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• Introduction • Pak-US Defense Alliances • PAK-US RELATIONS DURING 1970-2000 • PAK-US RELATIONS DURING 2000-2008 • Conclusion
Introduction: Since 1947 Pakistan had been facing very difficult problems related to his sovereignty and survival. The threats like India’s aggression and china’s communism threat proved a severe threat to the survival of the newly independent state with really short of resources and defensive capabilities against these threats. As it is formulated that a country goes for alliances if it is sought itself vulnerable in the conflict which it cannot handle by its own. The same was the response of Pakistan, they were also looking for alliances to strengthen its position in the international society and defer threat regarding its security and survival. In 1950’s Pakistan succeeded in concluding alliance with the US and affiliated high hopes to the alliance. But in the initial stages, these hops dashed down as US have not fulfilled Pakistan’s requirements, which they hoped from US. One of the basic reasons for that was the presence of hostile India to Pakistan and US large interests in India’s friendship which didn’t allow Pakistan to enjoy alliance benefits at a large scale. In late 1950’s and early 1960’s Pakistan relied that her all hopes and requirements cannot be fulfilled by US which led them to think about the other power’s assistance for this regard and was also a bone of connection between the US and Pakistan initially. But later with the Kissinger’s secret visit to China and Nixon official visit to China in 1972 assisted in refreshing good relations between US and Pakistan as well as newly formed relations with US and China. In the end of 1970’s with the new conflict of Russia-Afgan war the relations between US and Pakistan reconcilated because of US’s large assistance to the Afghan through Pakistan which were deteriorated in 1970’s with the Pakistan’s nuclear programme. In 1980’s Pakistan and United States enjoyed good relations with each other. Pak got played a huge role in eradicating USA’s biggest even the threat which posed danger to the image security and survival to the
USA, the threat of USSR which is eradicated with the disintegration of USSR. But again very soon, the relations between US and Pakistan fluctuated as Pakistan was inspected of having prepared nuclear bomb which was confirmed in 1998, when Pakistan tested its nuclear technology. Sanctions imposed and some of them were lifted by when 9/11 incident happened and US war on Terror started. Pakistan again becomes the United States first ally and helped a lot in eradicating terrorism. The war is still on and Pakistan is playing the same role. One of the historians has described the whole history of Pak-US relation in a single sentence. In the whole Pak-US relation’s history, Pak derived from the most alled ally of US, to the most sanctioned ally of US, to the most suspected ally of US. Pak-US Defense Alliances: Pakistan has been working as a first ally of US since independence and always try to cash its strategic importance in South Asia. To protect its position Pakistan made alliances with United States and secure himself from external threat. The major alliance made between United States and Pakistan are as under.
Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement:
First defense agreement between Pakistan and United States signed on 19 th May 1954. The United States undertook to provide defense equipment to Pakistan exclusively to maintain its internal security. 2) Badabar Base:
After visit of Prime Minister Soharwardi to United States in 1957, a secret intelligence base at Badaber near Peshawar was established and Pakistani government also grant permission for US aircraft to use Peshawar Base. Government of United Stated doesn’t gave any information about the base to Pakistani government, they only describe it as a communication center. 3) Pak-US Agreement on Cooperation,1959:
The 1959 agreement was negotiated to assure Pakistan of US support in the event of aggression. Pakistan invoked this agreement in 1971 but the US did not honour its obligation to come to Pakistan assistance which resulted in dismemberment of East Pakistan in December 1971. 4) Pak-US Agreement For Advance Military Equipment, 2006:
A major contract was signed in 2006 for the purchase of 36 new F-16 C/D aircraft and associated equipment PAK-US RELATIONS DURING 1970-2000: Beginning in the mid-1970s, Pakistan responded to India’s 1974 underground nuclear tests and then concentrates on their own nuclear capabilities. These efforts subsequently led the United States to suspend military aid in the beginning of 1979. But after the invasion of Afghanistan by Soviet Union the United States lifted its sanctions from Pakistan to gain maximum support from Pakistan, which were very helpful for the withdrawal of Soviet forces. So in these circumstances United States sold 40 F-16 A/B combat aircrafts to Pakistan.
But a change was occurred during 1985, Congress added section 620E(e) to the Foreign assistance Act. This provision, known as the Pressler amendment, required the President to certify to Congress that Pakistan did not possess a nuclear explosive device during each fiscal year in which the administration proposed to provide assistance to Pakistan. This place an important brake on expansion of a defense supply relationship between the United States and Pakistan. With the withdrawal of Soviet military forces from Afghanistan the nuclear weapons development programme of Pakistan came under intensive U.S examination again. Finally, in October 1990, President George H.W.Bush suspended U.S military assistance to Pakistan. S a result of this action, the United States stopped the delivery of 28 F-16 fighter aircraft that Pakistan had purchased 1989. Thus during Russia-Afghan war U.S provide Pakistan very good and modern equipment to improve its defense capabilities but after this there was a radical change in the behavior of United States. The equipment provided by U.S included improved warning and communication systems, anti-tank missiles, ground attack aircraft, tanks and armoured personal carriers. In 1981 Regan administration provided $3.2 billion in military and economic aid and within this package $343 million were allocated to buy 40 general dynamics F-16 Hornet fighter/interceptors, sparrow and sidewinder missiles. The F-16 fighter planes are modern advanced aircraft and it was widely believed that the F-16s would provide a credible deterrent and strategic edge to Pakistan in the region. Additionally, Pakistan obtained the AIM 9L version of the sidewinder missile. It also received Harpoon anti-ship missiles, upgraded M-48 tanks, tanks recovery vehicles, towed and self-propelled field artillery, armed helicopters and second-hand destroyers. Radar equipment purchased from US companies was used to provide aircraft warning systems on the western
border. The US provided necessary equipment for infantry divisions, armored divisions, armoured divisions, air force squadrons and assistance to build new air force basis in NWFP and Baluchistan. They also provide special assistance to build sea ports in Gawadar and Karachi harbors and to supply ancillary equipment. Throughout 1990’s the United States essentially suspended military cooperation and arms sales to Pakistan, because President Bush did not certify to congress that President Bush did not certify to Congress that Pakistan did not possess nuclear weapons, due to this Pressler sanctions went into effect. One of most serious result of the aid cut-off for Pakistan was the non delivery of 28 F-16 aircrafts ordered in 1989, for which Pakistan had already paid $658 million, lost $564 million. PAK-US RELATIONS DURING 2000-2008: Again with the drastic event of September 11, 2001 when the attack on World Trade Centre and the Pentagon change the whole picture and Pakistan becomes an ally of United States. Like past again Pakistan is considered as key partner of U.S in War on Terror launched on massive scale against Afghanistan. The US administration provided million of dollars to Pakistan to maintain and increase their military capability and to secure the western borders of the country. An agreement was signed between Pakistan and United States to the purchase of 36 new F-16 C/D aircraft and associated equipment. The express rationale of the Bush administration for this specific sale was: Given its geo-strategic location and partnership in the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), Pakistan is a vital ally of the United States…This proposed sale will contribute to the
foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping an ally meet its legitimate defense requirements. The aircraft also will be used for close air support in ongoing operations contributing to the GWOT. However US remain reluctant to sell state-of-the-art aircraft F-16 fighter Jets which Pakistan badly needs for its air force. Conclusion: The History of Pak-US Relations are full of complicated events, almost in all needs US did not come to help us. As her previous experience with Pakistan during Russia-Afghan war in which US found us very good and due to this again invites us to help them for the invasion of Afghanistan. Due to participation in the Global War on Terror, there is complete instability inside the country. We are passing through the worst time of our history which is a reward from our good friend for alliance. Now our own army is fighting in Tribal areas situated along PakAfghan border and now there is no hope for the improvement of situation in these areas. Now we have to pay back in the form of complete destruction of infrastructure and economic instability.
BIBLIOGRAPHY Hilali, A.Z, US-PAKISTAN RELATIONS soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Ash gate Publishing Company: USA Sattar, Abdul. Foreign Policy of Pakistan. Oxford University Press
Cheema, P.I, Defense Policy of Pakistan
CRS Report for Congress, US Arms Sales to Pakistan. November 8,2007
Aninamous, The US And Pakistan at the Cross Roads, December 7,1982
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