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Low Earth Orbit (LEO) System

This Figure shows a LEO satellite system. In this diagram, a portable


satellite telephone is communicating with a landline telephone. The satellite
telephone communicates with the closest LEO satellite. Because LEO
satellites fly very close to the surface of th e earth, they go across the visible
horizon in approximately 10 minutes in reference to a mobile satellite
customer's location. When the first satellite moves out to the horizon,
another LEO satellite becomes available to continue the call. However,
robust network communications need to be in place to maintain calls
(especially data transmission) within this period. Some systems will use
satellite diversity to allow talking through more than one satellite at a time,
avoiding call "dropouts" from signal bloc kage.

£ oba Positioning System Operation

This figure shows a global positioning satellite (GPS) system. This diagram
shows how a GPS receive receives and compares the signals from orbiting
GPS satellites to determine its geographic position. Using the precise
timing signal based on a very accurate clock, the GPS receiver compares
these signals from 3 or 4 satellites. Each satellite transmits its exact
location along with a timed reference signal. The GPS receiver can use
these signals to determine its d istance from each of the satellites. Once the
position and distance of each satellite is known, the GPS receiver can
calculate the position where all these distances cross at the same point.
This is the location. This information can be displayed in latitu de and
longitude form or a computer device can use this information to display the
position on a map on a computer display.
Mu tibeam Sate ite Operation

This figure shows a satellite system that uses spatial division multiple
access (SDMA) technology. In this example, a single satellite contains
several directional antennas. Some of these antennas use the same
frequency. This allows a single satellite to simultaneously communicate to
two different satellite receivers that operate on the same frequency. Usually
beams that are separated by more than two or three half -power
beamwidths can use the same frequencies, as shown in the figure.




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