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Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC
Headquarters Official languages Type Member states - Secretary General Establishment - Statute Area - Total
Vienna, Austria English
Masoud Mir Kazemi (since January 1, 2011) Baghdad, Iraq September 10–14, 1960 in effect January 1961
11,854,977 km2 4,577,232 sq mi Population
372,368,429 31.16/km2 80.7/sq mi Indexed as USD-per-barrel
Website  www.OPEC.org
The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC, pronounced /ˈoʊpɛk/ OH-pek) is a cartel of twelve developing countries made up of Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. OPEC has maintained its headquarters in Vienna since 1965, and hosts regular meetings among the oil ministers of its Member Countries. Indonesia withdrew in 2008 after it became a net importer of oil, but stated it would likely return if it became a net exporter in the world again.
concerns that OPEC members had little excess pumping capacity sparked speculation that their influence on crude oil prices would begin to slip. Ecuador. these changes were triggered largely by previous unilateral changes in the world financial system and the ensuing period of high inflation in both the developed and developing world. Saudi Arabia and Venezuela met in Baghdad to discuss ways to increase the price of the crude oil produced by their respective countries. OPEC members collectively hold 79% of world crude oil reserves and 44% of the world’s crude oil production. respectively. one of the principal goals is the determination of the best means for safeguarding the cartel's interests. In 10–14 September 1960. land access to energy supplies. due to the subsequent discovery and development of large oil reserves in Alaska. Indonesia. Iran. This explanation encompasses OPEC actions both before and after the outbreak of hostilities in October 1973. The founding members are Iran.OPEC According to its statutes. Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in 1949. the North Sea. Canada. individually and collectively. and concludes that “OPEC countries were only 'staying even' by dramatically raising the dollar price of oil. at times of war. the governments of Iraq. since it became effective in determining production and prices. and market modernization. As of November 2010. Libya. OPEC's influence on the market has been widely criticized. of the world's total oil production. As early as 2003.” OPEC's ability to control the price of oil has diminished somewhat since then.8% and 14. suggesting that they exchange views and explore avenues for regular and closer communication among petroleum-producing nations. OPEC was founded in Baghdad. affording them considerable control over the global market. the Gulf of Mexico. and Venezuela. Arab members of OPEC alarmed the developed world when they used the “oil weapon” during the Yom Kippur War by implementing oil embargoes and initiating the 1973 oil crisis. It also pursues ways and means of ensuring the stabilization of prices in international oil markets with a view to eliminating harmful and unnecessary fluctuations. the new OPEC headquarters in Vienna . an efficient and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations. Eisenhower cited national security. at the initiative of the Venezuelan Energy and Mines minister Juan Pablo Pérez Alfonzo and the Saudi Arabian Energy and Mines minister Abdullah al-Tariki. the opening up of Russia.  2 History Venezuela and Iran were the first countries to move towards the establishment of OPEC in the 1960s by approaching Iraq. from OPEC’s point of view. The next largest group of producers. giving due regard at all times to the interests of the producing nations and to the necessity of securing a steady income to the producing countries. Although largely political explanations for the timing and extent of the OPEC price increases are also valid. Gabon. Iraq. triggered by a 1960 law instituted by American President Dwight Eisenhower that forced quotas on Venezuelan and Persian Gulf oil imports in favor of the Canadian and Mexican oil industries. Saudi Arabia. Later members include Algeria. and the United Arab Emirates. Kuwait. Kuwait. and a fair return on their capital to those investing in the petroleum industry. Nigeria. Qatar. When this led to falling prices for oil in these regions.8%. members of the OECD and the Post-Soviet states produced only 23. Venezuela's president Romulo Betancourt reacted by seeking an alliance with oil producing Arab nations as a preemptive strategy to maintain the continued autonomy and profitability of Venezuela's oil resources.
overlapping group. Mohammed Barkindo. Libya (1962). Iraq remains a member of OPEC. the Yom Kippur War of 1973 galvanized Arab opinion. for the adjusted). recently asked Sudan to join. although it rejoined in October 2007. the Organization of Arab Long-term oil Prices. and Nigeria (1971). Indonesia (1962). the Arab members of OPEC formed a separate. joined the latter grouping to help articulate its objectives. Similar concerns prompted Gabon to suspend membership in January 1995. but Oil exports imports difference Ecuador withdrew on December 31. noting that it "regretfully accepted the wish of Indonesia to suspend its full Membership in the Organization and recorded its hope that the Country would be in a position to rejoin the Organization in the not too distant future. After the Six Day War of 1967. Angola joined on the first day of 2007. OPEC's Secretary General. Kuwait. having become a net importer of oil and being unable to meet its production quota. Algeria (1969). Norway and Russia have attended OPEC meetings as observers. In May 2008. the Arab world imposed the 1973 oil embargo against the United States and Western Europe. though not major oil-exporting countries. OPEC was founded to unify and coordinate members' petroleum policies. Saudi Arabia. Egypt and Syria. A statement released by OPEC on 10 September 2008 confirmed Indonesia's withdrawal. but Iraqi production has not been a part of any OPEC quota agreements since March 1998. and Venezuela. Iraq. purpose of centering policy and exerting pressure on the West over its support of Israel. Indonesia announced that it would leave OPEC when its membership expired at the end of that year. the United Arab Emirates (1967).OPEC 3 As a result. Ecuador and Gabon were early members of OPEC."  Indonesia is still exporting some good light crude oil with low sulphur and import heavy crude oil with higher sulphur to get advantage of price different (import is greater than export) due to Air pollution in Indonesia is still low as compared to China or USA. Original OPEC members include Iran. while non-Arab OPEC members did not. Indicating that OPEC is not averse to further expansion. Between 1960 and 1975. Furious at the emergency re-supply effort that had enabled Israel to withstand Egyptian and Syrian forces. blue not Petroleum Exporting Countries. . 1973 oil embargo The persistence of the Arab-Israeli conflict finally triggered a response that transformed OPEC into a formidable political force. 1992 because it was unwilling or unable to pay a $2 million membership fee and felt that it needed to produce more oil than it was allowed to under the OPEC quota. the organization expanded to include Qatar (1961). Later. 1861-2007 (orange line adjusted for inflation.
and 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation prompted a surge in oil prices to levels far higher than those targeted by OPEC during the preceding period. Various members have pushed for reductions in production quotas to increase the price of oil and thus their own revenues. This was due to reduced demand and over-production that produced a glut on the world market.OPEC 4 The 1980s oil gluts After 1980. The New York Times quoted one such anonymous OPEC delegate as saying “Saudi Arabia will meet the market’s demand. Once supply disruption fears that accompanied these conflicts dissipated. Iraq also increased its oil production to help pay for the Iran-Iraq War. 2008. On November 19. But the division of OPEC countries occasioned by the Iraq-Iran War and the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait marked a low point in the cohesion of OPEC. thereby helping Iraq. These demands conflict with Saudi Arabia's stated long-term strategy of being a partner with the world's economic powers to ensure a steady flow of oil that would support economic expansion. Overall OPEC lost its unity and thus its net oil export revenues fell in the 1980s. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein OPEC net oil export revenues for 1971  advocated that OPEC push world oil prices up. however. The next year. the following invasion of Afghanistan. when the Saudis reportedly walked out of OPEC negotiating session where the cartel voted to reduce production.” . We will see what the market requires and we will not leave a customer without oil. former Saudi Oil Minister Sheikh Yamani famously said in 1973: "The stone age didn't end because we ran out of stones. Responding to war and low prices Leading up to the 1990-91 Gulf War. sometimes attributed to Venezuela’s president Hugo Chávez. Although Saudi Arabian OPEC delegates officially endorsed the new quotas. 2007. Production disputes The economic needs of the OPEC member states often affects the internal politics behind OPEC production quotas. service debts. The policy has not changed. After oil prices slumped at around $15 a barrel in the late 1990s. 2007. and other member states. Part of the basis for this policy is the Saudi concern that expensive oil or oil of uncertain supply will drive developed nations to conserve and develop alternative fuels. achieved a coordinated scaling back of oil production beginning in 1998. Chávez hosted the first summit of heads of state of OPEC in 25 years. concerted diplomacy. oil prices began a six-year decline that culminated with a 46 percent price drop in 1986." One such production dispute occurred on September 10. they stated anonymously that they would not observe them. oil prices began to slide dramatically. Indonesia withdrew from OPEC to protect its oil supply interests. Around this period. 2001 attacks against the United States. In 2000. global oil prices reacted strongly as OPEC members spoke openly about potentially converting their cash reserves to the euro and away from the US dollar. the September 11. To this point.
four in Africa. IX.621. nytimes.149. org/ publications/ tir/ article.768 11. Retrieved May 20.224 28. (http:/ / www.560 1. uk/ 2/ hi/ business/ 7423008. chron.  Chapter I. html?res=990CE0D91539F93AA35752C0A963958260).399 26.799 6.579 158. forbes.650 75. Article 2 of The Statute of the organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (http:/ / www. net/ English/ archive/ archive?ArchiveId=6664). asp?a=518)  http:/ / www. Retrieved June 18. html).259.180 2. org/  OPEC: Brief History (http:/ / www. pdf) (as amended)  Hammes.437 2. opec. co. org/ library/ opec statute/ pdf/ os.875.414. com/ disp/ story.com.740 1. Retrieved 2010-10-03. by Benjamin Zycher: The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: Library of Economics and Liberty (http:/ / www.000 824. "British Petroleum table of world oil production" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-12-19.146.779. htm)  "OPEC says Indonesia has suspended cartel membership" (http:/ / www. Douglas. pdf  BP plc.927. Spring 2005. pdf). .531. nytimes. v.OPEC 5 Membership Current members OPEC has twelve third world member countries: six in the Middle East. com/ gst/ fullpage. . org/ opecna/ Press Releases/ 2008/ pr112008. Al Jazeera English. Country Region Joined OPEC  Population Area (km²)  (July 2008) 33. 2007. org/ library/ enc/ OPEC.  "Is OPEC About to Lose Control of the Spigot?" (http:/ / www. 1992.700 283. businessweek.668 12. . com/ gst/ fullpage. pp. 4. n. htm) .  OPEC. com/ magazine/ content/ 03_03/ b3816074. opec. com/ afxnewslimited/ feeds/ afx/ 2008/ 09/ 10/ afx5406908.221.690 83. David and Wills.600 912.759. Retrieved 2010-12-19. Sudan to ask for OPEC membership (http:/ / www. September 18.381. html?res=9E0CE4DF1F3AF93BA2575AC0A964958260).540 923. The New York Times.648. independent. 501-511. opec. opec. opec.” The Independent Review. 2003-01-20. com/ liveassets/ bp_internet/ globalbp/ globalbp_uk_english/ publications/ energy_reviews_2006/ STAGING/ local_assets/ downloads/ pdf/ table_of_world_oil_production_2006.  "Is Opec Losing Control Over Oil Price?" (http:/ / english. 1995-01-09. “Black Gold: The End of Bretton Woods and the Oil-Price Shocks of the 1970s.596. aljazeera. html)  "Ecuador Set to Leave OPEC" (http:/ / query.  "Gabon Plans To Quit OPEC . 2010. bp. turquoisepartners.050 11854977 km²  Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia Africa Africa 1969 2007 South America 2007 Middle East Middle East Middle East Africa Africa Middle East Middle East 1960 1960 1960 1962 1971 1961 1960 1967    United Arab Emirates Middle East Venezuela Total South America 1960  Chapter I. econlib.656 4. Forbes. com/ iraninvestment/ IIM-Nov10.173. mpl/ business/ energy/ 4374140. org/ library/ opec statute/ pdf/ os. Article 6 of The Statute of the organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (http:/ / www.com" (http:/ / query. .000 437.816 369368429 2. org/ opec_web/ en/ about_us/ 24.357 13. New York Times. Retrieved 2010-10-03. stm)  (http:/ / www. bbc.NYTimes. . pdf) (as amended)  http:/ / www. and two in South America.789  28. htm).246.820 1.  Angola.072 17. html) Houston Chronicle  Indonesia to withdraw from Opec (http:/ / news. BusinessWeek.
Inderwildi. The country's growing dependence on imports is proving increasingly expensive as global prices soar. and the democratization of the economic system . html). gov/ emeu/ cabs/ OPEC_Revenues/ OPEC. although after Iraq's invasion. Retrieved 4 January 2009. nytimes. Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Owen.026. opec. co.  Speech by Minister of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Ali Al-Naimi: Saudi oil policy: stability with strength (http:/ / www. In recent times. Retrieved 4 January 2009._ylt=AqHkJtpxzqh9jxBe_5TkFEmyBhIF)  Nick A. Central Intelligence Agency. org/ library/ faqs/ aboutopec/ q3. doi:10. starting on October 17. when it adopted output rationing in order to maintain price. Retrieved 4 January 2009. Oliver R. yahoo. OPEC-member states receive smaller revenues in other currencies for their oil. .Area" (https:/ / www. when the dollar falls relative to the other currencies. the interim government reversed this policy.  Indonesia left OPEC in 2008 because it ceased to be a net exporter of oil. left in 1992.02. This refusal caused a fourfold increase in the price of oil. Energy Policy. stm)  Saudis Vow to Ignore OPEC Decision to Cut Production (http:/ / www. causing substantial cuts in their purchasing power. the government has increased financial incentives for foreign firms to invest in exploration and extraction but has found itself forced to import more supplies from the likes of Iran. CIA World Factbook. which Israel had fought against Egypt and Syria. on January 7. After the introduction of the Euro.2010. OPEC nations — including many who had recently nationalized their oil industries — joined the call for a new international economic order to be initiated by coalitions of primary producers. King (2010). 6 Former members Country Gabon Region Africa Joined OPEC 1975 Left OPEC 1994 2008 Indonesia East Asia 1962 The United States was a de facto member during its formal occupation of Iraq via the Coalition Provisional Authority. Central Intelligence Agency. At that time.  "Field Listing . 1973. and rejoined in 2007. dollars. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2147. as growth in demand outstripped output. htm). in the 1973 energy crisis OPEC refused to ship oil to western countries that had supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War or 6 Day War. saudiembassy. For example. bbc. Indonesia's departure from OPEC will not likely affect the amount of oil it produces or imports. changes in the value of the dollar against other world currencies affect OPEC's decisions on how much oil to produce.S. Economics OPEC is a swing producer and its decisions have had considerable influence on international oil prices. cia. an international food and agriculture program. and the subsequent Iraq . uk/ 2/ hi/ americas/ 7486705. .  Ecuador initially joined in 1973. asp?cIndex=327)  Washington diary: Oil addiction (http:/ / news. html  (http:/ / news. CIA World Factbook. eia.enpol. David A. For example. pre-invasion Iraq decided it wanted to be paid for its oil in euros instead of US dollars causing OPEC to consider changing its oil exchange currency to euros.  "Field Listing . and ending on March 18. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2119. com/ 2008/ 09/ 11/ business/ worldbusiness/ 11oil.  One of five founder members that attended the first OPEC conference.1016/j. doe. 1974. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Concluding the First OPEC Summit in Algiers they called for stable and just commodity prices. The situation was made worse because of weak legal certainty and corruption that deterred foreign investors from investing in new reserves in Indonesia. It could not fulfill the demand of its own country's needs. html). to raise crude oil prices by 10%. cia. Overall. 1975. Since currently worldwide oil sales are denominated in U. the evidence suggests that OPEC did act as a cartel. com/ s/ ap/ 20071119/ ap_on_bi_ge/ oil_prices. OPEC nations then agreed.Population" (https:/ / www.OPEC  http:/ / www. "The status of conventional world oil reserves—Hype or cause for concern?". in September 1960. net/ 1999News/ Statements/ SpeechDetail. which lasted five months. . technology transfer from North to South. html)  "Who are OPEC Member Countries?" (http:/ / www.
700 500 3. doe.  Noah.225 29. pdf  Iraq: Baghdad Moves To Euro (http:/ / www. 2008-05-28. Retrieved 2009-08-21. bbc.306 726 10. Globalresearch.971 Quota (7/1/05) Production (1/07) Capacity 894 1. BBC News. "Petroleos de Venezuela to Convert Accounts Away From Dollars" (http:/ / www.250 850 10. baddest cartel of all" (http:/ / www.  Iraq emerges as new ‘swing producer’ in Opec (http:/ / www.700 1. bloomberg.500 2. .110 1. Retrieved 2010-12-19. Timothy (2007-07-10).800 2.360 1. uk/ 2/ hi/ 7423008.330 1.481 2. Bloomberg.430 1.591 2.340 29.450 30.600 1. com/ apps/ news?pid=20601086& sid=aGBuWpZJ9cPI). htm)  http:/ / fmwww. org/ content/ article/ 1095057.444 3. Timothy (2003-09-18).  Bodzin. .650 2. slate.600 2. Retrieved 2010-12-19. "Is Bremer a Price Fixer? Letting Iraq's oil minister attend an OPEC meeting may violate the Sherman Antitrust Act" (http:/ / www. php?context=viewArticle& code=CLA20060210& articleId=1937). html) as reported by the United States Department of Energy .900 520 4. William.500 2. dawn. rferl.700 2.500 1.  Quotas (http:/ / www. 7 Quotas circa 2005 OPEC Quotas and Production in thousands of barrels per day  Country Algeria Angola Ecuador Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Arab Emirates Venezuela Total 2.750 References  Noah.ca. Slate. bc.247 1. .  "Indonesia to withdraw from OPEC" (http:/ / news. ca/ index. stm). com/ id/ 2170040/ nav/ tap3/ ).OPEC governments stuck to the US dollar.250 810 8.700 500 3. Slate. edu/ EC-P/ WP318. "Go NOPEC! Congress takes on the biggest. eia. Member states Iran and Venezuela have undergone similar shifts from the dollar to the Euro. . com/ 2006/ 03/ 26/ ebr5. html)  Clark. "Iran's euro-denominated oil bourse to open in March: US Dollar Crisis on the Horizon" (http:/ / www.500 2. . co.099 2. com/ id/ 2088602/ ). Steven (2007-09-17). globalresearch. slate. gov/ emeu/ cabs/ orevcoun.
OPEC 8 External links • Official website (http://http://www. May 2006 • The OPEC Fund for International Development (OFID) official site (http://www.org/library/Enc/OPEC.com/2006/05/07timeline) by Nicolas Sarkis.econlib.org/) . from Le Monde diplomatique.ofid.opec.html) • OPEC Timeline (http://mondediplo.org) • Concise Encyclopedia of Economics: OPEC (http://www.
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