irl O\mll pndx311ility dvnrity fnr ' dvnsity ftnnction finI. : figure 10.~r doping in thc tla. In tltis equation.and 1 n.:xnd a rt~slx-cti\~rlv Fie. nr I .ntr.rs n n g r of drive arrrc. is tl~r e ~ l tcapacitance prr unit area.~ #.flC.. .Rotl~ tlnesr di~nr~...ti.oll!d ~ \ ~ l w athe intrpnl te ~~d. Tllc ovrmll perfonnanw <!isthe r tribatios is then rxtnctecl fron~ l ~ a t of sim~~lation t r results. tllr conskler as a performance mrtric the d r i v currrnt ofan nrllannrl .ess.52 Parametric Yield Ewn in a dcfrrt-freemm~ifncturingenrimnment. a large nulnber of psetl~lo-nndoni sets of \JIUCS for circnit or systcnl pmannetcrs arc $enrratwI acmrding to an assumed pmbahiliv clistribution (usuearacted al!\ ~ I I Pnormal distribution) b.rmance..e ..I fi\. ~l nq. for r v r n ~mssil)I~: the wtnbiniltion OF (..\IOSFET in satr~ration (I. IfT). For rmmplp.rsetlon sample nieans and stsndnrd d~\i:~tions fmm incasar~l data For rach set o f p l c ~ m e t ~asimrllation is p r f o n n r d toohtsn inror. is o . (srtc rcSerhy uon~puting \.lCCnf'atel!. film thichesses. . n~ation iho~lt predictrtl l ~ b a d oof a circuit or ?.D w. I. =.lriations result from the fluct~tationof nunlrmtjs pl~!sinl and endmnmcntal parameters (linetvidtlis. and a . Parametric ric \ield is a mesure of tlrc qoalih of fitnctioning ?stems. rtr.II . n. C. n l e a < ~ ~ r the ) . hinoa.~4 ( n ) Normal prol~~hilit~ ft~nctir.al to "soft" fat~lts m d i r e cllarnctrrirtl by the ~ ~ n r n m ~ iyidd of tile manufacturing pr<x. ...

\ r r lmo ~ rl ~ h ~ i u rfi~cilit). !.' rnx. l fle\ible. nrld ~ ~ ~ ~ . afi t r cndrr o \ ~ w llttqnding of mlucieg n l a ~ u f i ~ c l u r imst.~~ mn..I?~-151 l r ~ 12.hitnil mlntlatio~u.' in C. e of ~ .tbric. lliell qnalih: and lmv o ~ I tinlr c i n Iw addressed In.ICCS: rlbyr(n nnd r ~ ~ l .lock ~ l i a v t m f &hpickd r n d e r n IC-CIkI system is sho\\n in F i ~ u r e \ o 10. lm3. ~~~~ Lntr. 5. Inon distril>atedclatabaw. Crnerir ~*c/!.rrle\-r! of Illis hvo-lwcl arcl~ilr~ctarc r includrr ~ l n h r ~ l d ~ d mntmlldn tl. tltr rl~sllrngr ..llimI~~trnnic Fol. Tlw chapter concl~ldwl \\it11 a brief intrmluction to IC-CIM ?sterns.ntbnll Elteruniw Y r ~ a ~ l t l r ~ t t n n e xS~mpl. to w n e a f w . t l ~ r n u ~ l.xlmmul. 1 ') T l ~ C E \ l slanllanl is l a d in Iwth xnlicnnd!~rtor r alanllf:~~h!rin~~ln(~prist~~Icir~~il lxrLrrl asca~bly Tllis strndnml is l~nscrl thr . n:(lucisg prwlllcl q r l c t i a ~ rmain. Ed. :.ies ofi. dl? h n n r l r ~ l s men tltotuanch of pmccss \~lriables. pp.cin~ ~ C ~ .anoullt or 1wl111olo$cd ilmo\atio11 in the bb".7 ~ t ~ . and yield n~mlcling. sist ofprnonal compulrn and llle nrsoci:itr<lmntnd software drtlicttcrl to <.&pcntiid stqis.I.f&. prm-ss and equipment reliability d i m l y infl~lence tl~rougl~pul. gtlipmnlt mntmunicition.nlmit.nt t i d e real-time mntml ant1 snnl!sis of fabrication rqunipnacrlt. .~ l ~ ~ dlooStnlislicnl ptnlil!.fnr(umd~ilny. Sw Yo&.. Tile e~llpllacic ofeach of these acti:itin is to n i' . IC Manufacturing References 4 257 w 10. I ~ ~ Y I W I ~. Sc-x.jnqvr. Ed.cturing.d manuf.rr. d . the clrvelopt~~entsmeml ~ r i t~ ..!iut each presents sipifir. Rixcr. \I. . T r l d and Co.. 1F.. Chapter 10. . I..idtld pic% o f r q ~ ~ i p n l ~ nl t~ srmnd lcvrl of tllis IC-CI\l arcl~itectlnrc cnlnpsrd or..:ol. \id .. \\'. oftr. 4 7 s ) .. I(LF5. B m n .no.tctaringmlerprie...wrl on mwlels sttell a t l ~ h s I.rsr-ntittl.1 Annlyh olRilaliir Ul... . -Ansd>sir olYicld ol l n t ~ l nCimrirr and 3 St-v Eqmsion l lor thr Yi<. 2nd 2m2. E q l ~ i p ~ ncnm~nunication i t l~ost ~nt ~ h mmplntvn is f . \\'.. n i 1s d a m m outlines manyoftllr key features requiml forefident r n m ~ f a b u r i n ~ o p e n t i o ~ .l~t.. R. Inl~~mtcd Cimdl 3fant.o l ~ l d b ~ . L Row. 1 Pleeum I'm<-. and mst-effectix information 9 r t r m s b.III ~SRI. .-. ntnc incladr incrcming fabrintion !irld.< :* nLlk.. ~ t ~ 1 an electronics mallof:actllring slandarll c!allrtl thc. ~ i ~ ~ . \V. Ptestiw-llall.$ tinn ofstatistical p r m s s mntrnl.. nlore than it mmp:mlblr f. -F. of rising msts. 2 ~ 1 . T. ~ .....\l ??itern: jrork-in-procczs (\ZlP) monitoring.. Sagala. ~ ~ l i t . T l ~ lo\<. packagrs.rg..lcl. 5.. 1111.. IWI.un~ mnsirtent I t ~ r h prwluct quality and prrionnence.d-time p m mntml..llplvr Sadtilt.CI . 1W. n f q u a s t i k ~ t cviduation of lC 111ilnef~lrillsw b w s is a r m ~ n ~ l i i ~ ~ ~ ..~%langton.. Sbimacl...~tionof intc*gmtr(lcircuits can bv q ~ ~ ie.>tnlCirnbilr.. lnlmrltmion m . !ield Ion may ptmtidl! o r m r at e w n step.I.eficient. 8 .eh . itnd C.: St-\-Ywk. ~ \rnrrls.tl.~ l : l y u nn i~~g t msts w t r c d .Okidx.mf rn$neerin$ challenges in its effective impleme~~tation d r p l o ~ n ~ e n t . and imprn\ing the rrliabil.n'n~ Din~~mlicr Iln.fuq~h?. S<drdr.rfnmr"nc ofilt&ptnl circr~ils (IC-Clhl)is . Ed Ikfm nnd Fnulr Xrlrrnrtrr i. Pi(~~lam=y.tilr i. Inlr~mlrd Cim~il ! l o n t ~ f ~ ~ ~ d ~ i l iPms.zl in\rstn~rnt \\it11 a grratrr . h\.qwnlsive. 1W . hut in tm~lvi i Xot Nn.nter 1tanla.:XI). icd ctpthilitirs in a sta~e-of-the-artIC-CI.f.. IW o l Ed.~ ~ ~I~n~~I S<~pcaih. .rii. .. . significant enhancerncnt of rnanufadt~ring oprnltions \rill l~ required to reaclt projected tzugcts for future genrrntions of tnicroelectrnnic dr\iws..L$ and This h of IC-CIA! srcl~itecture great flcribilit): .. > f o s t ~ v n > r ~ . slaplrr.. statistid experimental design. Slnnm.of p m s i n e g t ~ i p n l r n t Since fabricntion processrs often consist of 111jndrelLof .2 s ..w berow n ~ a n u f a d u r e n tmliiy is to offset s. :sekrral suhtaqks !lave bn 11.<l a eomand 11)..Va~n.u. IEt:FJCII\4T Intmn.mmp. p m s d r q u i p r n c n t modeling. Conrnrl. pp.n.. 9. .J. or The interdcpr~ldmt iuoes ofllidl \it. ?:In go. S m N ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rn~k. D. L 2.pw.. r.ncnrrm. ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ 3.= dr. SJ.ullx*rl. manulmunng. R. H.lpn. ?nd ~ ~ . in te XVI! rlrctrunin n~nn~ifistaring iw.-sldt . Srrnimmrl~mor DT... . and ultimatelymst..<?t dKildr sm. O w r the nest s f 2 w n lyean. 1 3 .lpit. 20 -. .arl~ indi.r mp. X o v Yak.-Con-Slm Optima oiSlonol~ll~ir Intrgr. ~~. in ~ t I .b l l l m .n\.. llulger. c.F.r lcJW.. anrl : I.* laqr r.~~J(.UIIIN~at optimi7ing Illr r n ~ t .YO.c ir tri1111tedincd area nrhsork of mlllputcr \rorkst:~ti~~ss filr sma. I sa I ~ C I \ B U M I s an e m a description of elrctricnl testing anrl I~asic packa$ng p m ~ s s e sa \ r l l as a prrscnta. t. .sen~ico~tdrrdor on r</~llripa~rrzt cornrntrairnli<>ns scnzl</or(/ (SECS) protocol.r 1x7. p II. 1I1eolqrctive ow is to make us? of llle latest dr.i .emnin n l a n u b c t t ~ r i n ~tlw s m ~ mmner in ~ v l ~ i c l ~ n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~(CADI r . C ~ V md D. ..\dmnod Flrdmnk Pncknpinn IEEE P m . " b REFERENCES ! PinmL? &.r I'LSI Sydrzr~<.md~ ~ ~ l p rerl~~re!icldlws bypre\rntingpntcntial o~isprornsin~..ld. ~ f i ~ 11sw1. Inl l n . s i SUMMARY ia r ~l~~ d 10...IEEE In1 Elmmn Dnim Ilrd. Consrq~lrntl!: maintainin: prrxlud q u d i h in an clectmrlin man~tbct~tring filcilih reqllires the strict mntrnl of liter. mn. IY 13..-Conlpaler l~~tcnltml ~ n n o l ~ i ~ ~ ~ r Pmmdille~ l ~ h ~~of\IS tLc. 6 D.r.c hrmnle an i n t e p l palt o f t l ~ IC rnanuf. 10.lit..er tl.. and syxtrms.rs link<. SIA~. mntroll.. e nlrsc orrl.md S. SJ.rJ r. F. I: X Mo1x.y it ~ . This Ilm led to tllc rise .A. Ywk. R. Over tlar p u t s ~ v c n)ran. A Ycnk.EE Pn*?.. ~ ~ ~ n ~ i cl~apterprn\idnl a c n i m v o f t l ~ relrnvmt irsr~er K . 52.tltr-stt i ~ i ~ I ~ .lrr auld sulh\are t ~ c ~ l o o l nto'enhlnce lll~l~lufi~c~lurin~ p sletllorlq I. Shhplxr.. . IEEE.mlnr so c*lpihlli n l r n s i ~ ~ tllat hd.. 153-1515 OSIl.I.h~rir~g it~d~rstn. of ih.l12). )ield.lmoclrl ((.~cilit\.iC~ aatrof.dlo\\ing ert~nsion adaptation to meet cunstantly cllanging reqeirrment.. di<T .a. data acquisition and stonge. 1I:EE ~ ~ . ~ . 3fimGdmnirr r\lnn~. .25. . tmc~ vir(ion i.r l ~~ iclpstilinl. Yo&. . \bn Smtrmd Rlinllold. In IC manuf. \ l i l ~S~.. po\vcrhtl. Lurlzk. Rnnlr dc C y r r nml V.l find i t t o cnpensi\r to slipport lllrir Cl%wl l l o l ~ l f i s t ~ ~ r i ~ ~ ~ n . . I I. only is Illis !son. 7 .ln~~ttic~illly ~ t r d l ~ emnomics of circuit d ~ s i @ l . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ LIO. anll w.rs ill m.'PIOp .6 COMPUTER-INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING i~ p . Pmlhnn.e T T c c t i .

..10\! l:in<l tlw w n t c ~ and a~ntrol . V ) .1 <I0 - - c x p ~ k>r the l lfthr oitinl iirca h ~this intrnnnneet is 100 ern?..scaling nil1 slo\r.pre 11. S E C ~ O S 1 0 .~.035 vm) ..ruvr . and 1) p::lc oxide thicLi~ess V ~ I I channel lenfitll for CMOS l@c lecl~nolopv.3-1.1 n . c:<. n' .125 \: .tt thr pmhrr iv ~~onnallydie\I()'.AL DESIGN : .). do\\~r m a s e or the nonsnlable V. threshold toltage ( :.5 2200?2llOj 130 100 8C . 6.~l p = 0. hn\r n>llcctnlM and 10.S sl~o\vn Table 11.ntml rllarts fiw f :as(l s are to Iw nuint:~intrl tlnr thrrrhnld \nltngr of sholt-chnnnrl for ra.L..rn hy 2% 256IRhl 230 ..mlodatc the functional )ichl \rcan r p m ' w over thr nmqr of drfwt <lmritiesfrom O. (is.1 is D M M size... 3 years).~s.r PROBLEMS tr?. The table d w sl)o\rmthat u-&rsi.2. thr rninim~~m d w dimende sion..' thc minimum feature.n\l\ .lrln I 8.md I pm lonq.XO 2Mri 2011 50 Tr(C 2014 35 7.ttrs.mw t~~>brnrn tlniat nr.(>r>tm>I rlnarl..r krill i n c m to450 inn1 (18 in. 8 TABLE 11.cg. t 11. 11.. len@h\%ill sllrink from 130 nm (0..hc:h~rthe prurrwr md p m s i n q datcr arc ripifinntlydiffcrcnt.ttolitla~ntphv c s .n m l e c r d at an annttnl rateofahr. clrallen~es rornr frnm the &\ice lewl. a disn~sscd the follo~vs in in: sections.3 \' ~ I I to s~tbtl~resl~old P Iraklfe and circuit noise immanity).tl. : \ . It is kncmm 1I1. $1 r ~ d ~ l c t i oof 30% on).Thrsr rampler !icldml a p n d awrasc of 11.r a ph~.ltjom ofw. ~. 3 . wafers pmcersrd per hour) ollivr diITercn?nnnn~tfacttuin~ pm<w< (Iahrllnl A to E in thr follm%i!~g tahlr). According to tlte prrdieion by tlle n Infcn~nlior~ol Tccl~~tnlogy Rnnrl!~urp~?>r Srrnicondttctors. to a mini. c!. Some clrallenges of the 180-nm t r c h n o l o ~ be!nnd are shoan in Fi.' The most and stringent requirenrmts are detailed in the follmving sahseaions.l. pm lhc tywrinlrnval rcs~rlts using tltc Xttcs itlsoritbrn..nll. Use Murphy's )irLl int-l to de"\r Eqr.thleon 100. h nlnm IfTof about 0..road~the tunnelingcumnt liniit of 2 nra.Y-1. Supporr tile pmhability drnsity h~ncticm orthe defect density fi... In addition to the feature s i x retloaion.05 to 0.l\-.1 \'and an .1 slrows tlre trends ofporver supply mltage ((Bn. (.5: n E L D 5..1 TheTechnology Generation horn 1997to 2M4 Y w r ofthc Orst pmdttct shipment Fralttrc rim (nw) I)R:\\I rim (bit) \\!tfcr (mnd Cat? orhlr (nm) I !Wi 1YB IS0 1 C: 300 1. 2.73. Also s l ~ o \ n Tahle 11.t l~ns m l 13% (i.st <l.e. li~lc timils fix each nitht-~..9-2.Att..m~!hr+urinq pnrrrr b gi\.tta u. of 11.n. urc. and system lcvrl.. ~ s T ~ n S T I C M EXPYPERI\IEhT.13 Urn) in the year 2002 to 35 ntn (0.tchImrm!r.. '4. and 64-Gbit DRA\I is e r p c t e d to Iw av:ilnhle in 2fl11 ming .U 70 XKI 4511 300 1. cnlorlate thc maximlsrn defwt density nllcn\....d!sis of wrianw to drtennine a.1 CHALLENGES FOR INTEGRATION I F i p n .findk j.'From this fit(d) S .rC that p and a. dinmrter) in 2014.!.plr ri71y ~ f =n111. 3..000 a SSlOS transistors in order to nchiwv a hmctional !icLl of 952. S E C l l O S 10. : k a m e the gate of each <lr\iwi' I0 pm \>ide.lroantl 2014.. . folbminq2' Ixrtoriidrqwriment \\w latrl to annl!m ~ ..75 v .ln. For ~:. 3i.1.VET. also called tlla s~ini~nav~/co~tcrrle~~@h. Ara~rninp: Pnicmn model. material lewl. l @*.r: mlleetnl on thrrc rli%.7 330 0.ul see that the gate oxide tllich~ess will soon apl.ltvm S E W O X 10. R~~~ pml.. Perform an an.3: STATlSnCAL PROCESS C O h ' O L I..I 0 = 11. Tile DRAhl hsr increared in in its lrlemory cell capacity rottr limes every 3 years.p]t. Sinr? the Iwginning of the int~grated circuit era in 1959. I I Consider thr thmtrqhptts fie. o n r c.r a flvcs intrKvnncd m.mi.nnd 40.%-nm drsipl mles. Future Trends and Challenges I n .

l - Figurn 11.-di~lectric-conskrnt i (lo\v-lil inst~ixton.hrr IVLnnl rind mmxllvr YOSFETs. sncl) as Cu. C is the mpacifatlw prr dc\irr.7 pR-on mme pxred wit11 2. This prohlc~. m n t >*an. the oxide eqoi\alent tliickness oftlre gatedielc. md T O . 1P l/.4 New Materials for Interconnection 'To acltiwe high-sped opention. the nC time d e l y of the intermnnPction must IE mlacprl.vith r that orcon\.nccTll? tempcnttlre rise c:lased I.9) is used.ttd horn <lafapul. Points arc mlltr. the leakage tl~rougl~ gate I m m e s w r y h i ~ lxxaur tlic h or direct tunneling.. such z organic (polyinrirle) or inorganic (F-doped odd?) materials. Cu exllihits superior perfonnnnw t ~ c a u s ofits high cnnducti\iy (1. For this reams.r?the cltwnel lcnfll. threshold r. T l ~ delay using C o and the lotv-k material sho\vs a significant drcrease compared .. Tlrr conventional . (1 vc~nur chsnnrl Im*h lor CXIOS l@e lrrLnnlnc6cs. offcr major perfonnallw s p i n s . r d ~ are l TIle power can lw e ~ ~ r e s s . To ishieve an altrato sltallou.. C s nith the low-k material is essmti:rl in multilevel intermnnection for future deep-submicron trchnolop. shwl resistance.3 Silicide Formation Silicide-related technolow Irm hecome an inteeral Dart of submicron devices for reduc<" ~. nnd rate o\ide thickness . lo\v-cnrrg). jr. and lot\~.1 Twnrh olprnver ruppl? \nlvr$c V. thickrr 11igh. CandirL~tes thesl~ort for tenn are silicon nitride (\\itl~ a~lilielcetric runstant of 7).tric mast IE redacrd around 2 nm to maintain perlonnance.1. (&l(lOl.called short. (27). 11. hrconres critical .m n r l t ~ c i metals. inc the pamitic resistance to improve dexiw and circuit perfonnancr.lished "Y .ZC~~~lf.1. Tile rcquiremrnts irl l l ~ e junction for 1 n M arr drpths aronnd 20 to 13 nm n \ i l L n doping conm!ntntion of 1 x tol'/rm'.tt l. Kc. the delay r~sttltingfrom inter[annect increases significantly N the size decretses.11.. Ilmce. % ntl h i g h .ri t11edr\icr rlimension is sc:drrl ~lotm trn nm. Meamvhile. 111.14 decre.' It is oh\ious that gate rlelay 8. th TaI>l. unlrss alrxilhp liq11id or ps mmlling ia I I S P ~TIIC ~I of .olta~t. F i ~ l r e showrtl the delay a fundion of lenture size.entiot~alAl and oxide.or Nisi processes will replaceTSii for t e r l t o o l a ~ q o n d LIH) am.12 Ultrathin Oxide As the gatc length shrink belrnv 130 nm.ll.. Ilo\rrver.lt~rnwrise is limited I.- 11. 11. is limitnl hy tlw tlarin I ~ I con<lllcti\ity tlw packaKe matcri.~l ~e to tlte a t ~ m h r of gates tlntl the frequency at \vl~icl~ e y s \ \ i t c h ~ (clock freqursc?'~. mrnia~amallo~~ablr~ ternprr.1shou-s the required jenciicm clvptl~ versus the tl~chrlnlogy). T Q . . jlmclion \ritlt lo\\. less than 1 ke\'1 implantation t w h n ~ d ~ a ilug11dosage nlost IE cmplo~wl. IIOSFETrhmnc. COSI.cha~lnc~ effects happen ..7 pR-cm for All lnd is 10 to 100 times more refistant to d r d m m i p t i o n . is reducrd.5 Power Limitations Tile p \ w r reqeired merely to charge and d i s d ~ a circuit nodes in an IC is pmprtion.1 lrngtll (pmt in 1M-nm ChlOS applicntions and beyond.scs as the d ~ a n n e l length decreases.enenention.? tltr l>sndpp nf tlir svnrimnd~tc(or - Figurn 11. ifonly SiO?(with a dielectric mnstiult of3. This causes the total dcl:iy time to incretse as the dimension of tllr de\iw si72 scales down to 2 nm. I b ed~ \vlllpre ' tlte applied voltn$e.1 Ultrashallow Junction Formation So.1.k dielrctric materials tli.' .2 (:hdlcnp<.aw lmver Ieltage n>rrentar? needed. 18 is the numlrr of de\icrs per chip.le11.mdf is the clnck fmlu<. C ~ n s e ~ ~ ~ ehothy .? this lmnvr dissipatio~~an IC pncbgc.

Tltrrr is no hciSht dillewn(~.. appm.:tt~l~.~rc h0lr.ltion ofthe syqfrm-on-o-cltip (SOC). t~lnirioe. tlbc f.l~ematir m srction ofan rmlmltlrd DRAhl. c l i p .\I i n t h contact m g i o ~ ~ s ~ hcaltse ofosidr. sl~ortcl.tchcs 100 nm. p ~ n acomputer (PC).6 Sol Integration s to r i 9. Fmnl s p r m s s point of !icrv. F nm for TiO? 4 11.c I < ~ w < 11. \'I 10 I . SO1 does . an emlxdded DRAM trchnoloq llac been intmluml to the mrrgr. There is no risk of nonani. nsed on rinSoscillntorprrf~)nnan~. r. the rnntitd harrier is not nPwssaF 17mm a rlctice Of. inlltln otpcitancc b h v r r n t l ~ jt~ndionand subdmte is the capcitancc of t l ~ e r burid insnlrtor.1. In general.iSl.Fmre Trends and Challenpes NYS ASIC: CI'U l7t.k ~ e m:~trri.0. Figure 11. sidcr14 i n t l ~ folloaillg sedion. multilrvel inlrrmnnrction scliemes using live to six levels of metal ire rssentinl for logic ICs to ilnpm\.4 Schemntie cms section ofthe cml*rlrL. in SO].r.$...tte for the fi~tsre s>str~n-on-n-chip terlinolep.' Thvrr m*h~n4dlsldclrs 1111..m rqui\-dcn~ d d thielnexv of 1.lntLl. I)RA\!.l> --<". In addition. f an.p"~r.r the spretl. the may.2 SYSTEM-ON-A-CHIP Increasd component densih and impmcd fahrintion trcllnolng?.lrr arll stnlchnre and isolation p m s s e s . m nalio.b.3 or l S ~ < I R Y SOC application for 1 PCh motl~rrhonnl.lllon..ltt. nllerea leakage of the storetl charge is the priority for menlot?: Tl~rrefore. l~ r strate to rlinlin. rnrtid inlrnnnn<~tionr. Hrncr. &at \\ill be the ph!sicnl thickness wlren the hixh. CPUs)..& obtainnl thmugl~ SO1 film thickness.on-a. and ultmthin gate oxide is needrd to increase the driw current in l@c circ~tits. These rrquirernrnts arr not critical for memory To acl~irve SOC goal.md DRAhl into a single chip wit11 compatible processes.Chip 4 21 ic>c.pen mn build all the circuitry n m l n l fora rr. \\r obtain 9.. that is.ie\r: tllp mmlem bulk silimn &\ice needs l ~ i g dopitg i t t l ~ dcun and %. thc trrneh npcitor wII l r c r ~ ~ofrthr UIIAXI wll in r sln~cturc. 12.: In of ~ ih of the rlpsiml. sl~allow junc.. hnvr ltelped the realii. rr. The trrnch-hpe SOLUTION For nittidr. 130-11111SO1 ChlOS Iec~lsoloQ'c~n achieve h ~ t e spWls or rrqt~ire r 54%less power rntnpared a i t l ~ similar h~rlk a tecllnolog):' SR..2d ofanrntion.d DRAkI inclarling DR. Figure 11.. component lw. Dtrp twnch p.tnrr - rdls md l ~ i r . tlw tions fonll inlm~i~fil. on asinde chip. md l 0 .\\! hlt)SPPTs.ua mmpmmise. n l e r f o r r .4 s h m ~ s :t <r. mn. SO1 b :t keyr.22 .9 \ynns 11. Speed is the first p r i o r i ~ the for logic.2 Synarn.pntiollnl 11.. chapter11. is : .r.'So~nrpmcessing steps arc rndified . including the DUX1 cells and the logic c ChlOS clrviws. surl~ nn~nlel.~. Anotller to dilliculty Ii?s in fabrication.tl cwlponvnts CHI 1111..pcitmw.\hl are signifof icantly differat from those of logic ICs (c.on ofsilimn nnrl .ltiotl h r n r n e s i ~ ~ i l i c a a t the of n s frattlrr lcn.9. rieltl.wd tllr mnll..51.T@.62 nm for Tq.lree the j ~ n d i o n rrwrsc. Iligh r l o p i r ~ ~ m This results in 1.at 1111.ibrication pr~msscs a DR.mplctr r l ~ t r o n i c s\stem. to incrcilce the speed.~pcllir IC pnn. 311 \ 5 and : \ \i:l . c~ EXAMPLE 1 For ..als ~nitriclr (c.rdr.d -.ic. logic . On tl~eotlirr is hand. or Ti0: (60) tlwl? are using tlillerent desig: lools. dirt. addiIn tion.~r(l prrscntly dcsiymnl 11y diffrrrnt compan ies Ila.iwlation of SO1\\%ifen.rhosr dirlrciric mnskmt is tltrre tines solsller than that ofsilimn (3.~t!on tllv SO(: Tllr lint ir 1 1 IIIICV cl~~ndr. :m1dWn~ix4 p n l sl rppla.5 nm. Ho\rrver.erl. and rfChIOS ha\? d l l w s snmssh~llyf:~bric~~trrl SO1 terll. Using thr same wlcalation. using noloq.g. DMXl circuits need only h n to tl~rre v lr\~els.stth. n Rmnll!: SO1 teclln'Jlq3 1 1 recpiv ~ ll. Thr aclc~ntnges SO1 intcgr.<ci.~nnrl cfi~cts d panclitl~m~rgl~. Sil~n. an Components ( I I chips in this case) I)II(V btmd on lwqnl\ I z m n s \irtu. a silicide p w s s must be used to reducr the series rrsistanw.= 7 ) . Drsi.\hf..I. bix. it is clifTiicl~It intcpate tlle mrnponents into one chip. an IC chip that cant:iins corr~plete electmnuc s?strrn.. Figrlre 11. isolation at lattoln of tllr junction. I n . CPU.x . 11.d~?.~!n?#.

T l t r n.. \'"Itage 1'~~rnlilti~ity . ~ i m D \led.' m-' P3 L v ~ 4 .= :I0 Wl. n~rprr. ~ l ~ .Tmh Di? In1 Fi. ik = 5 a i t h a thidnc<* o f 75 .:tlii)~tio~~ s ~ t rs!strms nit11 trillionr ol l~ Dvwription L l t i r r . L*.lnr . I d ~ c h r<l . \ l w nlcnnlntc E 0 T lor a bnfft-rd ourlv l. i a l Calo~latc.' r c C D S p e d of li&t in \3murn C~psritanrr 1)iflhrion m l f i d r n t Kncrp Elraric licld F on% e\' b REFERENCES I. ..~w11 oo q11111111111 l r ~ ! l : t ~ ic f d l s . FutureTrendr and Chellengss b 11.ycr ik = 3'1 and n tbirl.x~l I r a .l Il~n\.. -l'mhdd<rl D U \ l T. ~~ i~ 0 I..ntlon.~cs r a ?stvrn-on-e-chip? h Q.. l t t l r r Itxrl$ll. \:ativr <lc\iry. m n d z ~ ~ ~ ~ f i .fnrurJT .mlanl il l~ Elmimu mohilih llolc mobility Ilrristi~il). * \ ~ Fr.. I . p.I of idmlicul <li~nvnric. J.. \ S "".k e X1O.c.lpiliwn nlnnrr ( R .ri~ti\i?of lhc. "".lrlrle.cn nf 10 i .>. : fJfimnt . P R-nv n n .lorv IOU n n i . Y r n c ~ l -C\fOS Dc+iur.5 urn thick fnrnlrd on a thermallY crmtn SiO: 0. ~ 1 Red U.nrnt\ \rill lw :I nt:tjor c l ~ a l l r n g h r y s c l ChIOS. ~ d ~ y . ~ l o f~o p r f i ~ l i o n T l ~ o p ~ : ~ t i o of sllcl.rr""l Current dmvity Bollmlann nrnstant 4 2 T hl.n. mnslant Unit A.ns~.5 pnr tllick.. v P" P. r i o n ie r n l t ~ r r tl lo l. ~ c n ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I' Dmsiv of lrce hnlcr P '1 Prrsrurc llaglitude oiclramnic rhrrge Intcrfarr imppnl charge llcristrnrr C charecskrn' b PROBLEMS 1.los]mrt.d nitridr ls!rr lk = 7 and n tl~icl.ctro~~ r rnclrlo? rrll. IN. nlnnrr i< ' R-crn (1. Intmu.i of5 :\I. 31 . r n sc.~tmiciion?Scvi.id wduclion i n k . 'l<lmrnnir l>ssiq~ . 1 nn rncl P r I urn. % E i \'/ern Ilrfcppr) J.i <rn n btlG.n$ln is n ~ I u r r rtlo alm1113) 11111..A~u~ctia~~. Ohm 1 ..lr .IEEE %dl.nflb E l ~ ~ r l m n mas rest Ilcfriidi\r index Dmrity of frcc elertronr Intrinsic carrier mnmntmtion 5 F Il~ldr.0. RC 10 lit<% tinir cnnxt.nt for a p. RxuJrly. Xu.\ha. ~ lr .fvrm TnvtrJ>. and lbc silicon sub. quwtioa I r i t t .r Chapter I t .d. 61 ilm '1.il lilslt :rs t l l r r h x n o r l Ir. Ism..' IEEE In..~l~nob~ti~-.u~t i m aln>mitn~m ~ r o ntnner 0..s . %. JEEE 11W78.T l . u l tir. : 9 7 L p. t l ~ sil~qIt. r ~ t lCO?r .< Jf".. or nm Ilr ll:csl c~:?:.t.. 0 6 1 .. p. 1.&.\atu!srtion: lEEE Sprs-rr..< l.~-OI$ pn...r ~ r t 2 -11.ir>imn<lu'inr1ndrnln. 3fi. .nm n.mmd iwhvrrn n h i ~ h .n!. F. u..~II Ir~w a m lsrirntists.nifvr l o l l i d l Pcdormancr 0151.cl multiple o ~ i c l r ! do ? > ~hirlnr. scxlc ~ ~ noxkl. 1 . md .latc trrnprnhlrc T c R Crnirr \.-rlt. I I t R I Tim<. Zlrrt. hRC tirnr m.l~c.. 1C l t ~ r l l n o ~ ~ l p ' s in l l rr:lclt its pnc.. /I.rsl.clt 1):sbrm drrnon. Or E.d dirlrclric is 'I'a:O..l \\11:tI \rill IK. I S 01111r nq.lJrrf. fi - ltl. a lini\. 215 :1917'.alor ~ r r m i t l i \ i t y cm'c Flcm Flcsl \' Cm 3.. Jl:~iurc:..*rn~ Dm#<. \!'II:I~s \\ill I hr\on(l IC IC (:\IOS is n kc... p . cm::Y s Dirlrdrir <vnrtanl \Vatrlcngh Yrcqla. Sormdly w nerd r InlNcrcrl Ia:t-r pl. Sw Jim. stntv C:tlc>~lxtr11w cG-ctivc ~ x i d c tl~irkncss !li_OTj wlivn IIBC s ~ t e s~itrh~. -IS f h 1 11.Ucm: JIR crn or prn kg k 1 .rt.ir(. ~ ~ ~ 1 ~.r -Intrmnntrt s ~ d i ~ ~ .< E . on's ofmrttlx. m l u l n is ~ Scntir~~ndtetar p-nnitti\ity 1sntl.d. T h r rr.ncy of light I ' v n ~ ~ ~ . ~ .tm. 7 11. 2 .! d.'Srdnl>ilitv ofSOI X.~lvo f s i n ~ l r .clwit\. \ I \rc nw. . s T.n? 2. c..' IEEE Twh.rlmulyv twroO 10 vnl I ? V i:\10S G.IIPII IRIPKII ll ~ k 1 1 9t h~r (Iinlpn..tlX3 [lsEtYl.lllrrllllJ .3 SUMMARY RCP C. &I$. 2-11llviil c. o n tltl* rn:~tc"itls and tltc t c a ~ l w r .r I U m Frcqurnc). EJG. r l ~ ~ t r ~ n ~ i r \\ills l t i l l i t ilonrlnssical hcllnrior stntcl~!rPs r List of Symbols S!lnld I <l.< \fa..PI > I i ~ r n ~ l ~\Vilcy. C n n . R.~ Xm: Sork..c l r c l r n n tr.\ Z L ~ I .cr.n. . Flmi pn.s A 2.m!rf fi*. T ~ len@ll 2nd aidth of t l ~ runnrr an. Ix~ltnr.I~r~dirl< dr..mdidnt~s ~ ~ l incl!tdr i ~ l ~ ~ . MI: Ilidn \\illI s c r ( ~ . This oppro. E!. Plrnck mnstant 0.ti\cIy.s stntrtl \\ill on tltt. ..-.

tnee >l.tgnelic flux hlagnrtic indudion lndrtctanm Unit Meler Kilogram Snnnd Kelvin Ampen Cimdel.' i'mvcr Electric dlrrge Palmlid Concluclmce Rerirtnnw Cnpacit. Radian Ilem.International System of Units (SI units) Quantity Lmslb' Slars Time Tenlperaturr Ulnt. N\'mior Pawal Joule \\'at1 Coulomn \'dl Siemens Ohm Fmd \Vclw Tesla Ilenw Sbmbol Dimensions m kg K A Cd ncl liz S Pa J \\' C \' S R F \% ! T I1 .nt Light intmsity An~le Frvqueny Fom Prrssure Eocrp.

iCornpound pmtxm sl~mld k ilwl.) . nal P g.qrlopfrdI? lntrrnrtionrl Cotnrnlttcr on \\'rights and Y<an~m.. "at pp bill p. - a ..n.to alto 10...Unit Prefixes* exa peta ten $%a mega kilo lrecto deh drri rrnli rnilli micro nano pirn fc.

ll. Uppn-rw Alpha Rcrr (hmnlr CI Ik.Greek Alphabet Ln~nvnxv.n Elmilon 7 . 111 . .

Physical Constants .

ilil? (crn2A'.67 .) II"l.n.42 ').P r o p e r t i e s of Si a n d GaAs a t 300 K Z\IO~~~IC~' .0 x 10" s .31 Ia1 ITSO'C LO' nl W'C 1140 -10-" 9200 320 0.9 x 10' %iii325 5.cl rtn~cturr Ucnrih (~Icrn'l Dic~lcdtic ar.l. (R.8.3% 11.42 x IP I '44.5 x I @ 2. 9.r of n. 4.it. ArlLxT (*(:-'I >lrlting poirll (OC) >+intwiIy<amivr I i ~ e t i m ~ ($1 Slol.a 3.s) fl.66 x 10'" 7.C?) -3 x 10' Diamond 2.59 x 104 1..rlnnl ET(ec1ivedcmsit? of \li*tcs in condtnaion l.X5 0.12 3. (cnn-? ENwliw n . (c~~rctrons) /+.7 x 10': 2.05 1."l Elrrtrrm :tOinit> x(\'l E n r y gap (cVl 1ndr. (hnlrsl S~ciRc lrral (J& -C ') Thvnnal mndtcli\ih(\\'lrrn.(mnrltn.Mi3 05 .9 "$6 x 10'" 4.7 1.rnnal r\~:knsins.75 x in* 1412 3x 1.43102 5.3 x 10' 5.. (Pal W.l.o2 x 10' ~\tc>mic ~ ~ ~ i ~ l ~ l ~ I % n ~ ~ h lli ~ cn i\'/cm) rl l ~ n C~?rl. 0' ISY) 51 15 0.-') EfTw<ive drnsity of <talesin tdmm l>rn<I.. S<lc.3 2. 1 I.66 x lV8 3.fnr(ion Illlrinsir cwrirr msn~#~lr. 06 2 : OW 4.T (rttv/./tn.4 4..31: ~2. t s s (mnrludi\ilyl Elrc+.I x I l l' !inebh:nrlc i.I C %Yl' .) \':tpor prrsnm..cml Lallicv c*nst:all (A1 Linrar nx-ffirirsl of 11.rlionlen~-') Intrinsic mrisliuit).45 1 M a 1050"(.i.

Some Properties of t h e Error F u n c t i o n .

71 O.64 0. W .54 0.: 1 . W 3 50 i 0..S2 0 9 \ 9 91.33 3.12 0 .9%) !+I540 O.59 0.07 0 . ~ s~ 6 i? . B S M 6 2..18 3..~11 09s!l @I1 1'1 0 9 \ 9 525 1.5 1.973 64x3 1.$ISS rdl 1.01 O. : .213 3.14 3.:. W 426 1.09 +)I !.</ crf r r : 11' edirr.92 OW3375 1.W7 351 2.2fi 3. 207 1 .lfi 0 9 9 7 7 4 7 2 .W OW5322 2.!FfiJ !FlJ 70 0.9J9 'Bi 8 9 3 I5 I3) I:%I L.22 3.9\5 573 1 .16 3.31 3.951 IIL~ 6 0. 3 O.999 3 7 .'&3 928 1. . .57 0.892 493 l69 0 9 U I 5 3 1. s j IXY.5 t 0!411914 I.!MJ !W2 C-4 0lHJ9J3ll O.: 1.<JYI4117 I 72 09\5 01J7 1.56 5 7 1. % $54 2.Y\3 7 W I : n.73 i1.15 3.61 0 9 T .24 3. 0 9 3 2 1.1 3.<XA5.01 n .999 0 6 91 0.991 $21 I. ~ ~ p ~ Gn Some Properties of !he Error Function d b Appendix G.l!Jii 376 1 43 0 9. 2.?I I $2 0 83 - 3 4 t l $ 1 -!-I 1 114i1111Y 0 !I.49 O W \9Y 13 n I ( I ~ m 1. nwim O<J-IT312 8 0!U9lJl6 1. 3 7 2 W 2.99 0.931673 I!>?? 2 5 I!I53 '52 .q?..999 M l i I S 0.970 5% I.9. M 994 36 O.975 462 1.60 0.10 lKFJ7 V21 2.~m 99397 0 .1 0.RI? 781 1.9: OYJ-~ r61 1.$3 .?? OW5 413 Ii OY69516 i 1 .X IN.21 3.994 892 1.04 0.96 O .19 f I . l i (I.592 2.23 3. 3 0.%J.999 'Wi 49 05999 72 0.i0 '10 7e? l IV.55 11971623 IS n. OWN. O!Hlr111.974 547 1.47 0Y6? 373 I45 0 l W l l 6 3 1.%25 2.15 O W 7 639 2.s.61 0 9 % 056 1 2 5 .w:951 2..% %3 0.32 3.29 3.W3 6 % 1.65 0 9 W 0 7 6 II% 0. 6 2 & 9 7 4 (US I.74 0 9 W 1% 1. Some Propenies of the Error Function 4 279 .02 0.91 05fiL3 (MI 1. 0 . 0!47\ 1x5 I .!#ll 472 1.975 1.76 0.99 O..9:~ e .341 3. % 0. 2iffi 09% 423 2.57 0.75 11956 672 1.995 719 2.'<.44 O M I ? Y 7 I 0914695 I 4 6 OY61 1131 1. 3 7 1 ~ 5 2.W9 9% W 0.20 0.91 0.951 510 1.14 0997525 2.15 3.%N 991 03 O%FJ W 1 C*l 0 .i 111 ?.%19 <A5 99 0.979 622 1.l ll.15 n.W9 997 51 0.19 320 3.35 O.$$ 0VY2 1% 1 % OJXJ2 479 1%) iI.34 3.YJY 137 .!J57 7 0'~976!Jl 1 .976 315 1.2i 3. 9 05WO 7i 4 : 1 \5 119!l1 111 IUi l.!fiM $N4 i 3 0 .13 05rn74n7 2.999 3 7 &5 O. RMl1 179 1.11 0 .GSii 731 2.3 1.a.OW56 n.65 0.51 t I Y 6 7 2 7 I.17 3.

where n is t l ~ m a s of a molecule.'/mol-K). Eq.is the Avgadm mnstant (fi. V is the \alsme of I mole of gils. TIP distril.02x LO'" mdectdedmolr).B a s i c Kinetic T h e o r y o f Gases Tl~c ideal g s law states that PV = RT = h'. 1 is d i d Tor most wcuanl processes.kT athere P is the prmrllre.r. ntm-cm.ution of vclocitics is described by the Xla\~\~ll-Bolt~mann distribution li~\v. This equation states that if there are n rnoleculcs ill i r tlir \nlomr. Tis thr absolute tenlprrature in K.3-Sx 10-'. = >lolernlar\veiglitx($] TI>?gaq molenrles are in mnstant motion and their vt.. thrrr \\ill In! (/.). 1 to calct~latr molec~tlar tltr mnwntration 11 (tllc nlrmlxr o l ~ n o l ~ . Sinw rrd g s e s hrl~ave more and more like the icled gaq as the presstnrr is lnwer~d. the pm111ct of its molecular \vcigI~t P and its <vnwntl. ~cutn. \r. E I I.37 x 10-"atmcm2K). . The ax7.ltion: p. The dcnsih pd of a gas is given 1. or 1.?'.ltirh statrs tl~:itfor a given spced ti. \Vc can use Eq. nedk is the Bolbn~nnnmnstant (1. & t # r. ace sprrd is ohtiiinal>lpf m n ~ 4: Eq.locitics are tenipcnture r l c p dent. JK. .ritnt~ t 1. or a?.c ~peretanit vdumrl: ~l s \vl~cre is in Pa.95 K adfmol-K.I mmolecl~les having n hqwcd hehwen 1 and ti + dti.

T11i.isd a thr srclurnw of process steps 2s 111~y ocvur Finnlly.. G .Drivc R~rildirlg 2 S:knta Clilc~. rities within tllose layers.pO*..rrsity P r w s s Engineering hlod~ling (SUPREhI) program is n simu. n ~ i command s ran :also bv oscd to specify thp tl~ickness f t l ~ e o region to 11rsimnlatc<land establish a@.1..5051 Ch Plto~lr:409-Cirl-.LII1et~. S: @ =P(z~~IPT)-" (9) Silv. Inc.. 4: I. c H.ste nlaterids arr estnhlisl~ed.. hfirr tllc sr~l~str. dist~~. !atinn pnckagc thnt illlo\rs a user to m d e l \sriaos procrss steps USHI in tllr fabrication of intrgmtrd circuits.. s by an rnenno con~plrfr!..~m Data Systems. INITIALIZE. . SUPREM can prctlid the rcsalts ofo~rlation.c.. d)tain t l ~ complete SUPRE51 rofh\:~re packi To c ape i~nd assnciatctl docl~mentntion.. Tlte progc~m also determine certain material prnpertin. series of statemants is ised to r p c i f j .ip~hrrcntile impinpcmo~~ 311. This filrcontains aseries ofstatcments and comm~nts. frnm Eq. and (loping.tintr (. T l ~ next command. ll.lni. is n e a mntrol statement that scts t l ~ e alhstnttr >ye. rlilfnsion.~r illlpill~r R init area per unit time.mn~ SlIPREhl is a tclde~nark thr Board of Trustees of Stanford U n i r ~ n i k of . 2kT Svtbstitutinrdn. Bsric Kinetic Theory of Gases .etchin~.ction ca. and ion implantation processrs. Tllr rleck begins wit11 a T I T L E statrineat. wI\.. reswti\~cly.mrl intrsntins gives nlrrclatio. 9. Thc priman results are the tl~ic!-mrsses of\arious layers and the rlirtrihution of imp. I. for tllr vrlocitics ofmolectllrs ill tllrr direcrtrr.ltncli Ilrn~?.!..sil\~aco. epituinl growth.qfob/<.nt paT.r for V R C ~ I U I I It~d~nologvis i~lol~~~tlari)~l/linEc:c))lrnf tile rnfc..olrr. can suclt a t l ~ e 5 shret resistance of rlilfased regions in silicon layers. To obhlill (Ilis par:lmon ll. its mntact tz dv.\. \Appendix I SUPREM Commands Tlw Stsnfonl Uni\.nctios/.. .ndthe ps pprna~re ol)tainrd by using rote is Eq.~lich is merely a mmment repeated on each pigr of the p r p ~ outpol.... IX.. To run SUPHEXI.. the outpnt oftlte simulation ~ ? k n printmi or plattrd llsina PRINT or PLOT rtalementr.282.~~si~d erllmtian similar to E l .sl.orientation.rl.sition.? an tion. Simulation ends \\it\\ a 1. an input clrck must lw pro\irlrd. 4701 P.t is.delx. SUPRE51 Ill mrwlels the clinngcs to tile se~nicontl~~ctor stmchlrr tl~at result from tllesr procesw in one dimensirm. tint rnrahlrr f.1372 F m :400-727-3297 t~w?v.

LImcnt StnlLItlrC Arsenic Boron Chnlcal Concentrat~on LIYCIS Net Phosphoru~ SAVEFILE < F e a t u r e F l l c n a a e .m.r5ic S>nt. .<aw.fi. ~ ~ Commands Appendix I. ~ ~ Actlve acrm Chemical Net Phorpho~r <..< f i l e n a m e Silicon Arscnlc Boron Phosphor~s C o n c e n t r a t i o n (cm- (ronlinarrl.Arsenic (ctn-') c. SUPAEM Commands 285 TABLE 1. Thickness-<* 4rerinR Tenmrature-<- clrpth into thc rubrtntr an.nn>m~~tt.I'ammtlrm Syvilics that impurity mnn~ntmlians rcrtllL.~l . Ik. tlring simcdatcd and ~ ~ n f i c i t mored ts Cnln ienn. to l r plultol PRINT Olltputs information about PRINT <paranetern lhr rtnlnurc.1 Connon SUPREM Cornand.a CCmENT < t C x b DP S N EOT II O I)pical F l a p :and l'. thc meficirnlr l...sscxl. irddi/jr~g and ~ n p e r a r u r e . <Dopanb C o n c c n t r a t l o n .cmplnln I$.r PLOT <parameters C M X . or h>th Terminates sirnn~lalion lnptnts n character string to lnlrl thc follmbinq input S ~ <P~ e x o TT E IL < ~ e r b Sonc None ETCH Etchn qxrifi<d materid fmm thv top of e a m n t ~InlClllw ETCH & a t e r i a l > T h i c k n c r r .. Energy-<* Arsenic Boron Phosphorus Dose ( r m ~ ? Energy (ke\') INITIALIZE Sets up initid nrmcients and slnrdl~w k tncd in to the ~imulittion INITIALIZE d r r u c t u r o c S v b r t r a t n <lee.tctiilI top o[c.e m IMPUVr Simulates ion implanlltion of i!npr!rilirs I H P M <mpann Dose-<n.< m <11b 411. r ~ ~ ~ SUPREM d i i I.m Nanr Aluminum Nlfride Oxldc PolysilicDn Slllcon C. or Olxtll~nts chsnkcl~r ti!^^ tc st lllvl m input srclavsn M~ITI~.Rate ('Urnin) Temperature ('Cj Time (rninulcs) A11 Aluminum Nitride Oxide Polysili~~n Sllicon T h i c k n e r r (pml SAVEFILE Si)\'c~ the L..tlurc DIFFUSIc*l The-<* d.ion i.') C. r r v r u.'l &ax Ic!n-'I OIFFUSIW Slalrls hi~h-lrmpr..< r n <mPanh nano\idinac srnhirnts &bicnD Boron OryO2 Nltrogen Phosphorus YetO2 Solidrol HCIX (%) T.Phorphor (en. it^ ryrili. INITIALIZE S t r u c t u r e . .awd.n. S.~oron (cm-') m i c k n e r r (pm) Temperature ('C) Arrenlc PLOT .nt stnlaurc - #.< T e r ~ structYIC STOP rnLE Irin2 pmr~..c3inp.

hlany parameter windo\\s. and hftcr tile sofhvare II~LCIWPII iostallcd.xnnlnlr. o e ofthe is prrsrntctl in . snrll CL~~IIIC. Imace 7 r 8 . s11r11 simtllatinns: .. :tpwars (FCC Fie. arid so forth. r Amin/ Ismgn: The relative intcnsihof tltr i r n a s ~ P It~nction psition I U of Inlnge in R ~ i s irile i m n ~ prnjrctd into thr pllotonsisl at tllr start of expSltn : e Exi>o.rxp%urr bake Dccc/ol>Tinrc Co.spl. ~~ optic21 litl!ogr.elop~nrnt .d photoresist.orinl:tees. eqwsure of pllotorrsist alsillg Illis inlnge. selectine Ootions from thp File menu to onen tltr Ootions di$o~. PROLITH m n lure by .in optical projection . sucl~ t l ~ e as Resist paranleten \\inclmv.l.I \ridr \arirh. or clrvrloptnent of tllr evsc. This is accornnlisl!ed I)!.lpl~ssimnl:~tingforn~.sfrom in r lists.\\hic\.LT a ~ I I I I ~ ~ ofI I O positioll in the resist Herkt PmJilr. L After input paranlcSte~. plots. m.ition results rmrn p.s of tile infonnstion cntrred. srttines in this dinloe lms are ucpd to e5tnblisl1hasic simulation options. 4. Refore nlnniae a sie\d:ttion.Art pust.20). for c. . enterineial~~est r x t boses.r T l ~n11lp111f t l ~ pWl~n is annnn~c~trpmlirtion final nsirt pmfile. mlnilntiom. .lo to displ.. s c l ~ * i n ~ f i lorsothrr val~a. a usvr can nln PROLITH by simply clickins on thr PROLITH i h n from t l ~ \\Tn(lo\~+ e Start mcntl.q)ll) proccss from acrid image fr.nnatioa t l ~ r n n rwist~ ~ ~ I cpponlrc and dmpl.?\s cinlol. . boxes or option bt~ttons..lc.Running PROLITH ~~~~./~ f r n f I Itnngr: The Intent image 1)rfon post-c\posuw hskr (PER) PEB I n t n ~ l In~ngc: The 1:alent imasc .lollic:ll \imr. Tltc . The follor\in~ options from thr Gr.:T\\a-dilt~e~~sio~~aI photon~sistprofile :tftrr dc\. gmpl~s. nro\ide instant v .~r. O~IIIII'II~..~pl~s mrnu ior mrrrspnclinp tmll~ar btnttons) ar? :l\ailal.. the llsrr must choase the simulation options and mter a wt of input pmnnPtrn. PROLITI I <li.rrrs: Contours of mnsklnt clmrlop time . Ila\r l e n cnteml.ak fc:~nf t11c Cclpl~s menu...ystem.~tion a m. I I P linnsr ~ lrnaenc Tool para~nctrrs windo\\.~!. After a s~tcccssf~~l sc:~rcll.. .

ezp c &pmdlr J Running PROLlTH

cwntrct ,,I,.~,, R O ~ 1wh,nrr p ~ ~ 1 p7dt,gr its ;ssocintnl doctr~~~ent~ttion.

ni< p n , r \ , . a r p ~ ~ntpaI,iIitier is I>?so nlelns rr,~nplrt<~. obtain tltc run,. m ~l~~~ TO
FISLE Twhnol@n. InC.
PO. Box 162714

,tttstin. lX 79716 P l ~ o n5143?73751 ~:

Fax: 514327-1510

P e r c e n t a g e Points of t h e t Distribution




~K ~ ~ , ~ e n ~ a g e , r Distribution ~ ~oents 8 olths ~

P e r c e n t a g e Points of t h e F Distribution



~ L Percentage ~ ~ Points of the FDinribution ~ ~ x

Append* L Psrcentnge Points of m e FOintibut~on

srcg __,,.,


----- ----- ----- ----- ----- .-5 -,-,-, ----- =go-- fi%;1~2 3 3 5 % r;ws~:? -a: i 4Ss ----- ----- ----- ----- ----.
5 , y p s ~fs4?% S X R ~ XSRRGS %Sf33 32925 ----r,.el-L*




, ,r s -l r -


%$s%% ??:%?? ZZ!;:~Z :;%~cq ----- ----- ---- ----- .izzz yc? rzw% i ? , P $ p ~Cl.y!& 5gz.g:; sz2,:2z ~~>~~~ : r;?onr ~ re ----- ---- ----- -_--8

3?2? EYGZi? ,73"?" r r r c , ,,









E S ~ ? z;ess
- .



s;T$~ snsaa aaqqw 53GL;s %----------- -----dm--


'4 b -

,---,: f; ;. ? i


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I " l ? l r l r , C,'1---

esa.8"-t-c-r---.-._. CC-G,Y *.%CI,I :__--_












-. = $ ~ s g 8qzq? -:;, ..-, - = sszz ----- : ----- ----:.


2= 7

--I c

----s-ns ----- ----- =gpgx ----- g ~ s S 3?@?a: ?. szsz? ZmqsF ----- a a m ? ----- ----,, i as%?? ssaqs --**, ssgzs sesqq ~ 4 ~ 3 ~ 3 fx 9 ----- --------- ----2255 ----- ZBS!?; FE$g$ ----- ?q?Wq fifiSg3 ++a<- ---------- ----- ----- 5 " " ~ =zsg $[:grs zz$%Y $3==4 %$sgx Ws%f$ fj;;WZz _^.,^, _____ -_-------- ----- ----- ----,, ,, ----- ----- ----- ----- <-*-a S??$,W ----- ----" 3 ~ 6 S:?~SX 3 7 7 7 .

----- -----

BA!-j$4 S$s%z Z4935 %33%% -----

z .$ .


2 5 ~ 4 a s q s g ~ s ? ? ~ ? Cp e 5 8 ~----- :3 q y B ;s ----- --------c

----- ------L.--



L .

WP'+P SPqqQ e l z i m m DOI-IFI-I

FZZ3$- g?;?E, ;??36 pszzg -I~~FI--------ZZZ8S




8; 9 s


szZq4 *.?,^,elel

a .-

83 9; : ----- f;ccEE -----

------ 2:;~Fs ----Z.%SZ$ . .






-2. .

=, 7733 aFq?q 5 3 2 5 43g33 CEE;~ b ~ ~ g s,za=q z, c z3,1r: -c,+,cro, c,e,o>^,- ----- ----- ----- -----



-. .




= -



= --

^r-= ,-",-i



L.,c*j- 9 ----




- - F ~ ;,


w t 7 -<-=, ----- ,;<",-% q p q ?=?=$ ----- -e.***j ----- --------- '7 ;= 2 s a--0 - -.;-: Y,l,7;rg gE$z: $-F?I/(L! 9---- ----^^",* __-__ ___-- -_------..$=2$ ZFFZ; " ----- g3g;q ----- ----- =Ss4= g C P x .5 ----- FqFy; 774?' ----. 2 2%4L,L? y--------. m.e.w - . . . . --------. ., 2 , --------c


==Rz$ ----- ----4!5$!53 Rf;ZJG
"7VTC -fie-8-L-N-f






3*3rq ,,-,:+L,



----?=:I% & ~ ~ 3 q ~ ~ 5 z % $ q z:??.~ r:F%z:? 3 5 ""'*""' "---- ----- ----- ----ze,:*- %KE;Z zzgsg ssg95 %$$Z? FgF$z. ----- ----- ----$sL0=*-.. ?%?!%$q:i;J;(S: 8283s SZ345 ?F'&%~ ----<-** ----- ----g :g csz,sr rasse svssa sszsz. z % r . ~ g ----- ----C<-<,z GIN=,-


;;%$Ff, ?'+E3Z %35%% ?%%;+ ::gczF ?;sg:!q er,o,elc 'INelrl*, ----- ----- ----c"' ."" '"'


Sa C l C ,








C I 'C CNI ,






Nl l D *I---IoN ,




3 3 2 0

cO-.n* m-c-n -e?3511 < i i i * . i





5 x t - e ~s - n-c



-<"; -




...., --------- ----- **+-- ----- --------""NP'/ z,:,-,L+ 51-92?







< ; E

: -.q q z F g Sg?. F%@":?$'Y.* . e i ~?i & f i e i & & ~ E S P ~ $%s=F ?=$IS 283sP 3?8%? NClelClN ----. ?.s5:C =5? r> 0 8 -- ?"2 W. r^---* .. . -..?~ xzars -ccnor aNCrrrrl ~ i ~ .N r ~=%-+c "----8 CIP5 . *32$ -3115 q -1 t zqq22 ?3%z= s%% :s gzg3c ??$???$Z3'+. : .-e f .N ~ i 0 l C l N F l NCI+IC. .P .^T*^r) COC???FI r. ""TWiC i:-tr-p! 02m" -7C<~: ~ = ...??%$.. -. ci"erc.N ElClClClF. -2 e O~Y)O~ ~ ~ l N l ~ ac ~ .+$$ gsgn: gzzrz p ~ z y g . C ? 1^1100 c ~ o . q ~ -----N NFI--N0IFIC)- i:CL?a'.-3- . *". C1EICI-8- ElClClFlN -5. ~ ~ :$ .:. .. CCoDI- 5 (* -+) T S T C &5?5 F2s.. &-c!c! CICI~I^IC. .N NClNClN FlFlClClCl r-czpg t p $ p z 8311SG El-------=*l-m!- -3al:e me--9?-01Ca3 ?ICI--- L 4 -"a?C WY)ONC FIF.-.2 . 0crercrci Nnlelcrcl EIN(ilNC3 FINCINF) NCIN--. sY)o*q d ~ i e i c ~ ~ ---. FICI*... - NN'IC. . c. =..? --O-(? OElClClCl CIOlclnlN ElNNNN --I-mt zq=ss *qqo!e) o!--=?.1 --n--.%*--' "92"' --.. .=e -- ----r.arcc.-. 02s .. .----- 8338$ 889% ----PCgG? ----NOIC1OICI -> n -.C .%+fi $Nz-.72CI"I')I cs5z -..r e=nc!= +.-_r.??3e sGsaa -Tar-: CiOaOlcl C I C I C I F ! C ~ F ~ O ~ E I C ~ E I~ N C I F I F ~ CICIC191N C p%77 qzs53 *.+ qW3732 ----~.a * 23g3: &+&aSS843 P ~ ~ oconn 23ygE ooooc .CI -E+%l: c.FINCI .3 COFlelrl 5 0 7 e C ) FlOlClFlFl CICIC1NFI Cl. ~ ~L percentage Points of the FOMributian i ~ ~ ~ d ~ 8 .3 ^ICIFIEIC.. e 2 N C I N e 3 N C I .:Ne..zz.g==r.h?k + .?+ m"mYm s= . ..~ . 3 ' i K i S S Z .% ? 2 ~ 3 2 ~ a??=? ?%zwqnaarez< Tszqa omelcanr ~ c r m e mmrlc:r ~ o-clclcr I ctcncrrrnt 085s z z C % sasqs qss~z.-.- .751-T -8 =cqgq Fag=? qxgss ssszis c : e$gsg $3?sg ~ o T .. = 1/ -$SF?> s--. :--. 3 :i SF367 D I N N Nt-~ ~ ~ L % 3 ~ ~ ~ -7-CC. -8 iI - ?%?f &=$?? 8!3zTk2 32454 95X44 $g3$q .?--TI C I ~ I N C ~~ C ~ I ~ ~ I ~ ~ C -2yz - s p s e nr---.b ~ " ~ ar. L .'.% .z Z . e .

s:%zz W.~tion-d~-~)rn(I~nt cliNt~sititv..: ~1 .c n o p l\ni lc c .T iC>IOSl. ea.. ~$. ilnportancr for lithngrap' w i 2 Closr proximity printing.rt) see. IS9 111:tnkct rtclles.. .. 5 C.y.Flrl*I FlFlFlCIFl Z23FS CI+I---*I--- I rCc. 186....?93 .la3z? .-*---: --. ' i ~ ~ ~ > ~ dv C-cl~.\Pc\'r)) hrca drfcct .~n 1% techtiolnq.T2 c.allof. I69 Chip sc:~lepackage (CSP). 0 RS.alt siliridr.' 2Eyeg 6 ~ m 3 2 -up--""""" ~:..lop.~ x ~ l t114 CAR...^..:. I63 for g:<llium nrsmide.vrr B:ill grid army (B(:..o1n. 14.i-ici.z er.-.5-.-= T C I-. $ .2 zrrlr) %?(S. -2-ocar8.9SA5 NFICI*I^I Cara~l*lCI *I---- -? - E x __^. sre p+ channel stop C11:qe-cnaplcd drdcv (CCI)).~ 7 2 2 r- - < ^-el??- .----.5-147 silinn oxides . S i i~~n~ A r n o ~ l ~ osilicyt. 70 rrsiqt Cl~en>icd br.mid lmlid~ing iC3IP) Col. ----- -..s -. 215 C:\D. s ~ CnrTMli~z~ o FdCtor iCF) Chanstop. ISS-195 Bipjl.zqeso ~ 2 2 7 3 ~ r .. % Aspect ratic~lepmdcnt rtclling.r% q*3-gs gz???! zzo:.?ii~l ??---- l P 3 E I q?IIVi *--_-?? .S -*.-I ----+ *2.zz ?.*.203 l CF. sn. - .l. 17.rtion.?- '3s..\) I3iCSIOS t<..a eltan iC-d.lFC ~s C Fax58 F .i z~ ~ gg~ g ~~b ~ Wl3SR . 5...?@$?4 5%?1 r-F-can ?8?a~llyCI C8CIFINPI %88%? EI^ICI-- ??!%= x-cL.3:3~ ~ -s.. .rlc.>?:- '2 ..~sPoints of the FDirtribution : .1 r-r.? . %5 Cl~ernicnl etcltinq. . S* 1311fft~e1l oxid? etch (BOE). srs R I I N C ~ P ~ IIFsolution (BII17) Bulk ~nirroalacl~ini~~g.C8 c8*3c>cac8 ?aw--- - N.--. 20:3-205 \<. % i'm .:lided +sign (CADI C:lpacitan~~. 2%S :\t~totrrohilr iedrlst? 1 B1 grid Array (BG. ?.7. I)~r.. . 92 APC\'I). .. 156 XN.anp..i.Anisotropic ctcln prnllles. - g???:.i - z - (CRE).e c----.-ex"- ..:..4 O??-C-r I ?.lnt strnntillrll titnnntc (BST). K5.? -=. L percent.-r2. srr Computer.tn tccltniq~a.-_ _ ___ -.t!n rpitiry (CUE).: '4 integr. 14. src Cl~emic~l-. 201 I@?.cln ~n-an~ea cael-rxel .-- 33es3 ~ 5 3 9 3. ... .pi(iw (CRE) CCI).a.- - - $Z$S5 =I-il-. ... '' '.l!~is of \.:r?. I45 :\tt"bt~trs..----.z ~ N . 2jw257 Conc~ntr. -?...7 .'-?:: rz:. 14..pw . BST s m B:trioal strootiem titanate (RST) 13ofk.? I-5r44- - ---...F).>%@ Annraling Imrnn .firi..itrcl circt~its (IC-CIhO.r.E-Z .mb stnlartrc. n An.7 --'--C?^F F$? g.*"C. 114 Coofonnnl step m v e c ~ ~159-lffl r. 83 ~n~. :>ss. 100. 92 Cl~crninl inar11:kicll polidling ((:\IP).uP1.7" L - .-. hwl~. . ----.5.d \. 5 Cl~r~nird-:cmplilicd iChR).. .? ' ^.- ----- __ - ----.-.1.npnr rlrpsition (CVD). B l :1 1 R. ji... 85 !?oron.\) lid>l~. 169-173 A m n i n ~ ~ fluori.2 Cl~enniral rtc. 62 Cl~~stcrctl plwna p m r s r i n ~ 07 CLIOS.:~sg Zsyen 3 6 7 ~ 5 eF!iaq ?fi+Zl Zz=ks . 2JT+%I6 tc.cltnolo& 210-21 I Hilx..G...-1Ca ZZEI3.~r tr:t!idstor.Ic I~ S C S 2 3..: ~ g ~ ~ c ~ . 207-204 .p.LC*.1 rtcl. C ~ ~ ~ t ~ c i k t ~ ~ c t(vltniqc~e.tnd pl~ocpl~ams.ant$. ?I16 Coznl>utrr-aideddesign (CADI.\..g l.-*J ----. . >ql..nriancr (. 228 C ~ ~ ~ n p l r r n r n\IOSFF. t.$%ss s:?sws a2o5r e$swx.. 135136 ANO\':\.-I- %?Srs '>" z-ts 2 -I .ing.?. I. arr C l ~ a r ~ ~ ~ . ii C e a t ~ lprwvssinq onit (CPU).----.irt. 14.5z =. riw Critical tlitncnsion (CI)) Crll prujc. 7 . 5 6 Cumpulrr-inleqtrd msnllf.%.". 15... 30-31 6.l. -- = ..-1 5 .dpg S5"CC szggq %?=. % 2 ? Clear1 rnnm.chniqt~r. IISII. =~...rt-d IIF soltrtion (RHF). .unplifiecl resist (CAR) Clrlmn conwntntion...0.gzz .tnd diosidc..we CIl~lllicaI Iwiinl c..G ==%g$ %3$%$ RI-NW %W8S($ FgZZ? C-CCFC--C C ~ ~ E I C ~ elclol^lcl C I ----- - . scr Coniplcmrntan 3lOSFET (CJIOS) C3IE src Cl~nnical nirrh.entional anniealing of.c c 1 5 =?*s ? ._ .uj p. 5 .-.aolop. 169 tungstm..mI. t?:!g.tallimtion.t"LIL*..-.r 31-r-t-FI :\rlv:inn4 isol:hli<ln tcrht~<. mrkllargailnic.^r? -r--?. ngqs: c--c..~ __r_- i j ~ ? . 3.\). ewn\.ssl!rr C\'I> (APCVD).lc (Xl1... scqzg .lrturitt. r\otornsterl test rquip~nent(t\TE) At~nospl~eric prt...T l . 164 IK:. 176 Con~b-~ncatidrr-n. i\trnosplleric pwsswe C\'D (.~rtcu..> L-L?---.\I!trni!wr~~. .. 8. -- .l.-< * . -*?-c ??%&'$ 3 T e .m: :3? I5rirlern..'"" C. 134-135 h.?.\NO\'A) . s r r .?-?.. 43 t~s As. 36 1 .2-175 Chrrnic. 134 ctpid t l ~ e r ~ t ~ : ~ l .. 99 ATE. L3i hutomnted test equipmrllt (r\TE).. 147-144 for silicwn.d!si< of vnrianw (hNO\J. %$YE. CD.zrrg-.

IZ5-165 epiti~xial gro\\zl>twhniqurs. 98 cltcmical. 64 oxide I L I ) ~ .arnI. 7%78 Extrinsic p* bzse rruonr. sec Single- Elcl! late i ~ ~ ~ i f o r m i t ~ . silicon.:9F c ldar c..+nt <~01h7111. g Dislomtion. d 1% profile of the dillrzsed lnyer. 237 tnd ion itnplantation and.u. FZ-6. spc Polycnstalline silicon (EGS) Ilir qrpnration. 41..52-1.111-112 t<!t.qreption copflicient.~nenidc. 8 7 4 9 silicon nitride... 95 Elcctro~~ics in~I\~slry.ins.utci. 243 Drive-in dillusion.. I4 I. rcc Cltcrnicnl \ a p r (leposition DOIIIIIP d~arpcd m p t o r \FIcRnC\C 115 a (CVl>l Doal~lecoml~ stn~ctt!rr. 112 Denuded zone. 91-92 I~olycide gate. ~ ~ . 118 Etdl mecllaaism. s theory fi ~twt:illk. . copflicient f i ~ r r r c t (. l i 0 EUV lilhwnqlll): rrc Extreme ultraviol~t (euv) Experimentnl drsiqn.5 Floatins-gate nonvolatile menlon 201-202 Float-. 19-21. 2. self-aliped. 120-121 il. 1 4 . 144-145 E p i t q 7. 5 1 ~l -5 Donor \:IGIIIC): I15 Cnst. 37 . 101-102 Etcltnnts cl>emical. 5 pw intmltldory llole. 9%99 pnlysilimn. 173 tf Dmin. 95-99 silicon. 144 Equililrriurn segregation mefliricnt.I %5 Fnhric~tion steps.-.t.suw tools.. Drfrcl rl~art iC-ch. etcl~i~~g Etchin< sin~le-cqstnl silicon..~ .. 151 Diclvctric I : t y .. .ct. twhniquw.s~r. src Depth of foctzs (DOF) C n ~ t . 8fi.54 Epilminl process.tphy. 113-1 14 cSP $0.C~l . 99 dry i l .^.tt"I. If35 D I ~in-linr package (DIP). I47 cpstal p w t h tccl~niqaes. 12 C..~ctor(CFl.!'l'!. 1 IS-I20 ~ . 242 ~d 2&'2rA Drsi?? matrix.ltioa. 117 C0pp. I Elrctron resist. ~ 1 1 1 . 41 Gate c ~ ~ @ n ~ e r ~n q n o l o ~ \ .t. . 3 W 1 Doabl~-p$siliconstnlcttlre.ttion. ~l~l p I ~ s~. f d l 2 e t c l ~ i nS3-$9 ~. 212 zinc dillitsion in. -- Elrctmn ilr:lnn litlqrapltK 73-76 Elvctron c?clotron n.9 DRAJI. 9 S 1 0 1 orientcttion-rlrpndmt. S'W24I ~ ~ s . 238 Function. 3 7 4 9 D n etching. IWJ chemical \ a p r rlrposition iL17))for. sinlulation. 93-94 gallitln~ . 89 ..ition bps. 144-152 Epitmid la!ra. 22s Czoclm~lsk technique. 9 3 Epikuinl g m v i l ~ techniqurs. 197 Filrn ~lcpasition dielcdric. 164.~l !ielrl. 19. 207 Dmin-induml barrier lo\rering (DIBLI.v"II. 15%165 Di~lrctric rtrhine.s. 1 ll+ll!i mnstant.y. I Y . 114. \\.% (:ritic. 89-90 vquipnlent.l. 1. 75 Ellipron~ctry54 Emiltrr. y r tl~irknrs.~rn:~wnef h n a l q 99-100.~tioa..72 I>OF.dliutiun.y P ~ . 11.~r<nl..1 3 I)illitsi\it): see DilTosion.r . I I6 F i c k rlill~lrionequation.. stati<ticnl. 8.. packace (DIP1 . 8S-89 intrrconncct metal. 24fi DIRL. 192-193 Edge dislocation. sce Electron c?clotron rrsonilnce Dirl~iric (lepsition.. 114-117 Edrinric st:ackise litult. etcI. D ~ s i g c. 13-14 pllysical. 88 x r t cltrmical. ?jB-El Gallium anenidr (GaAs). 197. 114 Gennanittrn ICP). see Dynamic randoor acxvss Dc4r.tIS. 92 plum. (:hip scde p c b e (CSPI ~ se. 19f~19S Factorial rqwrimrnlal drsims. ~ I ~ C ~ ~II ~~I ~ ~ I I : I C ~ ~ ~ I m s ~ ~ pmfilrs. 92 ~lirlectric. 106-1 14 c o p c.. 31 Flip-chip bonding.lcc (I:CR) ~I~L$. I.aspect r a t i d r p d e n t . oaluatioe of. L9O&L91 stnlcttlr?s and dofccts in.206 Dwp-lrencli isolation. 165-167 simal.~t~(COP) in silimn. 51 C6bn<t... Depth of f m n (DOF). .. 109-112.. 10i Field osidr. 41. 246 Fenni Ievd.. 23. i~ltcplated circuit.trtl. 145 tt-hlw. 63 Dis1oc. XT-37 silimn dioxide. 14-1 ~lirtribution 19-21 of. 89-90 Dr~x>cition D n oddation. scc Drain-induced harrier low'ering E-beam lithopplly. 50-51 C p ~ t p~~ller. :X Ftmctional testin$... C e ' .me (Si Il&12). 94-33 Four-point pmlw lecllnique. 113 Fractional factorial drsim~s. 172-173 . 6 Et~trciir tempt:ratun. ST. 194 Extrinsic ~IiK~tsion.242 Exp. 113 i~~~ DIP.\ll Drmm of frrrdom. t i ch ?0>210 Gatassian distrihntio~~.rtpnv~tinc.$. 88. 144. SLT Line defect Critic11 divnmsionl ICD'. 239 2ns Defrct dpnsih cl~art (IT-chalt). 144 Rats.54 Filna. 30-31 impurities rrdistrihation. L T ~ > r . 192. 8-9 Etching.r :. 99 (ECR) Diel~tric isolation. 206 EIectromigr. 113-114 Electroluminescence phenomenon..drfwts.t S.44. kj Etching alnminum. 58 silicon treacll.d equ:ttion. 3 0 3 1 C\-I>. i.we Denuded zone memory (DHA.al I . ~ clt:arts.. 8 i Etcltrs....~. 161 sin~tali~tion.. pol!rilicon. 200. 85 Etch-reri-tan1 plymen. 97-95 single-cnstal si~imn. 35-36. . 1. ~ p t . IlSJ.IFI& mt~wntn~tinn. 152-1.zone p-ss.lllYi.3 Gelterin$. W ..srv IIII:II in-line .~tion. . 270-231 I sintsl. 32. 23. ""--"2rj Difhction.rt... 24-19 Frenkel d r l t e .fwr zone. 230 Elrctrical testinp of integrated circ~lits. 71.yriment. 177 D>namic random amcss inevnun. ..~u:d pv\mailb and.167-lii pol!siliron. 91-92 rxtcs. 237-39 la1cr. I l i GII~C oxide. 194 Encl-pint control. +?a e~trinsic. 2 l). IfiSl63 ECS.. 14&152 ~nrt.23.177 stn. 87 pl~c~tolitl~ogc~pl~y tmd. Illaaket.85 cummonly used.st!<. 199-200. 114-1 L i c.3-195 D. &5 (DRAJII. 117 ctll!I.30 Erfe dirttihution. Electron heam IDIRL) Dicldomcil. fig Dilll~vrl layers. Extrc~ne i~ltra\iolr~t iEU\') litlrqr. srfj Pol!silimn. Crntnl p m ~ i n txnil (CPL'! . . 1.t.J p ' \ i h Dopant Tit. 107-IWJ (. 145 litlinqraplty ECR.ctar?s.d. 1 6 1 0 6 ~ .s.

80-31 ICP snalrrr.HI)P us. SO. IF$ SIOC\W. 8.irg(.r~$ih l.art square. 212 . 5. rcc \laqnrtically enllancrd \lldtiplr innplanlation alld lll:~kill rr. ~ i ~ l l r e i\!TF) hlEHI E. ~ n ~ ~ ~ t l ~ (IIhlDS! ~70 : ~ ~ r ~ e ~l. E i . IS2 hlrtal silicirlcs. 'iO dalnagr and anncalitlg. 1%)9-20:1 field-effrct tnnsistor (1IOSFETl SIEhIS.rrmn (IlDP' ctchem. wc Slolec~~l:~r rpita\y (hlRE) hr.7 (SlSilCs~. .r. ?A? IC-CIS!.p:. tli~h<irndhpl:snlaIHDP) l l ~ t ~ ~ m ~ 1. 1:31-136 arid difi~sion.. I'ii-186 clr\irrs. 79 14S1. 196 ~ hlrhl-o~idr.). 65 Irnacr n.iilarc (SITF)..aC. 4 L w r interfrrometn: 93 L?tcl. ISi-ISS ~nonulitl~ic.131-134 In~ptrrin.tn~r. 107. of I97 LOCOS.5 41 ~~ooolitllic e~icm\r. llltrnlitial dilTtaion.) l Ira11 zircimium titanat" (PLT).~.ltilln smle ISIS11 s)strlns (h1ESIS) SITE as.itrm.13!&140 H-line.27-??R brmn epitm? (XIOSII3E) SII.14. 108 Intrinsic Ixwr rcS@<ion.14 nrlge of. hI~ta~-odc~r-~~mim111 srr >lelnor\. pi .1% rp hlonte Carlo sin~elalion.167 Ion implantfitinn. 15.ntml litnil (LCL. st.ri5o. 13&131 ~listrihotior~. hlinimum .t.th. 167 I n t q n t e d circuit (IC)manufacturin~ mmpot~r-intrp. ' . n t m limit (LC[..tttmt lr.. t ..SPO \lc~li~lm intr~.55. I 6 4 k w l 1 packqing. 1% ~ I O S F E T . IU5 Impurih rrclistrihstion during oridation.ltll. 175176 hlicrn~~cdromer~lit~~ical (hlEhlS).vi~l~~-s~~nimn~I~te~r fieldcNrct tnnsislnr (SIOSFET). 7fJ-il LIGA.2 2 s ptckqing.&i&i. ~ ~ n e !HSlI>SI Ilomorpi1:y 144. '277 Lou.l.tntatio~n.4. 152 Hprlrntlaorir acid IHF).q. M~lulation-dopdfieldhl. 2 hipo1.lrcllic-ci~nstnnt (10\\.st.-di<.ining. 80 SlOC\'D rcactor. x r Slnnolill~ic micro\bave intcpmtrd circuits IhlXIICs) hli\'OS. ssrlace and hulk.ntion. 140-131 Isolation trcllnolo*. . scr Lo\\. 242-249 statidicd p r w s s cwntml. ahforrn~rr~q (LIGA) Litltngr.1IS Intrissic stacking fault. l..7 In~plimt dan~ape. r n p t ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~tmlsistor.. s w lndnrtivel~ mupled pl.t 132 ~ ~ . 125 Lqtticc disorcler.. \lean lilnr to ~ .113. I l i Jt~nction spikins.sliw ion clrltins (hlEl<lK) 13C+I:33 hlESFET.~nl nntrrids.00 14ohik ionic d ~ a r ~ r 4. \l.adive ion etching (l semicondt~cior !SINOS) (hIEHIE).lcl inte<r... 163 Lov-angle gmin hn~ts~laries. 5. drfrcts. 191.oalc. 14% Sla.irIrhlapeticllls ~ n l ~ a n c rrr. 237-241 \ i d .see cle\irr clitnrnrion SlhllCs.k <lnrnacr. 5 prnlwrtirc of silicon dioxicle..~scr.tnsfer.!. SO-'il nest-gl.lCP1 s n ~ t r c ~ ILD. dr\.+!er cliclrctric (ILD) I-line..d i ~ i l . 1. 1. 2% Slrdiilnn swlr intrgration (XISI). 17. Sfi tl\pnthrsir lrst.~ ~ .u m l l . see hlelnlorqanir molrcular hlp. iO-il ~. ISi. S l e t I i n e ~ . 192 hlrlal. nplcitnr. . acid (HF' flrrll~lc.\?T diode.i i.. IS5-187 intlltctnr. WF \licr<>t.anr-n~~~sI. 42-19 Lqe-w. spc L.3i. (SIODFET).r .rr cx. 6 LiftolTtvrhniqttr. u r lntrrl.trn hlOhlHE. scr Lower ~ .. IOC+IRS ~ l ~ ~lmlulation-do~d field-efirct transiqlor o ~ i d ci . 5 2 .t!~rt. 131 Lzttiw-matcl.iI.-xi41 Ind~rctivel? couplrd plzmn iICP) sosrce.~li il IIF . IS2 I P C I I B O I O01.rslting p a c t tnnsistor (SIODFET) ~ ! d t i inl~lttntationitnd. 51-52 Slolrcular I r a n rpit.nrlttcf~~n... .ring. IMlfii H ~ S ~ C I I md~ ~ I .~l-s~~znicnm~~I~~ct~~r fivlll\ f ~ ~ r p l ~!ic. IR>LM ln\t. 53.~vc intepr~trd circnits \lc:m tin.tlon. i \!<. 1st-IS5 lotrnnnnrciions.5 Lltrral (IiNusion. t c ~ ~ ~ . . ~\stcrn. M 5 loll clmnneling. 125126 stopping. 15-1 Interlayer ~lirlrctrir (Ill>). s q r Computer-intrpted n ~ . 173 Inrrntntiorml fir.W Lo\\.5 4 y's ~ITrrt transi*tor (\ll?SFlYr) .r\? (SIREI."p. to F. 136-140 sin~~~lation.%120 Lateral oxidp isolation.54 h e r dirxles. 5 s Slap~trnn spottrrinx. 99-101 Intrrfim. Ii ) In sit18 doping.l ol. M i ISII'. 11 .~~ p.3-80 Iltltngrnpl~y prwcss. 7. 2-+275 Intr~. 2.5. Intercvnnrct ~nrtill clchisp.~sks. I.~qk-lx. 145. 1. r Sletdorpanic chemical \ a p r n Matin rffrct..sist<. . 232 Liftoff trclrnique. \lonolithir IC. 259 (.. 26 l Lr~%v-~lit~lertric-(11r1sti1nt mnlerinls. galv:nofomit~ng.4) insul. \)*lrms 21'2-014 tecl~noloq 213-214 \licromacl. ~ . 114-1 I5 lnlrit~sic difi~si\ity.XP Litl~ognphic. 2. t nl. pressure chrtnical vapor ~lrpositinn(LI'C\'D) LSI.-scr!lr integration (LSI) .~ ~ r t ~ ~ ~ t4 l l ~ .tricll testinq. Ifi9-I72 Kinetics of gro\!.remi~~~r~rI~~ctor (SIOS) capacitors. 191 Lateral s t n .lnical h1Sl.r.'A.d epit?. 7.lrdn. 247 clrposition OIOCVD) \l.irzs. r 250 hlinirntt!~~ feature lrngtl~. 229-Bfi stati~t~cd rxprritnentation d r s i p .C ? SIODFET./tno/og!l Ron~/~t~o)~/or S~~.52 \IHI. 127-130 Ion Iwam l i t h o q p h y i9-90 sputteri~lg. pwss~tre rhrn~iml p o r ~lrlmsilion u (LI'CVl>). Local oxirlntinn of silirns (LOCOS) Long-tllro\v spultr.. ~ n ~ ~ f n c hintrqmtrd of ~ r i n ~ circuits (IC-CISII IC msnttf:tch~ringtrchnolq. 101.m ~ion in~plantor. 125-131 related processes. lki$hcumnt inbpl. a Y>97. 65 II\!L>S. H\clrnfluwir.5..ltic ml~rllocls <".50 ire. 215 hlinimum d ~ \ i c dim~nsion. srt.m. 102 LPC\'D. 70-71 ILBC:~~ oxid:ttior~ silicvn (LOCOS). advanwd.lrm. .d. simple. 152-153 LCL.9s hlrlal-srmicond~~ctor firldcNce tnnsistor (hlESFETL 5.ltPcl circuits (ICr).2-%277 elcr. l4.de intrptiolt (LS!!. ~listribution.tllrcl~. 20.sr. 194 Intrinsic c:trrier mnrrntration. q l r (a. >lrt. !i?l Ilid~-dtt~l. .l.c Slrtal-nitride-o.rin.. 207-209 Jonciion deptl~.wcH e a m r t l l \ i .113 Ilnpllrihdnpinq. 1999. 11. i p.

13.<'tir!i~~g 1n~1. Planla-:s<istrd etching.1 P n l ~ ~ ~ ~ 7. mnstalt. av An grid . 6%.v<r Sinsle-~lcctron mcmol).(I'CA) P. 207 Hr.rll gatr.3.qo Etcll-wsisfnnt pol!nren neptiw. 94-95.~ t I ~ ~ l . 72 ~niak Plnnspl~ants mnwntionsl annrali~~gof.u. 211 SESIC. 254-355 P. Semimtaluctor Equiplnrnt :xnd \l:rtrrinLq Rapid tl~vnn.c n .21X-222 Sdlottl\v banier diode. tub iSE\lCl PZT. Rmctive ion etching (RIEI Pr~cil>itid~s. 13-14 simul.117.. 75 11.~ryflat.54 R. sre Pol!-mrtllyl mrtlt. % Poisson clistrihotion.~r process.we Twin u. \vt41. 248 t. 11:3-114 Hr:stivr pl:tsma rtcl~ing SI~pwhart control d~. set.tcti\r ion <. 1 niatm:ils.~tions. 31 Projected str~gqlc (aF). ?-ill. 60. 2r-27 Pltitsr di:lpm.. 72 Po\vrr s11pl)l! vnltngt~.shein<. 37 Orrill. 156 Pl.l Rrtrngrnclr urll. 261-262 cnhnrrmrnt twhniq~rrs.ss sio~olntion. lli5-16i Hcsislanrr-11c. 2 p w s s trc11noIc)gin.niq~re. 112 RTA. Pl.I. srr a + pol>silimn Pol?-hutmr-l sttlfonr (PRS). src Hr~osant rate. 93 O\i<l.r (lepnsifion (PECVD). I i 3 Sllcrt rcsistancr. 14 Point defect. 4%50 s ILtyr. 204-205 equilihriam. 7 rn:~43n<. m.a~~.ant~rl stop.!~ l .ar-sltifting mask (PSM) rffwtive. diffwion PnI!silimn. I'nnvss mlltml lnollitors . 41.XL%l thich~rw cl1anctrri7~1tion. . r w P o ~ . ~ t r n iP\IhlA) PhlOS. Sfi. 3'2 Sepantiar~) in~pInntrdo\?yrn(SIhIOS). 22i Smnning focused-heam ystcni.:.ltion. 22-23 p tqh.distribation during. rrr p+ p o l d i m n Pol! 2. Z18 Prirn.~nnraling (RTA) Prrssur~-b~-trrn~~ri~t~~r~-~~~-flo~v RTD. 5 I)+ pnl>silicon.in I'nly-mctl~ylmctl~ncrylatr( P \ l \ l ~ ) is. 167. 56-57 . 27 Il~. 6 ' 9 . ~ \ t l itltin). 7. 62 chpsition.pl:rss flow pnxrs*. Lead zinnnium titannte (FZT) srr SEhll.ttinn i!nlNlrih n. photorrsisl. 62 I'm\ser limit:~tionr. 91-92 rractoa. 231 Plan.iws..il anncilling (RTA). 131-135 <liffttsionprofil~s.9i-101 sl111loo plot.uk. 1W.tl wpor clqnsition (1'EC:VI)) pG.. 6 7 4 s .79 C\'ticrl prndmin mrrprtion I'OPC).SPP R:tpirl thermal .! 'rl~ing I'lxsms-enl>anmd clle~l~ical vap.\. 2111 Rr$stration. 30.tttrn! tr. 60 rtclting . ion 90 Sl~allo\r.5 ~ r s . 80 Prw. 14.plic. 6243.OES. 11-14 Plasma tliapostin.r~~~ni~nncI11ctor h. i n t e p l d circuit I<. il'C>l~> PECVII. . lnstita!tr (SEhII). 134. 90. ~ Rrrlistrih~~tion diffurion.1 36. 175 P<l!>r.32 ~&lx.ndrllr ctcltinq.r. . 1. 3 a Pmjrctrd nngc ( R r ) 125 Second:ary flat. 1. 50 l~-t!p. ?RS Poisson !irl<l moclrl.shiSting (PSXI). 75-76 Segrcs:. 81-72 Pltotom.lil!rd tw!tcl!. SI trcl.t? (<:ol)).ltrd oridation hmmxc+.l ~ t ~ l esn~lfone n ~ ~ .. 92 Pl~>sic. twncll isolation.7.. .I Rr.lcl~ing (I<II:).L\ or.r rr.~s<.%2(15.al.intporily. 50-51 in planar p m s r .l<~clr.!ic rati. E B C O hpx or. Zill-2. s~ 1.r.73 Phutoresist. 20. 196 Pll. 205 c:hp2ritor. 1%. !)%99 R~!si~lors. 201 Hrri~titity. 191-192 ['C\ls.193 Rastrar s n n c)atcm. I! IS%I : 6 I 140. 75 dvfinrd. 14.'-h~r silimn sllhstnttr.loslc. .lm~aetchin: a process.. 1.trts. 209 RIE.~~ Reactor.l~ Rracti\. 79 . 46.d lithomaphy 60-73. I'ol!rilin. 1 n t r ~ ~ t t t cirn~it. Control rllnrts .*c. 251-352 PnIy 1. !):I Polygl!ridyl ~ n c t l ~ : t c ~ l n t r . i s H~nrtivr hram rtcllil~g. GO. fii-70.lrtor trrlisnloS\. 1IS Pltotolitho~r.-channrI >IDSFIT (P\IOSl. 72 Onrntat~on-rlrlx. I'l>. ace i>riv.nstallinc ilimn (EGS).69. 9 S 9 4 P>I>IA.d vapor deposition (PVll). 7 cIvdih. 197. 74-75 Sl~ado\v printing. Prnxilsip effect.ll. 114 I'rnlilometty 5-4 Scmv dislnc. J i Pacrmrtnc i r l d . 176 Prwrs cnntrol monifnn (PCM). l!I.liPBSI l. 9'LW Pol!rillc p r t x r s . rrc nl.113. 93 f~tnrlamcntals 90-91 of. 14.~1. . ~. 19S195 .ltioncwlficicnt PS\I. srr Semimndactor E q ~ ~ i p ~ nimdt rn hlaterinls Institutc (SE\lI) Scmimnd~~dor cIe. e l l 1.ulnit-mhnncid chrmic.lution Posilivr. 192. n . 2-5 ind~~rtries. wfiic. 93-94 .tnrl. I06 Self-ixlig~rd stnictuw.~rnt!.d i0-71 PUS.5 positive.wc olrr.lin~ diode ( W D ) .~nnr!inqdiale[RTDI Prrss~xrc-hy-trn~~rntt~r~ intrractiun..XT al. 1% Secnnclary mass rpcdrosmpic (SI\IS) PROLITkI. 25'3-260 Reson:tnt tnnnr. 84 Rc. srr 1.~pl~~ clrBnrd. Rl. P. 20s ch.167 Pin g i d :trcty IPCA). 93 *tictl litltomtphic pttprn tnnsfcr pnrrs*. 6i49.. 75 Polycid~ gale rtclting. 11. .~tion. 144 Or(: r w Opticd pnxitnih mrrectio~~ (OKI Optical r~nission sprctmunpy IOES). Oltmir mnt:ld. rw Optinll pmi'rion SpN'tfnSmp? !OES. DI?. srt. 42. 75 PI~!si~itl etching. see Projected m g e i R p ) I'rrllcposition difftns~!I w r . 114 rtclrin~. 31 Salicicle. 93 .55. i. 1% silimn nitride mtl..-cl~annelMOSFET (PhlOS) p-n j~mction.mcn. 18. 50 Od<h.~tion. ar. 5-4 t n p p r l c l r ~ q c r54 . 11-12 sin~uI:ttic>n.\l. s w Xsn-din~rssiot~nl plot terl~niqnes. 7IL7I 0ptir.

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