Mourning Laura in the "Canzoniere": Lessons from Lamentations Author(s): Ronald L. Martinez Source: MLN, Vol. 118, No.

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Mourning Laura in the Canzoniere: Lessons from Lamentations
Ronald L. Martinez

Readers now recognize that the first words of Petrarch's Canzoniere"Voi ch'ascoltate in rime sparse . . ."-are modelled in part on Lamentations 1.12, which is spoken by a personified Jerusalem lamenting her captivity and abjection: "O vos omnes qui transitis per viam, adtendite et videte si est dolor sicut dolor meus."' Beginning a sonnet with the citation of this verse was domesticated for Italian vernacular lyric especially by Cavalcantiand Dante;2Dante in particular
See, for example, Gianfranco Contini, Letteraturaitaliana delle origini, 6th ed. Petrarca: ed. (Florence: Sansoni, 1991): 580. The notes in Francesco Canzoniere, by Marco Santagata (Milan: Mondadori, 2nd ed., 1997: notes to sonnet 1 are pp. 5-12) are indispensable. This edition is used for all citations of text and commentary. I have also relied on FrancescoPetrarca: Trionfi, Rime estravaganti, codice degli abozzi, ed. Marco Santagata (Milan: Mondadori, 1996) and on the edition of Petrarch's Codice degli Abbozziby Laura Paolino (Turin: Einaudi, 2000); earlier traditions including some Renaissance commentators are digested in the edition by Giosue Carducci and Severino Ferrari, Francesco Petrarca: Rime (Florence: Sansoni, 1899): 3-4. Le 2 Cavalcanti's uses of Lamentations are studied in Giuseppe De Robertis, "I1caso di ed. G. Barblan (Longo: Ravenna, Cavalcanti," in Dante e la Bibbia (Atti del congresso), 1989): 341-350. De Robertis's Il librodella Vitanuova (Florence: Sansoni, 2nd ed. 1970) and his edition of the Vitanuova (Milan-Naples: Ricciardi, 1980) have documented the importance of Lamentations for Dante. For Dante, see Nancy Vickers, "Widowed Words: Dante, Petrarch, and the Metaphors of Mourning," in Discoursesof Authorityin Medievaland RenaissanceLiterature, Kevin Brownlee and Walter Stephens (Hanover, ed. N.H.: Universities of New England Press, 1989): 97-108; also Ronald L. Martinez, "Mourning Beatrice: The Rhetoric of Lamentations in the Vita nuova," MLN 115 (1998): 1-29 and "Cavacalcanti'Man of Sorrows,"'forthcoming in the Acta of the 2000 New York Cavalcanti conference. For precedents in Guittone, see Guittone d'Arezzo, I Canzoniere: sonetti d'amoredel codicelaurenziano,ed. Lino Leonardi (Turin: Einaudi, 1994): 188-90 and the notes in Santagata, Canzoniere (pp. 6-7). Many other allusions MLN 118 (2003): 1-45 ? 2003 by TheJohns Hopkins University Press

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begins the second sonnet of the Vita nuova "O voi che per la via d'amor passate."3And as Giovanni Pozzi has recently pointed out, the beginning of the sestet of Petrarch's proemial sonnet, "Maben veggio or si come al popol tutto / favola fui gran tempo," also draws on Lamentations, in this case 3.14: "factus sum in derisum omni populo meo, canticum eorum tota die" [I am made a derision to all my people, their song all day long]:4 in this way, allusion to the book of laments attributed to Jeremiah articulates the principal parts of the poem.5
have been discerned in Petrarch's lines, including a pattern of echoes of Dante outlined by Roberto Mercuri, "Genesi della tradizione letteraria in Dante, Petrarca e italiana. Storia e geografia,ed. A. Asor Rosa, I. L'etamedievale Boccaccio," in Letteratura (Turin: Einaudi, 1987): 359-61; for classical echoes, see Francisco Rico, "Pr6logos al Canzoniere.(Rerum vulgariumfragmenta, I-III)" in Annali della Scuola Normaledi Pisa. Classedi lettere efilosofia, serie III, XVIII (1988): 1071-1104. 3 For discussion, see de Robertis, Libro,35-36 and his edition of the Vita nuova, 52; Guglielmo Gorni, ed., Vita nova (Turin: Einaudi, 1996): 35-37; and Martinez, "Mourning Beatrice": 10-12. The influence of Boccaccio's early Filostrato (c. 1335) on Petrarch's uses of Lam. 1.12 is also probable; see 1.6, 5-6; 5.1, 7-8; 8.28, 3-4; and ed. proemio,p. 63. Passages cited from Giovanni Boccaccio, Caccia di Diana e Filostrato, V. Branca (Milan: Mondadori, 1990). 4 See Giovanni Pozzi, "Petrarca, i padri e soprattutto la Bibbia," in Studipetrarcheschi 6 (n.s.) (1989): 125-69, esp. 159-62. Pozzi also cites, for sonnet 1, parallels from Psalms 43.14 and 68.12 ("factus sum illis in parabolam") and there are related texts including Psalms 21.7-8, Psalm 30.12, and Job 30.1-9; these are also texts associated with the in Art Passion; see John Marrow, Passion Iconography Northern European of theLate Middle Ages and the Renaissance(Kontrijk, Belgium: 1979): 40-49, 111, 149; and Ann Derbes, Picturing the Passion in Medieval Italy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996): 105-108. See note 16 below. In his index of texts cited by Petrarch, Santagata notes that Canz. 88.9-10 (". . voi che siete in via / volgete i passi") and 161.12 ("O anime gentili et amorose ... et voi nude ombre .... deh ristate a veder quale e'l mio male") are adaptations of Lam. 1.12 as well; the latter possibly echoing Dante Vitanuova 40.10 ("se voi restaste .. ."), from "Deh, peregrini," a poem heavily influenced by Lam. 1.12 (see De Robertis, Libro, 56; also Martinez, "Mourning Beatrice": 11-13), and several passages from the Inferno(10.24, 27.23). The anonymous 16th century annotator who wrote the marginal comment to Canzoniere sonnet 133 in the Aldine Petrarch prepared by Bembo ("Amor m'a posto come segno a strale") had no difficulty hearing the text of Lamentations behind Petrarch's lines: "Heremia. Posuit me quasi signum ad sagittam." See The 1501 Editionof Le CoseVolgari Messer di Francesco revisedand amendedby Petrarcha, Master PietroBembo, VenetianNoble,with intro. by Jeremy Parzen and Luigi Balsamo (Great Britain: Alecto, 1997): f. 60. 5 There are precedents in both Cavalcanti and Dante for this articulatory function of the citation. Dante's canzone begins with an incipit that adapts Lam. 1.12 ("Voi ch'intendendo ... / udite .. .") and continues in the sirmawith an adaptation of Lam. 1.18 ("pero vi priego che lo mi' ntendiate"). Alfred Noyer-Weidner, "II sonetto I," Lectura petrarce4(1984): 327-353, esp. 330, notes Petrarch's imitation of Dante's ballata "Voi che savete ragionar d'amore / udite .. ." which is itself an imitation of Lam. 1.1. For examples in Cavalcanti, see de Robertis, "IIcaso" and Martinez, "Cavalcanti 'Man of Sorrows,"' forthcoming.

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In his reliance on the text of Lamentations, Petrarch was unlikely to be citing unadorned scripture merely. He was arguably drawing on the sacred text as it was received, adapted, and even performed by late medieval culture.6 For late medieval readers, whose Bibles were often provided with commentaries, Lamentations was thought to be a poetic text in Sapphic meter.7 From the 12th century onward it had been held up as a rhetorical treasury for topics of conquestioand indignatio, figures adapted to excite the sympathy, pity, or righteous indignation of the listener, reader, or spectator.8And since the time of Gregory the Great, Lamentations exegesis had also made it plain that the moral sense of Lamentations (among numerous other meanings) dramatizes how the sinful soul, signified by the besieged Jerusalem, suffers in its alienation from God.9But probably the most consequential
6 For the importance of glosses and commentaries in the medieval reception of the Bible, see, at least, Beryl Smalley, Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press, 2nd edition 1964) and MedievalLiteraryCriticism,c. 1100-1375: The Commentary Tradition,ed. A. J. Minnis, A.B. Scott, with David Wallace (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988); although the 13th and 14th centuries saw increasing use of Bibles without commentary, glossed Bibles were by no means rare or obsolete (see Christopher de Hamel, The Book:A Historyof the Bible [London: Phaidon, 2001]: of 91-115. By Petrarch's day the performance scripture had long been widespread in the form of liturgical drama, religious pageants and mystery plays and, in Italy, laudi. The attribution to the Virgin Mary of Lam. 1.12 probably begins in the early Trecento; for examples, see Karl Young, Drama of the Medieval Church (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1933, 2 vols): I, 496-539, esp. 500-503; 507-512; and Sandro Sticca, ThePlanctusMariae in the Dramatic Traditionof the Middle Ages (Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia Press, 1988): 118-47. 7 The determination of Threni as lyric, and its "sapphic" meter, is found in most important commentaries from Paschasius Radbertus in the 9th century to John Pecham and PeterJohn Olivi at the end of the 13th; for a modern account of how the medieval church treated Hebrew poetry, see James L. Kugel, The Idea of BiblicalPoetry (New Haven and London, 1981), esp. 135-71. 8 As Beryl Smalley showed (Study,59-63), in making his digest of Paschasius for the Glossaordinariaversion of Lamentations as supervised by Anselm of Laon, Gilbert the Universal drew directly from Cicero's De inventioneand the pseudo-Ciceronian Rhetorica and indignatio:in those works, they are ad Herenniumfor the list of topics of conquestio listed as topics of amplification suited to the conclusion of the oration, directed to moving the audience to anger or compassion. The most influential subsequent commentaries either list or allude to the topics: cf. Hugh of St. Cher (the fullest listing), Albertus Magnus (a full list),John Pecham (identifies examples as they appear; but gives no initial list); Aquinas (identifies examples). The commentaries that are only moralizations omit the rhetorical topics (Gilbertus Abbas, Hugh of St. Victor, Rupert of Deutz). 9 Gregory the Great, Homilia in evangelia XXIX (PL 76.1295-1296); discussion in of of of Stephen K. Wright, The Vengeance our Lord:Medievaldramatizations theDestruction Jerusalem(Toronto: Pontifical Institute, 1989), esp. 23-27. Several commentaries on Lamentations (Gilbertus Abbas, Hugh of St. Victor, Thomas Aquinas) are "tropologies," omitting allegorical and historical material.

1996). 1996). sense of the Lamentations text.. itself includes a strong penitential strain (cf." The text of Lam. . 1902) . 7): 609 summarizes Cicero and previous commentaries (he explicitly names the Glossa) in identifying the function of the rhetorical topics as "conquestiones. quae sunt 'orationes auditorum misericordiam captans"' and "locossive modos compassionem excitandi"(emphases Pecham's). MARTINEZ effect of the exegesis and liturgical use of Lamentations for Petrarch's readers was that Lam. see note 17. ut in dolore meo videatur dolorem vestrum. "John Pecham. In Italian vernacular. Opera omnia (Quaracchi. among other passages.in St. .1 The penitential turn that marks the beginning of the sestet ("Ma ben veggio or si . the Meditatio in passione et resurrectione domini (PL 184. as spoken by Christ suffering derision and crucifixion. Textsof thePassion:Latin DevotionalLiterature MedievalSociety(Philadelphia: Univ. in the Easter liturgy a refrain derived from Hosea 14. vol. 8 vols.") and his Lignumvitae (Quaracchi.16: "Vaenobis. Petrarch as the speaker appropriates the emotional intensity of the spectacle of the Passion.8)-reflect the tradition of Lamentations as a rhetorical treasury. the 14th century association of certain texts of Lamentations and the suffering of Christ was all but inescapable. Press. of and Pennsylvania Press.1. nemo qui consoletur." 1. 1732.288). 282v observes that Lamentations "moraliter de animae defectione exponitur.2 ("Jerusalem. 12 in Hugh of St. With the apostrophe of a reading public in the first line. as well as penitential passages in the Holy week liturgy. Bernard.14. Pisa: Spoerri. nonch6 perdono"(1. Petrarch's adaptations of 10 Attributed to St. / s'el e in lo mondo angustia si grande como e la mia. where the rhetorical possibilities of the Lamentations text were fully exploited. during which Lamentations readings feature prominently. Picturing thePassion in Late MedievalItaly (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. 744: "clamat nobis de cruce: O vos omnes . see also Pseudo-Anselm. In the light of these traditions." For the diffusion and influence of these treatises in Italy. 71. .4 RONALD L. for this literature and its diffusion more generally. in particular the Librodella scripturarossa. Cher.9) might also follow the exegetical definitions of the moral. Bonaventura. Leandro Biadene. nemo qui respondeat.").638: "tanto doloris subjicitur. rhetorically and psychologically. a signal instance is Bonvesin dalla Riva's Librodelletrescritture (ed.. Bestul.") And a few lines later: "attendite dolorem meum. or tropological.'2In short.verses 180184: "veniti e si guardati s'el e dolore ke sia. Dialogus beataeMariae et Anselmide Passione domini (PL 159. or in popular meditations on the Passion. see Ann Derbes. Expositio ThrenorumIeremiaeProphetae.): 4..'1 Whether in the form of the Holy Week liturgy. by citations of Lamentations appears even more suggestive. 5. see now Thomas H. VII. quia peccavimus"). equally influential were Bonaventura's Vitis mystica(PL 184. while his explicit rhetorical aims-"spero trovar pieta. ut in ipso veraciter noscatur impletum quod ante dixerat per prophetas: O vos omnes .742-769) is now held to be a Franciscan product. (cf.' et nemo est qui audiat. the articulation of Petrarch's sonnet. Jerusalem. 1895. were widely and persistently thought of allegorically. 78). PostillaesuperThrenosJeremiae. convertere ad dominum tuum") concludes each of the three readings of the first Nocturns.12 and 3. p. Operaomnia in universumvetus et novum testamentum(Pezzana.

Durling. Introduction to Petrarch's LyricPoetry Laurels (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Dante della Terza (Florence: Cadmo. especially as interpreted by contemporary exegesis.' Para el titulo y el primer soneto del 'Canzoniere. who laments. 1976): 18-26. that Petrarch's is the first poem in Italian vernacular literature to address a generic audience of readers. 1992): 117-44. "Rime sparse": 106-107 identifies the first sonnet as the 1 rhetorical partitioof exordium." Lettereitaliane 26 (1974): 165-79. "Beatrice or Medusa. See also Kenelm Foster.l3 At the same time. Petrarca e la polimorfia del Titulus. 282. some critics have found it blasphemous. esp. Abelardo. Petrarch's (College Park. Foster and U. see Daniela Goldin-Folena. 1979): 145-66. ed. Press.l5 My 13Sonnet 16.P. see Canz." in Dal sonettoal Canzoniere. 1984): 99-102. 1992): 133-78. perhaps predominantly.R Vincent. esp. the first sonnet commences the Canzoniereas a work of mourning. by C. . esp. what Petrarch does is express to his listeners his hope of finding pity among "chi per prova intenda amore". Daniela Goldin-Folena and Marco Santagata have observed regarding the complex vocative stance of the proemial sonnet is perfectly consistent with its appeal to the broadly phrased vocation in the text of Lam.' 'Rerum vulgarium fragmenta. for the marking of Canzoniere as elegiac. for the speaker.ed. Eloisa. rather than a preselected. 54-60. also Foster. Petrarch. he does not directly petition the listeners that he addresses with "Voi ch'ascoltate. See also the Poet and Humanist (Edinburgh: scrupulous summaries of Kenelm Foster in Petrarch: Edinburgh Univ.12-14. 15 As Adelia Noferi observed ("Da un commento al Canzoniere petrarchesco: lettura del sonetto introduttivo. Petrarch was fully aware of the distinction between lamenting Laura and lamenting his own losses. but also. "The Calendrical Structure of Petrarch's Canzoniere "Studiesin Philology 71 (1974): 152-72. 14The emphasis on the loss of moral autonomy as a theme of the whole Canzoniere follows Rico's emphasis on Stoic principles regarding self-mastery in both the Secretum and in "Voi ch'ascoltate". K. "'Rime sparse. Brand." This somewhat attenuates Santagata's point ("Rerum vulgariumfragmenta: L'inizio della storia. Alfred Noyer-Weidner. 1.MLN 5 Lamentations in the proemial sonnet heralds that reciprocal osmosis (as well as conflict) between sacred and profane affect that has long bemused interpreters of Petrarch's vernacular collection of lyrics. Rico. Limentani (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. It is a work of mourning for Laura. reprinted with revisions in II 'Canzoniere'di Francesco Petrarca:La critica contemporanea. G. For this dichotomy-contamination of sacred and secular see notes in Canzoniere: Thomas Roche. these are of course in 14th century terms non inconsistent (especially in Petrarch) with Christian penitence. Barbarisi and Claudia Berra (Milano: LED. if not always convicingly. to be sure. see also Robert M.12. see Santagata's 68-71. see Francisco Rico. Press. suggests how far Petrarch was willing to take this relation. ed. 164-173."in Da una riva all'altra: Studi in onoredi Antonio d'Andrea. "Frons salutationisepistolaris.: The Pennsylvania State University Press. 1962): 41-56.14 It can be added that what critics such as Adelia Noferi. 132-36. Press. 1995): 41-60. the sacrifice of his moral autonomy to desire. since probably written not long after Laura's death." Studies Presentedto E. Sarah Sturm-Maddox."' in 3 Medioevo romanzo (1976): 101-38. Pa. by virtue of evocation of the Latin elegists and such medieval works as Henry of Settimello's Elegia.154-155. Ricerche sulla preistoria la constituzione e di un genere(Padova: Liviana. 167. comparing the poet's search for traces of Laura to the quest of pilgrims to Rome for the face of Christ in viewing the Veronica.

in her reading of "Vergine Bella" in Lacrimee inchiostronel Canzoniere del Petrarca(Bologna: CLUEB. 1984): 165-80. Bortolo Martinelli. Durling. Nevertheless. allegorically.'" in Nella Selva del Petrarca (Bologna: Capelli. and see also. as it is informed by late medieval understanding and liturgical use of Lamentations. they are humans in via in this life-an all-inclusive category. Pier Massimo Forni and Giorgio Cavallini (Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura. . 16 The present paper omits discussion of Petrarch's use of Lamentations and its commentary tradition in his political canzoni "Spirto gentil" (Canz." (Canz. "Calendrical Structure". the identification by exegetes of the "Vosomnes" addressed by the widow of Lamentations is that they are the peregriniliterally passing by the holy places. but they also deviate from it because invested in Laura and the laurel. In this context "piango e ragiono" is also a possible reference to the Lamentations preface ("flens. By the same token.1-2). MARTINEZ arguments in this paper will offer a preliminary glance at Petrarch's articulation of this double subject of mourning. 53) and "Italia mia.also Fredi Chiappelli. coincide with Good Friday: "il giorno ch'al sol si scoloraro / per la pieta del suo Factore i rai" (Canz." now in II legamemusaico. which includes a meditation on the Passion. planxit lamentationem .'6 In addition. Vitanuova 7. the first sight of Laura. 161. See note 10.3)). "Petrarch's 'Giovene donna sotto un verde lauro.'8Although sorting out the problem of 6 April 1327 not actually falling on Good Friday is not contemplated here. 17Rosanna Bettarini. Compare Canz. Although reference to the Passion in the proemial sonnet is allusive and indirect. 1942): 209-46 bibliography on the problem has mushroomed: see Roche. 3. these poems will be discussed in a separate study of Petrarch's letters of exhortation to Charles IV and to the Avignon popes.ed. 18 See Thomas P. esp. Roche. "'FeriaSexta Aprilis. Petrarch hopes to find pity among all who have experienced passion. rather than in Christ and the tree of the Cross. for Laura and for the poet's self. all who have been on the "via d'Amor" (cf. 16-19. 35-38).17 it is transparent in the third sonnet.19 we can perhaps better comprehend Petrarch's specific group or individual-in fact the audience implied is potentially double: readers. "Le theme de la Defectiosolis dans le 'Canzoniere': variatio intus." and the class of all pilgrims becomes the class of all readers or auditors. Robert M. 128). cosmic mourning for Christ's passion. 19Since the pioneering work of Carlo Calcaterra. plots the substitution of the cross for the laurel in the structure of Petrarch's sestinas. where Petrarch makes the inception of his passion."' MLN 86 (1971): 1-20. documents Petrarch's use of pseudo-Bernard (see esp.6 RONALD L. 1998): 9-43.12-14. considering the Canzoniere as a project of mourning will I hope furnish a useful new perspective on the implications of Petrarch's much-discussed division of the collection into two parts. "'Feria sexta . in which Lamentations also figures prominently as a model. . But Petrarch's knowledge of this literature by 135758 at the latest is certain given Sine Nomine 17. and fellow lovers. esp. 330-34. but "voi ch'ascoltate" modifies "vos omnes qui transitis. In one sense Petrarch's woes accompany the universal. eiulans dixit"). which might but need not coincide. "Calendrical Structure".

see Andrew Hughes. "I sonetti III e LXI.20Both in general and in detail.J. IX (1992): 136-220. 1989): 129. With the exception of the Good Friday problem. Pompeo Giannantonio (Naples: Loffredo. the subject of Petrarch and the liturgy has been little studied. in quo nox praecedens connumeratur diei sequenti. 19-103 has been a model for my own approach to the use of Lamentations exegesis in Duecento and Trecento Poets. in this case regarding the Nativity. 1952)." Lecturapetrarce (1981): 1-23. 1955). 3. 140-43. ut praecedat nox. in this case to the other complex liturgy of the ecclesiastical year. 1859). esp. Foster has a lucid appraisal of the difficulties (Petrarch 53-54).P. See Maria Grazia Criscione. Giovanni Biancardi. see di del Canzoniere Petrarca.ed. pp. et hoc vult dicere a vespera in vesperam. his principal point." discusses scriptural. 1977): 103-48.B. SJ. "L'ipotesidi un ordinamento calendariale italiana 172 (1995): 1-55. Rosemond Tuve's brilliant and far-reaching A Reading of GeorgeHerbert(Chicago: University of Chicago Press." now in Petrarcae il Ventoso Manlio Pastore Minerva Italica. 1 Stocchi.s. 218-19.21That Lamentations was sung during the the three days makes no difference. Haymo of Favesham's Breviary. d. which by furnishing the readings for the first Nocturns of Matins on three consecutive days strongly characterizes the observance of the Paschal season. 22 A passage from Bonaventura spells it out (In II Sent. 21 Chiappelli. "Le theme. et sequatur dies. Canz. See esp."' in Modem Language 79 Review (1984): 579-88. "Widowed Words. may also have liturgical reference. as the liturgical nights preceding day began on the previous evening. Chiappelli "Le theme de la defectio solis". dei 'Rerum vulgarium fragmenta. but not liturgical sources to the Good Friday darkening of the sun. 121-31. Vespers to vespers series of offices was the norm on festive days. dub. Jones. quia eramus aliquando tenebrae. MedievalManuscriptsof Mass and Office(Toronto: Medieval Institute. F. sonnet 4." Cited in Bortolo Martinelli. "Una redazione ignota del commento di Lodovico Castelvetro ai primi quattro sonnetti n. Hardison. 20Although Martinelli's explanation of the feria sextaproblem has been challenged. intentio auctorisof the Canzoniere. "Canto VII." 102-103. 12th and del (Bergamo: aprilis': la data sacra nel Canzoniere Petrarca.22and as during Passion week nocturnal and diurnal offices were virtually continuous. Van Dijk in Sourcesof the ModernRoman Liturgy(Leiden: . that of Advent. nunc autem lux in Domino. the public liturgical mourning of the three days leading up to Easter is inextricable from the text of Lamentations. for the liturgy in medieval culture and literature generally see especially O. 13. that the association of the date of the with Good Friday (whatever its calendar date) is fundamental to the innamoramento cannot be faulted.ed. which also draws an explicit parallel between Laura and Christ. against Calcaterra. 23Durandus in the Rationale divinorum officiorum(Naples: Dura." in LecturaDantis Neapolitana:Purgatorio. and favors the Martinelli thesis. a striking unity of mood was maintained.23More specifically. "Arguments in Favor of a Calendrical Structure for Petrarch's 'Canzoniere. esp." Giornalestoricodella letteratura also Vickers.MLN 7 motives for placing his first sight of Laura in a church on a Good Friday if we recognize the intention of juxtaposing a personal affliction with the collective liturgicalmourning of the Church."' Studi petrarcheschi. 1984): 14-19. Christian Rite and ChristianDrama in the MiddleAges (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. a. with Vespers. 1): "Alius modus computandi dies attenditur in solemnitatem custoditione.

i miei guai / nel comune dolor s'incominciaro") as suggesting Petrarch's first sight of Laura followed hard upon.2 and Note 105. E. esp. Primo.24 Such a close association between the Good Friday commemoration of the crucifixion and its liturgical imitation during the Nocturns might warrant reading lines 7-8 of the third sonnet ("..72.s. J. suolmi / e'n tenebre son li occhi interi e saldi"). or perhaps running together. Martinelli (p. "Le Theme" 165-67 and Martinelli "'Feriasexta." (Rationale 6. see also 275.70.) 2 (1985): 15-52. videlicet a sexta hora usque ad nonam inclusive.12. MARTINEZ 13th century liturgical writers such as Honorius of Autun and Durandus of Mendes state that the ceremony of tenebrae-the gradual extinction of all candles during the singing of the contiguous Matins and Lauds offices-itself recalled the Good Friday darkening of the sun at the crucifixion. "I1Virgilio di Petrarca da Avignone a Milano. 24Durandus (Rationale 6. and the Liber Usualis (post-Tridentine. 127. quia verum lumen triduo jacuit in sepulcro. 1. . . 1907): II. 146) notes Petrarch's equation of ora matutinain the entry on his first sight of her. quae in illo triduo in cordibus fidelium extiterunt.8 RONALD L. that these offices should be continuous was not uncommon during the busy Easter season. if it did not actually accompany."' 114-25. 291. Brill. was often taken for granted).26 I intend to show." For the obscuration of the sun signifying the death of Christ. the briefer office of Lauds. Martinelli "'Feria sexta"': 136-38 and Giuseppe Billanovich. quae fuerunt super faciem terrae. et matutinas in tenebras finit. recitation of the Lamentations text. vel ideo tribus noctibus lumen extinguuntur. thus equating. 41-46..2) "Ecclesia in his diebus tenebras colit. 26 Petrarch's verse "Nel comune dolor identifies a / i miei guai s'incominciaro" like beginning. et propter eius triduanam mortem exequias celebrat triduanas. Secundo.. e Petrarque 'humanisme(Paris: Champion. Christo in cruce pendente. 25 On the inclusion of death notices in the Vergil codex. 338. also 22. the canonical hour of Matins (which began after Midnight) and that of Prime (which began about 6 AM. 2 vols. This may recall the . and eademhoraprima. falling between these. officium tenebrarum significat non tam tenebras materiales. but that Petrarch's decision to make Laura's death coincide with Good Friday entailed enlisting texts from the liturgical mourning of the church for the project of mourning her is amply borne out by the texts and structure of the as Canzoniere.in the entry on her death. The verbal association of the extinguished sun (or the absent Laura) and tenebrae see sonnet 363.1-2 ("morte a spento quel sol ch'abagliar persists in the Canzoniere. but preserving uses consistent with the Trecento where Passion week is concerned) show that passages from Lamentations went to form Responses for the Good Friday and Holy Saturday Office: the Response for the Second nocturn is "Tenebrae facta sunt".14. or cominciamento the verse "Voi ch'ascoltate" itself." in Studi Petrarcheschi (n. 283-92.3. for the Third nocturn the final versicle is from Lam. nam hae tenebrae tribus noctibus celebratae significant tenebras quae tribus horis fuerunt. quam etiam spirituales.12.1. see Chiappelli. dum pendebat sol iustitiae in cruce . In commenting on the notice of Laura's death.15): "consequenter candelae et lumen extinguuntur. quia in luctu et moerore esset propter domini passionem.25To say so much may be stretching the point. but also Laura's. 1963).72. 276. see Pierre de Nolhac.

[Padua: Antenore. Bucolicum Carmen. The third collection formally initiated in 1350-51 were the Epistole metriche. 29 For the hypothesis. [New Haven and London: Yale university Press. dedicatory epistle to Socrates written early in 1350 (Wilkins. Both projects are mentioned in the letter to Socrates (Ludwig van Whether or Kempen) that serves as the prologue to the Familiares. 1961): 74-106. after Laura's death in the plague year of 1348 and in the wake of the Jubilee of 1350. Vittorio Rossi (Florence: Sansoni. "I1sonetto I. Life. See Foster. Secretum II mio segreto[Milan: Mursia. and Note 63.28 were nearly simultanot all five proemial sonnets of the Canzoniere neously composed as a corona that postdates Laura's death. including "Laurea occidens. ed. 1. thus also Ieremie prophete. Lecturadel 'Secretum' stages of composition of the Secretum 179-185. a poem of conflict rather than one of achieved conversion.for which Petrarch wrote a dedication to Barbato da Sulmona in 1350 48-52 for a concise discussion of the parallels (Wilkins. resolve does not Chicago Press. 4 vols. (see Vidau obrade Petrarca. Petrarch: see for echoes of sonnet I in the Secretum.MLN 9 As is well known. Petrarch: and otherPetrarchan guarantee success." 9-10. Wilkins. the Sine nomine. Of course. see E. finishing the collection by 1352 (Wilkins.generally held finished by 1352." 1097-1103 (where he seems to limit the proemial group to 1-3. arguments summarized in Foster." On the recall of this liturgical incipit in the Vitanuova. 80. ingemit Aleph. The Hebrew letter. the period 1347-53 saw the inception of several of Petrarch's most ambitious projects. 92). 1349-51 were also the principal I. 3-5. Rico. Life.11-14 and Van Dijk."MLN 117 (1998): 1-29. Metriche and Rerumvulgariumfragmenta Other work between Familiares 1. 1933. H.1 1. Sources: 84). Thomas Bergin.1. and its meaning generally taken to be a sorrowful exclamation. "Mourning Beatrice: The Rhetoric of Lamentation in the VitaNuova. Alephwas itself recited as part of Lam. 1974]): 9-16. 1951): 191 was right to insist that is Canzone 264.on which Petrarch made significant additions after the plague year.1. These projects arguably reflect Petrarch's declared intentions.1-11. 87). as in the first verse of Henry of Settimello's Elegiade diversitatefortunae (PL 201.72.1. 27 For accounts of this shift. in The Making of the Canzoniere Studies (Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura. Foster. like sonnet 1. Rationale6. Wilkins. see the editions by De Robertis (190-96) and Gorni (166-172). in Francesco Petrarca Le familiari. Petrarch 1. E. Life of Petrarch (Chicago: University of 5-17.843): "Flet.or. 1992]). as Francisco Rico and Bortolo Martinelli would have it. 86.): I." on Laura's death. as traditionally known. 28 See Familiares1. Life. the Canzoniere. see Rico.29sonnet 3. 1. which begins "Incipitlamentatio Durandus. According to Francisco Rico." (See liturgical reading of Lam.27One project was the collection of familiar letters known as the Familiares. initiating the second part of the Canzoniere. "Pr6logos. however). of making a new departure marked by a penitential tone and by a stoicizing resolve to achieve self-mastery. 1974]: Petrarch's xi). / . see also Ronald Martinez. "'Feriasexta"':114 and the assent of Enrico Fenzi in his Introduction to his edition of the Secretum(Francesco Petrarca. and the special collection of letters attacking Avignon. is generally thought written between 1349-1351.H. also Noyer-Weidner. Epistole from this phase include the completion of the Bucolicumcarmen. see Martinelli.another was the collection of the Rerumvulgariumfragmenta.

whose early stages of composition have been shown to be 1348-1351.12 (sonnet 1) and a reiteration." poem 268 of the Canzoniere. Both Bettarini. "Quomodo sedet solitaria civitas. the collection was divided into a first and second part." Wilkins had proposed that from an early stage (if not the very earliest). with the inception of the second part. 1. See Notes 112-113. Lacrime. Lacrime50-53 and Laura Paolino. Iframmenti dell'anima. "Li occhi dolenti. this articulation coincides closely. its original dedicatee. MARTINEZ roughly contemporary with Petrarch's elaboration of his canzone mourning Laura. or at least lacked blank pages between sestina 142 and canzone 264-quite a different statement. Thus all of these poems are plausibly associated with the period of time around the mid-century when. Canzone 268. 1356. Foster summarizes Rico's arguments for the 96-105). "'Ad acerbam rei memoriam. Storiae raccontodel Canzoniere Petrarca(Bologna: I1 mulino." .10 RONALD L. 1992): 148-55. che mi consigli. in Canzoniere. 93-105: Foster excludes the very first collection of a dozen poems as a version of the Canzoniere). Petrarch first crystallized the idea of as assembling the Canzoniere a bipartite collection with a penitential theme. "Che debb'io far. In the absence of stronger evidence. quand'io credea. see Santagata's note to "I' vo pensando" (Canzoniere:1043-44) and Marco Santagata. with the registration of Laura's death in the collection (announced in poem 267). For current thinking on the question of bipartition. dating of "Voi ch'ascoltate" (Petrarch: 31 Wilkins's views on the inception of bipartition in Petrarch's early collections are summarized and in part critiqued by Foster (Petrarch.1.31 Thus. Santagata di maintains. that the Correggio version (1356) may not have been bipartite."Petrarch's collection had as part of its own new cominciamento allusion to Lam.30 As is notorious. thus both prefaced (sonnet 1) and articulated (Canzone 264) with a penitential gesture.32 The debts of Petrarch's 30See Rico." suggest a coherent phase of work. quand'io credea. of prominent and insistent use of allusion to Lamentations. reflecting intensive imitation of Dante's "widowed"canzone in the Vita nuova. but not exactly. and again in May and December of 1350 before being transcribed in ordine on XI Nov. against Wilkins. 1. Rico's arguments for the onset of the concept of bipartition with Laura's death and the penitential. along with the fragment of a ballad ("Occhi dolenti") placed between the canzone and "Amor. see also Bettarini. as Dante began the second part of the Vita nuova with the incipit of Lam. according to Rico's hypothesis. Amore." Rivista di letteratura italiana 11 (1993): 73-102 esp. 75-80 have sharpened the probable dating of the first draft beginning of 268 to the period just before of the composition of the ballad "Amor.' Le carte del lutto nel codice Vaticano Latino 3196 di Francesco Petrarca. 1066-1077. 32See Canzone 268. "Rime sparse" 1976 [1992]: 131-144 on the dating of "Voi ch'ascoltate." (324 in 3195) which. stoic mood of 1348-1350 remains a useful hypothesis regarding the inception of the idea of the collection. first drafted shortly after Laura's death-perhaps as early as the summer of 1348-was significantly revised in late November of 1349 following the death of Sennuccio del Bene. 51.

when Love avows Laura to have been the poem most beautiful woman who ever lived: "piangendo i'l dico."36 beginning well before September 1." (see notes 10 and 17 above) is favorable to my hypothesis. "Widowed Words. 160-62. In Dante's canzone itself. 1.6 v. 36 For the implications of the phrase "piangendo dico" see Chiappelli."in Legamemusaico. loci given in Gorni's chapter numbering).3. 14. 34See Vickers.5 v. but the parallel is probably generic.1 in ch.9 v. et tu piangendo scrivi. 33For example. 21. speaking while weeping ("dire piangendo") is part of the of propositio "Li occhi dolenti": Pensai di volere disfogarla [la mia tristizia] con alquante parole dolorose. we find not only "dicer6 di lei piangendo" but "parlar traendo guai" and "piangendo . . a poetics of "widowed"verse that Vickers shows especially influenced Petrarch as he revised the congedi to the canzone.147-64. 35Gorni (Vita nova 177-78) notes that dolente is a rhyme word only after the announcement of Beatrice's death (on five occasions: 20. . See also Bettarini. 371-76 includes eight substantial references to "Li occhi dolenti" and related poems and prose. the Carducci-Ferrari edition of the Rime sparse. Lacrime41 postulates a citation in piango e ragionoof pseudoBernard's Meditation on the Passion of Christ." Indeed. 1348. ne la quale piangendo de di ragionassi lei per cui tanto dolore era fattadistruggitore l'animamia. including a discussion of pianto.M LN 11 lament to Dante's canzone of lament for Beatrice in the Vita nuova ("Li occhi dolenti per pieta del core") have long been a matter of record." 103-08 on the congedo variations. 22. 1348 (see Paolino 79): Petrarch first heard of Laura's death on 19 May. for example.p. and 29.13." These expressions suggest that Dante's exacerbated continuity of weeping and articulate sound is implicit as a model of poetic as utterance for the second part of Petrarch's Canzoniere. "AnAnalysis of Structuration in Petrarch's Poetry.34 Thus one of the principal influences of the mourning was chapters of the Vitanuova on the second part of the Canzoniere the of "widowing" very idea of a poetics of lament. given the precedents in Dante and in the planh of Provencal lyric (echoed in .51-59. e per6 propuosi di fare una canzone. 28 of the Vita nuova. chiamo Beatrice. 6.35Along with the trope this poetics had been announced in the Vitanuova with the identification of "Li occhi dolenti" as a "figliuola di tristizia"in contrast to the "figliuola d'Amor" that is the earlier canzone "Donne ch'avete.33More recently Rosannna Bettarini and Nancy Vickers have studied the revisions of"Che debb'io far" in relation to the poetics of mourning that Dante announced with the citation of Lam. 25.9 v.4 v. when the ballad was first recorded as being composed."flebam dicendo et dicebam plorando. and the first dating of any composition on ff. perhaps as early as May. 13-14 of 3196 is 17 May ("Felice stato"). suggested by 354. Bettarini. 6. Lacrime.

and tuning.g. Ed e obscuratoil sole agli occhi miei. Vita nova 172): Petrarch had a clear precedent. "parlare e lagrimare vedrai insieme"). The turning. and its most profound link to the poetics of Lamentations as a simultaneous weeping. 33. ma pianto"). "l'uno spirito questo disse. . 54-55.. et planxit lamentatione haec in / Ierusalem. in pianto ogni mio riso e volto ogni allegrezzain doglia." as readers have seen:37note especially the echo of Dante's w. sol nel mio lamento. In 1349 Petrarch revised the probable first draft of eight lines.1 (Gorni 19. Mercuri. 64. 268. wailing. read as follows: Amore. / chiamo Beatrice." But the contiguity of speech or singing and lament is also the strong sense of Lamentations 5. and speaking as it is announced in the prose praefatiunculato the Biblical text: "Sedit Ieremias propheta flens.31: "piangendo la richiamo. dixit . see 37See 1073. see also Martinez.9. for Arnaut and Francesca as influences in the Canzoniere. from Francesca to Ugolino (5. Petrarch's early draft of the canzone in 3196 reveal the domination of the intertext from Lamentations. "non t'apressare ove sia riso o canto. written as early as the summer of 1348. .8) is virtually a paraphrase of the prose preface to Lamentations (cited in De Robertis. et amaro animo suspiranset eiulans. The first draft. lamenting. "Lament and Lamentations: 80 n. / canzon mia no. 1914): 62 pointed out that Vita nuova 30. Libro 156 and Gorni. As Contini observed (Letteratura delleorigini.12 RONALD L. "piangendo. Canzone 268 immediately announces this poetics of "weeping speech" with its close imitations of "Li occhi dolenti. "plor e vau cantan"). of the poetic or singing voice to mourning is in fact the principal idea of 268 (e. Santagata. . and note 85 below. 38Aristide Marigo. w. MARTINEZ Of course these expressions also recall the propositio the whole for collection in Canzoniere "piango e ragiono..58081) a formula in the Inferno. / l'altro piangea si".138-139. previously cancelled as appearing insufficiently sad for the canzone's Dante's Arnaut. I will return to the question of how the two parts differently articulate the mourning project at the conclusion of my arguments. Canzoniere. sighing. e dico ." in Canz." as well as the numerous 1: instances of weeping and singing in the first part. "Dante":362-64. Mistica e scienzanella Vitanuova di Dante (Padova: Drucker. . 79-80.38 Indeed..15 ("versus est in luctus chorus noster") and of its familiar parallel from Job ("cithara mea versa est in luctus). Ogni dolce pensier dal cor m'e tolto .

15-17. [the crownis fallen from our head] Vae nobis. "lugete et plorate: risus vester in luctum convertatur. service. et gaudium in maerore. Ogni dolcezzade mia vita e tolta. [our dancing is turned into mourning] Ceciditcorona capitisnostri. [thereforeare our eyes become dim] (Lam. although somewhat altered. it only partially explains Petrarch's original cominciamento the canzone. may be found in a hitherto overlooked passage from Lamentations 5. I suggest. Wilkins. Commentators have usually glossed these verses with James 4. In the quotation below. which I mentioned before in relation Describing the tenebrae to sonnet 3. . Nino Quarta. Candles are extinguished as parts of the liturgy are concluded.9.15-17) Again. which offers a five-fold series of turns for the worse corresponding closely to the fourfold list in Petrarch's lines. Bettarini.MLN 13 beginning: "videtur non satis triste principium. and the heart deprived of sweetness. Making77-8 and 145.5. A similar enumeration of woes. contaminating them with other scriptural sources. note especially mention of the darkening of the eyes.15-17. "'Ad acerbam. Studi sul testo delle rime del Petrarca(Napoli. Durandus 39Accounts of the various moments of writing and revision are to be found in Rime 1899: 371-76."39 Once displaced from their initial position these verses were retained. quia peccavimus[woe to us becausewe have sinned] Proptereamoestumfactumest cor nostrum [Thereforeis our heart sorrowful] Ideo contenebratisunt oculi nostri." Although the importance of James' epistle is beyond to doubt. gladness into woe. Petrarch likely drew on sources other than the Bible alone."' 113-19. at the end of the first stanza of the definitive version transcribed into 3195: Posciach'ogni mia gioia per lo suo dipartirein pianto e volta. In the first draft. 5. [thejoy of our heart is ceased] Versusest in luctum chorus noster. Petrarch lists four examples of reversed fortune: laughter into tears. Muca 1902): and Paolino. light to darkness.9: Deficit gaudiumcordi nostri. and the double mention of the heart's lapse into sorrow. Lacrime. Durandus in the Rationale incorporates parts of Lam. details found in Lamentations but without equivalents in James 4.

665-666).. indeed Job 16. we decline into sadness. non ." . our dancing is turned into mourning.. with its darkened sun and The cloudliturgical candles gradually extinguished during tenebrae.14 RONALD L.40 of sight by tears (cf. Consider the following: Fuggi'lsereno e'l verde.). and our joy is turned into sorrow. to signify that with each canticle.72. while Lam... along with the ing darkening of the sky. Indicium enim quoddam doloris in sole est tanto sceleri officium luminis denegasse. MARTINEZ writes. Durandus digests an even more elaborate passage Animae. to Lam. because the true sun has set. and Lamentations we have consulted already (and an additional text..15-17. omnes populi . and it is in fact easy to discern. ma pianto: non fa per te star fra gente allegra. 5.")-in short.2. See also Durandus. or psalm. . that the congedo adapts the texts ofJames. . 41 Martinelli. he would have found in one place a mix of related scriptural citations. 87 (also including ref. along with the liturgical context of Good Friday. Rationale. 1... "'Feriasexta"':120-25. the final items of the Matins liturgy. "quam etiam spirituale.. in which the darkness is not so much material. et ultione quadam Iudaeorum oculis tenebras infudisse. no > pianto allegra > vesta negra 40The associations are traditional. "'Feria sexta"':121 cites Saint Maximus. The series of juxtapositions between states of joy and woe that articulates the final five lines of Petrarch's canzone already might put us in mind of a text like Lam..17 ("caligaverunt oculi mei a fletu meo") is part of the responsory for the last lesson of the third Nocturn of Matins on Good Friday. canzon non .. riso > pianto canto > pianto . see also Martinelli.18 (Videte. from a book Petrarch cites in de "In Otio religioso: passione enim Christi caliginum se nocte circumdedit . is also part of the liturgical text. non .15-17) from Honorius of Autun's Gemma (PL 172. corresponding to nearly total darkness after the last of the tenebraecandles have been extinguished.. 6. with the possible mediation of the text of Durandus. using a simple schema.41 Petrarch's close attention to both scriptural and liturgical precedents in crafting his canzone is also strongly indicated by his elaboration of the definitive version of the congedoto 268.15-17. 1. Job. canzon mia no. according to the text: "the crown is fallen from our head. 5.12 furnishes the verse text ("O vos omnes . including Lam. 5. juxtaposed to no other text than Lam.ch. "contenebrati sunt oculi")." If Petrarch knew this passage. from Amos). quae in illo triduo in cordibus fidelium extiterunt." This links cosmic darkness to blindness. non t'appressare ove sia riso o canto. vedova sconsolata in vesta negra. .

Rationale5.7. .31. 5. These passages are adduced by Lamentations commentary in that they encourage looking to the end: "In illa enim finis cunctorum admonetur hominum" (Eccl. instead of the extracts ofJob. Mass: Medieval Academy of America. and known practice of private devotions.2-3 as a reading. Durandus (Rationale7.3. The lexical oppositions diagrammed in the scheme nevertheless remain in force. where coronais glossed as "glory.1: "facta est quasi vidua domina gentium") who finds no consolation (Lam. 1955): 3-32. Ecclesiastes 7. Wilkins.". and in defense of Fenzi the verse is ambiguously structured enough to suggest the elliptical. 318b): "et in eius morte Casale. . et tu nol vedi. "'Feriasexta"':122 reports. readers of "Che debb'io far" have also not realized that the one line from the fivefold list of Lam. 1. suspended reading he proposes. etc. See Paschasius. Giuseppe Billanovich.9) citharamea versa est in luctum. Arborvitae crucifixae [terra] lugubre et funere assumere vestimentum. for Petrarch's possession of liturgical books. "non est qui consoletur .15) Et convertamfestivitates vestrasin luctum.. Martinelli. in sufficiently orderly fashion." Studies in the Life and Worksof Petrarch (Cambridge. . also 1. see Canzoniere: verse 80 refers primarily to the genre of planctusitself is sufficiently obvious. What cannot be avoided is that Petrarch's brooding over these passages appears to have guided both early and late conceptions of the canzone as a funeral planctus. "Petrarch's Ecclesiastical Career. 3."." 42 In opposing risoand canto to pianto I am not assuming Fenzi's construction of the passage that the congedo commends to the canzone places of weeping rather than 1077) . 7. 140.2. including the definitive one: "Caduta e la tua gloria. Knud Ottosen.M LN 15 In addition to the evocation of the widow of Lamentations (Lam.15-17). 17.5). Davis.1.. given his canonries and deaconates. (James 4. (Job 30. for the Office of the Dead. 1.10) Gaudiumnostrum in luctumest conversum (Durandus.. 116-117.35. that pianto in places of laughter and song (rejected by Santagata. from Ubertino da Iesu (4. 43Reference to the canzone as in mourning clothes ("veste negra") also may reflect accounts of the crucifixion. Lo scrittoiodel Petrarca(Rome: Edizioni di storie e letteratura. including breviaries. lifelong close association with Churchmen. Et omnia canticavestra in planctum (Amos 8. Petrarcaletterato.33) also cites Eccl. 1947): 105." Petrarch's close knowledge of liturgy is certain. Lam." It is plausibly also Lamentation commentaries. also Eccl. H. 7. "melius est ire ad domum luctus quam ad domum convivii . it is in fact warranted by scriptural precedent opposing the "house of mirth" to the "house of mourning" (cf.42 risus vester in luctumconvertitur .) these oppositions reiterate. see E. . ed.15-17 that Petrarch does not assimilate to his first-draft beginning of the canzone served rather to inspire the first line of the third stanza in all versions. Expositio pp. especially in Germany. Responsoriesfor Office the of the Dead (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press. 1994): 85-87 locates this reading in a "minor" or reduced Office of the Dead that had widespread currency.. 7.12. 95. 19. and. . cf. Torino 1961. 5.43 Given that Lamentations has been overlooked as a source for Petrarch's first-draft incipit for canzone 268.3).

citing darkening of the sun on Good Friday (cf." which fuses the darkening of the eyes of Lam." and the Glossa 214: ["dominus exercituum corona gloriae etc. . Medieval dictionaries and liturgical works sometimes derive see chorusfrom corona: Honorius of Autun.46For the Christ-surrogate Laura.9: "he hath stripped me of my glory. The topic also echoes Dante's "Liocchi dolenti" 27-28: "perche vedea ch'esta vita noiosa / non era degna di si gentil cosa. oscurato e'l nostro sole. see also Seniles XVI. . pp."].45 these sentiments also reflect medieval Christian understanding of Lam. Gemmaanimae1.16 RONALD L. Petrarch 44See Hugh of St. who writes that the blindness of the Jews was said to be a punishment effected by the darkening of the sun on Good Friday: "Ultione quadam Iudaeorum oculis tenebras infudisse. 1996): 16-18. "ed essi gloriosa in loco degno"). . or Improperia."44 verses that likely caught the eye. Though unquestionably topics of medieval planctus (a subgenre of panegyric)." in From Witness to Witchcraft. Amnon Linder. commentators back up their gloss withJob 19. Cher 309v. 1970). and hath taken the crown from my head. qui ceciderunt per mortale." where degnain fact establishes a relation of coblascapfinidaswith the next stanza (cf. unworthy even of being trod by her sacred feet. . "'Feria again cites Saint Maximus. Canzoniere: Matth. Hebrews 11. et gloriae ." 45Santagata in Canzoniere: 1072. see also Wolfgang S. of the liturgical climaxes of the Good sexta": 121 Friday liturgy. v. 'Jews and Judaism in the Eyes of Christian Thinkers of the Middle Ages: The Destruction of ed.1. in which the Synagogue is represented blindfolded with a falling crown. Indeed. 5. 5. Lacrime:56 citing Paul. "hoc possunt dicere omnes illi.140 (PL 172.. Jerusalem in Medieval Christian Liturgy. ." Cf. 27-55 and 95-109. follows Bettarini. Jews in ChristianArt (New York: Conand Churchin theMiddle tinuum. said of Giacomo Colonna. Jeremy Cohen (Wiesbaden: Harassowitz. MARTINEZ that warranted Petrarch's replacement of corona with gloriain his text. Synagogue Ages (New York: Ungar.15-17. unde amiserunt coronam gratiae. Hanc coronam ecclesia perdit dum fides christi corrumpit ." reference to the supposed rejection of the Jews. 24. 1996): 115-16 points out that medieval versions of one the reproaches from the Cross. these lines inform one of the standard and widespread medieval iconographies of the crucifixion.586): "Chorus dicitur a concordia canentium.29). Santagata's notes. Seiferth. see Heinz Schreckenberg. which saw in the phrases "our crown is fallen . sive a corona circumstantium." which also These are after all suggests the equivalence of "crown"and "glory. to show that it has failed to receive the Christian offer of salvation (compare "mondo ingrato") due to its spiritual blindness (compare "orbo mondo" and "et tu nol vedi") and that God's chosen people will henceforth be the Christians (compare "caduta e la tua gloria"). Canzonieresonnet 275. 30. 46 For examples. Martinelli. The lines on fallen glory are part of Petrarch's reproach of a blind. and excited the dread. included words of Christ rejecting theJews. .12 with the 1105.1: "Occhi miei. we have sinned.38. esp. of the aging poet who wore a laurel crown. "quibus dignus non erat mundus". ungrateful world-"orbo mondo ingrato"-unworthy of Laura.

").31. 63.. also addressed to Donne. "Versa est in luctum cythara mea.. So it is that at the beginning of as the penultimate stanza of 268. 72) and. there may here be an indication of the effects of liturgical stimuli on Petrarch's work habits. modified but recognizable. Laura and Sennuccio del Bene. 1. . and 11 Nov. and in Petrarca. 1967]: 35-39). voi che pietoso atto mostrate"). comparing Petrarch's isolation to Dante's community.47 In his elaborate adaptation of Lamentations 5 at the two extremes of his first canzone lamenting Laura.50 confirming mood beginning the second part with that of the first poem in the 47This recalls sonnet 3 and the analogy-occultation of Petrarch's private sorrowfalling in love-in the collective mourning of Good Friday. esp." lines 1 and 4.. ch'avete. and "Voi. et organum meum in vocem flentium. Vickers." For these. 109.49 The phrasing. This raises the interesting point: on at least two occasions Petrarch resumed work on "Che debb'io far" in the month of November (28 Nov. Lacrime 55.16. 1356. vel in die Mortuorum. 2 vols.15. See 49 On Petrarch's substitution of donne. 1349. 858: the early version was: "Voi che vedeste sua doppia beltate . See Notes 43. 56. Petrarch does not however lose sight of Lam. 249-53." 107-108. and Lam. 30. Bettarini. as the link of the penitential Claudia Berra notes. "Widowed Words. Trionfi. as Tonelli observed. As he presumably had heard recitation (public or private) during the first days of the same month.M LN 17 has in his planctus adapted and considerably modified a widespread iconography of the crucifixion. uncollected sonnets (Kenelm Foster and Patrick Boyde." "Donna pietosa" and "Li occhi dolenti" (w. 17.15 ("versa est in luctum") Hugh 309r writes: "hoc est bonum thema in vesperis Omnium Sanctorum. vedeste nostra donna gentile. we find the characteristic pattern of vocative address followed by imperative verbs / di me vi entreating pity: "Donne. ." "Se' tu colui").31. the variants are in Petrarca. rare in the Canzoniere 89." (w. Dante's LyricPoetry[Oxford: Clarendon Press. "Lasestina doppia CCCXXXII."in Lectura petrarce 1991: 219235. "Voi che portatela sembianza umile . If doglia. Martinmas). sharpening the ironic contrast of his devotion to Laura with that of his yearning for the cross. 5. quando post gaudium de solemnitate omnium Sanctorum convertitur Ecclesia ad luctum pro animabus omnium fidelium defunctorum. A piancer mecho vincavi pietate. 48As Santagata notes (Canzoniere 1075) in the apostrophe to women. see Ottosen.3) there is a strong influence here of the Vitanuova canzoni "Donne (cf. putting him in mind of his own recent dead. Glossing Lam." parallel to "O the vos omnes .. of the Office of the Dead and of the texts of Job 7.. 420. 5. 234. as we saw. voi che mirastesua beltate /. we can add here the two related. simile Job 30.. II codicedegliabbozzi. the text that. also of Dante's sonnets concerning his mourning for Beatrice in ch 22 of the Vita nuova ("Voi che portate. e vincavi pietate. cf. adtendite 1 ("Voi ch'ascoltate et videte" is closer still. also recalls the opening apostrophe of Canzoniere . voi for simply Voi in line 56. donne."48 we also recall that in the first draft of these lines Petrarch had written "Voi che vedeste. 9. 59). . Responsories: 401. 50 See Claudia 11 Berra. . . provides the incipit for the Canzoniere a program of mourning.1996: pp.12.

RONALD L. "I1sonetto CXIII e gli altri sonetti a Sennuccio.12 see Martinez. 2 Barber. andJoseph A. A similar argument can be made for the final lines of the first version of the congedo. which adopts Trovato's methodology. in the case of 291 it is the theme of Laura /Aurora. Nancy Vickers notes that one effect of Petrarch's modification of the original eight lines was to limit imitation of Dante's beginning of second part of the Vita Guido Cavalcanti. In his edition.52 But we can still ask why the definitive beginning appears satis tristewhere the first one was not. of 1349. filia Sion. Lacrime: 48-54. 1. when the canzone was still dedicated to Sennuccio.a caudate or tailed sonnet addressed to Sennuccio (Francesco Petrarch. supra primo: te "O vos omnes. Letterio Cassata (Guido Cavalcanti. achieves only modest results. filia Ierusalem? Quasi dicat: nulli. 2. 16-17 ("ch'altro cor non poria pensar ne dire / quant'e'l dolor che mi conven soffrire"). 1. 1993) lists parallels in the Roman de la Rose296567 and the Fiore(CLI 1-2): "cuore umano / non penserebbe il gran dolor ch'io sento.. 1962): 9-76. But this is not the only use of Lam.s." Lectura petrarce (1982): 21-39. also represent a restatement of the question of 1. 52 Canzoniere sonnets 287 and 291 are associated with Sennuccio del Bene (who died in Oct. but also required the modification of the congedo dedicating it to him). For the import of Sennuccio in the "carte del lutto. Compare "altri i non v'&che'ntenda mieidolori" with "adtendite videte si est dolor sicut et dolormeus. in November of that year. Barber [New York and London: Garland. Rime 1556. Verses 18-19. 51 See ." For the link of lines 16-17 to Lam. to the elaboration of "Che debb'io far. and thus stimulated a return."' Studi petrarcheschi (n. this transformation is perhaps to be traced to Pecham's gloss on Lam.' and Dante.12 text. Petrarch had first written: "Oime qua' parole / Porebbeno aguagliare il dolor mio. 2. "Cavalcanti nel 'Rerum vulgarium fragmenta.5'the variants in 3196 suggest the itinerary of modification that originate in the Lam. Bettarini's suggestion that the essential stimulus was the 12th verse in sonnet 291 ("ma io che debbo far del dolce alloro")-a poem associated with Sennuccio del Bene. Rime.ed. Santagata indexes Petrarch's debts to Sennuccio. MARTINEZ collection." The question of what guided the revision of the original first lines to "Che debb'io far"remains a teasing one. Joseph K. the original dedicatee of the canzone-has garnered Santagata's influential nod. Bettarini. 632: "Velcui assimilabo te. in the second stanza. Rime.XIX." 9 Rafaella Pelosini. 1991]: 98-99).." see Paolino "'Ad acerbam"': 84-92 (now the fullest discussion). Rime disperse. "Cavalcanti'Man of Sorrows. in the case of 287 the poem is a planctus for Sennuccio.12 in the canzone. ." The adaptation of "est dolor sicut dolor meus" in "aguagliare il dolor mio" betrays the filiation of Petrarch's text.12 was already a topos of vernacular lyric by Petrarch's day. 1. 1. which Petrarch also treats in a rima dispersa. etc." forthcoming.12: "est dolor sicut dolor meus?" Compare: "Qual ingegno a parole / poria aguagliare il mio doglioso stato?" Although this kind of restatement of Lam.13 p." Lam.13 itself goes on to say: "Cui exaequabo ." of which he was the original dedicatee.Naples: de Rubeis.

1. unstressed. given the close relation in 134951 between Petrarch's three collections.1. and 7. However." suggest that the satis tristeprincipiumfor canzone 268 had wide resonance as an expression of Petrarch's general dismay in 1348-1350. on 4th in 268). "Widowed Words. 4. the correlation is much closer (faro on 4th and 10th syllables. along with the lexical resemblances." Petrarch's cancelled first draft of the first words in the new canzone beginning.21." 99-100 and 104-106. but the .60. com' faro.53 Nevertheless.1.62: Ergo iterum quid agam?.10: "Nunc quid agam? Et loqui oportet et cui loquar non invenio. and which is virtually the only rhetorical feature linking the first draft of the incipit to the poem..1: Heu quid agam? [of a devastating storm]. only linked allusively to Sennuccio. Fam. by beginning as it does with full citation of Lam. in che. the nearly identical metrical distribution offare. che mi consigli. 1. 6. 6. 160: "Quid igitur faciam? Desperabimus ne?" is also highly apposite. In his planctus. the thematic import of verses such as Familiares 1.89. see also Ep. Rico's suggestion of SecretumIII.and amore Petrarch's verse:55"Che debb'io far. 1. frater?" and Petrarch's despairing attempt to find a receptive ear for his complaints about Italy. che pur mi cresce amore. we have only to compare.7 is of course quite different. Sennuccio laments the death of the Emperor because it means Sennuccio will be separated from his lady love. 23. P. Metr.10." To realize the parallel. at verse 13 he exclaims: "Deh. 54Bettarini suggests also Epistola MetricaI. amore?" Sennuccio's "Com' far6" is especially close to "che far6?.54 Bettarini's suggestion seems to stop short of closing the discussion: for is it really probable that Petrarch's citation of his own sonnet. 268. all uses of "Che far6" to indicate grief and disorientation. in the case of Sennuccio's verse 13. Here too Boccaccio may have played a part: see Filostrato 4. without here discussing other possible influences on the first line of canzone 268.1: "Quid vero nunc agimus. 5. 53See Vickers.32. 1. a text that I have not seen invoked in this context. graphically identical if grammatically distinct che).7 share no corresponding stresses on equivalent words (stressed far on 6th syllable in 291.1: "Quid agam? [faciam])" would seem equally if not more suggestive. should render the full measure of sadness he evidently requires for the incipit of canzone 268? The fact is that line 7 of sonnet 291 and the first line of "Che debb'io far" both derive in part from Sennuccio's famous planctus on the death of Henry VII in 1313. 55The metrical distribution of 291. 1. also 5th syllable. It is also telling that the question addressed to Amor.1 ("Quomodo sedet solitaria civitas") had probably preempted the option of an explicitscriptural beginning for any part of Petrarch's collection. indeed that work.1 and 291.M LN 19 nuova. Effundam voces in nubila . though a contested reading (1.. whose name occupies the last three syllables of the verse.6.

Petrarca relations of Sennuccio and Petrarch. as Cavalcanti's ballata. given its theme of wishing for death now the route to the lady is barred.quando fioria" (the latter two on 14r of 3196. examples of disperate Dante's "Tredonne"-enorlists 1522) as well mouslyinfluentialfor Petrarch(Santagata 27 allusionsin Canzoniere. "Intorno a le rime disperse del Petrarca. the fragment "Occhi dolenti."57 Since nearly unchanged through the several versions of the canzone. see line 6: "et mie speranzeacerbamentea spente" Canzoniere are 77. lines 7-8 raise the possibility that Sennuccio's planctus for the Emperor." (Santagata. 1244). I have not been able to see Dante Bianchi." and the ballata "Amor. 58 Line 8 of the first draft beginning was: "La qual omai di qua veder non spero".56 Sennuccio's canzone begins: "Da poi che'i'ho perduta ogni speranza / di ritornare a voi. ond'io teco mi doglio. The genre and subject of Sennuccio's poem are also right: his planctus is an early instance of the genre that came to be known as canzonedisperata. madonna mia.indeed founding. Poesie e abbozzi tratti da carte autografe."Perch'io non spero. and or verse 14.variants discussedin Paolino. tu'l senti. Compare (first draft): Amor. "Adacerbam. MARTINEZ beginning and the definitive form of canzone 268. following the verse that inspires Petrarch's ("e mancami speranza in ogne canto") offer a clear suggestion for lines 7-8 of Petrarch's canzone: "perch6 mai veder lei / di qua non spero.58Choice of the 56 are Early. as well as verse 5. Lacrime 51-52 and Paolino "Ac acerbam": 77 discuss the links between Canz. 57 Ballata324." includes the theme of lost hope. .8 (on 13 r of 3196). cited in Billanovich. "Amor. writtenat approximately same time. political party." Bettarini. but then wrote the first line of the second stanza as an assonant variation on the two original first lines.20 RONALD L.in which personal exile is the occasion for separation from home. We know that Petrarch paid close attention to the positioning of the apostrophized Amor in the early stanzas of "Che debb'io far.1-2) Verses like these. 268. Ogni allegrezza in doglia with (final version) Amor."for he shifted its initial position to the end of the line in the definitive version. in pianto ogni mio riso e volto. was from the outset a model for 268.principally the form of compositionsby Ghibelline del exiles. "non spero piui veder vostra sembianza" (one of nine uses of sperare speranzain the poem).1951)."The type becomes a widelypracticed in genre in the mid-14thcentury. see the texts assembledin NatalinoSapegno." in Bollettinostorico letterato: as discussing the literary 83 pavese3 (1940): 33-43.Poesia Trecento (Milan-Naples: Ricciardi. also the quand'iocredea. compare Sennuccio's line 5: "Non spero piu veder vostra sembianza. and often the beloved lady as well. is also anticipated by Sennuccio's placement of amore(though neither personified nor the recipient of a question) at the end of his verse 13." (w.

see Santagata. 82 (269. but also to another of Petrarch's dead. 51-53. Cardinal Giovanni Colonna. / Tu te n'andrai cosi chiusa e celata / 1a dove troverai gente pensosa / de la singular morte dolorosa. Francesco ed.1. Paolino also argues that the link between 266 and 269 involves Sennuccio. 37-45: "Canzon. associare nella medesima commemorazione Laura. che mi 60 See Paolino. According to one traditional interpretation (challenged by Foresti.: Medieval Academy of 12.25-26 (ed. inception of the Imperial idea: see Wilkins. 269). "che lieti vi facea. although parallels could be explained by common derivation from "Li occhi dolenti". Sennuccio's idealized lord. significantly. Indeed. Such associative chains in Petrarch's memorializing practice are of course wellknown. 1954): xix-xx. and that of the much-lamented Henry VII. for as Petrarch observed in his sonnet-planctusfor her-sonnet 267. Life. whom Petrarch paired with Laura in a pair of sonnets that all but encircle the canzone "Che debb'io far. Cino da Pistoia's lament for Henry VII also seems to have influenced the congedo of 268. Given this intertextual evidence. . which attempt to recall Charles to the succour of Italy with rhetorical persuasions. as Bettarini and Paolino have pointed out. the associations of Laura with royal and imperial rank in the Canzoniere few but notable: her royalty is proclaimed in Canz.MLN 21 model was perhaps stimulated. sonnet 5.54. immediately preceding canzone 268-she was "alma real. it can be suggested that the new beginning to canzone 268 was satis tristebecause it simultaneously evoked threedeaths: that of Laura.1060). 4. Petrarch.60Nor is an allusion to the imperial dignity inappropriate to a lamentation for Laura. Petrarch's America. Giovanni Colonna e Sennuccio del Bene. Canzoniere: 824-28). Guido Martellotti et al (Milan-Naples: Ricciardi. these texts." 61 972 Santagata. given that he had answered sonnet 266 (Santagata.59 led Petrarch to take from his drawer the 35-year old poem on the death of Charles' grandfather Henry VII. Rossi. in sonnet 190 she enjoys the liberty granted by Caesar (Santagata. piena d'affanni e di sospiri / nata di pianto e di molto dolore / movi piangendo e va' disconsolata: / e guarda che persona non ti miri / che non fosse fedele a quel signore / che tanta gente vedova ha lassata. see Fam."61In this light it seems that writing a sufficiently 59 For the Petrarca: Prose." 81-84: esp. follow Dante's political letters in drawing heavily on the text of Lamentations. "il mio doppio thesauro. Canzoniere: notes that attributing imperial qualities to the lady is a are topos. after the failure of Cola da Rienzo in late 1347. in summoning Emperor Some such motive Charles IV to take up the reins of power in Italy. 2: 283284). 78-79. thus giving a triple emphasis: "il sonnetto 266 poteva assolvere una duplice funzione: fare da pendant al 269 e. that of Sennuccio. sebbene indirettamente.")." (266. v. degnissima d'impero.X. 1959): 23-24. "Ad acerbam"': facea viver lieto") compared with "Occhi dolenti" ballad. or at least prepared-possibly even before Sennuccio's death-by Petrarch's increasing interest. Mass. the dead Sennuccio himself plays a mediating role not only in relation to the dead Laura.5 ("vostro stato real"). For the use of Henry VII as an exhortatory ghost with which to attempt arousing Charles to action. the congedo. Canzoniere. 10Later Years(Cambridge. see esp. See also Wilkins. Foster.

. turn away. may harbor political implication.the of conversion of joy into woe. sonnet 292. the original beginning of canzone 268. convertire-in expressions meaning turn to.14. might have appeared too generic."63." That. but also one of finding verses that existentially embodied and so memorialized the poet's experience of death: verses that testified to how. to Giovanni Colonna-before reaching a sufficiently afflicted state. as Petrarch wrote in his obituaries in the Ambrosian Vergil. Lacrime: 54 writes: "Sennuccio e spodestato per il semplice fatto che nel frattempo era morto.22 RONALD L.62 From this perspective. la tornada di questa canzone diventi sempre piu cupa. Terms from this field occur conspicuously at points where Petrarch's collection is articulated diachronically: thus the last poem of the Correggio or pre-Chigi version. "et la cetera mia rivolta in pianto. destinatario come era stato Cavalcanti del voluminoso messaggio della VitaNuova. as the Aurora and the sunrise had strong Imperial associations. come dira Montale delle dediche soppresse di Ossi di un seppia. turn back.un destinatario taciuto. or. developed in the poetic correspondence with Sennuccio. sempre pii sconsolata (terza redazione). with its rendition of scripturally and liturgically inspired mourning verses. but also pour forth words and tears ("versai lagrime e'inchiostro. restando. but the intensification offered by verbal traces of Petrarch's own relationships-to Sennuccio. versatio in luctum. to Laura. 62 Bettarini. Laura had been kissed by the Emperor Charles IV (sonnet 238). is. for the lachrymose emphasis of the second half in general).. turn over. exclusively a question of rhetorical density and the writer's professional judgment.31: ". which also adaptsJob. rinversare. turn the page. qui come in altri luoghi del Canzoniere. sempre pii lacrimosa (seconda redazione). especially since Dante's Epistle V. Although Petrarch clearly backed off making verses closely derived from Scripture for the cominciamento the first canzone in morte."of sonnet 292. has for its final line the valedictory. nunc mea . Lacrime: 56 suggests the influence of Henry of Settimello Elegiade diversitatefortune. "nimis crebrescunt fortunae vulnera"[too much do the wounds of fortune gain in frequency]. as Chiappelli seems to argue. rivolgere. dopo la sua morte. and required not only rhetorical inflection. was nevertheless destined to function programmatically in the second part of the Canzoniere. we might say. The association of Laura with Aurora.8)-in other words. 63 For "lachrymosa lyra. and for the early variant lacrimosa for "Che debb'io far" verse 82 (and thus. 25-26. 30. volgere. Non sara un caso comunque che. MARTINEZ sad beginning was not. versify. as Vickers would put it.while the first poem of the additions to the Chigi version Canzoniere: 972-74). increasingly tenebrous." 347. Bettarini. The force and range of the phrase spring from the wide semantic field comprised by terms like versare. voltare. one might add. tornare. increasingly widowed. turn fortune's wheel.

308: 1. sonnet 304.. Rv 6. so that Petrarch's troubles ("stato adverso")are linked to his mournful monotone ("non so piui mutar and with his pouring forth of words and tears ("per la lingua et verso") per li occhi sfogo et verso"). 315. Two "turns"for the worse are coordinated in Canz. . 1974): 418-22. / "volse in amaro sue sante dolcezze. 64 See Canz. The poet's fall or turn into sorrow.into. The unusual placement of 324 (one of the poems in the "carte del lutto" and so chronologically linked in composition with "Che debb'io far") is thus in part explained. . sonnet 303. as it serves to anchor the jump from the mourning canzoni 268 and 270 to the two canzoni that flank versa est / in luctum cithara. . a te sola mi volsi.ed. 43-44) as expedients for rejoining Laura. sonnet 305. Hugo Kuhn and Gunter Bernt (Zurich and Munich: Artemis. the 1st poem in Giovanni Malpaghini's giunta from the summer of 1351: "da si lieti pensieri a pianger volta."). and like Sennuccio's canzone.1 in its very first distich: "Quomodo sola sedet probitas? Flet. Carl Fischer. ". that Henry's work declares its dependence on Lam. / Facta velut vidua. like appropriately double canzone 268. "La mia benigna fortuna e'l viver lieto. one of the poems from the Malatesta version (1371-2) copied into and then renumbered in the last part of the completed 3195 ms. is followed by 52 sonnets before the cluster of canzone 323. The final poem of the Chigi version." . 347. "versatio in luctum.MLN 23 (sonnet 293) concludes the octet with "rime aspre e fosche far soavi et chiare.843). rivolgeva in gioco / mie pene acerbe sua dolce onestade". the second canzone-lament for Laura. note. . poem 332.7-8 yields: ". or son si foschi". and possibly for Petrarch. 337-49." to which I now turn. 29-30. . 3: "." The citation is important. 1. Fit lachrymosa lyra.8 and 13 coordinate the pouring forth of tears with the turn to Laura: "per ch'io tante versailagrime e' nchiostro". the last non-sonnets before the sestina." finds an enunciation in Petrarch's double sestina 332. furnishes no help in this respect. but the poems bracketing it do offer similar juxtapositions (cf. as for example Walter of Chatillon's planctus against corrupt church officials "Versa est in luctum cythara Gualteri". the "versa est in luctum" verse was a topos of Latin lyric satire-laments." which inverts the joy." Canz. The sestina is separated from canzone 268 by relatively few nonsonnets: canzone 270. and canzone 325 are reached. however.. Canz.woe formula. e i giorni oscuri.. rhymes both richly and equivocally on versoin the sestet. the poem includes an appeal to death (v.12: "i di miei fur si chiari. ballata 324. con Sorga 6 cangiato Arno"/ ."291 (linked to Sennuccio)12 offers: "le mie notti fa triste. see Carmina Burana: Die Gedichtedes CodexBuranus Lateinisch und Deutsch. . Poem 344. et ingemit Aleph. too.64The equivocal rhyming in poem 344 inevitably evokes the technique of the nearby sestina. For Henry of Settimello. quae prius uxor erat" (PL 204.

1992) 224. Martinez. As the ninth and last instance of the and the only double one in the Canzoniere.10. 324 and "Li occhi dolenti. 1990). of which more presently. Santagata is skeptical (see his note). esp. the only one in morte. "La sestina": 233." It is especially significant that the ballata. See Robert M.24 RONALD L. On the use of Dante's petrose citational purposes (cf. the sestina enacts the turning of Fortune's wheel (already evoked in canzone 325. the sestina is doubly unique formally speaking. form. as we shall see in a moment. 75) by stating that the symbolic views of Laura's death have made the poet wish for death. "Far mi p6 lieto"). but see note 63 above. "La sestina": 233-35 suggests that the thematic and lexical links between 332 and the poems of the "carte del lutto" might argue its early dating to the period of first mourning Laura (1348-50). Lafuria della sintassi: la sestina in Italia (Napoli: Bibliopolis. makes the important point that verse 34. 70 Gabriele Frasca. Neither view has material evidence. at the end of the poem.66 thus 323 ends (v. juxtaposing attrista 65 Claudia Berra.68 The joy-to-woe formula I have been following in this essay is registered twice in the lines of the sestina: at lines 5 ["volti subitamente in doglia e'n pianto"] and 34.but then twice again in lines 72-73. 68 Dante's petrose. Petrarch's retention of it confirms his interest in providing a strong transition to the double sestina. even the unusually numerous ten stanzas of "Vergine bella" have a sister in canzone 360. as 324 may be said to transmit the topic of lost speranza as well as the harvest of intertextual echoes of Dante's widowed canzone "Li occhi miei" to the next cluster of non-sonnets (323 and 325) and thence to the sestina. "cosi e'l mio cantar converso in pianto" acoustically rephrases Dante's opening line to his canzone attacking the donna-pietra. Durling and Ronald L.70Verse 72 itself. 66 See 1244-46 for the harvest of intertextual echoes between Santagata Canzoniere: Canz. Timeand the Crystal:Studiesin Dante'sRimepetrose(Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.67With its word-rhymes tumbling from slot to slot according to its cyclical scheme. "aspro stile." . see Berra.31 and Amos 8. is the sole representative of its form in the second part of the Canzoniere. ["cosi e'l mio cantar converso in pianto"]69.including "Io son venuto al punto della rota" and the sestina "Al poco giorno e al gran cerchio d'ombra" exploit the idea of the heavens as wheels and thus as implicitly linked to changing Fortune. and its status within the collection accordingly hard to overstate. 81-83. 111-14. in abbreviated form and with reversed meaning ("me pu6 far si lieto". 69 Suggested most directly by Job 30.6 Such anchoring is thematic and lexical." 67On these formal hapaxesin the second part. "Cosi nel mio parlar voglio esser aspro": this marks the sestina as the announcement of for a poetic program. like the sestina. MARTINEZ the ballata and from there to the sestina. "an fatto un dolce di morir desio. "a la sua volubil rota si volse") away from her briefly benign moment in the first line.

muti. the sestina realizes Petrarch's concept of reiterated. 1979) does not register this parallel. circumscribing the dream of the God of Love holding Beatrice in his arms."' (Florence: Olschki.71 The close relationship of 332 to both 324 and 268 in terms of the theme of wishing for death and the struggle with despair have been discussed.10-11 ("'."with its programmatic imitation of Lam. the itinerary of death and mourning in the libelloitself. in the first stanza.269.buttressing the double enunciation of the conversion of joy to woe. in fifth place.80 noted by Contini ("che spandi di parlar si largo flume") looks forward to lines such as 332. mutare.torni. Canzoniere268 and 332 share intertextual echoes from Dante's Vita nuova. these terms anticipate. with pianto. in miniature form. quoting De Robertis and others. its close association with rimeand stileguarantees its own double appearance (verse 4." 28-29. . note also the echo of thesauroin 333.1. in sixth place thwarts a balanced opposition of lietoand pianto at the vertical extremes of the first stanza.u' son giunte le is rime").MLN 25 to lieto at the end of respective hemistichs. a che pur versi / degli occhi tristi un doloroso fiume?"'). inconsolable plaint poured out in cycling cascades of tears and verse. the semantic field around versare also well represented with volto. Morte.72Thus piangendo in rhyme and the juxtaposition of letizia and tristizia in the first sonnet of the Vita nuova influence Petrarch's derivation of word-rhymes for the sestina. poi che piange Amore. 1. 74) rather than lexically imitative ones. 72 See Martinez.5-6 ("Tolto m'ai. see Berra 1991. recalls the vertical juxtaposition. . and cangiare. of the anomalous adjectival wordrhyme Lieto. As in the last lines of sonnet 344. "Piangete amanti.in the first position. "Mourning Beatrice.14. "versie'n rime". il mio doppio thesauro. Sonnet 279. Paolo Trovato. . Although versois not a word-rhyme. and admirably summarizes the monotonic mournful voice of the second part of the Canzoniere. immediately following Love's departure piangendoin the first sonnet are the two sonnets "O voi che per la via d'Amor. 228-29. Only the necessary insertion of that spoiler. especially from the canzone "Li occhi dolenti. 71 Thus Canz." but also from the first poem of Dante's libello. "u' sono i versi. where allegro and piangendoare the first and last words of the sestet. and I already v. and 15." texts that foreshadow the death of Beatrice later in the book.54 ("queste due fonti di pianto") and to verses 3-5: "e i soavi sospiri e'l dolce stile / che solea resonare in versi e'n rime / vo6ti subitamente in doglia e'n pianto"by way of 329.2 ("il mio caro thesoro"). their clear antithesis underscored by their approximate assonance and consonance. Morte. with its echo of Inferno1. / che mi fea viver lietoet gire altero") already projects a link from 268 to 332 ("Mia benigna fortuna e'l viver lieto"'). and the formal planctusfor an anonymous dead lady. Dante in Petrarca: un inventariodei dantismi nei 'Rerum per vulgarium fragmenta. converso.

known as in see conversio. 1951): 127 ("E se la parola sara in lamentare. v." the ballata fragment also contains a version of the pianto / lietoantithesis: Occhi dolenti.71). al mondo dura"). . pianger.13. Echoing both the incipit and congedoof Dante's canzone. See Fra Guidotto da Bologna [Bono Giamboni]. In Poetria nova 1623-44. as the derivation of planctusfrom plangor.v) of 3196. each rhyme-word (see Dante. (1-4) 73 Indeed. 12).the repeated striking of the body when wailing."which brings and "seminat dolorem.")." Les arts poetiquesdu XIIe e du XIIIesiecle(Paris: Champion. Boyde's discussion of Geoffroi de Vinsaufs theory of conversiones Dante's Style in his Lyric Poetry (Cambridge: 1971).13. and piangendo from Dante's "Li occhi dolenti" also recur in the sestina. . MARTINEZ noted above that Petrarch concludes the congedo canzone 268 with of sharply drawn antitheses of laughter and tears. and with attrista/ lietoin 72-73. joy and mourning. Geoffroi's example develops the theme based on the verb "ego doleo. La prosa del duecento(Milan-Naples: Ricciardi. with its sixfold of 2. and shifting nouns among different cases) to create rhetorical effects. repetition. parlera come femmina. or repercussion. nulla. 39 and piangendo. e percoterassi il capo . the ballad "Amor. pianto is the proposed theme of "Li occhi dolenti" in the prose and in the lyric (cf. "causa doloris. was widely recognized: the verbal repetitions thus suggest striking the body in "feminine" mourning.26 RONALD L. . while 323 concludes the last stanza juxtaposing Laura's happy departure with the sorrow persisting in the world (lieta si dipartio. and which are near contemporaries of "Che debb'io far.74 The canzoni preceding the sestina. This in part justifies the use of the sestina as a planctus. 52-71.piange.73 Such mutations were recognized by rhetorical tradition as conversiones."). Instances of letizia. and tristo (36-37-38). De vulgari eloquentia speaking of the use of wordrhyme in the canzone "Amor tu vedi ben": "nimia scilicet eiusdem rithimi repercussio . 1971): 247. alto desire. altro che pianto. 56th of 112 lines): "so far lieti et tristiin un momento".quand'io credea" and the fragments "Occhi dolenti" (a ballata) and "Gentil. in Fioredi rettorica."In these texts. in the grammatical mutations of lieto. nonche secura / ahi. piangeteomai mentre la vita dura poi che'l sol vi si oscura che lietici facea col suo splendore. These verbal nexus are also in play in the texts Petrarch composed on the same sheets (13v-14r.pianto. and instancing also the darkened-sun topic of "Che debb'io far. See Edmond Faral. esp. also participate in this system in the terms of Fortune's boast (in the middle line of the poem.pianto) is used seven times. Cesare Segre. 74For the doctrine of altering parts of speech (usually verbs and adjectives into nouns. accompagnateil core. . 323 and 325. the word piangerand its related forms (piangendo." forth "manat dolor." aspects of Dante's canzone "Li occhi dolenti" in the Vita nuova are also imitated. twice in rhyme (pianto. such repetition is in fact etymological. tristizia." so forth.

1061) and is manifest in Henry of Settimello's Elegia. quam surda (noted in Santagata. 4: "L'ultimo. . both to render conspicuous the reiteration of the first words of the proemial sonnet and to foreground the allusion to Lam." The association of Boethius' sorrow with the mourning of Lamentations is traditional.76As he does in establishing the antithesis of lieto and pianto. Petrarch harnesses the vertical convention for copying out sestina verses. 77For the transcription of sestinewith consecutive lines one below the other. Dante in Petrarca: 135). 1. a close imitation of the Consolationof Philosophy that takes its incipit from Lam. pregate non mi sia pii sorda Morte. ending in the supplication for death. a theme harking back to "Che debb'io far" and Sennuccio's planh for Henry (as well as "Li occhi dolenti" and the fragments in 3196). see Wayne Storey.M LN 27 This same fragment also recalls an important rhyme from the congedoof "Che debb'io far" ("non fa per te star tra gente allegra"). and there is another restatement of the antithesis: "onde pensosa e lieta /conven ch'or si rallegr ed or sospire.75 Although it may be stretching the point. I m. rather than consecutively across the page as was the convention in writing out sonnets and and canzoni. where the juxtaposition of lieto and tristois reiterated. 1. 17: "se non ch'i chiamo Morte che m'uccida. de' miei giorni allegri . ch'ascoltate d'Amore o dite in rime. 77-78 (Trovato. also completes the program of allusion to Lamentations with yet another citation of Lam.12: "est dolor sicut dolor meus?" precisely by answering it: 75Allegri is rhymed with negri in sonnet 328. . 15-16: "Eheu. / forse presago de' di tristi e negri." with recall also of Dante's canzone "Donna pietosa" w. in both Petrarch and his predecessors. going back to Paschasius' preface to his commentary (Expositio. these grammatical "conversions" of the terms from Vita nuova sonnet 1 and the canzone "Occhi dolenti" into the lexical material for the versatioin luctumof the second part of the Canzoniere (and related texts in 3196) appear a neat match-up of theme ("versatio in luctum") and rhetorical techsee nique (conversio. who is deaf to it." 76The remote source of the petition to death. 1.9): 173. The last full stanza of the sestina. v. lasso. for the Elegia and Lamentations. see Cons. In the central three lines of the poem.1 (see note 63). Appendix). i. A possible more proximate source is Sennuccio's lament for Henry VII. Transcription VisualPoeticsin theEarlyItalian Lyric(New York and London: Garland. Canzoniere: [mors] miseros avertit aure / et flentes oculos claudere saeva negat. . 5.1. 1." (4-5). see Gorni 1996 (Vita nova 19. 1993): 245-255.12. is of course Boethius 1289. PL 120.12:77 O voi che sospirate a miglior' notti." A double antithesis.Phil. there is yet another subtle recall of the question posed in Lam. as giomi is also opposed to "di tristi.

MARTINEZ Nessun visse gia mai piu di me lieto. the sestina mustbe a double one because it laments not only the present misery of Laura's loss but the additional misery of remembering having once been happy. Nessun vive piu tristoet giorni e notti Et doppiando'l dolor. For in the final analysis the redoubling of dolore the has effect of levelingthe difference between before and after that putatively generates the poem: seen from present misery and disinganno.1-2. esp.rime and pianto all recall terms from the octave of Canzoniere (rimeand suono 1. An ominous if indirect link associates the loss of the "doppio thesauro" of Laura and Giovanni Colonna and the "duplex duellum" with Fortuna.dolce stile. where the question of comparing the suffering ofJerusalem arises (Lam.. even happy days prove to have been.13: "cui exaequabo te?). "An Analysis. see also Berra. 222-29. Canzoniere: 209-11. despite being strongly implicit. in reality.79 Indeed.80 Prefacing his vast stoicizing omnibus of remedies for fortune good and bad. both former happiness and present misery are 78 See Fenzi (cited in 1286) and Frasca. This too brings us back to the proemial sonnet. doppia lo stile. which virtually compels recollection of the proemial utterance. In Pecham's glosses to Lamentations. illusory. who notes the echoes of "vario stile" and "aspro stile. with its parallelism of "van sperare" and "van dolore": though the leveling of hope and woe. the technique of "doubling" the sestina is made explicit and thematic: it is here that the poem is. as in the mention of "vario stile" at verse 35. . 80 1. and of Petrarch's Augustinian superego. "duplex . we find: "quasi dicat: nulla alia civitas similiter est destructa.. Petrarch wrote in about 1360 to Azzo da Correggio that life was a double duel with fortune.78Frasca's analysis can be taken further. is easily overlooked. 79For a reading of the sonnet in terms of the stoic critique of the passions. see also note 118. duellum cum fortuna. As Enrico Fenzi and Gabriele Frasca have made clear. 2. "Rime sparse.8'From the perspective of the stoic sage. Lafuria: 207-58. But the 1284) mentions Canzoniere Santagata's note to resonare(Canzoniere: picture is both more extensive and more intensive. sospiri2." The phrase could summarize not only the as double sorrow of the sestina. the sestina is riddled with echoes of that first sonnet." 147." 81This passage is mentioned by Chiappelli. stile and piango 5).RONALD L. so to speak." In these same central three lines. their nullity. "La sestina": 1 224. joy and woe are equivalent in well. Santagata." 1976 [1992]: 128-33. but the two parts of the Canzoniere for from the standpoint of death. as in lines 3-5 of the sestina the words sospiri. folded or doubled over. see Rico. resonare.

2." might be read as ironically undercut from the outset. rather. attributedusuallyto Bernardof Planctus beatae by the of Clairvaux. the most recent editor.82and the first line of the sestina "Mia benigna fortuna e'l viver lieto.1. coordinatedby commentators Jeremiahtext is alsofrequently in etc. ploravit nocte")and Albertus is uses it to introducehis commentary. an increasingly level one-from illusory former happiness to present misery is also entailed in Petrarch's 82 "Felicestato.1: "quis dabitcapitimeo aquam. ma di e notte il duol ne l'almaaccolto per la lingua et per li occhi sfogo et verso.) survive. verse 8: "perch'io tante versai lagrime e'nchiostro"with striking use of syllepsis to level the difference of feminine lagrime and masculine inchiostro-furnishes an exact parallel. "plorans 243. that singing and weeping have become a single activity: weeping through the eyes accompanying the singing with the tongue: it is precisely "una poesia di pianto" that Petrarch is describing.83 The passage-in retrospect.two daysbefore the news of Laura's death. and he can no longer sing. 2. is in chiastic relation with "piansi e cantai" in verse 12.18 ("deduc quasi torrentem lacrimas per diem et noctem") and Jeremiah 9. et plorabo die ac nocte interfectos filiae populi mei?" This verse is the incipit of the .equallyforcefulin its use of dramatic irony ("La benigna fortuna e'l viver lieto"). withLam. "Adacerbam" (see pp. 1. (344. and that is the firstof the poems in the "cartedel lutto"discussedby Paolino. along with the eyes.2.et oculismiesfontemlacrymarum. appearsin this light almostas the ironic prefaceto the firstline of the "summarizing" sestina. for which sonnet 347.12-14) Santagata. 83 SeeJeremiah 9."La sestina": 233-35. only weep. See Berra.2.18. which. Bestul. Texts thePassion a valuablestudyand of edition of Ogier'stext. It is also significant that such weeping "day and night" is formulaic for sorrowing in scripture. See Hugh 284v (to 1. 73-75).MLN 29 equivalent adversities. as in Lam. 1214). This same process of levelling joy and sorrow may also explain the last lines of 344: piansi e cantai:non so pii mutarverso.1. which seventeen manuscripts(mostly14th and 15th cent. Mariae Ogier of Lociedo (d.17. Rico's hypothesisis that the composition of the with the writing Secretum largelydone during 1349-51.who Magnus. But such a reading leaves a grotesque implication for the use of the tongue in the last line (salivation?)."the ballatawrittenon 17 May. follows Leopardi in taking these lines to mean that the poet's former ability to sing and weep in alternation has now broken down. Surely the lines mean. and wasthus contemporary was of 268 and-if ClaudiaBerra'sspeculationis entertained-332 as well.

Inferno 5. 1. 64. for the reference to Francesca. the central verses in stanza seven. see including figures of poliptoton. see Santagata. and thus a moment of deep identification with her character. (37-40) Francesca's antithesis of a past tempofelice and a present miseria is reinscribed and leveled in what we saw is the formulaic lieto: tristo antithesis of the sestina. in the fact that both Francesca's words and Petrarch's verses are precise examples of the complaint topic.3-6) and scriptural citation (Lam. Francesca's planctus is notably enriched by both classical epic (Aen.. 2. ("con dolor rimembrando il tempo lieto"). I propose. The mediating step may be found. nessun maggior dolore che ricordarsi tempo felice del nella miseria.. along with nesun. each of which begins with nesun. the incorporation of Dante's text. n. archived in Lamentation commentary. in the central verses of the sestina. Martinez. that bewails the contrast between past good fortune and present misfortune:85 84 For the abundance of reiterations in stanza seven. Canzoniere1286. "La sestina.30 RONALD L. shall we say a doubled. "Tristitiae misericordia canto V dell'Inferno. see Vittorio Russo. are a further. Berra... et doppiando il dolor. the fall of Troy was of course a chief topic of secular lament poems. between the two verses beginning with Nesun.12). "Mourning Beatrice": 19. with its unmistakable allusion to Dante's Francesca." 226. MARTINEZ subtle inscription. of further Cued by line 27 important debts to Dante's Vitanuova and Commedia. while the key term dolore remains unmodified. 85On Francesca's sorrowful speech (but without reference to Lamentations or in nel Cicero). (Dante.121-123) Compare: Nesun visse gia mai pii di me lieto nesun vive piu tristoet giorni et notti.64. Dante e Francesca (Florence: Olschki. such as the famous ." Dante e Roma (Florence: Olschki. 1999): 62-64. see also Ignazio Baldelli. "Lament and Lamentations": 90. but it furnishes the sufficient logic for the redoubled sorrow of the speaker: it is in fact the speaker's tacit voicing of Francesca's words. Like that of Ugolino. n. 1975): 333-45. doppia lo stile che trae del cor si lacrimose rime. so to speak. The allusion remains in large part implicit in the fold. reference to Francesca's famous citation-pronouncement:84 . framing. and Martinez.

86 And at the risk of overselling the import of Lam. "Dido's Lament: from Medieval Latin Lyric to Chaucer. and answer to. the widow's question: "est dolor sicut dolor meus?": "nessun maggior dolore che ricordarsi del tempo felice nella miseria . like verse 27 in the sestina.1 is a verse Petrarch adapted but once to his vernacular Muse." in Intellectualsand Poets in MedievalEurope(Rome: Edizioni di storia e letteratura. in quibus sponsi a sponsa absentia multimodis fletibus deploratur. See Petrarch. Francesca's Boethian citation ("in omni adversitate fortunae infelicissimum est by genus infortunii fuisse felicem") is cited as an example of the first locus conquestionis Albertus Magnus in his Lamentations commentary (Opera omnia.H. 1893]. 1992): 431-56. vel in Quibus malis nunc simus. The two references Santagata indexes for this (27.. for discussion of Dido's laments. in a rima dispersa 76. In the text of Cicero from which the Lamentations topics were drawn. 86 The verse of Lam. 52-56. 1954]: 97-109). substituting "vitamia" for the widow is likely drawn from the tradition. vol. Barbi 7.. ed. Mass. are neither of them to the first part of the verse. still of course rigorously excluded insofar as it is Dante's beginning for the second part of the Vita nuova. "del suo sposo si lagna") and 53. going back to at least Gregory the Great. 1..3). see Glossa183.: Harvard Univ. ed.12: "s'elli e dolore alcun. Bruce CenturyAnthologyof Rhetorical "Pergama flere volo" (see A Thirteenth Harbert [Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Not only does this same contrast of past (if illusory) joy and present sorrow govern the sestina." ["facta est quasi vidua domina gentium.13. per quem in quibus bonis fuerimus.1-2: "Ai lassa. primus est. cf. 1.121-123. are themselves susceptible to analysis as an amplification of. tu padre")." The topic is typically the first listed in Lamentations commentaries because its apposite example is the first line of Lamentations: "how is the mistress of the Gentiles become as a widow. 18: 250).12. vidua" from Lam. 35) makes the same point of the relation between the third line of "O voi che per la via d'Amor passate" (Gorni 2. Francesca's famous lines. Press." and Francesca's verses at Inf. . Dante's sonnet beginning with an adaptation of Lam. sicut hic." 87 Gorni (Vita nova. ostenditur. 1975]: 34-37). . "Quomodo sedet sola .ed. but by adopting Francesca's use of it Petrarch does in a sense enfold within his collection the opening line of Lamentations. that understood the city as the human soul.... preface: ".13. sconsolata la mia vita. quanto'l mio grave. lamenting the absence of Laura.MLN 31 . see Peter Dronke. 1. princeps provinciarum facta est sub tributo"]. . for 27. lamentationes..1. De inventioneI. H. Both adaptations appear mediated by Lamentations commentary. it is explicitly the reversals of Fortuna that are evoked (see Cicero. 5. 87 Poems.82 1494) in the Canzoniere passage (Canzoniere: ("Tu marito. / come rimani vedova e dolente!" The second verse renders "facta est. Rimedisperse: poem 34. Borgnet [Paris: Vives..14. however. 1. Hubbell [Cambridge. p.

ritual inversionof the last sestina.88In his suggestive reading. as poem 332 is followed by the arithmantic poem 333. Asor Rosa. too. / che'l pianto di torni. in canzone 268 and related texts). Roberto Antonelli.91and it is all the are more pertinent to my argument here in that pianto and allegrezza both conversiones piangereand allegro." a formulation not wasted on Petrarch as he applied the "versatio in luctum" topic (see Martinez.90 As Frasca and Gorni argue. 28. in turn separated from 366 by 33 poems.89 In formal terms.which are concentrated at the ends of verses in "Mia benigna fortuna. "La sestina": 235 suggests a numerological link.94-96 Dante phrased the original fall of humanity from innocence into sin: "per sua diffalta in pianto e in affanno / cambi6 onesto riso e dolce gioco.32 RONALD L. "PetrarcaRerumvulgariumfragmenta. ." Letteratura ed. vol I.far mipb lieto. esp. also Guglielmo Gorni.the terms first found opposed of in Vitanuova 2 and subsequently in the nexus of relations between "Li occhi dolenti" and Petrarch's "Che debb'io far." This formal inversion is of course theologically grounded in the traditional idea of the Virgin's task as the reversal and erasure of the guilt of Eve. as we saw. and indeed in the entire second part. "Frons rhetorical petitio of the Canzoniere." "La mia benigna 88Berra. as we saw. MARTINEZ The notion that death might make the speaker happy. Dalle Origini al Cinquecento (Turin: Einaudi."' in Lecturapetrarce (1987): 201-18. A. the canzone to the Virgin. the number of years of Christ's earthly life and the appropriate run-up to the canzone on the Virgin. "PetrarcaVirgini (Lettura della canzone 7 CCCLXVI 'Vergine Bella. and this also makes it a distant echo of the appeal to readers at the beginning of the collection. 90At Purg. from the impasse of fixated mourning crystallized in the sestina. 209. 91See Frasca." Like the phrase in the last verses of the sestina Eva in allegrezza mi pu6 lieto"). using reiterations of Vergine. which Petrarch uses to finish his sestina-and which. salutationis':58 observes that the canzone to the Virgin is the 89 Goldin-Folena. term that beginstwo verses in every stanza. the final canzone is an incantatory. to "unwrite" the repeated mentions of Morte. just as "Voi ch'ascoltate" is its salutatio. 1992): 408-10 for the circularity of the total structure of the Canzoniere. 366. this formula inverts back tojoy the turn from joy ("far to sorrow I have been following in my argument. see also in italiana. "Lament and Lamentation": 48-51). beyond or excepting death. abbreviates and reverses the versatioin luctum-provides a crucial link to the final poem of the collection. 245. such an inversion offers the sole escape. Le opere. Guglielmo Gorni notes that the appeal to the Virgin is the antidote to the appeal to death concluding the sestina (an appeal also present. a task to which Petrarch refers explicitly at verses 35-36: "Vergine benedetta.

" Petrarch stakes his hope that his long years as a weeping statue. both Dante's composition of the "figliuola d'amore" and that of tristizia are marked as especially important 92The phrase "il pianto di Eva"may allude to the derivation. given after the Fall as a malediction. echoes of "Donne ch'avete" are concentrated in sonnet 248. which anticipates the mortality of Laura and introduces the sequence 249-252 anticipating Laura's death and the mourning program of part II." How important "Li occhi dolenti" is for the second part of the Canzoniere has been demonstrated by readers and recalled in the discussion above. 29." the "figliuola d'amore. of the cries of pain at birth from Eve's name. as the Psalmist says: "Thou hast turned for me my mourning into joy" ['Convertisti planctum meum in gaudium mihi. 93See Santagata. in this way Petrarch retains the binarism of "Donne ch'avete" and "Li occhi dolenti" in the Vita nuova. In this concluding section. there is yet another reversal arguably at work here as well. . See Peter Comestor in the Historia scholastica(PL 198.16)." and the ballata and fragments of the "carte del lutto. Canzoniere:1520. Eve is condemned to childbirth pain." will not have been for naught: that the work of mourning will be a work indeed. In the Vita nuova. quasi diceret: Omnes dicent e. vel a quotquot nascuntur ab Eva. I will address how the conception of the Canzoniereas a doubled program of mourning can help explain the poet's bipartition of the collection. the "stile della loda" articulated for the first time with the canzone "Donne ch'avete. dixit eam Evam. a.. Shaping the poetic incantation of "Vergine bella. nor is the influence of "Donne ch'avete" on Petrarch's oeuvre unrecognized. were indeed necessary and formulaic within the scheme of Christian salvation. in Dante's Vitanuova.93 But in light of the Lamentations program in the Canzoniere. in Christian exegesis. Interestingly. "Li occhi dolenti. Masculus enim recenter natus ejulando dicit. 3." 92But such conclusive inversions were also foreseen by Lamentations commentary."' Ps.MLN 33 fortuna.1070-1071): "forte quasi plangens homini miseriam. as Petrarch refers or alludes to Mary'smotherhood of Christ in the first six stanzas. Thus John Pecham writes that the mourning of Lamentations is for the sake of its final cause. "in dolore paries filios" (Gen. mulier vero e. "un sasso / d'umor vano stillante. one that will find its sabbath and its rest. quasi alludens ejulatui parvulorum." is a "figliuola di tristizia" that inaugurates the "widowed"poetics of the second part." In scripture.how the transition between the styles inaugurated by these two poems in the libelloaffects Petrarch's collection may usefully be reassessed.12]. This canzone emerges in contrast to the poetry of praise.. As we saw. which is joy: it is done "so that by plaint one might arrive at the dancing of spiritual and contemplative joys.

with its 7 blank pages and foliated initial to is 94 E. for the onset of the delirium (23." esp." the second sonnet of the libello.1 introduces the second part and heralds the inception of the poetics of mourning manifested in "Li occhi dolenti." the use of Lamentations is first explicitly announced with Dante's adaptation of Lam. 1097-99.3).15). 95Dante's very use of "Incipitvita nova"as the rubric for the first chapter of his "libro della memoria" (Vn 1. a cominciamento(Vita nuova 3. 1.12 and 3. Beatrice's death is first anticipated in the canzone "Donna pietosa" and its accompanying prose.96 In this way. Petrarch's collection is similarly articulated." but which is not as close. p. cominciare used twice in Vita nuova 18. "Incipit lamentatio leremie prophete" (see Van Dyke. MARTINEZ Indeed the precise term of cominciamento beginnings.1) may echo the liturgical introduction of the Lamentations text sung on Maundy Thursday. in its presentation anticipates the sorrows of the second part and is itself marked twice as an inception. the Lamentations text. 172-173) Dante refers to the OT text as "quello cominciamento di Yeremia sedetsola civitas). yet. or cominciamenti. mostly sonnets 1-3. however. in practice. see "Pr6logos.1 (Barbi 30. the project of mourning both in vita and in morteis anticipated with the opening sonnet and its evocations of Lam. 1. nor is it difficult to demonstrate that in the text of the Vita nuova this word and its related forms cluster around the preparation for these two cardinal canzoni. 3195. pp. The hiatus between parts one and two of Petrarch's fair copy of his lyric collection in Vat.1 and 31. Sources. profeta Quomodo 96See Note 72.95 of the sorrow of Amor. even the very first sonnet. 9). It is a project for mourning the dead Laura with laments at 267. at the same time. as we have seen. 97For Rico's arguments.14.5) and for its recounting to the ladies that attend him (23. Rico's arguments concern. The for prose account of the poet's sickbed delirium.8. marked by interrupting the canzone "Si lungiamente" with insertion of the Lamentations incipit.1. which uses cominciare the author's affliction (23. and the articulation of the libelloby its principal canzoni constitute a single pattern. is used in the Vita nuova only of these two canzoni and of the sonnet with two beginnings. Note that in Vitanova 19. 268. "Initium evangelii Iesu Christi Filii Dei. and also by the Good Friday sonnet 3 and all of the poems in the proemial coronaof sonnets. and 270. 84). Gorni.97In the Vita nuova. 1. as Rico has argued. As Santagata notes.g. one might also think of the beginning of Mark's gospel.9. . the idea of inception. 1071-73.12 for the incipit of "Voi But che per la via d'amor passate. but only several chapters later is it said to occur.94 But these two lyric "beginnings" are also echoes of the beginning of the Vitanuova itself: if in the Vitanuova the citation of Lam.1. and cominiciaiin 19.34 RONALD L.

the second part notoriously begins with poems assuming Laura is still alive (264-66). while the fifth poem. Making:190-193.1 is left embedded in the text.1 is again given a large foliated initial capital and set off from the body of the text. Laura. The Chigiano L. 104399-102. concludes the proemial corona. and the text of Lam. Foster. see Gorni's edition.1 when repeated in ch.though with clear symmetrical reference back to the first sonnet: thus the attacco "Voi ch'ascoltate. both poems moreover share the term sospiri as the material basis of their words (Canz. 30. then. some emphasis is given. complementing that to the first sonnet. 28 rendered with a foliated initial." in poems 1-5 of the Canzonierea poem of penitential lamentation.. 5."' Italia medioevale umanistica 10 [1967]: 377-83). was done has been endlessly debated. "Un antico frammento della 'Vita Nuova.98 inevitably echoes and parallels Dante's use of the Lamentations incipitcharacteristically foliated and decorated in the earliest manuscriptsto divide the Vita nuova into parts in vita and in morte Beatricis. xxi-xxvii and 164-74. "Voi ch'ascoltate" occupies first place." addressing auditors and readers of the collection. Where in the libello "stile della loda" yields to the mourning of "Li occhi dolenti..1). 305 manuscript of the Vita nuova. But the Trespiano fragment (see Giuseppe et Tamburrino. is balanced by the end of the first line of the fifth sonnet.M LN 35 canzone 264. 30.99But although Petrarch too has several poems in the first part anticipating Laura's death." addressing the auditor-object of praise. 99For the importance of the articulation. Although the fifth sonnet has been extensively studied. however. Petrarch's proemial sonnets. reserves foliated initials for chapter beginnings and the initial letters of poems. 98 See Wilkins. only in poem 267 is her death announced. also function in a temporally inverted manner in relation to the two parts of the Vita the nuova." marking the inception of the act of praising Laura ("a lodar voi").2. Petrarch: 44. Santagata. Canzoniere. ". a chiamarvoi. has the Lamentations incipit beginning ch. 1. one of which is a "orrible visione" (249-54). by the translation. copied by Boccaccio. 1. In this respect. even recently. I will offer another tentative solution at the conclusion of my argument. into vernacular of the Vulgate text. Canzoniere1-5. . in the left margin. Petrarch's transition from part I to part II might appear to thwart or evade Dante's pattern of visionary anticipation followed by narrative verification: the announcement of Laura's death is Why this displaced from the articulatory moment of the Canzoniere. the sonnet "Quando io movo i sospiri a chiamar voi. possibly representing an older tradition closer to Dante's intentions. the Lamentations incipit is given only a small capital (fol 21v) and when repeated in ch.VIII.

Gianfranco de de in e Contini."'Sub lauro mea. nome di Lauranel Canzoniere "I1 petrarchesco. after Beatrice's death-itself anticipated by the truncation of her name during the delirium-reticence is self-imposed on any full 100 Calcaterra.'00 Petrarch's fifth sonnet parses the physical act of saying the name of Laura: the sonnet constitutes a gloss on meanings Petrarch finds graphically and acoustically implicit in the name. e dico: 'Or se' tu morta?'/ E mentre cosi la chiamo. Petrarch introduces an interdict emerging from within the name Laureta itself.36 RONALD L.1: "la quale fu chiamata da molti Beatrice li quali non sapeano che si chiamare"). hrsg. in the sestet."L'esegesi petrarchesca l'elezione del 'sermo lauranus'per il linguaggiodel 'Rerumvulgarium StudiPetrarcheschi 4 n. 293-309.1993. Fredi Chiappelli. in "Donna pietosa. As Chiappelli observed. In the second quatrain of his sonnet.l10 Calling out Beatrice's name is also a crucial gesture during the crises in the libello. "'Sermo che lauranus."). "Li occhi dolenti.Harvard e Press." . intorno all'enigma onomastico del sonnetto V ed alle sue funzioni poetiche. sol nel mio lamento. which begins by raising the question of how Beatrice's name is to be understood (2. In the Vita nuova speaking the name of Beatrice is also interrupted.. 101 See Chiappelli. 1970): 193-99. this interdict is intepreted as the disdain of the sun-God Apollo for praises directed to his laurel-Laura by a presumptuous mortal. both during the delirium recorded in the central canzone. the enunciation and meaning of Beatrice's name are also important to Vita nuova. me conforta.." Varianti altralinguistica (Turin: Einaudi.s. ch'io solo intesi il nome nel mio core". an interdict based upon his supposed unworthiness for the task of praise ("TAci . 1517: "voce . Begegnungen. 1976): 12-14. MARTINEZ its relation to the text of Vita nuova has not to my knowledge been described in much detail. presuppostada RVF5 fosse pensata come una vita nuova rimastaletterariamente inespleta." (14: "chiamaiil nome della donna mia") and in the canzone of mourning. / chiamo Beatrice.. si dolorosa e rotta si da l'angoscia del pianto."' (1987): 47-85. fragmenta.Von AndreaKablitz Tiibingen. Petrarch's Poetry Lyric (Cambridge. che farle honore / e d'altri homeri soma che da' tuoi").13. "Donna pietosa.. AlfredNoyer-Weidner.GunterNarr. Robert Durling." where the cry serves as self-consolation (55-57: "Poscia piangendo."' note 19:"quasi questafasebattesimale 62. Festschrift sechzigsten Geburtstag Bernhard und UlrichSchulz-Buschaus. "Prehistoire L'AURA Petrarque. Later in the book. 23." by the poet's own weeping (w. in this way suppressing Beatrice's name in a context where reticence was socially necessary." in Literarhistorische zum von K6nig."' Nella selva del Petrarca: See 89-108. "la mia voce era si rotta dal singulto del piangere").

with its overt . at the extremes of the proemial beata.5) and the canzone "Donna pietosa" verse in 54 ("vidi turbar lo sole"). 3-4. both the prose ("pareami vedere lo sole oscurare. further discussion of the event is left "a un altro chiosatore. the possibility that mortalin line 14 of the sonnet harbors a reiteration of the TAin TAci(verse 7). Francis of Assisi. "d'ogni reverenza d'onor degna") again echoes Dante's text where he announces Beatrice's death and her enrollment in heaven under the device of the Virgin Mary (28. also Matth. see Noyer-Weidner. . for these reason. comparing Par. the correlation is extended to part II and its exemplary laments in 268 and 332." 23. donne." prehumanistically shifting the role of the writer from a glossator to an imitator of the Horatian prescriptions in the Ars poetica. . however. In the Canzoniere."'02Similarly. Francis. as we saw. Canzoniere. Petrarch'sLyric Poems (Cambridge.105 102 Though recent interpreters discount. 105Santagata's note to sonnet 3 (Canzoniere: 19) refers to Luke 27." 8. Mass. . this sonnet of course from Vita nuova ch. in my view too categorically.29 ("sol obscuratus est") describing the darkness at the crucifixion. both reveal strong intertextual links with the Vita nuova.44-45 ("et obscuratus est sol") cf. in the fifth sonnet. farle onore". This correlation is extended to two other proemial sonnets of the Canzoniere. 103For the Horatian parallel. from "Ne li occhi porta. 24. based in the correlation established there between the death of Beatrice and the death of Christ. parallel with St. and may indeed spring from the interruption of Beatrice's name in the Vita nuova as an acoustic presentiment of death. corona.: Harvard University Press. lo ne cui nome fu in grandissima reverenzia le parole di questa Beatrice Thus sonnets 1 and 5. . Santagata. addition to sonnet 3. Canzoniere: in the same gloss Santagata notes a parallel in Dante.49-50 with verse 14 of the sonnet. Petrarch allows that praise of Laura is "d'altri homeri soma che da' tuoi. These passages are drawn on in Vita nuova chapter 23.M LN 37 account of Beatrice's passing because this would entail both the author's insufficiency to deal with the subject ("non sarebbe sufficiente la mia lingua") and his indulgence in self-praise ("laudatoredi me medesimo")."). with the thread of continuity often marked by references to the darkening of Laura's sun by death.'03 The link between Vita nuova chapters 28-29 and the fifth sonnet of is the Canzoniere not only thematic. 17.1: ". to the effect that "the silence in line 7 is now connected with the idea of death" is a crucial one. "Il nome di Laura": 301 and 28. a gloriare sotto la insegna di quella regina benedetta virgo Maria. 1976): 13. 11. which associate Laura in the former case with Christ's passion and in the latter with that closest recorded imitator of Christ. the observation of Robert Durling. 104 For the 25. The emphasis in the sonnet on the need for reverence in praising Laura ("reverire e insegna/ la voce stessa" . "aiutatemi.104 Subsequently. see Santagata.

See also sonnets 275.12-14. . Canzoniere: 167 lists as anniversary poems Canz. 364.3 read "et e obscurato il sole agli occhi miei" and the final version (268.2).RONALD L. for v. see Chiappelli. could be It said that. "Petrarch's Giovene donna. as against fifteen in the first part. 212. 79.just as Dante says in part II of the Vitanuova that his city. "et poi'l vedrem turbare") echoes the verse of "Li occhi dolenti" ("vidi turbar lo sole") while 13 ("fien le cose oscure et sole") follows the prose of ch. though not including. 23 ("lo sole oscurare"). see Robert Durling. while there are thirteen such poems in the first part-enumerated from. 16-19. and 283. For discussion of Laura and the defectiosolis. 266. and many more if the sestineare thought of as anniversary poems. "discolorato ai.14 and 336. morte.13 might confirm the derivation from the Vitanuova. as does sonnet 1 more specifically. see also Fragment 64 ("Occhi dolenti". There are eight sestinein the first part.30. and four madrigals to boot. il piu bel volto.Maddox. . with respect to the first part. the chief distinction between parts I and II of the Canzoniere that the is second part is humbled and impoverished. 145." also helps to govern Petrarch's criteria of selection for part II of the Canzoniere. preserved on the same piece of parchment as the congedoto the first version of 268. MARTINEZ The emphasis on critical junctures in the narrative of the Vita nuova for the introductory coronaof sonnets of the Canzoniere serves. Thus. and by implication his poetic style. 278. sonnet 3-. the poetics of of part II of the Vita nuova. Sturm. 6-7 and 218. to announce the importance of the poetics of mourning developed by Dante in the Vita nuova generally for the second part of the Canzoniere. see also Canz. For identifying sestineas anniversary poems.'10 There are in the second part no poems of invocation of the crucifixion. oscurato e'l nostro sole"). w. "Le theme. is "quasi vedova dispogliata di ogni dignitade" because of his mourning for Beatrice (30. 271. the first version of 268. 62. Petrarch's 52-53. Canzoniere 860). though a double one. 106Santagata. Santagata. announced with the Lamentamourning tions incipit and the canzone "Li occhi dolenti. 50. 101." esp. 3-4: "poi che'l sol vi si oscura / che lieti vi facea con suo splendore".6 ("fia la vista del sole scolorita").1 and 31. 23." esp. dispogliata.3 and thus closely linked both to Petrarch's mourning program and to Dante's canzone "Li occhi dolenti. but only one in the second. 7 (. Only one poem in the second part is a ballata. More specifically. 278. 31.17: "et in punto n'e scurato il sole"). ." however neither he nor Santagata link Petrarch's use of the image to Vita nuova ch. measure the time since her death). 122.1-2.only one poem addresses an external interlocutor (Sennuccio). while there are six in first part.1 ("Occhi miei. 118. in the second part of the Canzoniere. notes that Petrarch's idea of writing anniversary poems may have Metamorphoses: drawn inspiration from the anniversary sonnet on Beatrice's death in Vn ch. 34." Sonnet 218. 107. Only one poem in the second part (364) explicitly dates the passage of time since the first sight of Laura (though two others.

quia fugientibus Apostolis. 136-138. 114. like 105).i spogliata nostra vita et scossa / d'ogni ornamento et del sovran suo honore. the canzoni of the second part are grouped only as pairs. 28. from "Li occhi dolenti. . and esp. poet despoiled of her. Rationale 6. Cum itaque nudatum altare conspicimus. 12." 24-26. 176177.72." the stripping of the speaker's life may be associated with the stripping of the altars and reduction of liturgical elements during the period of Christ's passion. seu corpus ejus." a ballata which derives all its rhymes. 108 See also Canz. although there are a dozen or more in the first part.and at w. and even five (125-129). "Maqual ch'io sia la mia donna si vede" (see Santagata." 71-73). which "." esp. . 326) is a traditional planh or compianto. 09For this trope of the liturgy. 2223." echoes 324.such as 206. . 7. For these texts applied to the Vita nuova. Moreover. churches were "widowed" as the Church itself was widowed of its Spouse by the crucifixion.1 where Dante offers the image of Florence "vedova e despogliata da ogni dignitade" as the implicit model for the abjection of "Li occhi dolenti. despectum. Secundo.12 "et qual e mia vita. desideravimus eum. see Durandus."'08 Like the despoliation of "Li occhi dolenti. as well as in pairs (e. so that. ella sel vede. see Rationale6. . Altare igitur vestimentis denudatur. Santagata Canzoniere: "nostro stato dal ciel vede. 1245-1246). v.107 Although in the second part there are ten canzoni (a perfect number). in the words of contemporary liturgiologists. significant . whereas in part one. 206-207). high given the total of only one hundred and one poems.1: "Altare namque Christum. It is thus no accident that in the second part Petrarch alludes to the passage in Vita nuova 30. . denudatio altaris designat quod Christus fuit nudatus in Cruce. in terms contemporary with Petrarch). I would propose that it may also be taken as an impoverishment suited to mourning Laura dead.. quia et patres nostri viduati post mortem Christi fuerunt. Canzoniere. Christus solus remansit ." Petrarch's sonnet (Canz. see Martinez. 53).6: "Sic ergo istud officium [Matins on Maundy Thursday]." where it is Laura who is despoiled of the world rather than the 1155 notes that the beginning of v. orfrottole.g. 295. illud et propheticum ad memoriam revocamus: Et vidimuseum. . Whatever other account one might give for such a reduction and leveling of variety in part II.et non erataspectus. "Mourning Beatrice. 5-6 addresses Death. 232 and 238 have substantial political content.et novissimum virorum"(Isa. quod caret principio et fine. 53." For the stripping of the altars on Good Friday. v.76. such as 29. four (70 and the "tre sorelle.27. canzoni are found in groups of three (28-30).5-6. "Poi che l'ultimo giorno et l'ore extreme / spogliar di lei questa vita presente. or coblasdoblas.'09 That this technique of abjection and 107 Most would probably agree that Canz. 102-104. 69. 128. quasi mortuum et viduatum videtur. they are not as varied in form (none are unissonans.M LN 39 political content (satirical or moral poems. .

Beitrdgezu Werkund Wirkung (Frankfurt: Klostermann.""' The frequent repetition of Laura's visitations. of variety of topics. / piena di gratia"." the lament that inaugurates the style of mourning in part II of the Vita nuova.cf.. 249-252).. 55: "'.. . thus furnish the topical aspect of melancholy monotony (I am not aspiring to exhaustiveness of description) that accords with the "mourning" poverty and humility of poetic means. also anchor canzoni 323 and 325 to the series 11 Santagata.40 RONALD L. w. di morir di pianto". acoustically. Petrarca 1304-1374. vengo sol per consolarti. . or distant. 199-201).cf."0 Thus the mourning of the second part is "monotonous" formally.. 42-43: ". 323. "ParusiaRedemtricis: Lauras Traumbesuche in Petrarcas 'Canzoniere. the first part is "crowded with incident.11: ". 13: ". 334. Canzoniere: 1121 lists Canz. se n'e See gita in ciel".49-63." and 359." (Santagata." as well as varied and rich in poetic means. 323-[324]-325. hallucinations and dreams." Quadernipetrarcheschi (1987): 139-166.. 75-76: "figliuola di tristizia."' MLN 104 (1989): 1-38. one section anticipates Laura's death (Canz. proposes a distinction between the two parts based on their relative narrativity:in the first part narrative is avoided in order to freeze time and resist death. n6 cangiar posso l'ostinata voglia: / cosi in tutto mi spoglia / di liberta . 331. To adopt Oscar Wilde's words. "Or donde / sai tu il mio stato?" w.. MARTINEZ impoverishment remains specifically linked to the Vita nuova exemis plar throughout the second part of the Canzoniere evident from my discussion in this paper. "tristo e sconsolato. 77-78). see Oscar Budel." The strong parallels in 324 to Dante's canzone." v.35. cf. 359.13-14. the many politically contextualized poems create a backdrop of historical contexts and events. the poet receives and comments on a picture by Simone Martini (Canz. Canzoniere: 1093).". . 359. in "The Making of a Lyric Sequence: Time and Narrative in Petrarch's 'Rerum vulgarium fragmenta. 71: "lieta si dipartio .110: "ho di morir tal fame". but it is invoked in the second part because Laura must be preserved in time. 112Teodolinda Barolini. . "dolce di morir desio" and 325. 356. cf. 331-332. 38-39: "voglia /. These claims are .. . and Giuliana Crevatin. 270. . which is oneiric. of interlocutors. 341-343. cf. which do not occur in diurnal time at all but as visions. 281-287. 1975): 33-50. vatten disconsolata".133-135 and 31. in fact all the canzone-groups of the second part (268. there are episodes of Laura ill. v.w. Not so the second part. 359-360) include allusion to "Li occhi dolenti. and crystallized around Laura's dozen or so subjectively experienced "returns. time must be appropriated."' in Fritz Schalk. or that concern the poet's preoccupation with her glove and hand (Canz. 37-40 also furnish rhymes for 360. In the first part. . Or sei tu morta?"'. repetitive. "Quid de nocte?Francesco Petrarca e il sogno del 4 conquistatore. discussed above. 29-30: "Partissi. A principal inspiration for Laura as revenant is of course Dante." The rhymes doglia voglia spogliain "Li occhi dolenti" w.75. . in the obsessiveness and consis110 "Liocchi dolenti.'2 Indeed. and generically: it displays a lack of metrical variety. 107:"mia donna al ciel e gita. rhetorically. Purgatorio 30. 270. . 323.

45-46). are to be lamented. as are conforto. the idea that Petrarch must continue to love Laura even dead (Canz. that Laura's death has "freed"him from Love's yoke (but where Love appears determined to replace him. but rather to whether the task of mourning is single or double. and which in Freudian terms has the contours of fixated mourning.E270). 27 in II. 114See. are neutral as to number of uses in the two parts. and mourning the additional expense of lamenting her dead. As we saw above. each of which combines sorrow over Laura's death with continuing devotion to her beauty. 267. for example. and 18 in I. Santagata's note (1997:1122) on "torni / a consolar" in Canz. The persistent fantasy that she is still available to the Petrarch's perception. This is consistent with the main "event" of the second part. and the sorrow at its loss. Santagata is more cautious. cf. is also consistent with this view. 268.1).dominate in part II: consolar and related forms are found four times in the first part. and lamentietc. and with the dominant intertext. Lacrime:61-83 and Laura Paolino. five times in the second.M LN 41 tency of Petrarch's "work of mourning" in the second part there is abundantjustification for an analysis of what in in late-medieval terms would have been thought a near-pathological state of tristitia. Dante's "Liocchi dolenti." which defines itself as disconsolata the in congedo (v. but sconsolato only once in the first part. .113 In one sense only is the second part enriched with respect to the first: in the amount of weeping done in its poems."4 we can perhaps deduce from the inclusion in part II of poems in vita Petrarch's intention that part II include both aspects-continuing to lament the expense of spirit in fruitlessly loving Laura for a lifetime.affair is referred to in 270 but especially in sonnet 271. especially in respect to 271 (Canzoniere: 1084-1085). It is then logical that Petrarch not divide the book according to Laura in vita and in morte. that her beauty returns to haunt him (268. the the wake of the sestina's "doppiando il dolor" we may re-christen the "duplex planctus": that is. but they do not directly affect the arguments of my essay. On the vexed issue of whether a second love. six times in the second.' (R V. piangere. which are juxtaposed to the claims of Canz. Bettarini argues against the second-lady hypothesis. and 270. 270. From this perspective. (but cf.270 and 271." Studi eproblemi critica di testuale49 (1994): 11-24. see the discussions in Bettarini. or melancholia. 11 dolor.dogliaetc. and consolata. the inclusion of poems 264-266 suggestive and have been influential. both the struggle with love. "Appunti in margine alla canzone 'Amor se vuo' ch'i' torni al giogo antico.267. maintained by her habit of nocturnal visitations. 359. the poet's consolation by Laura in visions and dreams. and in the doubling of the subject of mourning. according Although explicit announcement of this double sorrow occurs only with the laments of Canz.1).pianto are favored in confortare the second part (almost two to one.282. there are of course 12 uses in 332 alone). 76) but which also includes the poet's being comforted by saying the name of Beatrice (v.12 lists the reiteration of the phrase in the poems of consolation. the "duplex duellum" which.sconsolata.9). 56).

also picking up thesaurofrom 269. see Maurizio Perugi.1 ("Ite. but also inevitably projects forward the poet's attempt in the second part to persuade Death to take him. Roberto Antonelli.16 Finally. esp. significantly. the "Segnor mio caro" evoked a response from Sennuccio del Bene in 1345. in which the Arnaldian topic of tears wearing away stone looks back to repeated attempts to persuade Laura in the first part of the collection.but between lamenting the vanity of love and lamenting the vanity of love and remembrance combined. and as we have seen. "Petrarca": 445-46 also suggests an emblematic placement for "Asprocore"just after canzone 264. Giovanni Colonna and Laura. while the poet hesitates at the crossroads. MARTINEZ in part II is not only fullyjustified. 15 Petrarch's division of the book is in fact designed to if not minimize. 38: "e'n versi tento sorda et rigida alma"). though after poem 266 Morteproves more hard of hearing than chaste Laura herself. Thus it is that including 264-266 assures that the division of the collection is not simply or even principally between vita and morte. 115 .42 RONALD L. these last lines combine the chase of the wind with the attempt to wear away Laura's stony chastity (v." the same two persons mourned as dead a few poems later in sonnet 269: initiating a double project of mourning in a slightly different sense. 116 See.5. while 265. 1985): 292-13. as a summary and valediction of the poetry of love in vita. che il mio caro thesoro in terra asconde"). . the bivium. Petrarch inserts another "hinge" text. 311-13. 12." moreover. each of the intruding poems assuming a Laura adhuc in vita alludes to some aspect of Petrarchan lament understood as doubled. the poet's continued weeping over his harsh fortune at the hands of Madonnaand Love in poem 265 (cf. By the same token. in the first part.1-2. In the case of canzone 264 it is the twin temptations the deplored by Augustine in the Secretum. sonnet 266. it is necessary. "Non e si duro cor . 5-7. Both "Aspro core" and "Segnor mio caro. "Aspro core" was written in 1350 (Santagata). of moral conversion." anticipates the hardness of the tomb in 333. are linked to the moment of composition of 1349-51. then to blur the distinction of life and death. "piango ad ognor") will subsequently share attention with weeping over Laura's death. coordinates anniversaries remembering two cardinal persons in Petrarch's affective life. . rime dolenti. 212. w. Canz. al duro sasso. Laurel of Fame and that of Laura's beauty. a pairing that heralds the loss of the "doppio thesauro. on the very brink of the first poem lamenting Laura's death. rather than accentuating it. For the a sonnet. 8 and 239.34-39. the presence of Sennuccio is important for the nexus of texts around Canzone 268 (Sennuccio is the only named addressee in the second part). With sonnet 265. Trovatori Valchiusa:Un frammentodella culturaprovenzale delPetrarca (Padova:Antenore. To strengthen the suggestion that a "duplex planctus" is the burden of part II.

which by invoking the double hazard circumscribing the speaker ("fra le van speranze e'l van dolore") suggests the double subject of early.. the years since Petrarch's first sight of Laura. ." which parallels 264. Sonnet 364 concludes with a verse ("ch'io conosco il mio fallo. ineradicable attachment to her mortal beauty. as it evokes at the outset the wasted sighs of juvenile longing (verses 1-4). which thus confirms the close link between the beginning and the end of the second part. nel duolpien di / speme" (364.1 and piangendo at 365.1-2). dieci altri anni piangendo"(364." The juxtaposition of pensandoat 264. In this antepenultimate poem of the collection two durations are again recorded. . in short. illusory hopes and subsequent mourning. lieto nel foco. of the "duplex planctus. The same division of Petrarch's mourning task is also suggested by the sonnet's extremes. and concludes with the bitter. Indeed the proposal of the double subject of lament is already present in the proemial sonnet. et al peggior m'appiglio"). the last sonnet in the collection absolutely (and last poem of all with the exception of "Vergine bella"). "cosa mortal." The attenuation of the separation between life and death by the inclusion of 264-66 tends to confirm the Rico hypothesis regarding the dating of the first sonnet and the stoic-penitential ordering of the Canzoniere after Laura's death. recur with variation at the other extreme of the collection. itself suggests the thematics of the double task of sorrow. at one extreme of the second part.4).1-2.M LN 43 The double program for mourning Laura also appears reflected in the way Petrarch in the second part dates his years of loving Laura. Petrarch in the second part of the Canzoniere laments both the physical loss of Laura to death and his lifelong. the second Laura's death. ". "Tennemi Amor anni ventun ardendo. and the years since her death: the double temporal tally. e nel penser m'assale / una pieta si forte di me stesso . In conclusion. the first lamenting Love's yoke. sonnet 365: "I'vo piangendo i miei passati tempi / i quai posi in amar cosa mortale. . at a distance of exactly one hundred poems from canzone 264. an evocation of 264 that is then confirmed by the first verse of the very next poem. the very first verses of the second part. mature knowledge that "quanto piace al . in poem 364. The double set of anniversary dates in sonnet 266. both alive and dead." That both temporal reckonings are given in one sonnet. e non lo scuso") that unmistakably inflects the final verse of 264 ("et veggio'l meglio. announcing intensified penitential weeping over the erring self: "I' vo pensando.1 itself recalls that of ardendoand piangendoin rhyme positions in the first quatrain of sonnet 364.

44 RONALD L. e tu.. at the same time. the temporal distinction of before and after ("quand'ero in parte altr'uom . In Petrarch's conception. ["gir . of distinct moments that are yet overlapping and continuous we already have the model for the transition between first and second parts of the Canzoniere as one between simple and complex mourning. ma pianto: non fa per te star fra gente allegra 82 vedova sconsolata in vesta negra.sol nel mio lamento / chiamo Beatrice 57: piangerdi doglia e sospirar d'angoscia Congedo 71: pietosa mia canzone.") and even the grammatical distinction of the two vanities speranza and dolore. 3196 fragment "Gentil alto desire": 4 Onde pensosa e lieta 5 conven ch'or si rallegried or sospire. canzon mia no. within the first sonnet.. Congedo Canz. Vita nuova canzone "Li occhi dolenti" 54: poscia piangendo. . Brown University Appendix. piangendo. . are attenuated and blurred. 3196 ballata "Occhi dolenti": 2 piangeteomai mentre la vita dura 3 poi che'l sol vi si oscura 4 che lieti ci facea col suo splendore Vat. non t'appressare ove sia riso o canto. Vat." Vitanuova 1. 268: 78 Fuggi'l sereno e'l verde. as Castelvetro acutely perceived. 11-43 may be helpful: Vita nuova sonnet 1: 8: Allegromi sembiava Amor tenendo 14 appresso gir lo vedea piangendo. che se' figliuola di tristizia 76 vatten disconsolata a star con elle. or va piangendo. A schematic presentation of the passages adduced in pp.. MARTINEZ mondo e breve sogno." Yet.14] ritruova le tue donne e le donzelle a cui le tue sorelle erano usate di portar letizia..

ma pianto) 36 Ch'e tanto or tristoquanto mai fu lieto (letizia.13. dieci altri anni piangendo. augelletto che cantando vai / over piagendo. tristizia.3.."Li occhi dolenti. vo di te piangendo 11 di te piangendono. 338. . . 310.13." Canzone 323 71 lieta si dipartio.et me p6 far si lieto 73 Far mi p6 lieto. Sestina 332: 1 Mia benigna fortuna e'l viver lieto (conversioof letizia. Vn 1) of 34 Cosi 'l1mio cantar converso in pianto (Canz.12. 268: Non canto .piangendo.il tuo tempo passato 354 14 piangendoi'l dico. altro che pianto. 310. Uses of pianger in part II: 268.2. 264. 332.12.4. al mondo dura.34.14.1: I' vo pensando]. ."Li occhi dolenti") 37 Nesun visse gia mai piu di me lieto 38 nesun vive pi6 tristoet giorno et notti 72 ch'ogni uom attrista.9.21. 338." 5 volti subitamente in doglia e'n pianto (conversio piangendo. 342. allegra) Other poems in part II including conversiones pianto: of 282 10 or. 268. nonche secura 72 ahi. Canz. / che'l pianto d'Eva in allegrezza torni.22. 359. allegro. pianto. of (Conversiones Vn 1. 279. 304.cf. 365 1: I' vo piangendoi miei passati tempi [cf. nulla.M LN 45 Canzone 325 56 "so far lieti et tristiin un momento. et tu piangendoscrivi 356 13 Mentre piangendoallor seco s'adira [l'anima mia] 364 1-2 Tennemi Amor anni ventuno ardendo 4: Saliro al ciel. come vedi. 293. 305..in una o'n poche notti 366 35-36: Vergine benedetta. ma de' miei danni 320 14 or vo piangendoio suo cenere sparso 353 1-2: .

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