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A pantry is a room where food, provisions or dishes are stored and served in an ancillary capacity to the kitchen. The derivation of the word is from the same source as the Old French term paneterie; that is from pain, the French form of the Latin pane for bread. In a late medieval hall, there were separate rooms for the various service functions and food storage. A pantry was where bread was kept and food preparation associated with it done. The head of the office responsible for this room was referred to as a pantler. There were similar rooms for storage of bacon and other meats (larder), alcoholic beverages (buttery) known for the "butts" of barrels stored there, and cooking (kitchen). In America, pantries evolved from Early American "butteries", built in a cold north corner of a Colonial home [more commonly referred to and spelled as "butt'ry"], into a variety of pantries in self-sufficient farmsteads. Butler's pantries, or china pantries, were built between the dining room and kitchen of a middle class English or American home, especially in the latter part of the 19th into the early 20th centuries. Great estates, such as Biltmore Estate in Asheville, North Carolina or Stan
Hywet Hall in Akron, Ohio had large warrens of pantries and other domestic "offices", echoing their British 'Great House' counterparts.
A butler's pantry or serving pantry is a utility room in a large house, primarily used to store serving items, rather than food. Traditionally, a butler's pantry was used for storage, cleaning and counting of silver; European butlers often slept in the pantry, as their job was to keep the silver under lock and key. The wine log and merchant's account books may also have been kept in there. The room would be used by the butler and other domestic staff; it is often called a butler's pantry even in households where there is no butler. In modern homes, butler's pantries are usually located in transitional spaces between kitchens and dining rooms, and used as staging areas for serving meals. They commonly contain countertops, and storage for tableware, serving pieces, table linens, candles, wine, and other dining-room articles. More elaborate versions may include refrigerators, sinks, or dishwashers.
THE HOOSIER CABINET:
First developed in the early 1900s by the Hoosier Manufacturing Company in New Castle, Indiana, and popular into the 1930s, the Hoosier cabinet and its many imitators soon became an essential fixture in American kitchens. Often billed as a "pantry and kitchen in one," the Hoosier brought the ease and readiness of a pantry with its many storage spaces and working counter right into the kitchen. It was sold in catalogues and through a unique sales program geared towards farm wives. The popularity of the Hoosier would herald a gradual shift towards increased cabinetry and workspaces in the American kitchen until they, like the pantry, became all but obsolete. Today the Hoosier cabinet is a much sought-after domestic icon and widely reproduced.
Traditionally kitchens in Asia have been more open format than those of the West. The function of the pantry was generally served by wooden cabinetry. In Japan a kitchen cabinet is called a "Mizuya Tansu". A substantial tradition around wood working and cabinetry in general developed in Japan, especially throughout the Tokugawa era. A huge number of designs for Tansu (chests or cabinets) were made, each tailored towards one specific purpose or another.
The idea is very similar to that of the Hoosier Cabinet above, with a wide variety of functions being served by specific design innovations. See the Tansu page for a more complete listing of different designs and more extensive information.
The pantry is making a comeback in American and English homes as part of a resurgence of nesting and home keeping since the late 1990s. It is one of the most requested features in American homes today, despite larger kitchen sizes than ever before. There is a charm and nostalgia to the pantry, as well as a practical, utilitarian purpose. The term may also be used for any small storeroom used for nonperishable foods such as canned goods; it need not be located near the kitchen, and is often found in a basement.
BOOKS ON PANTRIES:
Chapters of earlier books, particularly written during the era of domestic science and home economics in the latter half of the 19th century, featured how to furnish, keep and clean a pantry. Catharine E. Beecher and Harriet Beecher Stowe in their seminal The American Woman's Home, written in 1869, advocated the elimination of the pantry
Pantry raids were often common themes in children's literature and early 20th century advertising. cupboards and countertops. Laura Ingalls Wilder wrote a descriptive account of the pantry that Almanzo Wilder built for her in their first home together in DeSmet. pantries were commonplace in virtually all American homes. center of the home that we enjoy today (or that our Colonial predecessors had). This was because kitchens were small and strictly utilitarian and not the domestic. often well-appointed. 5 . During the Victorian period and until the Second World War when housing changed considerably. Thus. Perhaps the most famous pantry incident in literature was when Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer had to do penance for his getting into his Aunt Polly's jam in her pantry: as punishment. This idea did not take hold in American households until a century later. he had to white-wash her fence. In the last chapter of These Happy Golden Years. South Dakota. by which time the pantry had become a floor-to-ceiling cabinet in the post-War kitchen.by having pantry shelving and cabinetry come into the kitchen. pantries were important workspaces with their built-in shelving. It details a working farmhouse pantry in great detail which she sees for the first time after her marriage to Wilder and subsequent journey to their new home.
Nag had also invented a special dish to mark the birthday celebrations of Lady Canning. and they have been accommodated to European and North Americanmenus. He boasted of an elite clientele of J. P. It was named "Ledikeni" in honour of the Lady and it is very famous tilldate. These are Bhim Nag.C Ray and Dr. originating from the Eastern part of the country. Meghnad Saha. This sweet can be found in almost all Eastern Indian households. Four famous establishments of sweets grew in the heart of Calcutta during this period. has an interesting modern history. Rassagolla. Actually. The 19th century renaissance in Bengal brought about a dramatic change in the lives of Bengalis in Calcutta. one of the most popular sweetmeats in India. Very few people know that Rasagolla 6 . This particular dessert is mockingly attached to Bengalis.HISTORY OF INDIAN SWEETS Indian cuisine is known throughout the World as a sweet cuisine because almost half of its dishes are either sweets or desserts. K. Ghosh andGanguram. while global malls sell it like hot cakes. It is during this time that Calcuttans witnessed the birth of several sweetmeat shops. Bidhan Chandra Roy.C Bose. Indian sweets have made Indian food famous throughout history.CD as Dwarika. Bhim Nag had patronized sandesh and during those days.
From granular and course variety he succeeded in making it into a smooth paste. He claimed his shop to be the largest in the whole of Bengal. The fine art of making rasagollas was eventually transferred to Kolkata.was created in the temple town of Puri in the eastern state of Orissa. near Cuttack . The third famous shop in Calcutta was of Dwarika Ghosh.C Das joined hands and opened another shop by the name of K. where it has been eaten since medieval times.After rassagolla Nabin Das improved the already existing sandesh.). Then K. he recorded maximum sales recording 20 lakhs. 7 . He advertised with catchy slogans.C Das and then they invented the canned variety of the highly perishable rasagullas and it became an instant hit.C Das the son of Nobin Das and Sharadacharan Das grandson of Nobin Das and son of K. He set up shop in Baghbazar and the people there used to jokingly say. Soon his marketing and quality of sweets did the trick and in no time. The best rasagollas in Orissa are from the town of Salepur. West Bengal.`BaghbazarerNobin Das rossogollar Colombus`(Nobin Das of Baghbazar is the Colombus of Rassogolla.Another variety made at Pahala near Bhubaneswar is also equally famous. Nobin Chandra Das is said to have introduced the delightful taste of sponge rassagollas to the people of Calcutta. Sharadacharanalsoinvented "rasamalai".
Another Indian dessert that blends with the Hindu culture is the Payasam (or Kheer as it is called in Hindi). sweet shop called Ganguram and Sons was opened by Ganguram Chaurasia. Being a true chess player the king gladly accepted the sage`s invitation. In Southern India. This dessert has been an essential dish throughout the history of India. The quality of Ganguram`s `Mishti Doi` (sweetened curd) is unmatched. In the Ambalappuzha temple. 104 year old. it is believed that a wedding is not fully blessed if Payasam is not served at the wedding feast. based on an ancient legend The legend states that Lord Krishna took the form of an old sage and challenged the king who ruled over that region to a game of chess. the sage replied that he wanted an amount of rice grains for each square of 8 . Payasam is served as part of a tradition. When the king asked the sage what did he want in case he won the game. had eaten curd in the disguise of a beggar and had even given medicines to Ganguram for his diminishing eye sight. feasts and celebrations. being usually found at ceremonies. Another. Now Ganguram hasten branches all over Calcutta. In the temples of Guruvayoor and Ambalappuzha the best and most popular Payasam dishes are found.Now Dwarik`s shop has nine branches in whole of Calcutta. His family members even claim that Lord Narayana.
each pile having double the number of grains than the previous pile. the king was shocked that the sage wanted only what he thought were a few piles of grain. Western India is also famous for one of the most delicious desserts found throughout the history of Indian food: the Shrikhand.the chess board. the entire kingdom`s rice reserve had finished and when he got to the last square he calculated that he would have to pay the sage 18. Therefore. The sage then revealed his true form. each pile growing twice the past pile of rice grains. The Shrikhand is a creamy dessert made out of strained yogurt. from which all 9 . By the 40th square or so. The king lost.447. The tradition of freely serving Payasam in Ambalappuzha is stilcontinued. Hearing this request. when he could have asked for his whole kingdom or the riches that he held. He soon realized that the sage`s demand was not as small as he had thought it to be. that of Lord Krishna. the second would have 2 grains and the third would have 4 grains. the first square would have only one grain of rice. so he started placing grain piles on each square.744 trillions of tons of rice. and said that the king did not have to pay the debt then or at a go but the king would have to serve Payasam free of cost in the temple of Ambalappuzha. which was not possible for the King to pay back at a time. to pilgrims. starting with only one grain.
water is drained off. It is made during Ganesh 10 . Modak is also a very famous sweet in Western India. This great dessert is one of Western India`s most popular and traditional dishes. leaving the thick yogurt cream. since it has ancient roots in the Indian cuisine. Exotic dry fruits and fresh fruits like mangoes only enhances the delightful taste of Shrikhand.
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nuts. it is just as well its so versatile and varied! A salad can consist of many things and is so much more than wilted lettuce.Ah the humble garden salad! This is also often called a green salad and is usually presented on some leaf lettuce. onion. tomatoes. Feta cheese. There may also be some meat with the salad. pepper and oregano and finished with olive oil. seeds. potatoes. Caesar. honey and mustard or mayonnaise to name a few of a very exhaustive list! Other types of salad may be based on a food product rather than on salad or vegetables. tomatoes and cucumber! It can contain vegetables. it contains items such as mushrooms. This will be seasoned with salt. fruit. This will be sliced tomatoes and cucumber with red onion. capers. meats and cheese to name just a few! Of course there are a range of well known salads such as:Garden salad . 13 . In a traditional Greek salad lettuce will be omitted from the dish. pasta. carrots and radishes. anchovies or sardines may also be added. peppers.DIFFERENT TYPES OF SALAD As salad is so good for you. These types of salad are usually served with a dressing for enhanced flavour and these could be ranch.
There are different types of lettuce that you can use in a salad as well as different types of salad. Iceberg is another popular type of lettuce and is fresh and crisp tasting. Other items may be added including bacon or herbs such as dill. They have a mild flavour and their name actually comes from the method that they used to be transported in the early part of the 19th century packed in ice. The Chinese Leaf is a slightly bitter tasting leaf which is long and tapered. Mayonnaise is the usual dressing for potato salad but vinegar dressings are also used.A potato salad is another version of salad without lettuce and is prepared differently around the world. 14 . Some people will cook small salad potatoes and others will cook larger potatoes and chop them up. It is quite a pale green leaf in colour. It is usually prepared sliced and is good with a tuna fish salad.
15 . but with a cooked base. No other emulsifiers are allowed in this product. 4% egg yolk ingredient. BLUECHEESE/ROQUEFORT Blue and/or Roquefort cheese is added in crumbles. vinegar or lemon juice. semi-solid emulsified dressing consisting of vegetable oil (65%) and eggs. SALAD DRESSING (MAYONNAISE-TYPE) Much like mayonnaise in appearance. spices.SALAD DRESSING MAYONNAISE A smooth. Other optional ingredients may include Worcestershire sauce. creamy. acidified with vinegar or lemon juice and delicately spiced. resulting in a sharp. sweeteners. pungent salad dressing with a rich thick consistency. vinegar. chunks or granulated form to a creamy base. salt and pepper. and spices. Often used as a base for other dressings. The taste is more piquant than mayonnaise and also is often used as a base for other salad dressings. Salad dressing contains a minimum of 30% vegetable oil.
onion. such as bacon. CAESAR Oil and vinegar seasoned with Romano cheese and garlic. COLE SLAW Sweeteners and mild spices give this creamy. vinegar. pourable salad dressing a "sweet/tart" taste. chive. etc. mildly seasoned salad dressing with a buttermilk base. Many varieties are available. onion. 16 . This salad dressing absorbs excess moisture from slaw without thinning. It has a smooth. often with the added distinctive flavoring of anchovy. thick consistency and is often the basis for "house salad dressings". and black pepper. creamy combination of oil. and sour cream flavored with cucumber juice.BUTTERMILK A creamy. CREAMY CUCUMBER A smooth. Occasionally sour cream is added.
FRENCH Tangy. garlic and other optional ingredients usually associated with Italian dishes (such as oregano. flavored by tomato and/or paprika products added to oil (35% minimum) and vinegar. garlic and chives. GREEN GODDESS A thick. resulting in a zesty. tangy flavor with an easily pourable consistency.) are added to vinegar and oil. FRENCH The creamy French differs from the separating French primarily in its thicker consistency and slightly sweeter taste. 17 . Parmesan cheese. creamy pourable salad dressing flavored with anchovy and herbs such as tarragon. etc. ITALIAN Red pepper. ITALIAN (NON-SEPARATING) Creamy Italian utilizes the same flavoring as the separating Italian but is of thicker consistency. zesty and spicy.
for a heavy. steak sauce or chili sauce. onion. chopped egg. oil. THOUSANDISLAND Pickle relish and other optional flavorings such as pimiento. but pourable consistency derived from a combination of vinegar. Thousand Island salad dressing is thick and sweet-tasting.OILAND VINEGAR Contains the "natural" flavors of vegetable oil and a mellow vinegar. as opposed to tart and spicy. paprika. Low calorie products contain no more than 40 18 . and tomato with optional flavorings such as honey. tomato products or chili sauce are added to a creamy base. RED WINE VINEGARAND OIL Has the full-bodied flavor of red wine vinegar combined with oil and herb seasonings. Reduced Calorie Salad Dressings Come in many of the flavors and types listed above but contain at least one third less calories than their unaltered counterparts. Subtly seasoned with herbs. RUSSIAN Thick. garlic. sweet-tasting salad dressing.
etc. white wine. Characteristic of Dijon-style mustard is a smooth appearance resulting from the removal of the mustard bran by passing the product through a screening device. and a pungent flavor from the brown seed. water. mayonnaise. Reduced calorie foods contain 25% fewer calories than regular salad dressings per serving. DRYMIXES Also come in many flavors and are prepared by mixing with vegetable oil. Are also useful as seasonings in dips. casseroles. CONDIMENTS: MUSTARDS DIJON-STYLE MUSTARD A smooth blend including brown mustard seed. sour cream. vinegar and other acidulants. 19 . and seasonings such as salt and tarragon.calories per reference amount (2 Tablespoons). as the package directs. buttermilk or other base ingredients.
salt and a variety of spices and flavorings. with or without visible specks of mustard bran. and a pungent flavor from the brown seed. Characteristic of coarse ground mustard is the presence of highly visible specks of mustard bran and a pungent flavor from the brown seed. English and some German varieties fall into this category with tastes ranging from sharply pungent to very hot. water. YELLOW MUSTARD (PREPARED MUSTARD) A smooth paste of yellow mustard seed. and seasonings such as salt. 20 . (mildest of all mustard varieties) vinegar. clove and coriander. Chinese. tarragon or shallots. water. that is coarsely ground. Coarse-Ground Mustard (Country style. old fashioned) A blend. salt and a variety of spices and flavorings. vinegar. tumeric. brown. including brown mustard seed. vinegar.HOT MUSTARD Sharp-flavored mustard seeds (brown or oriental) are added to vinegar. Characteristic of spicy brown mustard is a uniform brown color. water. water and other seasonings such as allspice. Spicy Brown-Style Mustard A blend including brown mustard seed that is finely ground.
ketchup. sugar. Can be "hot". crushed and ground sweet peppers. or catchup is a thick tomato-based sauce with the addition of salt. vinegar and spices. 21 . Spices and other ingredients such as salt. horseradish sauce and beet horseradish. smoky or sweet. KETCHUP Catsup. COCKTAIL SAUCE A sauce similar to ketchup. cream or vegetable oil may then be added to this mixture. paprika or cayenne. A number of horseradish products are available including cream-style prepared horseradish. HORSERADISH (PREPARED) The basic formula is ground and/or disintegrated horseradish root mixed with distilled vinegar to stabilize the "heat". Horseradish and/or chili sauce may also be part of the formula. Less sweetener is used and more pepper spices are added in the form of fresh red peppers.SAUCES Barbecue Sauce A thick tomato-based sauce containing a variety of spices and flavorings. sugar.
garlic and herbs and spices such as oregano.or cream-based sauce with added horseradish (or other heat sources)."eye watering" hot. HORSERADISH SAUCE A mayonnaise. While there is no standard of identity for these products. spices and other ingredients which may include sugar. salt. and many other products. sugar. HOT SAUCE A mixture of hot pepper. salt. vinegar and salt . specialty mustards. peppers. 22 . Salsas will normally be composed of large pieces in a thicker base. onions. cilantro and basil. garlic and onion. DEHYDRATED HORSERADISH A dry powder derived from horseradish root.Horseradish is also used as an ingredient in cocktail sauce. PICANTE SAUCE AND SALSA A group of traditionally spicy sauces that may consist of tomatoes. the generally accepted view is that picantes are thinner with fewer particulates than salsas.
23 . or often with the distinctive flavor of fruit such as raisin and/or orange. slightly sweet-tasting tomato sauce. May be processed by fermentation or chemical hydrolysis. Can range from "mild" to "hot" varieties. molasses and other ingredients resulting in a slightly sweeter taste than soy sauce. STEAK SAUCE A thick. green pepper. plus herbs and such spices as garlic and onions. anchovies. WORCESTERSHIRE A thin. spicy dark brown sauce which may include cider vinegar. onions. soy sauce. vinegar. malt vinegar. onion. and garlic. SOY SAUCE A soybean and wheat protein extract combined with water and salt.TACO SAUCE An easily pourable tomato sauce flavored by hot red chili peppers. salt.
and rich with a pleasant roasted or caramel aroma. and hollandaise – were once referred to as the mother sauces. a demi-glace should have the flavor of roasted veal. CONDIMENTS: THE GRAND SAUCES Demi-glace. DEMI-GLACE Based on a brown veal stock. it will be a deep brown color. 24 . béchamel. In color. chicken or fish stock. the grand sauces are still important in a contemporary kitchen.TARTAR SAUCE A mayonnaise or salad dressing-based sauce with added pickle relish and possibly chopped capers. It is pale in color. almost ivory. The flavor will be full. VELOUTÉ As a velouté is based on veal. tomato. it’s flavor will reflect the stock used in its preparation. translucent and highly glossy. velouté. to indicate that from these basic sauces many others were created. Although they may not be relied upon as heavily as in years past.
The sauce will have a deep. BÉCHAMEL Originally béchamel called for an amount of lean veal. a béchamel will have a creamy flavor. A white sauce made by thickening milk with a white roux and simmering with aromatics. rich tomato flavor. Tomato sauce will have a clear tomato smell with no sour. It is the color of heavy cream. but will have the aroma of it’s base stock. There will be hints of supporting flavors from the stock and aromatics. opaque with a definite sheen and has the aroma of cream with a slight nuttiness. however. with no trace of bitterness or acidity. TOMATO The tomato sauce is slightly coarser than any other of the grand sauces because of the degree of texture that remains even after pureeing and straining tomatoes. Made with a roux.translucent with a definite sheen. acid. 25 . modern practice rarely includes it. yet not overly sweet. a slight hint of nuttiness may be detected. bitter or overly sweet (caramel) aromas. reflecting its base liquid of milk. slightly off-white.
almost frothy. Reduction ingredients.e. It will be a pale lemon color.HOLLANDAISE A hollandaise is predominantly the flavor of butter. give the sauce a balanced taste. i. as do the lemon juice and any additional seasonings. vinegar and peppercorns. opaque. with egg yolks contributing a great deal of flavor as well. Reference: The New Professional Chef (5th Edition) by The Culinary Institute of America 26 . but with a luster not appearing oily. The basic sauce and its variations should have a buttery-smooth texture. and an aroma of good butter.
tasty and healthy meals . a salad consisting of mixed baby lettuce leaves. and if you have to use containers rather than conventional beds: lettuce/salad leaf crops. the secret of growing carrots has so far eluded me and most of my courgettes/zucchini succumb to something called blossom end rot. chives. there is one type of veg that I can heartily recommend growing if you've got limited space at your disposal.for example. spring onions. where they reach a certain size and then gradually shrivel back down to nothing. Welsh onion and mizuna just sprouting (before the snails got to it. a name that originates from the Provence region of France and traditionally refers to a 27 . as well as chives. Most frustrating! However.) The mixed salad I ate has a name: "mesclun". They're brilliant for cheap.. baby spinach and chard. today my lunch consisted of half a tin of tuna mixed with mayonnaise (our cats got the other half of the tin). mustard.. rocket. Some of my efforts have been more successful than others for example. and last but not least.TYPES OF SALAD LEAVES The last couple of years I've started to grow my own vegetables in containers. a bit of cooked pasta. Welsh onions and pea shoots! Pic shows mixed oak leaf lollo lettuce in the big ceramic container on the right.
Don't water in the middle of the day.once a day without fail. you can always thin the seedlings out when they're about an inch high. this applies to watering all plants. 28 . rocket. leafy lettuces and endive but nowadays can be used to refer to any leafy salad mixture. The main thing is that you can ignore the instructions on the seed packet to "plant thinly in rows".mixture of chervil (a herb). because the sun will cause leaf burn as the water evaporates off the leaf's surface (actually. or failing that. If it turns out that you've planted too thickly. not just salad leaves). and I simply sprinkled the entire contents of a seed packet in there. The best time is in the evening after the heat of the sun has gone. unless it rains. early in the morning. it's worth mentioning a few things about container growing. and eat the thinning once you've cut off the roots! The second thing about container growing is that you need to do plenty of watering . Before discussing some of the individual types of salad plants that can go into your "mesclun". The container of mixed loose leaf lettuce shown in the top right hand side of the main pic is about a metre across.
Every few weeks (except in the dead of winter. as it tends to bolt and go bitter.) My compost bin is a "dalek" shaped one. the compost in the hole is ready for use Lettuce doesn't mind cool growing conditions (the optimum is 60-65 deg. next to a small area where I've dug a hole. The stuff that's nearly completely rotted down goes into the hole. In fact. If you're growing in containers. as long as you allow enough time before the first frosts. I lift the entire compost bin and put it to one side. I've situated it on a raised bed. In a couple of weeks. I recommend going for it. newest stuff first. it doesn't do so well in the height of summer. I then put the compost bin back in situ and chuck everything else back into it. I personally like to make my own compost . while I sift through the contents. and you're not too squeamish about worms. 29 .What do I use as compost? You can buy bags of compost at any garden centre and also occasionally in supermarkets/discount stores. with a lid and a small hatch at the bottom.if you've got a suitable space in your garden for a compost bin. F). So it's ideal for planting in spring or late summer. and it will germinate at temperatures not far above freezing. which is then covered with strips of carpet and weighted down with a few heavy objects to stop it from being used as a cats' litter tray. (The only slight drawback to home-made compost is that you get more weeds. when the compost doesn't rot down very fast).
Cocarde. that's it . lollo rosso or lollo bondi). Keep an eye out for packets of seeds featuring a mixture of oakleaf and lollo types of lettuce .I've found that not only are these the easiest to grow. As the name suggests. non-heading. and lollo types (e.it makes sense from a space point of view to grow non-heading loose leaf lettuce types which are "cut and come again". Grand Rapids. rather than "heading" types of lettuce. Non-heading lettuces generally fall into two categories: oakleaf types. Rossa di Trento and Red Bowl. but they provide a lovely mixture of textures in your salad bowl and even look good while growing in your container! The packet I used in the container I mentioned earlier contained seeds of the following lettuce varieties: Catalogna. thus ensuring a continuous supply and allowing you to pick only as much as you need in one sitting. Parmesan cheese and pine 30 . ROCKET Sometimes known as arugula or rucola. whereas once you've picked a head of lettuce. rocket (Eruca sativa) has a similar leaf shape to oakleaf lettuce but rather than having a plain flavour like oakleaf lettuce. olive oil.g. basil. which have frilly leaves. loose leaf lettuces can be picked a leaf at a time.it's brilliant for pepping up salads but is also fantastic when ground up with basil. it's peppery hot! I personally love the flavour of rocket . Lollo Rosso. garlic.it's got to be eaten within a day or so.
looks lovely in a salad. Again.I planted some chard late last summer and it hung on grimly through a winter that was colder than normal for my part of the world (i..these are varieties where the leaves never get really big. plus cat SPINACANDCHARD I will discuss these together because they have a very similar flavour .. because the stems are often bright yellow or pinky-red. you can grow both spinach and chard in a cut & come again fashion. Baby chard leaves. You can grow rocket in the same "cut 'n' come again" way as oak leaf/lollo lettuce. Chard tastes very similar to spinach but is more interesting to look at.nuts to make pesto. It actually likes a fairly cool climate . you can expect a mixture of both colours . Rocket originates from the Mediterranean area but can be grown in any temperate climate. 31 .sort of like a more subtle version of beetroot. Types of seed to look out for are wild rocket and mixed rocket leaves (personally I've had more luck with the latter when growing in containers). If you want to grow spinach in containers for salads. we had snow and a few nights where the temperature dropped well below freezing). Both spinach and chard are also wonderful in stir fries. the best types of seeds to look for are "baby spinach" varieties .e. If you buy rainbow chard seeds.
which means that they die back in the winter but come March/April.you will have garlic bulbs ready to harvest the following July. it's worth planting several crops in one year. and they have a very mild garlic flavour. and eat the thinnings.) Spring onions can be planted thickly in containers in much the same way as lettuce. In October/November. then you should definitely try and grow these. (Side note: it's very easy and cheap to grow your own garlic from shop-bought cloves of garlic. 32 . Welsh onions and spring onions. Both chives and Welsh onion are perennials. starting in spring . each about six-eight weeks apart. both flowers and leaves taste like a milder version of spring onion. plant single cloves in long narrow containers about six inches apart . If you like the taste of onion/garlic.Butterflies like this painted lady love chive flowers Chives. The leaves of Welsh onions are flat rather than tubular (as in the case of chives and spring onions). Chives have gorgeous lilac-coloured flowers which are actually edible. are well underway again. If you like spring onions as much as I do.thin them out as they become fatter and chunkier. they're incredibly low maintenance and they look good too. they start to grow tender green shoots and within a month.
is frost hardy and in Britain.this will encourage the plants to bush out. but I have successfully grown a variety of Chinese mustard called "Green in Snow". and snip off the top growth (including one set of leaves) once the shoots are 6-8 inches high . Plant your peas in spring. ORIETALSALADLEAVES I've only just begun to skim the surface of what's available when it comes to Oriental salads. and how yummy they are! It's a great idea to grow peas for their shoots if you've got limited space. Not to mention that it's a lot easier to grow pea shoots! Until they're about six inches high. which as its name suggests. 33 .PEA SHOOTS IN A CONTAINER PEA SHOOTS I didn't actually realise you could eat pea shoots until a couple of years ago. Be warned: snails love pea plants. pea shoots are lovely and tender. because you need a lot of plants to get a decent crop of actual peas. can be planted any time from early spring to early autumn (you need to give it some shade in summer though). with a delicate pea taste and a fantastic texture that marries up well with all that lettuce and chives. so try and find some way of protecting them. spring onion etc. whereas you can get a nice little crop of pea shoots from a container the size of a bucket.
but this time it's going in our front garden where the mollusc population is much lower! Other Oriental salads include mibuna. American Comedian TOMATOES The tomato plant was first grown in England towards the end of the Sixteenth century and. as I found to my cost when I tried growing it for the first time this year. broths and as a garnish." ~ Lewis Grizzard. I will try growing it again. 34 . being used in soups.which is getting very popular . By Victorian times.Another one . cultivation reached industrial scale to cope with demand for this ever popular vegetable. giant red mustard. even though the tomato was eaten in both Spain and Italy. mustard spinach. it was regarded as poisonous and therefore only used as a herbal remedy.is mizuna. serifon. It was not until the middle of the Eighteenth century that tomatoes became widely eaten in Britain. Again. I love mizuna but so do the snails in my garden. snails LOVE pak choi so do bear that in mind! TYPES OF TOMATO TOMATO TYPES "It's difficult to think anything but pleasant thoughts while eating a homegrown tomato.. sessantina. tat soi and the more well-known pak choi.
CHERRY TOMATOES These are much smaller than other tomato varieties and have a very intense sweet flavour. in salads or roasted. Ideal for stuffing. slicing or cooking with.Ranging in colour from vivid cherry red to bright yellow. they should have a subtly sweet aroma. Delicious as a lunchbox snack. these have a sweet dense red flesh. With a distinctive tomato aroma they are delicious in salads or try them roasted on the vine. All types are now often sold on the vine as well. choose firm tomatoes with a bright unflawed skin. Varieties of tomatoes widely available include: BEEF TOMATOES The largest of the tomato varieties. in flavour from sweet and juicy to tangy and in size from tiny cherry varieties to plump beefsteak tomatoes. 35 . VINE RIPENED TOMATOES These are packed with flavour and mature further and keep better on the vine. they are a versatile and popular ingredient. When buying.
with an elongated shape and deep colour.CHERRY TOMATOES ON THE VINE The small cherry tomato with a more intense flavour and aroma. they have a distinctive oval shape and have a very high flesh/seed ratio which makes them great for most cooking methods. SUNGOLD TOMATOES A much more delicate flavour than the traditional cherry. from casseroles to barbecues. MIDI PLUM TOMATOES Smallish plum tomatoes which have a sweet-sour flavour. Ideal for salads or cooking they also make a great snack. BABY PLUM TOMATOES The most intensely sweet flavour and juicy flesh. 36 . very juicy and a lovely orange colour which looks great in salads or as a garnish. Try roasting them on the vine or on the barbecue.
These egg-shaped tomatoes have a meaty flesh and concentrated flavour, which makes them especially well-suited to cooking. They are available in various sizes including baby. Plum tomatoes are the most popular variety for canning.
HOW TO USE
Tomatoes are served raw and cooked. Raw tomatoes are used in salads, pasta dishes, sandwiches and as a garnish for a wide variety of savoury dishes. Tomatoes are used widely in cooking and can be included in sauces, soups, stews, pies, quiches, pizzas, chutneys and pickles. Larger varieties of tomato can also be stuffed and baked. Skinned or seeded tomatoes are often used in cooking. Many fresh herbs go well with tomatoes but basil is the most popular choice. Garlic is also often included in tomato dishes.
HOW TO PREPARE
Wash tomatoes thoroughly. For salads, remove the stalk and slice or cut into quarters. To remove the skin, cut a cross in the skin of each tomato using a small, sharp knife. Place the tomatoes in a heatproof bowl and cover with boiling water. Leave for 30 seconds -1 minute and drain.
Pull away the skin using your fingers. To remove the seeds, cut the tomatoes in half and scoop out the seeds using a teaspoon. Cut the tomatoes into quarters and remove any remaining seeds by scraping them out with a small, sharp knife. If stuffing larger tomatoes, slice off the top of the tomato and scoop out the flesh and seeds using a teaspoon, stuff with your chosen filling and replace the lid.
HOW TO COOK
Tomatoes can be baked, fried or grilled. To bake, preheat the oven to 180°C, gas mark 4. Place whole cherry tomatoes or tomato wedges in a roasting tin, drizzle with a little olive oil, season with salt and pepper and chopped garlic if desired, bake for 15 - 20 minutes or until tender. To fry tomatoes, heat 2 tbsp olive oil in a frying pan and fry halved tomatoes for 3 - 6 minutes or until just tender. To grill, preheat the grill to high and cook halved tomatoes for 4 - 5 minutes.
HOW TO STORE
Tomatoes dislike the cold and storing at room temperature maximises their flavour. Keep in a cool dry place away from sources of heat or sunlight. The information and images for this article have come from. It provides full information on all the main vegetables available on the UK market including nutritional information and delicious recipes. The site is a service provided by Mack Vegetables, one of the largest and most successful suppliers of fresh vegetables in the UK, serving a wide range of customers from caterers to major multiples. You can find out more about Mack by visiting the website
TYPES OF CARROTS
CARROT (Daucus carota ssp. sativu -- Family Umbelliferae)
Carrots come in many different colours: white, yellow, purple, violet carrots, and of course, orange. Originally, the most common colour was purple; but, now, it is orange. It was first exported from Holland in the 17th century. Domestication is thought to have occurred around the Mediterranean, Iran, and the Balkans. The Greeks cultivated them for medicinal uses, valuing them as a stomach tonic. In Roman and early medieval times, carrots were branched like the roots of wild types. The now familiar conical shapes seem to have originated in Asia Minor about 1000 CE. Moorish invaders took them to Spain in the 12th century. They reached Northwest Europe by the 14th, and England by the 15th century. Although purple was the popular colour at that time, one yellow variety was mentioned as turning a nasty brown when cooked. The Elizabethans and early Stuarts used the flowers, fruit, and leaves as fashion accessories for hats and dresses. Carrot tops were highly prized as a substitute for feathers especially in the fall when their colours were more vibrant. European explorers took the carrot across the Atlantic soon after the discovery of the New World. It was found growing on Margarita Island
Organically grown carrots do not need peeling. The crisp texture of carrots is the result of the cell walls being stiffened with the indigestible food fibers cellulose. steaming them makes this nutrient more readily availability to the body as heat breaks down the tough cellular walls that encase the nutrient. Carrots contain a high amount of sugars. it is wiser to shop organic. potassium. and. can hold their nutrient content for another two or three months. The Pilgrims took it to North America. Carrots are an excellent source of the deep yellow carotenoids that produce vitamin A. a decided advantage since most of the nutrients lie just under the surface. 41 . tasting like carrots should rather than "orange cardboard". They are also a good source of magnesium. Since carrots are rich in beta carotene. like many other root vegetables. are highly prone to pesticide residue and other farm chemicals. vitamins C and B complex. carrots will actually increase their vitamin A content. hemicellulose. Carrots. During the first five months of storage. if protected from heat or light. especially nitrates.off the coast of Venezuela in 1565 and arrived in Brazil in the early 17th century. Therefore. and lignin. The flavour is vastly superior in the organically grown carrot. and a form of calcium that is easily absorbed by the body. and early colonists grew it in Virginia by 1609.
the shape and size of golf balls (Thumbelina). baby or mini carrots can be purple. and skin disorders.primarily sucrose. but very little starch or fat. the vitamin A from carrots becomes 11-cis retinol. Recent research suggests that carrots. and lungs. Carrot juice combined with beetroot is used as a blood purifier and to prevent diarrhea. the essential element in rhodopsin. Carrots can be long and thin. which triggers a chain of chemical reactions that produces vision. more red than orange (Scarlet Nantes). 42 . encourages the development of terpenoids in the vegetable and causing them to become bitter when exposed to ethylene. with their high beta carotene content. Storing carrots near apples or other fruits that manufacture ethylene gas as they ripen. Carrot tops or greens are also high in nutrients and are excellent steamed and combined with other vegetables. general nervousness. The two main carrot varieties are regular and baby with many variations in between. The Canadian and American Cancer Societies are recommending deep yellow vegetables rich in carotenes because they may lower the risk of cancers of the larynx. or twice as high in beta carotene (Park's Beta Champ Hybrid). a protein found in the rods of the eye that absorbs light. esophagus. dropsy. Like regular carrots. Other therapeutic uses include relief from asthma. straight and narrow (Nantes). In the body. slow and prevent cancerous growths.
yellow. Carrots contain peroxidase. red. In order to be sure this is what you are getting. CAUTION: 1. Be aware. They are formed by a machine that cuts them out from full sized older carrots and in some cases. The carotenoids in carrots are fat soluble and will be stored in the fatty tissues. the effect has often been mistaken for jaundice and unnecessary medical procedures have ensued as a 43 . or tapered. causing a positve result when there is actually no blood present. alphaguaiaconic acid. that the cute baby carrots found in the supermarket are not a variety grown by nature but rather the product of technology. which causes an orangey pigment to develop in the skin. 2. blue in the guiac slide test for hidden blood in feces. or white. cylindrical. Babies are cultivars that develop full flavour and colour when tender and small. buy only those with their greens and roots attached. They can also be globularshaped. teardrop. puts green food colouring at the "stem" end for further effect. a natural chemical that turns the active ingredient. While this in itself is not harmful. orange. While many are recognizing the benefits of vegetables in preventing disease some people eat too many carrots.
Leeks and salsify have also shown some success in this area. Carrots also help the growth of peas. bordeaux. it is possible to harvest carrots nine months of the year. however. Eating large amounts of tomatoes every day will also cause the same effect. the higher the carotene content. With successful sowing. a companionship often taken on in to the table. Carrots do not like to grow with anise and dill.result. There are several groups of carrots and the names indicate rootshape and time of maturity. but they do grow well with lettuce. carrots attract hoverflies and other such beneficial predatory insects to the garden. while 44 . tender core similar in colour are considered ideal. The sugar content averages 6% and higher for early varieties sold in bunches than that of larger carrots sold loose in the fall and winter. and is particularly common in those who juice their vegetables. as well as has growing them with some annual flowers. When left to flower. and maroon carrots. A higher proportion of fleshy outer part and a small. Growing carrots among onions reduces carrot fly attacks. nutrientrich. The brighter the colour. radishes and tomatoes. Beta Sweet is the trademarked name of the large and baby wine-coloured carrots. An important characteristic for judging quality is the ratio betwen the juicy. outer fleshy part and the woody core or heart. They are also sold generically as burgundy. In 1988.
Berlicum types are cylindrical and stumpy and grown as a late crop for storage. Chantenay types are stumpy and slightly tapered and the maincrop for summer. Sytan. and Newmarket. Navarre. Some varieties include Camberly. Some varieties are Autumn King and 2 Vita Longa. Little Finger. and Juared (Juwarot). three slightly maroon specimens were spotted. These include Early French Frame. crisp carrot with a more uniform maroon colour. a potent antioxidant. Nantes types are broader and longer and include varieties called Nantes Express. and thus began the cross-breeding of the high-carotene orange varieties with these shoots to produce a sweet. and Parmex. Red-Cored-2. Three other popular varieties are Flyaway. Autumn King types are large and late-maturing grown for winter use and storage. TYPES OF CARROTS INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: Amsterdam types have small stumpy cylindrical roots and include the varieties Amsterdam Forcing-3 and Sweetheart. Some varieties are Red Cored Supreme. Ingot (extremely tasty and particularly high in beta carotene and Vitamin C).inspecting some Nantes-type carrots. Paris Market types have small round or square roots that are ideal for early harvest. This trait indicates anthocyanins. and Babycan. 45 .
shapes and textures. WHOLEMEAL OR WHOLEWHEAT BREAD Made from wholemeal flour (contains all the components of the grain -close to 100% extraction rate). rye meal or flour). wholemeal or white flour.g. it has become more popular with increasing knowledge of the health benefits of bran and wheat germ. It is made from wheat flour (extraction rate of 77%) and is made into many different sizes. herbs or a mixture of these can be added. MIXED GRAIN BREAD May be made from any combination of flours (e. many of which are available in Australia. Ingredients such as other cereal or vegetable flours. seeds. whole grains or wheat and other cereals) and seeds (e.DIFFERENT TYPES OF BREAD Different types of bread are made around the world.g. sesame seeds). 46 . WHITE BREAD The most common variety of bread is white bread. Kibbled wheat and cracked wheat bread Contains or is rolled in kibbled (cracked) wheat grains. wheat germ. kibbled grains. grains (e.g.
heavy and has a stronger flavour. A starter. RYE BREAD Made from a combination of rye flour and wheat flour. rye meal and kibbled or cracked rye grains. Dark rye bread contains a higher proportion of rye flour and rye meal than light rye and is consequently more dense. while the acid imparts the final product with a tart flavour. made from a mixture of flour and water. the gas produced by the fermentation is trapped in the elastic gluten structure of the dough. Pumpernickel is a heavy. (Yoghurt is also sometimes added to provide yeast.Fibre-increased white breads Made with the addition of bran or other fibre-containing material. SOURDOUGH BREAD Sourdough bread has a slightly sour flavour and a denser texture than regular bread. dark bread made from rye flour. It is then used as a starter to leaven other breads. Sourdough describes the raising agent used to make this type of bread. 47 . causing it to rise. serves as a medium for growing either commercial yeast that is added to the mixture or the ever-present wild yeast that is captured by the mixture from the air we breathe.) This mixture is allowed to sour through a fermentation process that produces a gas and an acid.
yeast and salt. oval or round wheat bread made from flour. the steam produced inside the dough is trapped by the baked.DAMPER Traditionally baked in the Australian bush. POCKET OR PITA BREAD Flat. The Turkish version of pita bread is pide. MIDDLE EASTERN FLAT. round bread. salt and water which is oven-baked on a heated metal plate. This gives the crust a chewy texture. During baking at high temperature. It may be coated with poppy or sesame seeds and can be flavoured. The pocket can also be stuffed with various fillings. yeast. 48 . LAVASH BREAD A thin. damper is a chemically leavened white. BAGEL A Jewish bread where the dough (with yeast) is shaped into a ring and thrown into boiling water before baking.g. drier outside layers. flat bread made from white wheat flour. e. raisin and cinnamon. water. The "pocket" in some breads is made by resting the flattened pieces of dough under dry conditions so that both sides become slightly drier than the centre.
chapatti is served throughout India. The bread is flattish and has a crisp crust. The dough is then rolled out and fried in oil or dry cooked on a griddle. They are made from finely milled wholewheat flour. This procedure is repeated three times.NAAN Made in India. Pakistan and Afghanistan. naan is a wheat-flour bread leavened with a starter of the sourdough kind and cooked in a clay Tandoor oven. The dough is rolled into thin rounds which are cooked in an iron pan or on a griddle. curved to scoop up food or used for dipping in soups or sauces. called atta. The clay and the smoke in the tandoor combine to produce a characteristic flavour. 49 . CHAPATTI (CHAPPATI) Sometimes called roti. They are made every day in North India where they are used as a plate to hold other food. PARATHA OR PARATA An Indian flaky bread prepared by smearing the unleavened dough with ghee or oil and then folding the dough. Pakistan and also Iran.
a sweet bean paste or a meat filling. Mantou or mantu describes the food category of dumplings in Asia. eaten as a staple in place of rice. In northern China. Manju. Chinese steamed breads are shaped like a ball and have either no filling. curry or sweet bean paste filling. the generic term for steamed Japanese buns. They resemble ravioli and are stuffed with meat and/or vegetables and beans. Yit bien or moon cake is a baked bun filled with nuts and seeds popular amongst Chinese populations. 50 . CHINESE BUNS AND DUMPLINGS Buns and dumplings are common in north and South-East Asia.CHINESE STEAMED BREAD Eaten in most countries of east Asia. Lao bing is a Chinese-style flat bread which is baked in a pan until both sides are golden brown. mantou is a steamed leavened bread without a filling. are either lightly baked or steamed buns prepared by steaming a fermented dough with a pork.
potato or pulses is added.GLUTEN-FREE BREAD Gluten-free bread is usually based on cornflour to which flour from gluten-free grains (such as rice and maize). 51 . more crumbly texture than traditional bread. since the presence of gluten is essential for the typical structure and texture of bread. Gluten-free bread has a denser.
and was a favorite with the Duke and Duchess of Windsor. Saratoga Springs. Yet a third version suggests it was a two-decker sandwich that originated aboard double-decker club cars traveling between New York and Chicago in the 1930s and '40s. They are layered between two. FROM THE BERGHOFF CAFE COOKBOOK: "There are at least three histories of the original club house sandwich. the club sandwich was created in the kitchen of the Saratoga Club-House. tomato. lettuce. New York. and mayonnaiseand put these leftovers between his toast. A second version is that it was created by an anonymous very hungry man who came home late and. cold chicken. which consisted of cooked chicken breast. and crisp lettuce layered between two-or three-slices of bread. One version is that in 1894. lettuce and tomato. sliced tomatoes. searched the pantry-he found bacon. And the late James Beard added his two cents.DIFFRENT TYPES OF SANDWHICH CLUB SANDWICH This is a sandwich with cooked chicken breast and bacon. while making himself some toast. bacon. This was quite fashionable in New York. declaring that the two-decker 52 . possibly three slices of toasted bread with mayonnaise.
the Duchess of Bedford." Carlyn Berghoff the berghoff cafe cookbook Try their recipe for berghoff's club sandwich FINGER SANDWICHES FOR TEA The origin of the mid-afternoon tea is credited to Anna. who conquered the weak feeling at four in the afternoon by having tea and breadstuffs. pimientos. cut away all crusts. Chef Fred K. and Mornay sauce. Kentucky. sandwich bread of a tight grain. and tea shops were in vogue. Schmidt at the Brown Hotel in Louisville. 1840 is the given date for this historic moment. (Please read more in our article about high tea and low tea. HOT BROWN SANDWICH The Hot Brown is an open-faced sandwich made from turkey. In time she invited friends and the tea party was born. The sandwich is place under the broiler to melt the cheese. the country was following the Duchess' lead. There are a few caveats for tea sandwiches or finger sandwiches: choose thinly sliced. created The Hot Brown sandwich in 1926. and by 1880. bacon. In the 53 .original club house sandwich was one of the great sandwiches of all times-but that a three-decker was a horror. use a thin layer of butter to seal the bread from the moist ingredients.
Several legends surround the American hot dog. when the band took its break. it must be included here as it conforms to Webster's definition. Louis World Fair of 1904 was the starting point. Germany lays claim to being the origin of the first frankfurter in 1852.200 guests each evening for its dinner dance. a butcher from Coburg. the home of the New York Giants. the Brown Hotel drew over 1.1920s. Who really created the first hot dog? Although the city of Frankfurt. Chef Schmidt delighted his guests (and prepared them for more dancing) by creating the Hot Brown. 54 . Germany created the first frankfurter as early as the 1600s. the crowd headed for the restaurant to eat. some argue that Johann Georghehner. the St. THE HOT DOG Though the hot dog is a classic invention of its own. The band played steadily. Some claim that the first stall selling hot dogs was in Coney Island in 1916. Controversy surrounds the origin of the hot dog. the dancers grew hungry. no. while yet others claim it was first sold by a food concessionaire named Harry Stevens at New York's Polo Grounds. Today the Hot Brown sandwich is still a Louisville favorite and still the signature dish of the Camberley Brown Hotel. others shout. At midnight.
" It was only a short step from this campus use of dog to hot dog. turkey. It is then dipped in beaten egg and fried in butter. the hot dog is forever allied with the American baseball game. Whatever the truth of its origins. The name appears to be credited to the cartoonist TA (Tad) Dorga who drew the oddly presented sausage as dachshunds in buns. and a slice of cheese. One such wagon was nicknamed "The Kennel Club. MONTE CRISTO The Monte Cristo Sandwich has creative variations from one restaurant to another. Statistics say that the average American eats 60 hot dogs a year. or chicken. and this fateful move was made in a story in the issue of the Yale Record for 19 October 1895. which ended. "They contentedly munched hot dogs during the whole service.( To cook and dress hot dogs. and called them hot dogs because he couldn't spell frankfurter. July is National Hot Dog Month. please read our article hot dogs. A classic Monte Cristo sandwich should come with a side of jelly to dip it in. Another variant says that around 1894-95.in the early 1900s. students at Yale University began to refer to the wagons selling hot sausages in buns as dog wagons." Fittingly. The basic sandwich is made of two slices of white bread with ham. The original grilled cheese 55 .
this consisted of Gruyere cheese and lean ham between two slices of crustless bread. it should be served on a round 10-inch roll. Italy. It could be called olive salad on bread. at room temperature. Despite the name 'French' this is a gift of the Italian immigrants who settled in New Orleans. To be authentic.' PHILADELPHIA CREAM CHEESE STEAK CONTRIBUTED BY CRAIG TIANO The Philadelphia Cheese Steak is a long-roll sandwich filled with chopped pieces of fried chip steak smothered in melted cheese. This sandwich is still a popular snack or casual meal throughout France and Switzerland in most bars and cafes. It's fame easily surpasses the Cubano and 'Beef on Wick' sandwiches you've included. The story goes that the original cheese steak was made by a hot dog vendor (Pat Olivieri) 56 . and Scotland! This sandwich has well documented legends. It is frequently called simply a 'Muff. I've seen it on menus in the Caribbean.sandwich. MUFFULETTA The muffuletta is a specialty of the French Quarter of New Orleans. It was originally served in 1910 in a Paris cafe. fried in clarified butter.
Geno's makes their Cheese steak with american cheese. personally. Pat's serves what they call the "original". which means they'll pull out virtually all of the soft interior of the roll. The original Philly steak didn't have cheese. you ask for a "Cheese steak with onions". you have to order "wit" (as in "Cheese steak wit"). If you ask for a "Cheese steak wit". Today. the descendents of Pat operate Pat's in the heart of South Philadelphia. a variety of cheese steak which includes provolone cheese cooked with the steak. you can ask for it "scooped". They do NOT use cheese whiz. made with chip steak and cheese whiz on a crusty italian roll. That's the legend. personally. When you scoop. At both. pizza sauce poured in. prefer the Pizza Steak. If you want onions. don't like it that way. it's not something to scarf down! I. If you want onions. I. 57 . unless you ask for provolone. too. you usually end up with ketchup/pizza sauce and grease making the roll so soft that it requires you to eat it very quickly for fear that it'll fall apart.who got tired of having hot dogs for lunch. Across the street is the rival Geno's. and then topped with mozzarella and put under the broiler until the mozzarella bubbles and the roll gets a bit crispier. they'll politely correct your pronunciation of the word "with". That came later. the steak/cheese put into the roll. With the size of an average cheese steak being easily 1/2 pound+ of meat plus a roll and cheese. One of his regulars smelled the steak and onions and asked if he could have some.
similar to the bierock mentioned above.PITA Pita. onion and seasonings. OPEN SANDWICHES Open sandwiches make use of only one kind of bread with the filling on top. cookies or toasts instead of using breads. 58 . raisins. tri¬angles or rounds. The slices of white bread can be cut into squares. and many Arab countries. Greece. sauerkraut. It both carries food and soaks up juices and flavorings. Butter is spread lightly on top and pieces of cheese or meat fillings is placed on top. and is a yeasted pocket bread stuffed with beef. is of Middle Eastern origin. It has been added to diets worldwide as a lunchtime staple. pickles and the like to make them more attractive. and is today popular in Israel. the ingenious pocket bread. They make use of biscuits. This ingenious bread is a pouch as well as an absorptive dough. It also has its roots in the German and Russian. Open sandwiches are similar to canapes. They may be gar¬nished with slices of carrots. Lebanon. RUNZA This is a specialty from Nebraska.
toasted if desired. Wrap each rolled sandwich individually and chill for several hours or 59 . Place sweet pickles or several stuffed olives at the end of slice.PLAIN SANDWICHES A plain sandwich is made up of two slices of bread. Fresh cream bread is preferable because they are easy to roll and will not crack. Moreover. Trim crusts and flatten long slices with rolling pin. about 3/8 inch thick. marmalades. PINWHEELS SANDWICHES Pinwheels are made of cream bread cut lengthwise. jams and jellies. like creamed cheese. Roll up bread like a jelly roll. it ensures that the bread and the filling will stick together. Butter. preferably a day-old bread. cheese pimiento. mayonnaise or a prepared sandwich spread may be used as lining to prevent the bread from absorbing moisture from the filling. because they do not have bulk and can be spread thinly. and on which butter can be readily spread. the spread also adds flavor and nutrients. peanut butter. Spread bread with softened butter or margarine and your choice of any smooth filling. Besides preventing the bread from becoming soggy. Smooth filling are ideal for pinwheel sandwiches. Its crusts may or may not be removed. depending upon your preference.
For each sandwich. When ready to serve. Top the filled side with the buttered side. spread butter on one piece of bread and filling on the other. Arrange and serve them on a platter. Squares. Save the scraps and crusts for crumbs. cut as many pieces as possible from one slice. They should be removed from the freezer at least three hours before they are to beserved.until they are firm. rectangles and oblongs add to the variety. Use a sharp knife or a bread knife so the sandwiches are cut clear and neat. Remove the crusts of a day-old bread. Place in waxed paper or in a clean damp towel and place in an airtight container to freeze. 60 . CLOSED TEA SANDWICHES Closed tea sandwiches may be made ahead of time and frozen. Garnish if needed. With cooky cutters of various shapes and sizes. unwrap the rolled sandwiches and cut into 1/2 inch slices.
RIBBON SANDWICHES Colored cream bread is suitable for ribbon sandwiches. Al¬ternate 3 slices each of pink and green bread with one or more fill¬ings spread between slices. cut into 1/2 inch slices. Press together stack of slices and then trim crusts. MOSAIC SANDWICHES An alternate color of slices of bread is preferable for this type of sandwich. Wrap and chill for several hours. Wrap and chill for several hours. The initial step is similar to that of the rib¬bon sandwiches.' Press together stack of slices and then trim crusts. 61 . Wrap and chill for several hours. When ready to serve. Cut about 1/2 inch wide. Stack 3 ribbon sandwiches so that green and pink sections alternate. Slice about 1/2 inch thick into checkerboard sandwiches immediately after removing from refrigerator. Spread cut sides of rib¬bons with fillings. These are some¬times called checkerboard sandwiches because of the alternate squares of green and pink bread.
keep slices together in pairs so that they will fit together. 3. Apply spread on bread evenly to prevent sogginess. and sausages while others prefer simple fillings like egg. corned beef. margarine. 62 .SOME THINGS TO REMEMBER IN MAKING SANDWICHES 1. or spread at room temperature so that it will spread without tearing the bread. tuna and cheese. 7. 5. Cream if necessary. Spread very thin. 4. fillings and by cutting them into different shapes. Different colors of bread can be combined together and sliced differently to make interesting designs for the sandwich. Bread may also be multilayered with one or more types of filling as in clubhouse sandwich. 6. Have butter. Certain eating practices also affect the type of sandwich filling. When cutting bread. luncheon meat. Vary serving of sandwiches by using different kinds of bread. Some prefer the more expensive fillings like chicken. 2. Then put in the prepared filling.
Classic Burger: hamburger with ketchup. Meat-o-Rama Pizza Burger: ground beef patty stuffed with Mozzarella cheese. bacon and hickory barbecue sauce. on a crusty roll. Caesar Burger: ground beef seasoned with garlic and black pepper. onions and capers. 3. Verde Burger: grilled ground beef mixed with seasoned garlic. Mozzarella cheese and pizza sauce. 6. Pepperoni Pizza Burger: grilled burger covered with pepperoni. and topped with pepperoni and bacon. 4. topped with piquant Italian Verde sauce made with parsley. Greek Burger: topped with herbed Feta cheese. romaine lettuce and avocado slices. accented with Caesar dressing. 2. 63 . diced tomatoes and pizza sauce.DIFFERENT TYPES OF BURGERS 1. black olives and onions. 5. Hickory Burger: beef patty covered with cheddar cheese. 7. mustard and pickles.
grilled onion. Bistro Burger: ground beef covered with caramelized onions. mustard and hot peppers. 9. 10. 11. 14. Chicago Burger: grilled beef burger with sweet relish. Gyro Burger: hamburger topped with white onions. Cowboy Burger: grilled mushrooms. 16. Barbecue Burger: ground beef grilled with a tangy barbecue sauce and hot peppers. 13. Bao-Wow Burger: chili seasoned ground beef served on a Chinese Bao bun with soy-ginger mayonnaise and Asian slaw on the side. 64 . lettuce and tomato served on an onion bun. and blanketed with grilled and raw onions. Brie cheese and crisp bacon. Onion Burger: grilled ground beef seasoned with dried onion soup mix. served on a walnut bun. sautéed mushrooms. Blue Moon Burger: grilled burger topped with Bleu cheese. 15. ketchup. tomatoes and yogurt cucumber dressing. bacon and Monterey Jack cheese on a flavorful beef patty. 12.8. Brocco Burger: ground beef patty dressed with a blend of melted Cheddar cheese and cooked broccoli. chopped onion.
22.17. 19. grilled. French Bistro Burger: hamburger adorned with walnuts. Egg Burger: a lean ground beef patty paired with a fried or scrambled egg. served on marble rye. on a French roll. bacon and Jack cheese. ****************tail sauce and chopped shrimp. Earth & Turf Burger: grilled ground beef. Sticky Burger: grilled burger spread with peanut butter. Shrimpy Burgers: mini grilled burgers decorated with cream cheese. 23. beneath a golden porcini mushroom sauce with grilled zucchini squash and sweet red bell peppers. Olive Festival Pizza Burger: beef burger stuffed with mozzarella cheese and pizza sauce covered with sliced black and green olives. 21. Five-Spice Burger: ground beef seasoned with Chinese five-spice. 24. thousand island dressing and zesty coleslaw. 20. Gruyere cheese and garlic mustard mayonnaise. 65 . and served with a soy-ginger sauce. 18. Rowdy Reuben Burger: grilled beef patty smothered with melted Swiss cheese.
Horseradish-Garlic Burger: topped with onions. accented with a light peanut dressing. Chinese five-spice. Stroganoff Burger: ground beef patty dressed with sour cream. grated ginger. Trattoria Burger: grilled beef burger layered with roasted red bell peppers. 28.25.) 30. pesto mayonnaise. served on a fresh wheat bun. grilled onions. minced garlic. 27. and grill. Serve topped with julienned mixed greens and an Asian flavored plum vinaigrette. 26. garlic and horseradish. and Mozzarella cheese. Cordon Bleu Burger: ground beef patty beneath a layer of sliced ham. served on focaccia bread. Spicy Burger: jack cheese melted on a lean ground beef burger with jalapeno peppers and onions. salt and black pepper. tomatoes and bean sprouts. lettuce and tomato. 31. Swiss cheese. 29. Thai-Cobb Burger: grilled ground beef served with avocado. Peking Burger: mix ground beef with a dash of Peking marinade. Swiss cheese and Dijon mustard. 66 . (Marinade: hoisinsauce.
topped with garlic cheese and a dollop of garlic mayonnaise. and rosemary. served on an onion roll. tomato. Taco Burger: topped with shredded lettuce.32. 67 . corn. Big Island Burger: hamburger stuffed with Mozzarella cheese. Burger Al Forno: ground beef seasoned with robust Italian seasonings. grilled. The Beefster: grilled hamburger patty topped with roast beef. 39. horseradish and Muenster cheese.) 35. Accented with watercress sprigs and vinaigrette. 38. Garlic Burger: garlic powder mixed into ground beef. 37. white vinegar. 36. sour cream. ground red pepper. Corny Burger: tangy corn relish atop a beef patty. Milanese Burger: ground beef patty lightly coated with bread crumbs. served with a golden Parmesan crust. and black olives. salt and green onions. (Red pepper. fresh garlic. 33. covered with Canadian bacon and pineapple. Parmesan cheese and oregano. pan fried till done. 34. Simple Cheeseburger: ground round burger layered with your choice of Wisconsin cheese.
hot pepper mayonnaise. Breakfast Omelette Burger: grilled ground beef patty piled high with diced ham. 42. Pinwheel Burger: different colored. red apple slices and sliced almonds. served on a sesame seed bun. served on a toasted English muffin. 46. 47. 68 . Chili Burger: Hearty beef burger hidden beneath your favorite homemade chili and shredded cheese. 43. Kalamata Burger: chopped green & Greek Kalamata olives mixed with cream cheese spread on a grilled hamburger. prepared horseradish. German Classic: grilled burger with aged Cheddar cheese and Dusseldorf mustard. Lucky Burger: grilled beef burger on sesame rye bread. Served on thick sliced Texas toast. raisins. mustard seed and Marsala wine. Blue Bayou Burger: topped with crumbled Bleu cheese.40. sharp Cheddar. 44. layered with hot-sweet mustard. Cheddar cheese. quartered cheese slices arranged in a pinwheel design melted atop a grilled burger. 41. 45. mushrooms and green peppers. Walla Walla Burger: hamburger pan fried in sweet & sour chutney made with sauteed white onions. green apple slices. lettuce. tomato.
chanterelle. 50. Santa Fe Burger Asada: grilled ground beef brushed with chili puree. North Woods Burger: grilled ground beef stuffed with a wild mushroom sauce featuring shiitake. guacamole and sour cream. 54. 51. onions and tomatoes. 52. 49. The Gouda Burger: sliced Gouda cheese and grilled zucchini atop a grilled hamburger.48. Enhance with yellow and red bell peppers. Black Jack Burger: melted jack cheese over a Cajun blackened beef burger. 53. Mozzarella cheese and pizza sauce stuffed into a grilled hamburger. oyster and hedgehog mushrooms. 55. chili mayonnaise and pico de gallo sauce. served on a sesame bun with Creole mayonnaise. Cajun Burger: seasoned ground beef grilled with Cajun spices and spiced up with Jalapeno cheese. 69 . placed on a torta bun with bean dip. Double Decker Pizza Burger: Cheddar cheese and pizza sauce between two thin beef patties. Anchovy Pizza Burger: anchovies. Simple Twist Burger: lean ground beef patty served with a slice of tomato and grated Asiago cheese on a hard roll.
originally from the Latin botellus. pudding refers to rich. meaning "small sausage. though it may also refer to other types such as bread and rice pudding." referring to encased meats used in Medieval European puddings.TYPES OF PUDDING Pudding may be served with toppings such as fresh fruit and whipped cream Pudding most often refers to a dessert. suet pudding and steak and kidney pudding. 70 . The word is also used for savory dishes such as Yorkshire pudding.or dairy-based desserts such as rice pudding and Christmas pudding. In the United Kingdom and some Commonwealth countries. but may also refer to a savory dish. The word pudding is believed to come from the French boudin. informally. or. any sweet dish after the main course. black pudding. In the United States. fairly homogeneous starch. pudding characteristically denotes a sweet milk-based dessert similar in consistency to egg-based custards.
Boiled pudding was a common main course aboard ships in the Royal Navy in the 18th and 19th centuries. eggs. Depending on its ingredients such a pudding may be served as a part of the main course or as a dessert.BAKED. STEAMED AND BOILED PUDDINGS The original pudding was formed by mixing various ingredients with a grain product or other binder such as butter. steamed or boiled. SUET PUDDING Steamed pies consisting of a filling completely enclosed by suet pastry are also known as puddings. Pudding was used as the primary dish in which daily rations of flour and suet were prepared. flour. cereal. These may be sweet or savory and include such dishes as steak and kidney pudding. 71 . These puddings are baked. resulting in a solid mass. suet.
CREAMY PUDDINGS INSTANT DESSERT PUDDING The second and newer type of pudding consists of sugar. may be served warm. eggs. microwave ovens are also now often used to avoid this problem and to reduce stirring. creamy dessert. and a thickening agent such as cornstarch. These puddings are made either by simmering on top of the stove in a saucepan or double boiler or by baking in an oven. under its gelatin dessert brand Jell-O. whilst in Britain eggthickened puddings are considered custards and starch-thickened puddings called blancmange. rice or tapioca to create a sweet. This pudding terminology is common in North America and some European countries such as the Netherlands. Kraft Foods. often in a bain-marie. Creamy puddings are typically served chilled. such as zabaglione and rice pudding. which is why a double boiler is often used. but a few. 72 . gelatin. These puddings are easily scorched on the stovetop. is the primary producer of pudding mixes and prepared puddings in North America. milk. Instant puddings do not require boiling and can therefore be prepared much quicker.
LIST OF TYPES OF PUDDING Illustrations from Isabella Beeton's Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management. a peasant dish of buckwheat flour pudding and meats 73 . including Yorkshire pudding and popovers Black pudding Boudin Cheese pudding Corn pudding Goetta Groaty pudding Haggis Hog's pudding Kig ha farz. STEAMED AND BOILED PUDDINGS SAVORY Batter puddings. 1861 BAKED.
common in the southern United States and is made with white cornmeal. also known as liver mush. cornmeal mush) Red pudding Scrapple Spoon bread. common in the southern United States Pease pudding Pennsylvania Dutch hog maw Polenta (ma˘ma˘liga˘. Kishke Kugel Liver pudding. Steak and kidney pudding White pudding 74 .
It is especially tasty with raisins. couldn't eat it. Mix and eat. Well that settled it. rice pudding it would be. Then there is my dad's way. (Ever notice that recipes 20 years and older can be a bit heavy on the cream and butter?) A couple of adjustments later. using the boiling method." my father announced when I mentioned I was thinking about making some. I found that there are two basic ways to make rice pudding .baking or boiling. and cinnamon. I settled on this recipe. With a little investigation.RICE PUDDING "Rice pudding is how God intended us to eat rice. 75 . but dad's method has never appealed to me that much. add some cream. Yikes! Too rich. which is take some cold white rice. The first recipe I tried called for 3/4 cup of heavy cream for a recipe that only served 2 people. Dad has been making rice pudding this way my whole life. so boiling or baking it would have to be. sugar.
Reduce heat to low and simmer until the rice is tender. about 20-25 minutes. rice and salt to a boil over high heat.RICE PUDDING RECIPE INGREDIENTS 2 1/2 cups (600 ml) of whole milk 1/3 cup (66 grams) of uncooked short grain white rice Pinch of salt 1 egg 1/4 cup (50 grams) dark brown sugar 1 teaspoon of vanilla extract 1/4 teaspoon of cinnamon 1/3 cup (40 grams) raisins METHOD 1. 76 . heavy-bottomed saucepan. In a medium-sized. bring the milk.
Be careful not to have the mixture come to a boil at this point. Add a half cup of the hot rice mixture to the egg mixture. Remove from heat and stir in the raisins and cinnamon.Stir frequently to prevent the rice from sticking to the bottom of the pan. Add egg mixture back into the saucepan of rice and milk and stir. on low heat. vigorously whisking to incorporate. 3. 2. whisk together egg and brown sugar until well mixed. Stir in the vanilla. a tablespoon at a time. for 10 minutes or so. until thickened. In a small mixing bowl. Serve warm or cold. 77 .
apple juice.. vegetable juice. white grape juice. grape fruit juice. cranberry juice. pineapple juice. juice. strawberry juice. peach juice. grape juice. grape juice.DIFFERENT TYPE OF JUICE NAME juice. Pineapple Juice Passion Orange Juice Guava Juice (hawaii) Lilikoi Juice (hawaii) Orange Juice Pear Nectar Guava Orange Juice Papaya Nectar (Hawaii) 78 . watermelon juice. carrot juice.ect. tomato juice. passion fruit juice. plum juice. orange juice. fruit punch. tomato juice. veg. apple juice. apple raspberry juice. white grape juice. orange juice. cranberry juice.
Cranberry Juice Strawberry Kiwi Juice Grape (White or Red) Grapefruit Juice (Pink or Yellow) orange juice pineapple juice grapefruit juice strawberry juice soursop juice carrot juice beetroot juice pumpkin juice Apple Juice Orange Juice 79 .
v8 fusion juices. grape juice. 80 . fruit punch. Pinapple Juice Pumpkin Jucie Grape Fruti Jucie Strawberry-Cranberry Jucie Tomato Juice Cranberry Jucie Pear Juice Plum Juice That is all i can think of Good Luck ~Bubbles~ apple juice. grapefruit.
tomato juice. cranberry how about all the fruits in the world can be juices. you have whole variety of selection. pineapple. By the way "durian" can turn in to juice orange juice grape juice white grape juice apple juice pineapple juice fruit punch grapefruit juice white cranberry juice cranberry juice lemon juice 81 .
then rolling in cornflakes or cookie crumbs.the extremely low temperature of the ice cream prevents it from melting while being fried. SORBET A frozen dessert similar to a frappe. Here are a few with short definitions. possibly rolling it in egg. usually made from fruit juice and having a mushy consistency. and then briefly deep frying -. (Click on the work to see a picture example) FRIED ICE CREAM Made by taking a scoop of deep-frozen ice cream (frozen well below the standard temperature at which ice cream is generally kept). 82 .DIFFERENT TYPES OF ICE CREAM There are many different forms that ice cream can be found in.
83 . next heat is applied. vaporizing the ice.SOFT SERVE Soft serve is a frozen dessert that is dispensed from a machine instead of served by hand. Freeze drying. The air pressure is lowered. removes water from the ice cream by lowering the air pressure to a point where ice shifts from a solid to a gas. which allowed manufacturers to use less of the actual ingredients. creating a partial vacuum. Also called Soft ice cream. combined with flavorings and sweeteners such as sugar. GOOD OLD REGULAR ICE CREAM a frozen dessert made from dairy products such as cream. forcing air out of the chamber. with no need to freeze. This process continues for hours. The ice cream is placed in a vacuum chamber and frozen until the water crystallizes. thereby reducing costs FREEZE DRIED a dehydrated brick of ice cream that is always ready to eat. resulting in a perfect freeze-dried ice cream slice. This mixture is cooled while stirring to prevent large ice crystals from forming. finally a freezing coil traps the vaporized water. it was invented by a chemical research team in Britain that discovered a method of doubling the amount of air in ice cream.
6% 84 .2% Chocolatechip.9% Butter pecan. 5. 29% Chocolate.7% Cherry.8% Cookiesandcream. 5. 1. 2. 3.9% Frenchvanilla.6% Pralinepecan.3% Strawberry. 4. 3. 3.3% Neapolitan. 1.THE 15 MOST POPULAR ICE CREAM FLAVORS Vanilla. 8.6% Vanillafudgeripple.
Chocolatealmond.6% Coffee.3% All others. 1. 23. 1.7% 85 .6% Rockyroad. 1. Chocolate marshmallow.5% 15. 1.
the drink is called something other than a Milk Shake. A good Milk Shake needs to be thick enough to give a little resistance at first when you try to suck on it (some say it should be thick enough to make you black out trying to suck it up. In New England (including Massachusetts and Rhode Island).e. it is just flavoured milk.) They are made from milk. flavouring syrup and / or fruit. strawberry milk.Milk Shakes are a thick. The addition of ice cream varies by geography. In Rhode Island. chocolate milk. In the UK. In the rest of the world. without ice cream. banana milk. In New England. and even in New York City. if ice cream is added. there is no ice cream in Milk Shakes. etc. rich cold drink made with milk. which you ask for by specific name -. people will get very cross if you try to serve them a milk shake with no ice cream in it. with the name coming from the name of the square cabinet that 86 .MILK SHAKES . with no ice cream. To them.g. a Milk Shake can be just flavoured milk. outside the UK and New England. it gets called a "cabinet'.
but not so much as to make it frothy. and helps to make it light enough to suck through a straw.strawberry Black and White -. the drink with ice cream is called a "frappé" or a "velvet." More modern commercial Milk Shake machines have a container inside them." At home. Some classic names for types of Milk Shakes are: White Cow -.vanilla Shake One in the Hay -. In the rest of New England. you use a blender to make a Milk Shake. you need the kind of blender where the blending jug is left up into the blending blade on a spindle.vanilla ice cream and chocolate syrup (Massachusetts) 87 . that you want a proper milk shake machine which blends and adds some air. where the milk and ice cream are kept in a semi-frozen mix. usually stainless steel on the classic machines.the mixers used to be in at soda fountain bars. Purists insist. This allows you to tilt the mixing jugs as needed while the blades are whirring. To get it right. can be referred to as "mixing cans" or "malt cups. though. The blending jugs. they say. The introduction of some air helps to thicken it.
88 . guar gum. Part of the thickener mix contains carrageenan. they do contain milk. They are made by mixing milk with the appropriate flavouring syrup and a shake mix of their own. corn syrup solids. non-fat milk solids. cream. sucrose." But while they have no ice cream in them. carrageenan. because they just called them "shakes. The entire ingredient list for McDonald's Milk Shakes is: whole milk. imitation vanilla flavour. The carrageenan also helps the frozen mix from turning into a solid block of ice. but then many foods do nowadays.You can also buy Milk Shakes already made now in bottles in chiller sections of supermarkets. MCDONALD'S MILK SHAKES McDonald's Milk Shakes were long rumoured to have no milk in them. The ingredients are mixed up in refrigerated cabinets and dispensed from there. a seaweed thickener. cellulose gum. sodium hexametaphosphate.
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