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Many thanks to Eastman Kodak for allowing us to reprint much of this glossary.
A & B CUTTING: A method of assembling original material in two separate rolls, allowing optical effects to be made by double printing (A and B Printing). Aaton Code In-camera keykode/timecode reader. Action Safe Area The area of a television picture that is visible on consumer television sets. ADR (Automatic Dialogue Replacement) Recording new dialogue or re-recording dialogue where the production sound is unusable or obscured. Ambient Sounds/Effects Sounds recorded as part of the dialogue track. Analog An electrical signal that is continuously variable. Answer Print The first print (combining picture and sound, if a sound picture), in release form, offered by the laboratory to the producer for acceptance. It is usually studied carefully to determine whether changes are required prior to printing the balance of the order. Application Method of developing an optical sound track area on a composite film print. Application Splash Occurs when the chemical used to develop the soundtrack area on film spills over onto the picture area, damaging the silver in the print stock. Often appears as a purplish-black area on the screen. Artifacts Refers to video blemishes, noise, trails, etc. Any physical interruption of the video image is called an artifact and is usually introduced electronically. Aspect Ratio The ratio of the picture width to picture height. The standard U.S. television aspect ratio is 4:3-four units wide to three units high (1.1:33). Other ratios include 1.66:1, 1.85:1, and 2.35:1. If these alternate ratios are preserved in the film-to-tape transfer, you have an option to put a solid black bar at the top and bottom of the TV screen. Auto Assembly Automatic combining of edits on videotape conforming to a prepared edit decision list (EDL) with little or no human involvement.
B Negative Film term referring to takes not originally slated to be printed from dailies but later called to be printed. Has carried over into videotape and refers to non-circled takes that are later transferred as alternative takes. Betacam SP This is a composite analog 1/2" videotape. There are two channels of analog audio and two channels of discrete or AFM channels. The analog audio channels are normal audio tracks. The AFM channels are actually recorded in the video portion of the tape. Therefore, they can be laid down simultaneously with laying down picture. If, however, you lay down audio on channels 3 and 4 after picture has been laid down, you will record over the picture. Conversely, if you insert picture after recording on audio channel 3 or 4, you will erase the audio in that portion.
BLOW-UP PRINTING: Optical printing resulting in a picture image size other than that of the original film.
Camera Report The form filled in for every camera roll exposed to explain what is on the roll and any special printing or transfer instructions. Check Print First film print used to check color corrections. Chrominance The color portion of a video signal. Also called chroma. Coding Ink stamping or burning numbers into the edges of work print and work track to mark sync points. Done with a coding machine. Color Bars Test pattern used to determine if a video signal is calibrated correctly. Color Correction The altering of the color balance by modifying the picture color, tint, hue, etc., on either film or videotape. Also referred to as color balance from scene to scene. telecine operator who corrects the color and l ht balanc while transferring film to light balance Colorist A te p cts or g videotape or videotape to videotape. Composite mixed audi ack Composi Audio A fully m ed audio track with dialogue, music and effects married together. May mu married be b stereo or mono. Composite Film Print A 16mm or 35mm film print th contains a sound track on th film element. that the mposite nt Component that D original Component Video.A system signal rec i c g e h a F I Componevideo elements sttem of signal Dording and prroc(encoded) intoaiantains the original video L M V I recording and processing. maintains Ao T signal. E O tth a ta composite o A elements separately rather than combined single, Composite Video A video signal in which the luminance and chrominance elements have been combined. NTSC, PAL, and SECAM are examples of composite signals. Basically a form of analog video compression allowing for economical broadcasting. Conforming A variation of a layback. Instead of recording the audio directly to the videotape master, you record to a second audiotape machine, allowing you to create a multitrack audio element that can hold several different languages. Also involves matching or syncing a sound track to match an existing picture element.
Dl A component digital videotape in 19mm cassette format. There are four channels of audio. This format displays no generation loss on multilayering work. A single Dl videotape machine can play back or record in either NTSC or PAL. The longer the tape run time, the thinner the stock. D2 A component digital videotape in 19mm cassette format. There are four channels of audio. Picture and audio quality are superior to 1" and Betacam SP. D3 A ½" composite video format. There are four channels of audio. D4 Considered bad luck in Japan so a D4 videotape format does not exist.
D5 A ½" component video format. As with Dl, the signal is noncompressed. It also has a provision for HDTV recording by use of about 5:1 compression. It can also play back D3 tapes and provide component outputs. DA88 Audiotape The audio is recorded on hi-8mm metal particle tape stock and provides up to eight channels of audio recording. The standard sampling rate is 48hz when referencing to video. DA88 tapes must be preformatted at a 48khz sampling rate referenced to video. At the film shoot, the DA88 will be connected to a 60hz reference. The tape will thus be pulled up when recording the production audio track. This method allows you to get a pull-down effect when working with the tapes in telecine, videotape editing, and sound editorial. Dailies Picture and sound work prints of a day’s shooting; usually an untimed one-light print, made without regard to color balance. Produced so that the action can be checked and the best takes selected; usually shown before the next day’s shooting begins. DAT (Digital Audiotape) This is a two channel digital audiotape format with a separate channel for recording timecode. Because it is digital instead of analog, the sound quality is considered superior to 1/4”. Daylight Develop Rush film processing through a lab within a few hours instead of overnight. DCT A digital tape recorder using the DCT method to compress the signal before recording it to tape. A widely used method of compression. Decibel (dB) A unit of measurement indicating ratios of c ents, volt tios currents, voltages or power and used to represent describes the smallest perceptible represen audio transmission levels, gains and losses. A decibel desc g ins a ses. p perceive the range. change in audio level. The human ear can perce ve 1 dB changes in loudness in the aural ra ge. n video signals. This is a high-quality DEFT A device for converting NTSC video signals into PAL vi ice onvertin o s standards conversion genera y accepted by countries around th world. the tandard onversio generally accep Digital Betacam This is a ½" digital metal t pe forma There are four channe s of a io. Some tape format. channels audio. ital his igital models will play back both analog and digital Betacam cass analog a digital and g ta m models will p a aca cassettes. asse Digitize Process of loading video and audio into an off-line editing system. Quality of digitized material (number of frames captured) depends on the amount of storage space on the system.
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Director's Cut Rough-cut created by the director once the editor's cut is completed. Usually followed by the producer's cut and picture lock. Dissolve An optical or camera effect in which one scene gradually fades out at the same time that a second scene fades in. There is an apparent double exposure during the center portion of a dissolve sequence where the two scenes overlap. Drift When an element does not keep a steady speed during playback. This is usually caused when there is no timecode to lock to or when the record machine power source was faulty, causing the recording to vary in speed. This term is also used when speaking about color-correction settings on a telecine that appear to have changed over time due to light-tube burn. DFTC (Drop-Frame Timecode) SMPTE timecode created to match run time, or clock time, exactly. Two frames of timecode are dropped every minute, except every tenth minute. Because it gives exact run time, broadcasters require masters to be delivered with DFTC. Drop-Out Temporary signal loss on a video- or audiotape. Shows up randomly as white spots or thin horizontal lines on video and silence on audio. Dubbing (Audio) Combining of all sound tracks (dialogue, music and effects) onto a single master source. Also known as mixing.
Duplicate Negative (Dupe Neg) Backup or safety copy of a cut negative, used for creating prints, thus preserving your original negative. Duplication (Video Dub) Making videotape copies. DVD (Digital Video Disk) Cutting edge technology for recording on a five-inch CD using compression for picture and sound quality superior to VHS.
Edge Numbers Sequential numbers printed along the edge of a strip of film by the manufacturer to designate identification, thus allowing frames to be easily identified in an edit list. Human and machinereadable. Keykode is the trademark name for Kodak edge numbers. The combination of letters and numbers identifies specific information about a particular roll of film, such as place of manufacture. Editing To arrange the various shots, scenes, and sequences, or the elements of the sound track, in the order desired to create the finished film. Editor's Off-Line or Work Cassette Small-format videotape created from videotape master for use in off-line editing. Timecode matches the master tape and could include visible windows containing the Keykode information, audio timecode information, etc. editorial. EDL (Edit Decision List) List of edits created during off(Ed ring off-line or film e refers Effects When working with picture, this refers to visual effects. In audio this refe s to sound effects. ffects.
Fades When picture a udio w d cals. on-line h F I Fades eWhe ron a yor audio slowly disappears. In filmO are.created as optica In T ine they L M . udio slowly disappears. m the I sapp s. D E these D opticals. on-l A A on- they are done elec re electronically. V Field One-half of a complete picture (or frame), containing all the odd or even scanning lines of the pictured. In television, one of two complete sequences of raster lines forming an image. Film Perforation Also called "perf." Holes punched at regular intervals for the length of film, intended to be engaged by pins, pegs, and sprockets as the film is transported through the camera, projector, or other equipment. Film Processing Procedure during which exposed film is developed, fixed, and washed to produce either a negative or a positive image. Film Splice Place where two pieces of film are joined by either glue or tape. Flash Frames In a film element these are white frames between frames with image on them. In video, these are mistimings in the EDL or editing that leave empty frames between cuts. Flatbed Can be a Kem, Steinbeck, or other brand of film editing system for viewing picture and track together. FLEx File Disk 3.5" floppy computer disk that contains all of the telecine information gathered during a telecine transfer. Can include Keykode numbers, tape timecode, camera-roll identifiers, sound-roll timecode, and comments.
Foley Background sounds added during audio sweetening to heighten realism, e.g., footsteps, door closing, bird calls, heavy breathing, short gasps, etc. Frame The individual picture image on a strip of motion picture film. A compete video image made up of two or three video fields. Frames per Second (FPS) The speed that film or videotape is running.
Gray Scale (Chip Chart) A chart with various shades of gray, which is photographed during production and used by the film processing laboratory to color correct film.
Half-inch four-track Analog audiotape with three channels for sound recording and one channel designated for the timecode channel. Hazeltine Machine sometimes used to color-correct film prints. HDTV (High-Definition Television) TV signal with extra lines and ba bandwidths broadcast with a (H th es higher resolution than currently used. Heads-Out When the beginning of the material is left on the outside of the reel (as opposed to tailsHeads-Ou t begin ng aterial as out).
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IN (Internegative) A duplicating film stock that turns into negative when printed from a positive print. Used to make opticals, and titles, and as a source for making interpositive (IP) prints. Inserts Additional footage often shot during post production to create an effect or a cutaway shot or add information. Interlock A system that electronically links a projector with a sound recorder; used during postproduction to view the edited film and sound track, to check timing, pacing, synchronization, etc. IP (Interpositive) A positive print made from a negative or internegative on special film stock. IPS (Inches per Second) Refers to the speed at which audio reel-to-reel ½" formats are recorded. Either 7½ or 15 IPS is standard.
Jam (Jam Sync) Process of synchronizing a secondary time code generator with a preselected master time code, i.e., synchronizing the smart slate and the audio time code to the same clock.
Keykode Number Kodak’s machine-readable key numbers, Includes 10-digit key number, manufacture identification code, film code and offset in perforations. Keykode Reader Device attached to a telecine or part of a bench logger which reads bar code from motion picture film and provides electronic output to a decoder. The edge numbers are logged automatically without human error in about 10 percent of the time it would take for manual entry.
Lab Roll A roll of motion picture film made up of more than one camera roll spliced together. Labs create these rolls for film that will go through telecine so the operator is not constantly changing reels. These rolls are usually built in either 1000 foot or 2000 foot lengths for 35mm film and 1200 foot lengths for 16mm film. Layback Transferring the finished audio track back to the master video tape. Laydown Recording sound from an audio source or video element to another audio element. During this process, timecode can be added or altered, channel configurations rearranged, or audio levels compressed. Leader Opaque or clear film attached to the h d and tail of film rolls used for threading a motion head threading
Letterbo ide-screen image Letterbox When a wide-screen imag is projected onto a standard television screen, a space is left screen, e at the top and the bottom of the screen. Traditionally, this is filled in with black bars. bars.
F I Locon M i picture printt made on D tEt stock. L A motion . V d llow-contrast t O I L i k
Locked Cut/Locked Picture Final version of a show after all the changes have been incorporated. C
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LokBox Synchronizing mechanism that locks film and videotape to run backwards or forwards together. Used for negative cutting. Luminance The measured value of brightness; reflected light measure on motion picture screens as footlamberts or candelas per square meter. The brightness or contrast of the video signal.
Matte The black bars found at the top and bottom of the picture when a wide screen format is projected on a television set. An opaque outline that limits the exposed area of a picture, either as a cut-out object in front of the camera or as a silhouette on another strip of film. Also used in 35mm projectors to show the correct aspect ratio of a film. Mixing . Combining of all sound tracks (dialogue, music and effects) onto a single master source. Also known as audio dubbing MOS Term for picture without sound. Acronym used to represent the German slang "mit out sprechen." Moviola A trademarked name for a machine with a small rear-projection screen and the capacity to play back several sound tracks. Used in editing and for reviewing portions of the film during production.
Also used to synchronize or interlock picture and sound track in editing. Newer devices called “flat-bed viewers” are replacing the upright Moviolas.
Nagra Professional ¼" audiotape recorder. Negative The term “negative” is used to designate any of the following (in either black-and-white or color): (1) The raw stock specifically designed for negative images. (2) the negative image. (3) Negative raw stock that has been exposed but has not been processed. (4) Processed film bearing a negative image. Negative Assembly Film is spliced to create lab rolls, or negative is spliced to create a cut picture. Also referred to as negative cutting. Negative Dirt Dirt on the film negative element. Can appear white. In some cases it will appear as sparkles across the screen caused by negative dust. Because the film emulsion is very soft, dirt can become embedded into the film stock and can only be removed by being washed by the laboratory. Negative Scratch A scratch in the camera negative which usually appears white on the base side. If it has penetrated through the yellow, cyan, or magenta layers, it may appear to have a slight tint of color. Noise Reduction Electronic reduc on of observable gra n in the picture. Noise reduction devices can reduction grain Noise-reduction minimize discernible grain structure of film, but caution should be observed when using them them. Unwanted side effects can include strobing and trailing images and reduction in picture resolution. e strob g reduc cture Non-Drop-Frame Timecode A type of SMPTE time code that continuo l counts a full 30 frames continuously on-Drop-Frame nts ull per second. As a result, non-drop, frame-time code do not match real time. does r non op, NTSC (National Television Standards Committee) Com Standards Committe Committee) Comm Committee that established th color NT (Natio N o on S d tabl tablished the or transmission system use in the U.S. and so system itself transmission yst m used n the S ransmission d some other count es Also u d to indicate the system itse oth countries. ls used o lso cate consisting of 525 lines of information, scanned at a rate of approximately 30 frames per second.
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Off-Line The process of creatively assembling the elements of a production, to communicate the appropriate message or story, and/or calculating the order, timing and pace with user-friendly equipment such as film, 3/4” videotape or non-linear computer editing systems. On-Line Final assembly or editing utilizing master tape sources. Usually done on high-quality computer editing system with computer-generated effects. Opticals Refers to film effects, film titles, and film dissolves and fades. Term has carried over into videotape and is sometimes used to indicate video special effects.
Paintbox Digital graphics generator made by Quantel. Paint, pen, and airbrush are available electronically to the graphic artist. A generic term used to describe electronic picture fixes to individual video frames to mask dirt and scratches.
PAL (Phase Alternating Line) Color television system developed in Germany, and used by many European and other countries. PAL consists of 625 lines scanned at a rate of 25 frames per second. Positive Dirt Often built in during printing, this appears black on the screen. Positive Scratch A scratch in a film print element. Usually appears black on the screen. Printmaster A stereo mix master audio element consisting of two or four channels of audio. Production Sound Audio recorded during principle photography on location.
QC (Quality Control) The act of scrutinizing audio, video or film elements for technical specifications and defects. Quarter-Inch (1/4") Audiotape This is a two-track analog audio recording magnetic tape.
Raw Stock Unexposed film or audio stock. Une posed aud o Release Print In a motion picture pro ssing laboratory, any of numerous duplicate prints of a processing umero p cate subject made for general theater distribution. A composite theatrical print in 35mm, printed from an 35mm, m gen ral the er distri on. ernega e. internegative.
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rsal Process Any ph phic process in whic an image is produced by seco dary Reversal Proc photographic proc which n by secondary development e m nt ha d halides grains r ain r the e ha n ged silver ve development of the silver halides grains that remain after the latent image has been changed to silver y primary de elo ment nd destroyed by chemical bleach. a d o mc e e case f expo mera by primary development and destroyed by a chemical bleach In the ca of film exposed in a camera exposed n camera, the first developer changes the latent image to a negative silver image. This is destroyed by a bleach and the remaining silver halides are converted to a positive image by a second developer. The bleached silver and any traces of halides may now be removed with hypo.
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RGB (Red, Green, Blue) Red green & blue, the primary color components of the additive color system used in color television. Rough cut Assembly of edited shots prior to picture lock.
Saturation Term used to describe color brilliance or purity. When color film images are projected at the proper brightness and without interference from stray light, colors that appear bright, deep, rich, and undiluted are said to be “saturated.” Script Notes A copy of the shooting script prepared by the script supervisor noting camera angles, what lines were recorded by which camera, shooting order, shot lengths and circled takes. l6mm Mag Magnetic 16mm audiotape that can hold up to two separate channels of audio. Contains sprocket holes, so there is no need for timecode for editing.
l6mm Optical Track Mono only. Read by a light on a projector or telecine. Contains sprocket holes so there is no need for timecode for editing. Smart Slate Production clapper that includes a lighted readout of the timecode being recorded onto the production sound audiotape. SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) The committee of engineers that sets the rules for use of timecode and other technical procedures in the United States and various other countries. Sound Report Form filled in for each audiotape recorded that describes what is on the tape and any technical instructions for playback. Splice Joining of two film or audio pieces. Usually done with splicing tape but also can be “hot spliced” with cement so the finished end-to-end product can function as a single piece of film when passing through a camera, film processing machine, or projector. Sync (Synchronous) Align sound and image precisely for editing, projection, and printing. In dailies, when you hear the clapper close and see it at the same moment, it is considered "in sync". Sync Sound Sound that is recorded with the intention of being married to a picture at an exact point.
T ils-Out Tails-Out When the end of the material is left on the outside of the reel. Telecine A device for scann g motio picture film images and converting them to standard r scanning motion icture onverting videotape. deotape
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Temp Dub Temporary music and effects added to a rough-cut version of a project for network or p T ary mu nd ed gh cut project fo netwo studio screen screening. t cr
35MM Mag Magnetic audiotape that can hold up to six tracks of audio. Contains sprocket holes, so there is no need for timecode for editing.
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35MM Optical Track Two-track (mono or stereo) audio format. Contains sprocket holes, so there is no need for timecode for editing. Three-Quarter-Inch (¾") Videotape Magnetic tape stock for playback and record. Contains two channels of audio and a separate timecode channel. Most commonly used for off-line editing and viewing cassettes. 3:2 Pulldown The formula used to convert 24 frames per second of film to 30 frames per second of video. Timecode The numbering system adopted by SMPTE that assigns a number to each video frame indicating hours, minutes, seconds, and frames. Timecode Generator An electronic device that outputs timecode. Transfer A general term for recording from one source to another element.
VHS Tape Video home system ½" videotape. A consumer format and can record two channels of analog plus two channels of high fidelity (hi-fi) audio. Visible Timecode Timecode burned into a video picture so it can be seen when viewing the picture. VITC (Vertical Interval Timecode) Time code that is recorded in the vertical blanking interval about the active picture area. Can be read from videotape in the “still” mode.
Wetgate Print A print created using a chemical process that coats the negative, hopefully filling in digs and scratches or imperfections that occur in the negative to help restore the image. Wild Picture or audio shot without a sync relationship to specific picture. Work Print Any picture or sound track print, usually a positive, intended for use in the editing process to establish through a series of trail cuttings the finished version of a film. The purpose is to preserve the origi original intact (and undamaged) until the cutting point have been established. ng points
XFR Shorthand s ng for “transfer.” FR slang
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