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for TOEFL® iBT


Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at:

Suffixes.CONTENTS Introduction v 1 12 31 45 61 74 81 99 117 174 1 2 3 4 5 6 About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Prefixes and Suffixes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Prefixes. and Word Roots iii .


If so. The words something and whatever work well v . place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. You’ve read words you have never heard. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. though. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. you will eventually see how they fit together. Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. 3. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. One way you can do this is to find a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. and heard words you’ve never read. Start small. With practice. Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. 1. you can learn to take unknown words in stride. Ask yourself if it’s an action word.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. a listening vocabulary. As you explore the vocabulary in this book. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. Usually you can figure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. look at the words around it. Here’s how to start. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. it’s a verb. You can also use trial and error to find islands of meaning in a sentence. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. and a speaking vocabulary. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done. Is it the subject—the person. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. 2.

Once you establish a study plan for yourself. It mostly takes curiosity. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. Vocabulary is a broad topic. write. and spelling. In general. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. and certification agencies. just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. Welcome them to your world. You may find you prefer nonsense words instead. Take them apart. during your commute to work. this book will help you prepare. thesaurus. Share them with your coworkers. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. If you study hard the first time. It may be first thing in the morning. For the TOEFL iBT. the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test). friends. Sometimes. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have finished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. grammar. Determine how much time you have until the test VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. or before you go to bed at night. licensing. Whenever the time is right. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. or family. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. or exchange and scholarship programs. Always keep your end goal in mind. Think about when would be the best time for you.

I NTR O D U CTI O N vii Now. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. not waiting until the end of the book. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you find. After you answer the practice questions. Each chapter is filled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. It will be very beneficial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. Suffixes. and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT. . You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence. or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difficulty early on in your test preparation. once you have set a study plan for yourself. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. As you work through the practice questions. and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s definition. The book finishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). Another helpful list—entitled Prefixes. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. reread the questions and try responding one more time. you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy.


About TOEFL iBT 1 T he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. speaking. you may be given a position as a teaching assistant. and writing on effective communication. you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST Proficiency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading. listening. 1 . and grade their assignments. And if you are applying to a graduate program. Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English. you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission. and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL. In many courses. colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork. instruct them.

The test is worth a total of 120 points. The first test section is Reading. The test is not computer-adaptive. each test taker receives the same range of questions. READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages.2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. followed by Listening. There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. Speaking. each followed by 12–14 questions. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage . After completing a section of the test. In other words. and Writing. you will not be able to return to that section to finish or change your answers.

A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simplification • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you. You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar. The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section. .) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. indicating your remaining time. On the right will be a clock. a passage will appear on the computer screen. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature. Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions.

4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures. Like the toolbar for the Reading section. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. When the listening passage is complete. and your remaining time. After selecting Next. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. and social science 2–3 conversations. The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. Difficult words or phrases in the passage may be defined for you. SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. In the Listening section. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. there are Back and Next buttons. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. you are asked to click the OK button to confirm that you want to move to the next question. a question will appear on the screen. life sciences. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen. the number of questions in the section. physical sciences. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock. you may not go back and review questions.

For the integrated writing task. Listening.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network. you will type your response to two tasks. Listening. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. Listening. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT. For four of the speaking tasks. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone. For all of the speaking tasks. . which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. you will speak into the microphone to record your responses.

or U. test instructions. To register by mail. such as sample questions. seven days a week.6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers fill up quickly. To register by phone. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. Canada.S. 24 hours a • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin.S. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. you will receive an instant e-mail confirmation. You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student offices at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative offices • from the TOEFL website. After completing the registration form. To schedule a test date elsewhere. and a registration number. test center address. call 1-443-751-4862. To schedule a test date in the United States.toefl. reporting time. fill out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin. and other information you will find useful. and a list of writing topics. You should receive a registration confirmation. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away. To schedule a test date in the United States. which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend. Canada. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL. www. territories. It includes a list of test sites in all countries. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories). call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. territories. institution codes. If you do not. you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card. which you must bring to the test center on test day. You will be given a test date. or U. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: .

by mail. online and phone registrations are quicker processes. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. you will be . Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. Fifteen days after you take the test.M. or by fax. TOEFL test scores are kept on file for two years after the test date. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Office P. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. Scores more than two years old can’t be reported. the examinee score report will be sent to you and official score reports will be sent to your selected institutions. NJ 08541–6152. You can have official score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register.O. call the RRC for your area or country. Requests must be made online. HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost. Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. you may view your scores online. The cost is $17 for each report ordered. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test. you can get one examinee score report and up to four official score reports sent to the institutions of your choice. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the final section scores as well as your total score. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. If you reschedule. Box 6152 Princeton.

or U. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the first time around. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score. PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. Alternatively. In the United States. Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric. . The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective. meaning each question has a correct answer(s). contact your RRC. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your first semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. you can take the TOEFL iBT again. the points are converted to a 0. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. you will receive a refund of $65. you can cancel your score at the test center. If you do cancel your scores. After canceling your scores. For testing elsewhere. For each test section.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. territories. 30-point scale. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If. If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. However. call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. and you will not receive a refund. Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice.S. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. they will not be reported to you or any institutions. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas. the total score will range from 0 to 120. So. after taking the exam.

and U. Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request. date of birth. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. . NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online. which is found on the TOEFL website. you will be notified via mail. Box 6151 Princeton. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form. Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P. If the rescoring confirms your original score.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States. The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new official score reports. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date. If there is a change in your score. and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter.S. registration number.O. daytime phone number. These revised scores will become your official scores. you will receive a revised examinee score report. Canada.

To receive an official score report. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break. You will also need your registration number. To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. you will be required to write your signature and sign a confidentiality statement. Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund. drink. smoke. In most cases. Read the identification requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. for some reason. • eat. DON’T: • bring cellular phones.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identification for TOEFL test takers. If. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identification. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place. raise your hand. at any time during the test. pagers. or chew gum. you must answer at least one question in each section. All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. If you fail to provide proper registration and identification documents on the day of the test. a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using. . Before the test session. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session. Your identification will be checked before you are admitted. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break. AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. If. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. watch alarms. raise your hand. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center. beepers. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks.

books. Follow these guidelines. calculators. . pamphlets. • exceed the time permitted for the break.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. • attempt to tamper with the computer. translators. • leave the test center during the test session and break. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards. highlighter pens. • create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. watch calculators. dictionaries. • give or receive unauthorized help. notes. The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens. • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identification. rulers. and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times.

you have been determining meaning from context. this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word. of course. You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word. For example. you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive). you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. Once in a while.2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. Using a dictionary is. . Simply put. which gives you a very clear definition of the word. the best way to define a word. O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your first English words.

3. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1. Based on the context of the sentence. if you don’t use it. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. b. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. sincere speech. 4. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. readiness to judge or criticize others. 2. c. Candor means a. The first part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative).VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. Even if you can’t figure out exactly what candor means. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. d. only b can be the correct answer. Now. When you are learning a new word. because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. In this case. thus signifying that candor means frank. you will soon forget what it means. irritability. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. he can be a bit too honest. frank. . but sometimes. Introduce them to members of your family. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Specific Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. comfort with speaking in front of people.

ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. There are two other types of context clues to watch for. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a. and paid her bills. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. laziness. laziness The correct answer is d. essentially defining the word within the sentence. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). and by noon. done her grocery shopping. Besides. hard labor c. she slept until noon. luxurious b. and left the dishes in the sink. while the second and third sentences confirm this with specific details. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. Thus you can determine what indolence means. so choice c is also incorrect. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and specific detail. Again. The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. reading and watching television. The first sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. she was back to her old assiduous self. The specific details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day. The context also restates the meaning of destitute. How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and specific detail. deep sleep d. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. Saturday. But on Sunday. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used.

while playful is neutral in tone. Therefore. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. however. look at the dictionary definitions of the following words. have more than one meaning. . A quack. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualified person who pretends to be a doctor. spirited and mischievous. unremitting.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. At a minimum. ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. you might get a definition similar to that of two of its synonyms. Sometimes. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. the connotation can be favorable or positive. O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary definition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. Assiduous means diligent. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. when you are looking for context clues. You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. for example. cleaning and working around the house (specific detail). Then again. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. very busy on Sunday. if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary. For example. not functioning or operating Some English words. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary definition. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active. Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation. or persevering. is the sound a duck makes. hardworking. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. For instance.

for example. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. Laconic. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. While you can have a bountiful. ample. when it comes to your own communications. on the other hand. the words bountiful. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. has the most positive connotation of these three words. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context.16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. and glut suggest abundance. they are rarely identical. suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. plentiful. though. you should choose your words carefully. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. terse. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. For example. one of these words suggests an overabundance. Thus. Terse. each word carries its own specific connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. Succinct is more neutral. For instance. and succinct. ample. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufficient context. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not figure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. In fact. conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. In some cases. although these words are effectively synonymous. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. most words have their own unique connotation. But you could figure out what inept means by . your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. While some synonyms can be similar. However. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. you can’t even figure out if it is something positive or negative.

Sometimes you will find unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. Once you have the key to the code. Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. it’s easy to decipher the message. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. though. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the definition of the word. it’s hard at first and gets easier as you practice. you can figure out what these words mean. including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the definition. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons. however. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. though. one of the units will express a complete thought. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance floor. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. Often. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message. Even if you have no idea what a word means. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. More often than not.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its prefix (in-) and word root (ept). SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. ◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph. That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. but like everything else worth doing. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. then at least one unit will have one or two blanks. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . Meanwhile. There are some basic skills you need to acquire.

theological c. ➥ After finding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. Now you’re ready to use the first unit to illuminate the second. Your final step is to look at the answer choices to find the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit. This question has a blank in each of its two units. . it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes.” a word such as civic. consider this sample question: Select the word that best fills in the blank. religious d. If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. secular. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-defined units. the unit without the blank. reverent b. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. is the best answer choice.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. the one with the blank. you have: After finding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. or secular. The first unit. The second unit. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves. a. tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. For example. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. Choice d. Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank. Now you know you need to fill in the blank with a word that means “not sacred. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for.

you could be fairly confident that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. reckless . to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. . daring . rest d. Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions. Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. comparison. perambulate c. There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. Now read the sentence using your word in the first blank. perambulate. uses a phrase of comparison. adventurous . or move about on one’s own. As in the preceding example. Think of something that. . daring. and cause and effect. if not done before age two. a. The second unit of the sentence. as illustrated by. . as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. Think of them as clues to a mystery. . . These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. Actually is a clue word. right? So the word that goes in the first blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases. amble b. careful . . The best answer to this question is choice b.” Put it in the first blank. would indicate that kind of temperament.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best fill in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. Think of a synonym for “not bold. scuttle The first unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on. If actually were to be removed from the sentence. Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). bold. one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks. . The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. . . careful . .

First divide the sentence into two units. as well as. all meaning “not solitary. Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. and that is.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other. despite. similarly. as the second unit. Words that signal comparison include likewise. Friendly. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at first glance. You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted. and. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the first unit is in opposition to solitary. Now you have as the first unit. and and. or opposition. and yet. or sociable are other options. although. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. when you see one of these words or phrases. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. and as illustrated by. This is the logical relationship of contrast. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . however. First you decipher the thought in the complete unit. in fact. however. gregarious. using the punctuation to guide you.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose. but. The first unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. You might choose the word social. in other words. as shown. then fill in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. despite. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. or on the contrary. such as on the other hand. but. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. for example. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases.

you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. or very nearly so. Select the word that best fills in the blank. irrelevant . cumulative b.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book. English is a difficult language because it is so visually confusing. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes. When you know what the complete unit says. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. In other words. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. therefore. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores. Foster slouched. The blank in the third unit. needs to be filled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. The correct answer will be posture. consequently. Words such as thus. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. This sentence has three units. therefore. two complete and one incomplete. ➥ Scientific knowledge is usually _______. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. as a result. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school. You may also find it helpful to use a nonfiction or fiction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). illogical c. The first two units tell you that before military school. a. or its synonym. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. and phrases such as due to. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening. This will help you match the word to its written form. Foster never stood up straight. Again. decreasing d. and because. Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question.

of course. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. • You might grovel if you are servile. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. using key words and phrases. The incomplete unit. you’ve made a good start. • You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. you will be daunted if you are timid. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. • You might disdain something that is banal. which. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. chances are you will understand the crucial words. Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. ACTIVE READING As you might expect. tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientific knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. cumulative. J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives. • You might vacillate if you are timid or diffident. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. for example. while disdain and revere are opposites. To prepare for these types of questions on the . have nearly the same meaning. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary. the one with the blank. because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something. applies to lots of stuff. Abate and ebb.

Read carefully. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. and the less time you will spend looking up words. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. contrast. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. the more you will comprehend. This is a skill you can practice every day. From the start. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. Often. By reading actively. For example. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. Remember the four types: restatement. This may sound like a contradiction. By reading carefully. and specific detail. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. have a dictionary handy. however. To help you eliminate answers. you will often be able to determine meaning from context. it is a good idea to become an active reader. like the TOEFL iBT. Look for specific details that provide clues to meaning. . At a minimum. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. positive/negative. surprisingly. This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine.

but secretly she was very excited. assessment 4. remainder c. talkative b. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. a. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. revenue d. dedicated b. blasé . She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. a. incumbent 2. candid d. receptive c. nocturnal 3. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. nominal b. practical d. a. 1. a. accomplished c. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to fill the blank. domain b. demographic c. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. artificial d.

scented c. a. he longed most of all for _____________. musty d. outmoded . but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. association c. current b. decrepit 7. a. circumference b. a. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. but now it is _____________. loneliness d. ambiguous 9. aged b. irrelevancy 8. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. solitude b. unnecessary d. We were tired when we reached the _____________. accessible b. The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5. receptive c. eloquent d. dedicated c. a. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. fulcrum d. a. summit c. nadir 6.

natural. Teem means a. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. chronologically ordered. fruitful. d. intricate. c. b. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. radical. dangerous. 14. surge b. 12.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. useless. d. clearly and fully stated. . ambiguous or implied. d. c. Explicit means a. Futile means a. a. to close down temporarily. they were on a _____________ to find the perfect cup of tea. b. The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control. to be full of. harmless. d. b. cadence 11. to be under close scrutiny. b. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. of local origin. 13. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. Benign means a. nearly overflowing. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. quest c. complex. discovery d. c. c. insane.

b. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15. Digress means a. The editor. to express concisely. to intensify. difficult to compare. to deceive. d. . to create. c. Terse means a. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. difficult to capture. factual. to refuse to answer directly. 17. b. to answer indirectly. d. 18. to deviate. d. Diffuse means a. who was always one step of his creator. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive. c. preferring a more terse writing style. to regress. stray. revert. 16. 19. Evade means a. Elusive means a. d. b. The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. b. b. to escape or elude. concise. elegant.000-word article. c. c. to soften. to refuse. difficult to forget. c. cut 500 words from the 2. to change the tone. descriptive. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. d. difficult to avoid.

to surprise. foster c. d. c. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. Solitude. sustain b. behavior d. 6. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. can be a desirable thing. He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. where the hikers would have a good view. a. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 8. b. 4. Incumbent means holding any post or position. bolster d. c. activities 22. and it would be something a person who works in a busy office would crave. banter c. 3. d. 21. 1. 7. to believe. a. The summit means the highest point. unlike loneliness. a. b. c. to guess. to confirm. b. Surmise means a.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. . antics b. a. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. d. 5. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. 2. Revenue is the income of a government.

Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. b.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. 12. d. dramatically reducing its wordiness. 13. c. to be present in large numbers. mild. To digress means to turn aside. d. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. a. a. deviate. To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. 21. having a beneficial effect. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. To teem means to be full of. To diffuse means to spread throughout. a. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. to soften or make less brilliant. there is likely to be a great number of security officers in the hotel. Futile means useless. answering. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. straightforward. d. 18. b. 16. 10. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. b. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. difficult to capture. . 19. 14. gentle. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. eluding the grasp. Terse means concise. 11. b. Benign means not harmful or malignant. Choices c and d are incorrect because their definitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. exact. d. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. to avoid fulfilling. Elusive means evasive. vain. Banter is defined as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing. Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. who constantly escaped his grasp. disperse. hopeless. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. or doing. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp. d. producing no result. 15. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects. using no unnecessary words. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. 20. The sentence tells you that Dr. 17.

thus. c. b.” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated. Choice a. The speaker would. The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink. If the friend has a “sinking morale. . want to raise or bolster this morale.30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22. and d are all incorrect.

This chapter reviews prefixes and suffixes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. you are already using the same prefixes and suffixes with simple words that you already know well. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. meaning before. but the job may be easier than you think. Learning prefixes and suffixes in another language may seem like a daunting task. PREFIXES Prefixes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. the word prefix itself uses the prefix pre-.3 Using Prefixes and Suffixes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. For example. Though prefixes and suffixes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. There are dozens of prefixes and suffixes in the English language. changes: 31 . Thus the meaning of the root word. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is essential to building an effective vocabulary. breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. fix.

For example. speaks many languages.means many. Knowledge of prefixes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. is easily frightened. If you know that the prefix poly. is an expert in global issues. knowing that the . you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. meaning not—not suitable or competent. Thus. the base upon which prefixes and suffixes are added prefix: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning suffix: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. administers lie detector tests. Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later. b. including inept. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. c.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fix: to place securely or firmly prefix: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used prefixes. d. take the word polyglot. O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a prefix alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a prefix to determine whether a word is positive or negative. to eliminate incorrect answers. For example. it is the only possible correct answer. which uses the prefix in-. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help.

you may be able to choose the correct answer. . c. b. To malign is to say evil. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. d. decathlon.means bad. and trilogy (a series of three plays). triple) quad-. to speak ill of. to arrange. harmful. and often untrue things about someone. bicycle) tri-: three (trivial. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary. trident. millimeter) Following is a list of the prefixes. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. mono-: one (unique. Among the most common number related prefixes are: un-. quarter. b. triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. we have provided two examples of words that use that prefix. bicameral. monotonous. quart. enchant. bilateral. Take a look at some words that contain numerical prefixes: bipartisan (two parties). these examples are not test-prep words. to speak badly about. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. With a few exceptions. you can eliminate choices a and c. to charm. or wrong can help you significantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. rather. unity. trinity. J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the prefixes are the numerical prefixes. If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. With your knowledge of prefixes. to cast an evil spell. millennium. traditionally in three orders of priority). evil. centipede. This will help you remember the meaning of each prefix—and show you just how well you already know them. decimal. that is. For each prefix. quar-: four (quadrant. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. decibel) cent-: hundred (century.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 prefix mal. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy.

disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. without amoral (not moral). com-. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. off abduct (to take by force). abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle). away. occur. a particular incident. against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms). jointly cooperate (to work together. out of. abs-: from. circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. antedate (to proceed in time. eject). comply). within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). in front of. together. or lie between two points of time or things) . apart. intervene (to come. atypical (not typical) ab-. con-: with. reversal. not dismiss (to send away from. appear. or an occurrence) co-. among. expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). opposing. about. before anterior (placed before). an-: not. come before) anti-. ant-: opposite. antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-. informal (not formal) inter-: between. away from exit (go out).34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. circum-: around.

recent. beneath.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. abnormal. magnificent. over. to take the place of) sub-: under. evil. replace (to put back in its former position. superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many. wrong. again rebuild (to build again after destruction). wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). predict (to forecast. submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. make known in advance) re-: back. excellent). polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). bring under control). multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). exceeding superb (grand. multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new. nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonfiction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than fiction). below subdue (to overcome. of unusually high quality. malpractice (wrongdoing. especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). ill.

The important point to remember is that in learning prefixes.” Historically. For example. . Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present definition. As you use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to determine meaning. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you. as in unhappy. Try watching the evening news.” in the word decimate. For example. or rent a film in your native language and watch it with English subtitles. For example. which means “ten. which means “to completely destroy. . and il. Go to the movie theater to see a film in English. there is only a distant hint of the prefix deci-. and illegible. After you have completed this chapter.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property.36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English prefixes is located in Appendix B. inconsiderate. not a verb. make sure you review the list carefully and study any prefixes that are unfamiliar to you. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. in-. . see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken. Some prefixes immediately change the entire meaning of a word. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE . but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them. you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts. the prefixes un-. You may also realize that the suffix -ian calls for an adjective. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. The point of learning about prefixes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways. Other prefixes only remotely affect word meaning. the more you will understand. dis-. displeasing. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation.

occurrence.g. an action or state of being (a verb). car. Suffixes tell you whether a word is a person. exhilarating that (e. which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). very.g. brush. how and to what extent white. when. an adversary. ancient. place. or concept verb shows an action. how much adverb describes verbs. never. adjectives. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence. adversarial to oppose actively. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech. combating. look how the suffixes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the prefix. interrupt For example. valor go. Helen. which one. soon Examples cloud. place. ant-). how many. to provoke the hostility of . jump. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns. here. or entire clauses. oblong. Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Definition one who opposes or contends with another. Part of Speech noun Function names a person. clumsily. feel. or a modifier. opponent opposing.. tells what kind. several dogs) slowly..U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Suffixes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. imagine. tells where. contend. can also identify or quantify. that dog) several (e. other adverbs. Elm Court. They often change a word’s part of speech. or thing (a noun). thing.

or shocked. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. such as equality (state of being equal). zero in on its meaning. recurring illness. ➥ Squeamish means a. Similarly. For example. Thus. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. c.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. to honor with a sense of awe. However. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. and only choice d is correct. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. but look for other clues to meaning as well. if you know that -ish is a common suffix for adjectives. easily disgusted. just knowing suffixes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. d. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. but it can help you determine the function of the word. b. nauseated. if you know that the suffix -ity means state of being. respectively. For example. but they are both verbs. extremely shy. disgusted. not adjectives. Choices a and b are definitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. to scream or squeal. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. . Select the best answer to the question. Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Definition to regard with deep respect or reverence. deserving of honor and respect. Squeamish means easily sickened. the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. depending upon its suffix. BUT NOT ALWAYS While prefixes and suffixes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. as you come across vocabulary words with common prefixes and suffixes. Only choices c and d define adjectives.

produces. process. and again. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). we have again provided two examples of words that use that suffix. etc. or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood. paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act. practice. materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs. For each suffix. process. pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality. dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. . political. makes. state or condition detection (the act of detecting). believes. these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary. and economic equality of the sexes). politician (one who seeks or holds a political office) -ion: act or process. fidelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). state. ◗ Noun Suffixes -ance. -ence: action. or process. dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry).U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the suffixes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). the transitional period between youth and maturity).

slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of. such as cooperate and dismiss. -ible: capable or worthy of. or resembling a child). foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment. or destroyed. in the manner of a fool) . damaged. Because the words are already so familiar to you. vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to. relating to. you can quickly and accurately learn the most common prefixes and suffixes by remembering examples of words you already know. or characteristic of a humanitarian). you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam. -ian: related to. improbable) -al. incredible (not credible. frail). trustworthy). abjectly submissive. pertaining to. -ical: having the quality of. or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able.40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difficult vocabulary word for each prefix or suffix. useful). characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. theatrical). -ial. realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. unable to be believed. servile (pertaining to or befitting a slave. exhibiting folly. tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. However. having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama.

all the time. cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous.. Remember that prefixes and suffixes alone do not create meaning. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study prefixes and suffixes. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. The more familiar the word is to you (e. to bring about colonize (to establish a colony). ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common prefixes and suffixes. democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of prefixes and suffixes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. impair. having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate.g. they change or add to the meaning of the root word. annoyed) -ify. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become. cooperate). the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the prefix or suffix. done with or working with others for a common purpose).U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action). relating to glorious (having or deserving glory. having the quality of. angry. -fy: to make. Remember that you use prefixes and suffixes every day. nauseous (causing nausea. to make inferior in quality or character). to make impatient. rather. form into beautify (to make beautiful). By memorizing these essential word parts. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. Use as many . irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. You already know much of this material. -ose: full of. famous).

and context if possible to confirm meaning. coming before. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. b. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns defining a kind of person (one who does). not every -ist word is only a noun. under the authority of.42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. 2. two-faced. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. cut into parts. Use your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes to eliminate incorrect answers. fighting against. Does it match the part of speech of the definition according to the suffix? If you know the prefix or suffix but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning. Circumspect means a. d. The more you narrow down your choices. to examine thoroughly. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. Plug in that meaning with the prefix or suffix and see if it makes sense. uniform. relating to the circus. Multifaceted means a. including prefixes and suffixes. word roots. many sided. Check prefixes. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. c. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. b. d. looking around carefully. 3. d. Antecedent means a. word roots (covered in the next chapter). . c. Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. 1. and context. looking after. c. Allow for exceptions. try to recall another word with a similar root. b. put forth in writing.

exact tone. to cultivate. 9. questionable. one who is equal in status. Supercilious means a. Dubious means a. Parity means a. c. d. b. Agrarian means a. less than the norm. an individual opinion. c. Consensus means a. d. 8. the act of making someone or something equal in status. the state of being equal in status. amount. doubtful. speaking in a measured. c. to age gracefully. 6. d. to pressure. incapable of making a decision. haughty. relating to land or land ownership. d. a counting of individuals. d. to doubt or question. one who doubts. or degree. b. c. with an air of superiority. or degree.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. amount. 5. a nonbeliever. or degree. To presage means a. c. exactly as expected. to send a message. general agreement by a group. d. c. to be uncertain. to be out of date. to make equal in status. disappointing. to warn in advance. b. b. b. b. amount. or degree. amount. . to issue a warning. 7.

to bring about. The adjective suffix -ian means related to. d. on all sides. The verb suffix -ize means to cause. 7. d. 5.means around. to predict. watchful. foretell.means before. Circumspect means cautious. b. d. value or degree. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation. c. to be active or aware. d. indifferent.means before. over. together. c. The noun suffix -ity means state of being.means not. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering prefixes and suffixes? Check your answers here. not showing anxiety or excitement. 10. questionable. Parity means having equality in status. The prefix con. Nonchalant means a. b. wavering. The prefix multi. amount. done with the intent of harming another. Antecedent means that which precedes. 1. reversing a previous opinion or decision. 11. fraught with uncertainty. The prefix ante. equivalence. The prefix pre. The prefix circum. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of. the thing. or exceeding. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. haughty. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. Galvanize means a. b. scornful. a. d. to cause to become active or aware.means with. 11. challenging. c. the state of becoming active or aware. 4. or event that came before. 9. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. an opinion or position reached by a group. c. one who becomes active or aware. disdainful. The prefix super. 2. . circumstance. Consensus means general agreement or accord. b. wary. complex. 8. 3. a. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. relating to. The prefix non.means many. Dubious means doubtful. d. 6. c.means above. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another). Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. not showing anxiety or excitement.

The study of word origins and development 45 . anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym. As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. do many of the words in the English language. In fact. You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. meaning name. meaning hand. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. so. too. Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. For example. The more word roots you know. the more roots you know. Needless to say. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning. and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. the stronger your vocabulary will be. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know.Word Roots 4 P refixes and suffixes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning.

Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. For example. All the eggs are in the pan. Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red. blue. He will write the information on a graph. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. indigo. green.” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word. the acronym Roy G. yellow. Meaning “memory aid. When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. violet). the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. . For example. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. For now. Phil loves to help others. meaning. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. orange. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots. or acronyms (words that are made up of the first letters of a group of words or phrases. tunes. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. or spelling. however. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. My mother plants herbs in her garden.

etc. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. therefore. roots are the base to which prefixes and suffixes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. (often with reluctance). The Latin roots err and pug. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. stop. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. respectively. rhythmic patterns. proper. move on. place. to yield. useful: • Use rhymes. kind ous: suffix meaning having the quality of. • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. Now. process . related to Thus. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different prefixes and suffixes to this root and how the different prefixes and suffixes change meaning. advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. meaning to go. a thing yielded.WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an office or position) proceed: to go forward or onward. rank. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful. Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. for example. homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. or tunes. a course of action or conduct. But most of the time. On occasion. especially after an interruption. yield.

The prefix in. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. you can also answer the following question. to go together with others Remember your prefixes from Chapter 3. The correct answer is b. yield. stop. yielding readily under pressure. to stop or abandon before completion c. continuous. pacify. d. to move or go below the surface. retreat d. b. to move or go back. Re. not direct. c. not stopping. ➥ Incessant means a. to move back. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault. ceaseless. incessant means continuing without interruption. placate: to appease. and the suffix -ant means being in a state or condition of. Thus. cess means to go. and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of prefixes and suffixes. retreat.means back. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different prefixes and suffixes to the root word.means not. Now add the noun suffix -sion. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efficacy of a drug . inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. again. or among. stop. self-satisfied. to allay the anger of. try determining what the word recede means: a. plac. to go forward blindly b. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now. Recede means c. meaning to please. subliminal. or yield. through. ced means to go. going between. performing or causing an action. meaning the act or state of. withdraw. Again. continuing without interruption. unconcerned placebo: an inactive.




For many people, especially visual learners, the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. For example, to remember the root pug, you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring, or a boxer with a pug nose. Similarly, you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop, or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. You could also picture a traffic light for the root ced/ceed/cess, because the colors of the traffic light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go, stop, yield. If you are a visual learner, again, use pictures to help you remember words. To remember that eu means good or well, you can picture the letters EU on a well. If you are an auditory learner, you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. For example, you could try one of these sentences for the root am, meaning love: I am love. I love Amy. I love ham.

Many different words can be built from a single root. For example, look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron, meaning time. chronic: continuing for a long time; on-going, habitual; long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time; the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events; to record in chronological order, make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology; arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock; a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time; to occur at the same time, be simultaneous By changing the suffix of synchronize, we can create even more words. For example, we can turn it into the noun synchronicity, which is the state or fact of being synchronous, an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time.



What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. Review the list carefully, taking note of the examples, which once again are mostly everyday words. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. After you have completed this lesson, make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you.


ac, acr: sharp, bitter acid (something that is sharp, sour, or ill natured), acute (extremely sharp or severe; keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love; romantic, affectionate), enamored (inflamed or inspired by love; captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war, especially the American Civil War), rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast, chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank, profession, etc.), chastise (to punish severely, as with a beating; to rebuke) ced, ceed, cess: to go, yield, stop antecedent (that which precedes), exceed (to extend beyond or outside of; surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime), mea culpa (Latin, “my fault”) dic, dict, dit: to say, tell, use words dictate (to say or read aloud; to issue orders or commands), predict (to foretell, make known in advance) equ: equal, even equate (to make or consider two things as equal), equidistant (equally distant)



err: to wander err (to make a mistake), error (a mistake; an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil, bubble, burn fervid (very hot, burning; ardent, vehement), effervescent (bubbling up, as a carbonated liquid; high spirited, animated) loc, log, loqu: word, speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people), neologism (a new word or phrase) luc, lum, lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light; enlighten), translucent (almost transparent; allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug, lut, luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water; to lessen the force or purity of), pollute (to make impure or unclean; to make unfit or harmful to living things) mag, maj, max: big magnify (to increase in size, volume or significance; to amplify), maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand), manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project, hang over prominent (standing out, conspicuous; projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface), eminent (towering above or more prominent that others; lofty, distinguished) nas, nat, nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country), innate (possessed at birth; inborn, inherent) nec, nic, noc, nox: harm, death innocent (uncorrupted by evil; free from guilt; not dangerous or harmful), obnoxious (offensive, hateful)

taciturn (habitually untalkative. tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. anxiety. hostile. implied). especially that gained through systematic study) tac.52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once). withdraw) . prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. placate (to appease or pacify) pon. science (knowledge. bright. strong) voc. pound: to put. reserved) ver: truth verdict (the findings of a jury in a trial. outspoken). reverse. true to life. call back. or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). verify (to confirm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. decision or judgment). tending to express oneself often and freely. vigorous (energetic. repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. interchange) pug: to fight pug (a boxer). revoke (to cancel. aware). brilliant. forceful. place deposit (to put or set down. tranquil (free from disturbance. still). distinct). calm. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. pos. active. disposed to fight) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise. place).

or suffix—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. and suffixes are found at the end of a word. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. Otherwise. . but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. For instance. Very often. or prefix. Another way to dissect meaning is to look for prefixes and suffixes. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book. Prefixes come before the word root. Let what you know about those words help you find the meaning of words that are less familiar. the prefix can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. In this case. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context). To identify most word parts—word root. If you are lucky. For instance. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. prefix.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to find the synonym or antonym of a word. Knowing this. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. Not only do you need to know the word in question. suffix. sacred. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difficult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. you have to figure out what the word means without any help from context clues. which means to trust or believe. unnecessary. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. and credit. A suffix like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. too. the root of credible is cred. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible.

one who creates plans for buildings). human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. chronology (the arrangement of events in time. long-lasting or recurrent). the sequence in which events occurred) cli. seeing with one’s own eyes) card. bend incline (to lean. autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death. cryptography (secret writing. encourage (to inspire with hope. ongoing. andro: man. or confidence. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). having inherent power of action or motion). slope. principal. slant. courage. archy: chief. especially one made of biological materials). epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) . to have a tendency or disposition toward something). or cause to do so. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. habitual.54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external influence or control. to give support. cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). cord. especially one used as a burial place). hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time. clin: to lean toward. archi. ruler architect (one who plans or devises. anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch.

euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). having a uniform structure or composition throughout). hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate). dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) . a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. thickness. especially one praising someone who has died). dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good. polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom. heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind. or swerve. obstinate). character. through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle. dia: apart. or function). width). deviate. homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over.WO R D R O OTS 55 di. a marked change of form. digress (to turn aside. well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute. abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding.

pat.56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . suffering. respond to a visual clue in a word. sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. You might. You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary. and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. a large orchestra) theo: god. existence. symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra. for example. all the gods of a people or region) pas. everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). prefixes. disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). path: feeling. and suffixes. philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom. agreement between two people) ped: education. J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way. or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word. theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. harmony. remember to focus first on roots. pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed field) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books). impervious means not. . Here are some specific strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. suffixes. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. A rebel. for instance. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. Here again are some specific strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. Similarly. By memorizing common prefixes. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. and word roots. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s prefix with that same prefix on another word she knows. for example. bitter. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. The prefix im. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. fights in a war. For example. For example. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. fervent has the root ferv. the root ac means sharp. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. which means to boil. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and significantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT. burn. the meaning of the root bel is war.

predict. Remember the power of elimination on an exam. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. Remember that word roots work with prefixes and suffixes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. Use the power of association. often without realizing it. 1. good natured. The more familiar the word is to you (e. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. honest. Look at all parts of the word and the context. truthful. You already know much of this material. The more you narrow down your choices. PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question. . b. A lucid argument a. c. Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. friendly. Remember that you use common word roots every day. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. d. equate). use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word. is loosely held together. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. if possible. d. c.g. 2.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. talkative. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. errs repeatedly in its logic. By memorizing these word bases. is very clear and intelligible. frequently digresses. highly educated. loud. b. An amiable person is a.. to determine meaning. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. tenuous.

WO R D R O OTS 59 3. antiquated. harmful. to worsen it. d. to lessen it. circumference. not fit for consumption. c. c. truthfulness. very isolated. embellish the truth. c. harm that person. b. b. expressed in a powerful and effective manner. to analyze it. value or worth. at rest. very old. d. d. trite. inedible. b. b. d. likes to pick fights. b. is known to tell lies. b. but does not accept responsibility. hackneyed. A complacent person a. 7. pick a fight with that person. d. c. 5. c. chaotic. 8. to solve it. weight. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. self-satisfied. dangerous. 4. 6. A quiescent place is a. To exacerbate a problem means a. . dull. still. is contented to a fault. stop or block that person from doing something. Something that is eloquent is a. d. frequently makes mistakes. c. charge that person with a crime. tumultuous. To indict someone is to a.

a. speech. tantalizing. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. d. and persuasive manner. at rest. The root loc/log/loqu means word. The root ac means sharp. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. truthfulness. unscented. 6.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. To exacerbate means to make worse. d. d. harmful. a. quiet. b. unwholesome. patience and composure. is even-tempered and composed. or bitterness of. d. fluent. pleasing. . Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. is very stubborn. The root qui means quiet. use words. b. 10. c. 7. The root equ means equal. Equanimity means calmness of temperament. The root am means love. A person with equanimity a. b. enjoys the company of others. b. d. death. d. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. 5. to increase the severity. Lucid means very clear. especially under stress. c. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. bitter. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. 8. intelligible. Veracity means truth. likeable. 1. tell. has a violent temper. even. The root plac means to please. refreshing. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. 10. easy to understand. violence. even-temperedness. 3. c. The root luc/lum/lus means light. 4. Complacent means contented to a fault. d. 9. The root ver means truth. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. Quiescent means inactive. A noxious odor is a. 2. self-satisfied (pleased with oneself). good natured.

This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. They are called homonyms. For example. he will learn something new about his craft. to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. summer. One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 .5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your finger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. fall. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring. or winter to flavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry.

For example. . So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. are homophones. great and grate. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly. There are dozens of homophones. His conduct in school was terrible. and bear and bare. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. on one part of the word. The term for these words. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests. homophone. but have different spellings and meanings. for example. this chapter will help you get them straight. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. or stress. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. or piece or peace. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. Otherwise. Night and knight. many of which you may already know.62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A specific type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. for example. while others that you may still find confusing. as are slay and sleigh. KON-dukt (n) means behavior. If so. like TOEFL iBT. you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible.

C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief definition of each word. CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to influence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (financial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .

deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to find something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late . having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint. verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged. suggest to assume.64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun. verb) compliment (noun.

not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he. sum of interest-earning money standard still. she. or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are . or they substitute for him.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue profits main person in charge. her.

against. you might be tempted to choose a. such as a word or action. not. however. unmeans not. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily.means away from. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar. standard procedure. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles. apart. d. although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. Here’s an example: To waive means a. reversal. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased. or d. That is. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its definition. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. However. which is related to the definition of a wave. free of selfish motives or interests—a different word entirely. c. you might encounter questions that use the definition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. penalty. for example. b. only uninterested has this meaning. etc. Take the homophones cue and queue. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. . relinquish. which is the definition of its homophone wave. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. to relinquish a right or claim. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. cue also means a signal. However. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct prefixes.66 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. If you don’t know the meaning of waive.). given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. to return to the original starting point. The correct answer is c. But the prefixes are attached to the same root. but they also have similar meanings. and the prefixes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis. to swell up or rise to the surface.

how do you remember these differences in meaning. mnemonic devices come in especially handy. to recline. The question is.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 67 J HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. . To keep them straight. not cunning or deceitful. Lie Lie means to rest. showing inventiveness and skill. The ones you don’t know. 2. artless. Rise Rise means to go up. do something! Sit Sit means to rest. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). frank. especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. (subject) She always sits in the third row. Set Set means to put or place. the balloon rises. you simply need to memorize. Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table. You can use this difference to remember key words in the definition of each word. (subject) After it is filled with helium. Lay Lay means to place. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. had lain Don’t just lie there. for example: ➥ ➥ ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity. sincere. unable to mask feelings. lacking sophistication or worldliness The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. (subject) past tense: lay. And when it comes to frequently confused words. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous. Raise Raise means to move something up. to set down.

2. a movement upward. to evaluate. etc. a signal. etc. or skill. agreement. cue (kyoo) n. to establish value or estimate the worth of ˘ apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as light. films. condemn ˘ sensor ('sen·sor) n. a line of waiting people or vehicles. v. 1. such as a word or action. escape the understanding of a appraise (˘·'prayz) v. given to prompt or remind someone of something. politically. inform ascent (a·'sent) n. 1. smoke. a allude (˘·'lood) v. to forbid the publication. to give notice or information to. an upward slope. distribution. a rebuke or condemnation. to criticize strongly. an official who reviews books. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation. rebuke. 2. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing . expression of strong criticism or disapproval. a queue queue (kyoo) n. the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the prefix. n. to remove what is considered morally. daring. consent censor ('sen·sor) v. concurrence. a hint or suggestion. 2. to make aware of. 2. 1. to make an indirect reference to elude (i·'lood) v. especially by cleverness. or otherwise objectionable ˘ censure ('sen·shur) n.68 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings Similarly. 2. to be incomprehensible to. 1. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. to escape from or evade. advancement ˘ ˘ assent (a·'sent) n. or other public dis˘ semination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable.

2. 2. to differ in opinion. artificial. still in existence. reputation. to diminish in price or value. to come or issue forth. etc. the range. not extinct. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. 1. character. nonconformity ˘ deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. lofty. 1. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. as from a source extant ('ek·stant) adj. a downward slope or movement. to express disapproval of. distinguished ˘ imminent ('im·˘·nent) adj. 1. adversary. destroyed or lost ˘ extent (ik·'stent) n. a difference of opinion. illegal. a hidden store or stock. 1. 1. to provoke. to think or speak of as being of little worth. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. meeting acceptable standards. forbidden by law. to call forth or draw out. 1. to lessen the worth of.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·sent) adj. v. standing above others in quality. 1. to pretend. 2. sufficient. with joy. not genuine or real foe (foh) n. a vast multitude . to collect and lay up. 2. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. an enemy. towering above or more prominent than others. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or ˘ correct. hereditary derivation. 2. a large group or crowd. 2. 2. contrary to accepted morality or convention e eminent ('em·˘·n˘nt) adj. disagree. depreciate depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v. to cause to do so. cache. distance. the act of descending or moving downward. fake. 2. impending ˘ emanate ('em·a·nayt) v. to belittle. to withhold approval or assent. n. to distribute widely. or degree to which something reaches or extends. about to occur. gladly feign (fayn) v. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv.. to separate and scatter in different directions.

remarkably clever ˘ ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. or intensity. 1. 2. pique (peek) v. or sexual orientation ˘ prosecute ('pros·e·kyoot) v. or strength. demolish completely. n. continue.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·bel) adj. to cause annoyance or irritation. n. beyond belief. to erase. fortitude. unable to mask feelings. 1. to prohibit. to glance quickly or peer at furtively. the highest possible point of development. 2. intensity. or mistreat. to be full of. 2. to provoke or arouse ˘ persecute ('pur·se·kyoot) v. to level to the ground. showing ˘ inventiveness and skill. to bring a criminal action against. to increase in size. not cunning or deceitful. religious or political beliefs. frank. to oppress. activity. skeptical. summit. a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. especially because of race. unwilling to believe ingenious (in·'jeen·yus) adj. n. sincere. 1. to reach its highest point or maximum development. 2. to join together so as to form a team. harass. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘ meddle ('med·el) v. 2. 1. 1. 1. to be present in large numbers . artless. astonishing ˘ ˘ ˘ incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. marked by inventive skill or creativity. interfere ˘ mettle ('met·el) n. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. n. the pointed top of a mountain. degree. to lift. 2. a brief or furtive look. courage. implausible. a group organized to work together. to issue commands. put in an upright position 2. 2. 2. 3. 1. 1. or intensity peek (peek) v. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. to vex or create resentment. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. activity. quantity. make higher. order something to be done. dictate. the act of raising or increasing. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. to carry on. to intrude in other people’s affairs. 1. spirit peak (peek) v. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. obliterate team (teem) v.

2. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. You can associate praise with a good evaluation. n.). a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. undulate. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. 1. etc. relinquish. you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. the more likely you are to find a “key” for you to remember the differences between them. Meddle. 2. review. standard procedure. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. if you are a visual learner. Pay attention to details. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. a surge. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. The more carefully you read each definition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. review.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. especially of the hand. especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. Review. And then review them again. Use flash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. rush. Remember to make the most of your learning style. 1. 3. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. and appraise means to evaluate. rhymes will be more effective. penalty. For example. Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. dispense with wave (wayv) v. For example. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. Or teach them to someone else. you will remember which word has which meaning. Use these words. . Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well. to move up and down or back and forth. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. 1. If you are an auditory learner. 2. for example. Here are some specific tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time. For example. differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t. appraise has the word praise in it.

It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain. Once again. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. meaning to write. 6. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. but she didn’t say anything directly. 7. 10. 1. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. . Both prescribe and proscribe. 4. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. 2. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 9. have the root scrib/script. for example. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones. 5. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. 3. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning. 8.

9. censor. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. disbursed. showing inventiveness and skill. a movement upward. 7. 2. move on. imminent. Imminent means about to occur. ingenious. 5. alluded.). or degree to which something reaches or extends. To censor is to forbid the publication. 10. An ascent is an upward slope. relinquish. waive. extent. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone. distribution. prosecuted. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. remarkably clever. To allude means to make an indirect reference to. Extent means the range. advance. distance. especially after an interruption. standard procedure. To proceed means to go forward or onward. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. 1. . 6. penalty.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. 8. 4. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. proceed. 3. ascent. impending. etc. advancement. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. To disburse means to pay out.

He was on the phone when I got to his house. however. They’re called idioms. you know that the first means that someone was delayed at work. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing. 74 Taken literally. depending on how it’s used within a sentence. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. that there were people able to interpret a political office seeker’s actions in a favorable light. perched on top of telephones. . they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the office until late last night. the second. or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their office chairs. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage.6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to define outside of the context in which they are used. and the third. All of these expressions are idioms. In its simplest form. that a man was talking on the phone.

or even ask a university representative. An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT. colloquialisms.” “right as rain. referring to the self.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. A related term is tenure track. for example. “Pretty as a picture. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés. which are frequently heard around campus. their impact is lessened. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the financial officer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course. In college. Some of the words you’ll find in the world of academia. Through overuse. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. An idiosyncrasy. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these definitions. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job. They are too well known to English speakers. is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. try and locate the definitions of the following words. or the world of education. . and slang.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio.

The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva. Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb. Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something. What people in the United States call an “apartment building. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because. • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group.” Here are some idioms with their definitions.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience. people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States.” the British call a “block of flats.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difficult. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals. presumably. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms. For instance. hot heels result from running hard. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. All languages have their own idioms. You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously.” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. give it a shot: try for the first time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . up to the job.

all fouled up. Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen. but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin. Reaganomics. decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive. . which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal. from Reagan and economics.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion fly off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize. learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle. amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver find out: discover.” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu. occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past.

● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the definitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. _____ . Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. 2. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. Here are some specific tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms. If it happens once in a blue moon. it means that you need the services of an electrician. 4. The more you hear how they sound. Answer yes or no to the following sentences. the more familiar they will feel to you. 1. textbooks. and the easier it will be to remember them. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter.78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles. and other dayto-day communications. If you burn out at something. _____ 5. Once again. a colloquialism. 3. PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. or a cliché. indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. it happens rarely. “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________.

If you give something a shot. 6. 5.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. _____ 8. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here. 4. and then analyze the results to figure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. you hand over your undergarment. 2. _____ 7. you are willing to try. You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something. 1. 7. 8. 3. If you give the slip to someone. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes .


expressive b. candidly d. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. irrational c.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. When you are finished. After you complete the test. Directions: For questions 1 through 20. adversely b. it has _____________ affected our working relationship. reserved d. choose the word that best fills in the blank. aloof d. I have always liked your positive attitude. favorably 81 . if you come across words that you are unsure of. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. elitist b. however. secretive c.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. she was very _____________. a. ingenious 2. artistic 3. (We suggest not timing yourself. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business. a. It might be a good idea to write down the definition beside the word. make a list of these words. Take your time when answering each question. a. look up the definitions for the words on your list. 1. Then. shamelessly c. check the answer key carefully to assess your results.

impure d. conformed b.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. decreased d. potable 7. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. The directions to the new office were _____________. a. delectable b. a. reminisced d. a. If your drinking water is not _____________. devised c. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30. it could cause serious health problems. encompassed b. a. condoned . quenchable c. meddlesome d. released c. valid b. a. docile 5. priceless b. explicit d. dispersed 8. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. commonplace c. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. embodied 6. arduous c. and I had no trouble finding it in time for work.

a. To get the promotion she wanted. surmised c. conformity c. monotonous b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. vital 13. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie. Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot. Because Mark needed to pass the exam. resolved . a. virtuously c. supposed b. presumed d. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. a. quandary d. prestige b. concept 11. obscurely 12. conspicuously d. redundancy c. a. eminently b. a. torrid c. deficit 10. priority b. perplexity d. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show. Wanting to make a good impression. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. ample d.

audibly 17. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. dynamically b. generously d. After running an early 5K race. careened d. approvingly b. The fire alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer firefighters of the small community to come to action. dissented b. reflex d. ventilated c. attraction c. disguise d. agitated 16.84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. portrayal b. voraciously c. reunion 15. a. council c. significantly c. winding highway. duplicate . Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. a. a. mishap b. beneficially 18. a. a. The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. symbolically d. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast.

23. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. enemy. mystery. d. d. a. luxuriously c. 21. newcomer. d. bitingly sarcastic. a. to orbit. measurably d. choose the best definition for the word in italics. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. rendezvous b. b. Understanding the world economic conditions. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. very high. Sandra is truly an enigma. b. stranger. filibuster d. c.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. Caustic means a. original. cutting edge. scatter c. relentlessly funny. c. b. Exorbitant means a. refreshingly honest. . warily b. belonging to a group. no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. in a new location. 22. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. disperse 20. c. Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people find his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. Enigma means a.

one who denounces or openly condemns another. b. to multiply. d. Didactic means a. literal. Unilateral means a. . 29. b. one who has changed. intended to instruct. c. to reestablish a close relationship between. the process of instructing. to transform. tending to change frequently. d. to denounce or openly condemn. Denunciation means a. hierarchical. c. the act of denouncing or openly condemning. moralizing. To reconcile means a. d.86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. repeated frequently to aid memorization. Subordinate means a. Metamorphosis means a. b. of or like a condemnation. to preach. moralize. without distinction. 26. b. one-sided. outdo. organized according to rank. b. d. under someone else’s authority or control. something ordinary or average. a transformation. 25. to surpass. a teacher or instructor. c. 27. c. to undermine. c. understated. 28. to move away from. critical. c. d. b. d.

the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. someone who is unconventional. revoke. d. d. d. c. b. worthy of consideration. quarrel. one who plants a garden. an evil person. a number between one and ten. one who acquires items from other empires. To abrogate is to a. relating to the acquisition of territories. an empire built by acquiring other territories. 32. Intermittent means a. Perennial means a. insight. c. rest quietly. d. villain. fight. Miscreant means a. d. c. 31. constant. . badly handled. the process of encoding a message. penetrating. b. to establish contact. to act forcefully. greatly varied. b. b. b. c. abolish. d. Incisive means a. 33. biting in nature. c. Imperialism means a. b. occurring at intervals between two times or points. know intimately. 35. c. lasting a very long time.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. someone who lacks creativity. a very naïve person. 34.

rambling speech. d. If there is amity between two nations. hobo. b. b. a place to rest. A magnanimous person is a. c. d. there is a. exists only in the imagination. the act of seeing or shining.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. d. war. An edict is a. c. extremely talkative. d. To acquiesce is to a. given to wordy. call attention to. a formal proclamation or command. highly noble. bitterness. d. a place to stop. enables a guilty person to be set free. d. comply with another’s wishes. mask the truth. is bitter or resentful. 41. peace. is experienced through the life or action of another. 37. c. b. has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. c. has existed for a long time. A vicarious action is one that a. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. is extremely friendly. c. b. b. give in to. speak in a whisper. 39. b. surrenders the rights of others. a wanderer. equality. 38. c. . generous. 40.

tends to like everyone. but believe me. b. c. To feel fervor is to feel a. A pugnacious person is best described as a. meandering. light-hearted. c. moves at a constant. d. combative. burdened. fiery emotion. talented. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. often has difficulty finding things. b. he is very anxious to learn more about you. tends to talk a great deal. ruthless. is not discerning. . Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. nosy. is properly ordered. d. appropriate. intense. as with guilt. steady pace. A loquacious person a. 46. Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to find out how much it is worth. in its proper place. 43. c. Something that is erratic a. 47. c. 48. calmness. d. is unpredictable. seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. d. b. b. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. has good intentions. peace. 45.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42. 49. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. straying from the norm. 44. carefree.

59. a partial report a. 57. 55. With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). I think he’s telling the truth. enhanced . Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). incomplete c. identifiable b. prefixes. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. let’s eat here. 56. You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. 53. even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. or suffixes. visible d. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50. A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. 51. 54. 58. This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. 60. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. 52.

64. punctual b. slack c. challenge 63. slow b. reverted b. regressed d. negate c. pause d. corroborate the statement a. average c. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. final d. a substantial report a. excessive . alleged 62. weighty c. moderate work flow a. prompt payment a. original b. tardy d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. transgressed c. confirm b. inconclusive b. processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67. proven d. deny d. regular 65. manufactured goods a. rain delay a. hasten c. desist 66.

the complete works of Shakespeare a. final d. bourgeois c. crisis c. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a. first b. oeuvre 70. choose the word whose definition best matches the description. milieu c. an avid sports fan a. gauche 72. rendezvous c. imbroglio 69. savoir faire d. gestalt b. 68. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. aficionado . façade 71. initial impression a. hiatus c. blasé b. mélange c. zeitgeist d. insouciant d.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67.” and other such overused sayings a. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a. cliché b. apropos b. “work like a dog. par excellence b.” “sleep like a baby. avant-garde d. mélange d.



Directions: For questions 73 and 74, choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type. 73. proactive a. after b. forward c. toward d. behind 74. inscribe a. confine b. see c. perform d. write 75. A synonym for vast is a. attentive. b. immense. c. steady. d. slight. 76. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. adamant. b. available. c. cheerful. d. eager. 77. A synonym for adequate is a. sufficient. b. mediocre. c. proficient. d. average. 78. A synonym for comply is a. subdue. b. entertain. c. flatter. d. obey.



79. An antonym for uniform is a. dissembling. b. diverse. c. bizarre. d. slovenly. 80. A synonym for ecstatic is a. inconsistent. b. positive. c. wild. d. thrilled.


1. d. Ingenious means marked by originality, resourcefulness, and cleverness in conception. 2. a. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. 3. d. Favorably means gracious, kindly, or obliging. 4. d. Docile means easily led or managed. 5. c. Explicit means clearly defined. 6. d. Potable means fit for drinking. 7. a. Encompassed in this context means included. 8. b. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles; to plan to obtain or bring about. 9. c. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. 10. a. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. 11. c. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind; attracting attention. 12. a. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. 13. d. Resolved means having reached a firm decision about something. 14. a. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. 15. c. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly; to lurch or swerve while in motion. 16. d. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. 17. b. Voraciously means having a huge appetite; ravenously. 18. a. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. 19. a. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement.



20. a. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution, cunning, and watchful prudence. 21. a. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic, cutting; able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. The main context clue is that people find Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous; thus choice a is the only option that makes sense. 22. d. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difficult to understand; a baffling problem or riddle. The context tells you that people know who Sandra is, but no one knows anything about her; thus, she remains a mystery. 23. d. The prefix ex- means out, out of, away from. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. 24. d. The noun suffix -tion means the act or state of. Denunciation means the act of denouncing, especially in public; to openly condemn or accuse of evil. 25. c. The noun suffix -sis means the process of. Metamorphosis means a transformation, a marked change of form, character, or function. Choices b and c are both nouns, but for choice b to be correct, it would require the suffix -ist. 26. a. The prefix re- means back, again. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between, to bring back to harmony. 27. b. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to, having the quality of. Didactic means intended to instruct; tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. Only choice b defines a quality. 28. d. The prefix uni- means one. Unilateral means one-sided. Notice also the adjective suffix -al, meaning action or process. 29. a. The prefix sub- means under, beneath, below. The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank; secondary; (2) subject to the authority or control of another. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another, and as a verb (notice the -ate suffix) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class; (2) to make subservient; subdue. 30. c. The adjective suffix -ive means having the nature of. Incisive means penetrating and clear; sharp, acute, biting. 31. b. The prefix inter- means between or among. Intermittent means occurring at intervals, not continuous; periodic, alternate. 32. d. The prefix mis- means bad, evil, wrong. Miscreant means a villain, criminal; an evil person. 33. a. The adjective suffix -ial means having the quality of, related to, suitable for. Perennial means lasting an indefinitely long time, forever; constantly recurring, happening again and again or year after year. Choice a is the only adjective definition.

The root ac/acr means sharp. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular. tell. b. 45. not genuine or real. 49. b.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. The suffix -or means a condition or activity. 39. a. a. etc. The adjective suffix -ic means pertaining or relating to. having the quality of. The prefix ab. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. acting or suffering for another. d. 47. uninterested. uneven. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to.means off. ardor. down. 46. The root am means love. do away with. 36. away from. 43. 37. inclined to fight. To appraise means to evaluate. use words. d. Fervor means zeal. To abrogate means to abolish. The root vi means life. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. The root loc/log/loqu means word. the suffix -ate means to make. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. 41. 42. An edict is an official order or decree. d. The root qui means quiet. c. d. The root err means to wander. combative. to establish value or estimate the worth of. Loquacious means very talkative. burn. away. d. opinion. understanding and forgiving of others. Uninterested means not interested. 35. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. To acquiesce means to comply. The noun suffix -ism means state or doctrine of. . teeming. speech. cause to be. Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. The noun suffix -ity means state of being. Magnanimous means very noble and generous. to be present in large numbers. formally revoke. fake. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. garrulous. faux. Faux means artificial. 44. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. The root pug means to fight. To teem means to be full of. or inconsistent manner. d. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. Amity means friendship. 38. bubble. having no care or interest in knowing. The root ferv means to boil. 48. bitter. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. give in. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced. The root rog means to ask. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. 40. appraised. The adjective suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. intense emotion. a. The root mag/maj/max means big.

A cue is a signal. degree. c. concurrence. spirit. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. Notice the prefix co-. The root of the word here is part. To corroborate is confirm. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. make higher. raise. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. c. Incredible means implausible. To prescribe is to issue commands. 61. The key part of the word substantial is substance. sufficient. final means last. To delay is to slow. 63. (2) to provoke or arouse. 56. decent. a. censured. a hint or suggestion. adequate. 67. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a finished product. A delay is a postponement in time. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. b. To raise is to lift. cutting-edge. b. (2) meeting acceptable standards. 62. 53. which means with or together. such as a word or action. horde. 52. This sentence uses the second meaning. d. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. Initial means first. Prompt means punctual. especially in the arts or literature. Context clues are important as well. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. 51. fortitude. intensity. prescribing. piqued. b. quantity. given to prompt or remind someone of something. astonishing. composer. 66. (2) the total lifework of a writer. etc. . 68. Some related words are cooperate. 60. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. 57. To censure is to criticize strongly. d. Moderate means average. cue. d. Corroboration means that one statement fits with another. to increase in size. A horde is a large group or crowd. coworker. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. mettle. tardy means late. 58. consent. incredible. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. assent. and collide. rebuke. 54. Partial means incomplete. innovative. condemn. 55. An initial impression is one that comes first. or strength. dictate. to hasten is to hurry. artist. This sentence uses the second meaning. 59. Substance means something that has significance. 69. 64. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. A partial report is only part of the whole. order something to be done. to vex. A substantial report is extensive. a vast multitude. excessive means extreme. 65. beyond belief. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. c. Assent means agreement. Mettle means courage.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50.

especially a popular gathering place. 76. b. 75. 78. 80. If someone is proactive. Enthusiastic means eager. (2) a place where people meet. An aficionado is a fan or devotee. d. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. to engrave on a surface.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. The word root scribe means to write. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. d. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. 74. Comply is synonymous with obey. Vast means very great in size. a. d. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. b. 72. 73. to meet at a rendezvous. 71. especially of a sport or pastime. to be diverse is to have variety. a. 79. 77. . The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. it is sufficient. immense. The prefix pro means for. d. b. If something is adequate. d. b.

commended 3. After you complete the test. if you come across words that you are unsure of. 1. optional b. integrate d. her claim to the estate was _____________. Take your time when answering each question. When you are finished. Being a direct relative of the deceased. confound b. The hail _____________ the cornfield until the entire crop was lost. make a list of these words. Then.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. pacify c. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. Directions: For questions 1 through 18. a. a. a. rebuked d. (We suggest not timing yourself. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. legitimate 2. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. prominent d. choose the word that best fills in the blank. pummeled c. belittled b. vicious c. facilitate 99 . look up the definitions for the words on your list.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. however. It might be a good idea to write down the definition beside the word.

varied 5. exemplified d. When you address the members of the committee. Her rapport with everyone in the office _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. a. grandiose c. comprehensive d. seclusion d. treatise 6. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. a. prevailed b. requisite 7. relinquish d. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new office procedures. delude b. principled b. punitive b. Do not _____________ yourself. determined c. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. prohibit 8. massive . restorative d. assumption b. a. depreciate c. diverged c. a.100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. confluence c.

reticent c. ample . preference d.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. a. the thunderstorm _____________. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. The news was no longer secret. principally 12. Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we first met him. and we were able to continue our golf game. The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. After an hour of heavy rain. precursor c. perpetually d. evoked 13. a. a. a. animated d. germinated c. abated b. acute b. customary b. consummate d. After years of experience. a. repulsively b. superficial c. voluntary 10. reputedly c. tedium b. constricted d. momentum 11. he soon began to talk more than anyone.



14. Anthony, a meticulous young man, _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. a. terminally b. perpendicularly c. diligently d. haphazardly 15. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. a. Irritating b. Poaching c. Provoking d. Smuggling 16. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails; otherwise, they were exactly alike. a. separated b. divided c. disconnected d. differentiated 17. On each slick curve in the road, I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. a. operate b. hydroplane c. submerge d. reconnoiter 18. My cousin claimed to be _____________; evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future. a. dreamlike b. comical c. criminal d. clairvoyant



Directions: For questions 19 through 45, choose the best definition for the word in italics. 19. Although the plot of the film is admittedly trite, the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. Trite means a. original. b. exciting. c. complex. d. overused. 20. Ilka has always emulated her older brother, so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. To emulate means a. to support wholeheartedly. b. to strive to equal, imitate, or outdo. c. to be more successful than. d. to regard as inferior. 21. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea, and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee. To garner means a. to create. b. to propose. c. to demonstrate. d. to withhold. 22. Cy’s attempt to finally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. To thwart means a. to injure seriously. b. to prevent from accomplishing. c. to support actively. d. to be excessively competitive. 23. To subjugate means a. to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. b. to conquer, bring under control. c. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. d. to be surrounded on all sides.



24. Benevolence means a. kindness, generosity. b. a kind, generous ruler. c. to be generous with one’s time or money. d. kind, giving charitably. 25. To coalesce means a. to dig up, mine. b. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. c. to combine and form a whole; join together. d. to withdraw silently, especially in shame. 26. Docile means a. one who domesticates animals. b. the management of domestic affairs. c. obedience. d. willing to obey, easily managed or taught. 27. Anomaly means a. regularity, consistency. b. something that is irregular, abnormal, or deviates from the usual form. c. a surprising collaboration, the cooperation of unlikely individuals. d. discontent among a specific group within a larger population. 28. Lamentable means a. regrettable, unfortunate. b. to regret. c. an unfortunate occurrence. d. to do something regrettable. 29. To abscond means a. to create a secret hiding place. b. to do something without telling anyone. c. to go away secretly and hide. d. to do something ahead of deadline.

someone who lives with another. b. c. teaching a lesson. c. a correction. devoted. Neophyte means a. c. not fathomable. d. kind. A belligerent person is a. Inscrutable means a. a strong aversion or dislike. incapable of being understood. from another country. original. that which occurred previously. c. a roommate. d. b. eager to help. 33. foreign. fundamentally different. b. c. distinct. b. a surprising error. an examination of all aspects of an issue. a beginner or novice. or apart from others. c. eager to fight. b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. chosen from within. an editor. having little or no impact. b. d. 32. . 34. d. d. Rectify means a. kept between or within members of a family. unique. 35. exceeding expectations. to correct. the act of separating from the source. loving. Disparate means a. d. hostile. Antipathy means a. from the same origin. 31. something that comes from multiple sources.

106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. d. c. c. d. 39. full of knowledge. receives the maximum benefit. b. b. d. newborn. 37. c. Something that is manifest is a. d. d. 40. excessive. Something that is luminous is a. bright. 41. b. burn or sting. b. energetic. a lie. blames others for his or her own faults. c. c. guilty. . even. often speaks without thinking. b. 38. b. capable. obvious. c. vocal. A renaissance is a. a rebirth. d. is eager to please. deadly. a punishment. Someone who is omniscient a. To equivocate is to a. equal. full of life. A person who is culpable is a. calm or quiet. put something in its proper place. shining. speak in a way that conceals the truth. everywhere. a mistake.

genuine. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. 50. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. c. reserved. an autograph by a famous person. wandering from the main path or point. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. clean. deeply in love. b. very valuable. dangerous or deadly. 47. inoffensive. thoroughly washed. but the dollar is up. 43. silent. 49. a forgery or fake. flood. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. Something that is innocuous is a. irrelevant. b. speak in a round-about manner. harmless. d. b. I tried everything. c. overwhelm. . bubbling over with enthusiasm. Directions: For questions 46 through 59. c. 46. fair. Someone who is reticent is a. c. b. As soon as I get off the phone. To juxtapose is to a. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. d. be born again.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42. 48. d. place side by side. A veritable autograph is a. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). 44. judging equally. 45. d.

not likely c. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. 60. Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to find out what he was getting. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. 56. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory. or suffixes. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner. but they finally caught up with him in Reno. 58. and soon it was no longer even noticeable. 59. The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. challenging . I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. an incoherent answer a. I must (decent/descent/dissent). 55. undeniable d. Although you all seem to agree.108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. 53. Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. prefixes. 52. 54. 57. I think this is a bad decision. not understandable b.

eager c. reasonable d. unexpected c. purposely c. gifted b. scattered rubble d. outrageous . 64.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. able 65. mistakenly b. good excuses b. transparent material c. exorbitant prices a. expensive b. unskilled b. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. protective material 62. absurd c. idle d. inadvertently left a. envious b. compatible workers a. harmonious d. carefully 63. experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67. cautiously d. competitive c. apt d. covered with debris a. zealous pursuit a. comical 66. capable employee a.

68. instinctive d. gauche c. ennui b. hiatus d. incognito b. imbroglio c. an artist’s first gallery showing a. liaison c. parvenu d. quid pro quo c. wearing a disguise a. vis-à-vis . façade 72. malaise 70. blasé b. belligerent attitude a. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a. ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72. imbroglio c. choose the word whose definition best matches the description. appeasing c. a temporary separation in a relationship a. hostile b. ad hoc b. aficionado b. oeuvre 71. cliché d.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a. debut 69. parvenu d. milieu d.

c. apart d. c. b. d. dangerous. over c. cause. influence. A synonym for continuous is a. b. d. uninterrupted.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. 78. a state of being b. An antonym for wary is a. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. intermittent. alert. b. suitable d. with b. worried. wisdom a. unsettled. A synonym for affect is a. . b. careless. a relationship c. an action 75. An antonym for novel is a. c. contiguous. leery. d. adjacent. c. time 74. old. 73. 76. accomplish. a property d. congregation a. 77. sicken.

d. 3. 11. congruity. 15. b. d. . d. 5. civility. Precursor means something that comes before. reserved. Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. 7. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. 2. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. ANSWERS 1. d. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about. A synonym for courtesy is a. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal fish or game. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. c. a. b. Requisite means essential or necessary. 80. 17. 12. 14. 6. a. d. fable. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. b. a meeting. conviviality. 8. or a gathering at one point. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. Confluence means a coming or flowing together. b. b. 4. b. to deceive. 13. truth. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. Delude means to mislead the mind. blessing. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. b. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. Reputedly means according to general belief. 10. d. d.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. 18. c. 9. c. weakness. it is called hydroplaning. Pummeled means to pound or beat. An antonym for fallacy is a. c. c. b. 16. c. d. rudeness.

To garner means to gather. The prefix anti. apart. d. or easily managed. especially after wrongdoing. being in a specified state or condition. especially by imitation. to join together. without. amass. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. 23.means under or below. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19.means with. opposed to. 21. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea. or acquire. The prefix ab. a. The prefix in. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. To rectify means to make right. a new form of.means away from. 32. The noun suffix -ence means state of. The prefix co. d. Notice also the adjective suffix -able. bring under control. Lamentable means regrettable.means against. To subjugate means to conquer. meaning one that performs. 24. d. b. or causes an action. Docile means willing to obey. Notice also the verb suffix -ate.means not. recent. down. 28. Trite means repeated too often. . incapable of being understood. d. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. c. The prefix neo. correct. 29. The adjective suffix -able means capable or worthy of. fuse. Inscrutable means baffling. d. 20. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. a. 22. 25. 30. Neophyte means a beginner or novice.means off. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. d. inspiring grief or mourning. 34. not. unfathomable. together. one that is irregular or abnormal. 26. away from. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. a disposition to act charitably. The prefix sub. apart. c. 27. The prefix a. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. a. The adjective suffix -ile means having the qualities of. b.means new.mean not. varied. dissimilar. promotes.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. unfortunate. b. b. The prefix dis. overly familiar through overuse. reversal. 31. subdue. 33. ready and willing to be taught. b. The verb suffix -ify means to make. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline.

the suffix -ance means state of. Omniscient means having infinite knowledge. innocuous means harmless. the suffix -ate means to make. especially to compare or contrast. untalkative.means back or again. to belittle. 44. obvious. The root culp means blame. 41. the root voc/vok means to call. blameworthy. 36. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. showing an eagerness to fight. Thus. The root pon/pos/pound means to put. a. The root bel means war. The prefix re. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. 42. full of light. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. The root omni means all. The suffix -able means capable or worthy of. a. performing or causing a specified action. harass. a. reserved. The root luc/lum/lus means light. not quite doing either). Manifest means clear and unmistakable. b. 48. the suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. 43. The prefix in. The root man means hand. c. Veritable means real. to lessen the worth of. religious or political beliefs. d. a. b. The root tac/tic means to be silent. Luminous means shining. to provoke. 45. 37. c. cause to be. To persecute is to oppress. 40. or mistreat. The adjective suffix -able means capable or worthy of. brilliant. . Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. silent. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. having no adverse or ill effects. true. thus. 39. or sexual orientation. the suffix -ous means having the quality of or relating to. 46. death. as the other answers correspond with different roots. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. depreciated. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. place. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value. 47. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. This sentence uses the first meaning. 38. d. guilty. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. Thus. elicit. The root ver means truth. genuine. To juxtapose means to place side by side. especially because of race.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. persecuting. The ending -ent is an adjective suffix meaning in a state or condition. knowing all things. the root sci means to know. at hand. The root equ means equal. emitting light. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. c.means not.

57. . Debris is scattered fragments or trash. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. raze. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion. To feign is to pretend. This sentence uses the first meaning. especially by cleverness. To apprise means to give notice or information to. c. The key element in this word is the prefix in-. c. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. (2) to distribute widely. dissent. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. 64. c. Incoherent means not understandable. choice b. 51.means not. to give the false appearance of. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. apprise. 60. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. or skill. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. 65. dispersed. as from a source. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. 66. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. The prefix in. feign. which means not. 59. a. or cause to do so. 52. obliterate. disseminate. 54. To cohere means to connect. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. disagree. interfere. queue. which means out of or away from. to make aware of. Capable means able. frank sincere. very high. 53. ingenuous. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. 56. Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. inform. 55. (2) to erase. elude. c. peek. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. a. (2) to withhold approval or assent. You may have heard the word zeal before. demolish completely. eager. This sentence uses the first meaning. a. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. The suffix -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. escape the understanding of. 63. 50.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. daring. 62. unable to mask feelings. emanating. This sentence uses the first meaning. 58. This sentence uses the first meaning. To emanate is to come or issue forth. (2) to be incomprehensible to. so idle is most nearly the opposite. (2) in information processing. The best clue in this word is the prefix ex-. Zealous means eager. artless. unskilled means unable. This sentence uses the first meaning. Inadvertently means by mistake. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. 61. meddling.



67. b. The key element in this word is the root belli, which means warlike. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. The antonym would be appeasing. 68. d. A debut is a first appearance in or presentation to the public. 69. c. Hiatus means a gap or opening; an interruption or break. 70. a. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed; in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. 71. d. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building; (2) an artificial or deceptive front, especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. 72. b. Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups; one who maintains such communication; (2) a close relationship or link, especially one that is secretive or adulterous. 73. a. The prefix con- means to be together with. A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. 74. a. The suffix -dom is a state of being. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right, true, or lasting. 75. d. To affect means to influence. 76. d. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful; careless is the opposite of watchful. 77. d. To be novel is to be new; the opposite is old. 78. c. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. 79. a. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act; it is characterized by civility. 80. a. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea, trickery; a truth is something that conforms to the facts.


Word List


y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. Learn a short list every day. You should also try and write sentences using the new words. When you learn a new word, use it in conversation as soon as possible. Repetition is key—use a word three times, and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with flash cards. Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid. Write the vocabulary word on one side and the definition on the other. Or, try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the flash card and the definition of the word on the other. Flash cards are easy to handle, they’re portable, and they’re friend-friendly, so you can study with a buddy. You and your friends can drill each other. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary, studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now, review the word list. After each vocabulary word, you will find the word’s pronunciation, part of speech, definition, and a sentence using the word. (Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used.) If the word list looks intimidating, try the following strategy. 1. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT. 2. Multiply that number by 10.




If you have only 30 days until the test day, you can learn 300 new words, by studying only ten new words each day! And, remember, some of these words may already be familiar to you.


Before you review the word list, here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the definitions. Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily.
a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n

hat, carry, fact ago, dependable, pedal palm, father car, chart, farm bare, scare, fair ball, walk, draw stage, blame, day bat, rabbit, crib church, preacher day, puddle, bed egg, head, cherry shaken, trickle eat, treat, tree ear, clear, cheer fan, stuffy, relief go, regular, fog heed, heaven, unhappy whether, nowhere it, live, middle stencil, edible icy, tire, sky jug, tragic, hedge kitten, shaken, track lost, trolley, toll more, summon, slim no, dinner, man

n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh

sing, finger, frank odd, fox, trot salmon, advisor oak, boat, sew aboard, score, coarse oil, coin, coy ooze, noodle, super pour, cure, sure for, scorn, horse out, house, how pan, paper, pop rain, marry, dear sun, listen, rice share, fishing, cash tip, mutter, pot three, strengthen, breath this, father, breathe cup, come, shut delicious, measure her, turn, worry cook, put, pull vail, sliver, live want, aware, quaint you, yarn, yesterday zebra, hazy, please division, treasure

abjure (ab·'joor) v. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. 2. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. to lessen in strength. 1. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. detest. When Joseph became a citizen. 2. aberration (ab·e·'ray·shon) n. 1. to abolish. we began to survey the damage it caused. subside. to repudiate. accolade ('ak·o·layd) n. 1. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. limitless. or degree. difficult to comprehend. deviation from what is normal. It ˘ ˘ was not surprising that the movie was a flop. absolution (ab·so·'loo·shon) n. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. obscure. abrogate ('ab·ro· ayt) v. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. 2. a formal declaration of forgiveness. . extremely bad. As the violent ˘ storm abated. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. 1. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. suspension. used with ˘ temperance or moderation. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. abhor (ab·'hohr) v. 1. extreme. but he should still get out and vote. profound. a ceremonial embrace in greet˘ ing. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. distortion. praise or approval.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a·'bayt) v. 3. I have decided to abstain on this issue. the reviews were abysmal. His new ˘ ˘ ˘ scientific theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. ˘ ˘ 2. formally revoke. 2. to give up or reject. to refrain from voting. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·us) adj. to go away secretly and hide oneself. renounce under oath. The dictator ˘ abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes. abscond (ab·'skond) v. He received accolades from his superiors for finding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. abeyance (a·'bay·ans) n. using or consuming sparingly. 2. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. eating and drinking in moderation. I know Carlos abhors politics. intensity. being temporarily suspended or set aside. to regard with horror or repugnance. ˘ ˘ Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. redemption. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. abysmal (a·'biz·mal) adj. do away with. 1.

fuss. bother. to comply. successive addition. 1. Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer. and accuracy of perception. ˘ deft. alacrity (a·'lak·ri·tee) n. purpose. aficionado (a·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n.120 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT accretion (a·'kree·shon) n. . to become rotten. acumen (a·'kyoo·men) n. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground. bitter and sharp in language or tone. often temporary. 1. 2. trouble. she completed her book ˘ report. give in. ˘ The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly. skillful. acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. adamant ('ad·a·mant) adj. ado (a·'doo) n. growth or increase by gradual. a fan or devotee. acrid ('ak·rid) adj. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget. addle ('ad·el) v. ˘ ˘ building up. it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them. appeals. clever. she should have your trousers fixed in no time. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or ˘ ˘ cultivation. judg˘ ˘ ment. being happily ready and eager. I acquiesced and walked to the next street. or reason. for a specific. or adept in action or in thought. dexterous. acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. 2. sharp taste or smell. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor. especially of a sport or pas˘ time. or insight. 1. agrarian (a·' rair·ee·an) adj. 2. 2. keenness. bitter or caustic in language or manner. Jasleen ˘ did not like her new neighbors. to muddle or confuse. quickness. having an unpleasantly bitter. unyielding to requests. 1. firm. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city. a cheerful willingness. for this case only. After the police officer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian traffic. ˘ ˘ inflexible. she would make an excellent trial lawyer. adroit (a·'droit) adj. consent without protest. Without much ado. An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. as in an egg. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aficionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts. With Jonelle’s acumen. Priya is a very adroit seamstress. The ˘ prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant. ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj.

political disorder and confusion. pagers seem like an anachronism. amorphous (a·'mor·fus) adj. . uncertain. thing. so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly. anachronism (a·'nak·ro·niz·em) n. The presidential candidate ˘ alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying. allude (a·'lood) v. friendship. or idea that is out of date. to reduce the intensity of. alleviate. Andrea looked up at the sky. 1. anomalous. put to rest. 1. 2. peculiar. anarchy ('an·ar·kee) n. one should avoid discussing politics and religion. one that is irregular. to improve. to calm. amity ('am·˘·tee) n. one who opposes or contends with another.” altercation (awl·ter·'kay·shon) n. 2. or abnormal. custom. something that is placed into an incorrect ˘ ˘ ˘ historical period. something that deviates from the general rule or usual ˘ ˘ form. or situation. The ˘ remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees. antagonist (an·'ta ·o·nist) n. to make an indirect reference to. With the rise in popularity of cell phones. an ˘ adversary. 2. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play. to make or become better. amulet ('am·yu·lit) n. 1. 2. having mixed or conflicting feelings about a ˘ ˘ person. The diplo˘ ˘ mat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations.WO R D LI ST 121 allay (a·'lay) v. a person. 1. amiable ('ay·mee·a·bel) adj. “We’ve all made sacrifices. ameliorate (a·'meel·yo·rayt) v. having no definite form or distinct shape. ambivalent (am·'biv·a·lent) adj. Amity had existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to fight about money anymore. of no particular kind or character. likable. anomaly (a·'nom·a·lee) n. friendly and agreeable. the country fell into a state of anarchy. shape˘ ˘ less. looking at the amorphous clouds. pleas˘ ˘ ing. a heated dispute or quarrel. his amiable personality drew people to him. ˘ The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. To prevent an alter˘ ˘ cation at social functions. Miguel was usually the first person invited to a party. good natured. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. the complete absence of government or control result˘ ing in lawlessness. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood. opponent. After the king’s assassination.

the climbers placed their flag in the snow. she was an apotheosis. attributing human characteristics. in his daydreams. aperture ('ap·er·chur) n. I am not. unresponsive. antithesis (an·'tith·e·sis) n. indifferent. Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry. to give notice or information to. ˘ The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and final exams would occur. and sadness. 1. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet. to still or pacify. or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. The ˘ ˘ aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light. especially one that lets in light. apathetic (ap·a·'thet·ik) adj. that which precedes. apocalypse (a·'pok·a·lips) n. concern. an object of aver˘ sion. an opening or gap. to make calm or quiet. apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. ˘ ˘ motivations. 2. 2. The only way ˘ to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right. pointed end. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation ˘ ˘ or the end of the world. a strong aversion or dislike. envy. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities. apotheosis (a·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. inform. tip. 1. the direct or exact opposite. to establish value or estimate the worth ˘ of. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting. . appease (a·'peez) v. Hanson ˘ was so in love with Marge. 1. not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain. the highest point. Upon reaching the apex of the mountain. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash. the thing. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons. to make aware of.122 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT antecedent (an·ti·'see·dent) n. he is strict. an exalted or glorified ideal. 2. ˘ Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine. opposition or contrast. deification. to evaluate. apex ('ay·peks) n. circumstance. anthropomorphic (an·thro·po·'mor·fik) adj. Peter had antipathy for his classmate. who express human characteristics such as love. one who abandons long-held religious or political con˘ victions. soothe. Disillusioned with religious life. appraise (a·'prayz) v. or ˘ emotion. apostate (a·'pos·tayt) n. ˘ event that came before. feeling or showing a lack of interest. antipathy (an·'tip·a·thee) n.

Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. appropriate (˘·'pro·pre·˘t) adj. a movement upward. crooked. by the way. to take for one’s own use. The asperity that Marvin. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. difficult to traverse or surmount. fitting. appropriate to the situation. suitable for a particular person. beyond comprehension. suitable to what is being ˘ said or done. ˘ 2. austere.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. zeal. The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difficult for many students to understand. original pattern or prototype. 1. The local authorities issued an approba˘ ˘ tion to close the street for a festival on St. mysterious. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. requiring great effort. harshness. roughness of manner. laborious. Even the ˘ pictures on the wall stood askew after my five-year-old son’s birthday party. The ˘ ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. Patrick’s Day. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro·'bay·shon) n. The ˘ rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. incidentally. passionate enthusiasm. ascent (a·'sent) n. . adv. (˘·'proh·pree·ayt) v. often without permission. secret. 2. to set aside for a special purpose. characteristic of the past. severity. 1. but they were definitely apropos. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing. approval. fiery intensity of feeling. practicing self-denial. ascetic (a·'set·ik) adj. asperity (a·'sper·i·tee) n. a ¯ ¯ a or place. ardor ('ahr·dor) n. an upward slope. not allowing oneself pleasures or ˘ luxuries. to one side. belonging to former or ancient times. 2. advancement. the grumpy accountant. & adv. ˘ irritability. apropos (ap·ro·'poh) adj. very difficult. an original model from which others are copied. ill temper. not straight or level. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. arduous ('ahr·joo·us) adj. condition. occasion. at an appropriate or opportune time. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. askew (a·'skyoo) adj. 1.

diligent. but his interference only augmented the problem. 1. a forecast or omen. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. august (aw·' ust) adj. strength. put to a test. 3. 2. venerable. unremitting. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. the committee must reach an assent. audacious (aw·'day·sh us) adj. to weaken. reduce in ˘ force. automaton (aw·'tom·a·ton) n. to make something less severe. unadorned. assent (a·'sent) n. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. authoritarian (a·thor·i·'tair·i·an) adj. patronage. to satisfy (as ˘ hunger or thirst). persevering. enlarge. or intensity. agreement. attenuate (a·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. unquestioning obedi˘ ˘ ence to authority as opposed to individual freedom. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or ˘ ˘ robotic way. ˘ ˘ Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. to judge critically. to examine. assiduous (a·'sij·oo·us) adj. a robot. 2. majestic. to agree to something ˘ especially after thoughtful consideration. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. 1. augment (aw ·'ment) v. protection or support. very plain. I know my dad seems austere. or degree. Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. hardworking. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. a self-operating or automatic machine. austere (aw·'steer) adj. concurrence. simple. but they often achieved results. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors.124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a·'say) v. In order to pass the new law. 2. to make thin or slender. Because she fol- . to try. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. value. favoring complete. 2. to increase in size. unre˘ strained by convention or propriety. v. to soothe. 1. 1. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. severe or stern in attitude or appearance. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its officers and enlisted men alike. auspice ('aw·spis) n. 2. consent. inspiring admiration or reverence. assuage (a·'swayj) v. evalu˘ ate after an analysis.

destructive. to show to be false. to deceive or cheat through cunning. By wearing an expensive suit and watch. . innovative. to distract the attention of. balk (bawk) v. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. intense dislike. to give a false impression. but the film turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting. 1. to pass time in a pleasant manner. repugnance. poison. trite. quarrelsome. sinister. Natasha made coffee. B baleful ('bayl·ful) adj. the object of ˘ ˘ this feeling. self-determination. self˘ government. to obstinately refuse or oppose. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. obvious and uninteresting. cooked breakfast. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. belligerent. cutting-edge. 1. Old man Jones was finally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. divert. menacing. woman. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. 2. cause of trouble. car. 1. bane (bayn) n. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. 2. you can be certain to find at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. distress.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. misery. autonomy (aw·'ton·o·mee) n. 2. to amuse or charm. commonplace. Whether it’s a ˘ man. banal (ba·'nal) adj. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. personal or political independence. aversion (a·'vur·zhon) n. harmful. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. especially in the arts or literature. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. or harm. eager to make war. a strong. misrepresent. belie (bi·'l¯) v. I was expecting ˘ something original and exciting. or animal. 1. Violet was able to beguile the spy. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. to contradict. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. 2. causing him to miss his secret meeting.

2. showing an eagerness to ˘ ˘ fight. to deceive or defraud. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. disrespect of something sacrosanct. mild. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. blight (bl¯t) n. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. a flock of animals or birds. kind. boisterous ('boi·ste·rus) adj. utterances. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. 2. light-hearted. very sophisticated. an unsightly object or area. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. 1. stormy and rough. not harmful or malignant. especially to evade paying one’s debts. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. ˘ ˘ 2. having a beneficial or favorable nature or influence. such as air pollution. . 2. casual. 1. unconcerned. 3. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. bilk (bilk) v. atti˘ tudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. to buoy or hearten. The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the field during the football game. contemptuous or irreverent acts. hostile and aggressive. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. cheat. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·er·ent) adj. Coach ˘ Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s confidence. 2. to support or prop up. not attempting to conceal in any way. 3. and carefree. blithe (bl¯th) adj. bevy ('bev·ee) n. loud. 1. a dis˘ ˘ ˘ position to act charitably. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. 1. to swindle. completely obvious. you would be tortured and killed. 1. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. 1. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. benevolence (be·'nev·o·lens) n. gentle. something that causes this condition. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. he always acted in a benign manner. a large group or assemblage. something that impairs or destroys. and lacking restraint or discipline. nonchalant. 2. blasphemy ('blas·fe·mee) n. noisy. 4. the inclination to be kind and generous. bolster ('bohl·ster) v.

The bumptious man couldn’t stop ˘ talking about himself or looking in the mirror. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be ˘ considered offensive. a small group joined in a secret ˘ plot. 2. broach (brohch) v. buoyant ('boi·ant) adj. to bring up. bravado (bra·'vah·doh) n. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. conservative. 1. With Antonio as their leader. rub to a shine. commonplace. grow ˘ new buds. as in to draw off liquid. in fact. in order to begin a discussion of. typical of the middle class. censor. cacophony (ka·'kof·o·nee) n. Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. to polish. light-hearted. to tap or pierce. cheerful. clamor. loud. discordant sound. blossom. C cabal (ka·'bal) n. offensive. 2. or materialistic. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. introduce. speaking pompously. bowdlerize ('bohd·le·r¯z) v. When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. she realized that it was. I ˘ ˘ heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. hence also. In science class. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. for many of the original tales included graphic language. din. solid silver. boor (boor) n. able to float. bumptious ('bump·shus) adj. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. ill-mannered person. . to begin to grow and flourish. 2. conceited. burnish ('bur·nish) v. a crude.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. false courage. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. to begin to sprout. burgeon ('bur·jon) v. with inflated selfimportance. 1. arrogant. jarring. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. 1. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. ˘ the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. Although she won millions in the lottery. Kyle’s ˘ bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. a show of pretended bravery. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. a scheme or conspiracy.

to obtain by begging. to lurch from side to side while in motion. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. or otherwise objectionable. the comedian. to whee˘ dle. candor ('kan·dor) n. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. politically. a distinct social class or system. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. Old man Jones was finally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. openness. cajole (ka·'johl) v. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. frank. bitingly sarcastic. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or flattery. censor ('sen·sor) n. cutting. Robin ˘ ˘ Williams. 2. films. whimsical and unpredictable. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. to inflict a severe punishment on. especially through art. the act of ridding or cleansing. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. capitulate (ka·'pich·u·layt) v. impulsive. demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing. distribution. 1. to remove what is ˘ considered morally. hoping I would throw him some table scraps. they castigated him. relieving emotions via ˘ the experiences of others. capricious (ka·'prish·us) adj. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. 1. While visiting India. sincere speech. careen (ka·'reen) v. to chastise severely. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic fluid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. etc. 2. or dissolve by chemical action. an official who reviews books. he welcomed my candor. acquiesce. to beg. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. The librarian served as a censor. When I told my boss about my ˘ performance concerns. caste (kast) n. to give in. to rush care˘ lessly or headlong. . but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. v. to surrender under specific terms or agreed upon ˘ ˘ conditions. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. catharsis (ka·'thahr·sis) n. able to burn. Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. corrode. to forbid the publication. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening.

a (monstrous) product of the imagination. watchful. illusion. ill-mannered. Tito has an engaging writing style. . a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. the sequence ˘ ˘ in which events occur. cautious. condemn. to record in chronological order. a goat’s body. a vain or incongruous fancy. rude. v. 2. long-lasting or recurrent. clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj. 1. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. wary. The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat. habitual. kept or done in private. (in Greek mythology) a fire-breathing she-monster ˘ with a lion’s head. continuing for a long time. to punish severely. her mother censured her behavior. chimera (ki·'meer·a) n. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v. The prison guard was ˘ circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. make a historical record. a trite or overused expression or idea. an exceptionally accurate clock. on-going. an extreme nationalist. a precise ˘ ˘ instrument for measuring time. Seduced by the chimera of immortality. rebuke. cliché (klee·'shay) n. v. to criticize harshly. 2. chronometer (kro·'nom·i·ter) n. rebuke. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. and a serpent’s tail. but he uses too many clichés. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. circumspect ('sur·kum·spekt) adj. a detailed record or narrative description of past ˘ events. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. a rebuke or ˘ condemnation. The firefighter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the fire. 1. to criticize strongly. as with a beating. chronicle ('kron·i·kel) n.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shur) n. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. boorish. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. conducted in secrecy. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. chronology (kro·'nol·o·jee) n. the arrangement of events in time. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement.

a hard riddle. copious ('koh·pi·us) adj. enigma. causing contention. conclave ('kon·klav) n. With two contentious candidates on hand. 1. Ella’s cogent ˘ arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. quarrelsome. controversial. consternation (kon·ster·'nay·shon) n. to combine and form a whole. general agreement or accord. making or willing to make concessions ˘ ˘ to reconcile. quick to fight. proper. contemporary. to yield. etc. The poet Ben ˘ Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. abundant. mollifying. consensus (kon·'sen·sus) n. The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. or comfort. surrender. collusion (ko·'loo·zhon) n. cogent ('koh·jent) adj. appeasing. large in number or quantity. a private or secret meeting. 2. of the same time period. conciliatory (kon·'sil·ee·a·tohr·ee) adj. ˘ ˘ 2. contented to a fault. to grant as a right or privilege. a feeling of deep. conspiracy. (often ˘ with reluctance). convincing. Jay ˘ and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. a secret agreement between two or more people for a ˘ ˘ deceitful or fraudulent purpose. 1. an opinion or position ˘ ˘ reached by a group. compelling belief. conundrum (ko·'nun·drum) n. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. to join together. concede (kon·'seed) v. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. self-satisfied. to acknowledge or admit as true. persuasive. soothe. Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her fired. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. competitive. plentiful. a puzzling question or ˘ ˘ problem. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. contentious (kon·'ten·shus) adj. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. . The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants. coeval (koh·'ee·val) adj. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. The ˘ shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellfish on the island. uncon˘ ˘ cerned.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a·'les) v. incapacitating horror or ˘ ˘ dismay. fuse. it was sure to be a lively debate. complacent (kom·'play·sent) adj.

too willing to believe things. occult. mysterious. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. facial features ˘ ˘ and expression. As she walked down the aisle. ˘ 2. corroborate (ko·'rob·o·rayt) v. When the timer buzzed. I admitted that I was culpable. cue (kyoo) n. especially of a problem. hasty and superficial. having a hidden or secret meaning. debacle (di·'bah·kel) n. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. The first-graders ˘ ˘ made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. 1.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu·'koh·pi·a) n. the central or critical point or feature. Although I should have proofread ˘ the essay carefully. countenance ('kown·te·nans) n. so she must be telling the truth. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. blameworthy. to make more certain. to intimidate. When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. “This craven act of violence will not go unpun˘ ished. a queue. . the appearance of a person’s face. a signal. guilty. crux (kruks) n. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. violent flood waters. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. D daunt (dawnt) v. confirm. deserving blame or censure for being or doing some˘ ˘ thing wrong or harmful. such as a word or action. All the tables. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. I only had time to give it a cursory review. credulous ('krej·u·lus) adj.” remarked the police chief. to make afraid or discouraged. 2. craven ('kray·ven) adj. His austere manner daunted the small children. secret. a total defeat or failure. a hint or suggestion. ˘ ˘ graphs. given to prompt or remind someone of something. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill. culpable ('kul·pa·bel) adj. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. to strengthen or support with evidence or ˘ ˘ authority. a horn of plenty. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. a sudden disaster or collapse. gullible. abundance. cursory ('kur·so·ree) adj. hidden. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. cowardly. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj.

delude (di·'lood) v. disparage. a leader who obtains power by appealing to peo˘ ple’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. to express disapproval of. or pretending to be so. to belittle. defame. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. make someone believe something that is wrong. Polly hated to demur. When questions concerning decorum arise. to blacken the reputation of. propriety. to draw or outline. modest and shy. to raise objections. . so those scenes were removed. decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. v. to portray. deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. to destroy a large portion of. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n. decency in ˘ manners and conduct. in reality or fact. & adv. deign (dayn) v. hesitate. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. ˘ Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. to condescend. describe. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. sketch. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. appropriateness of behavior. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. demagogue ('dem·a· aw ) n. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. Sharon could be very demure. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. demur (di·'mur) v. a first appearance in or presentation to the public. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. actual. When it was to her advantage. Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her. demure (di·'myoor) adj. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. decorum (di·'kohr·um) n. the de facto leader is the prime minister. to deceive. I always refer to Emily Post. depreciate. to make a first appearance in public. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. The king is only the nominal head of the country. depict.

many families were left destitute. to turn aside. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. intended to delay. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. penniless. ˘ especially to gain time. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. recognize as being distinct. Alan used to be so ˘ diffident. digress (d¯·' res) v. verbose. 1. adj. something that is derived or made by derivation. derivative (di·'riv·a·tiv) n. jeering. Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. to undeceive.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj. 1. extremely poor. to profane. shy and timid. to distinguish. Unfortunately. discern (di·'surn) v. haphazard. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. aimless. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o·mee) n. extend. The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. slow or late in doing something. to draw or take away from. desultory ('des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. correct a false impression or erroneous ˘ belief. deviate. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. disabuse (dis·a·'byooz) v. ˘ derived from another source. diffident ('dif·i·dent) adj. 2. Someone dese˘ crated the local cemetery by spray-painting graffiti on tombstones. . to remove part of something. derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. to soften. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. 1. disperse. diminish. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. dilatory ('dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. to perceive clearly. expressing ridicule. or swerve. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. In order to promote freedom of expression. adj. to violate the sacredness of. scattered.” desecrate ('des·e·krayt) v. unoriginal. to spread throughout. mocking. division into two usually contradictory parts or ˘ kinds. make less brilliant. wordy. not concentrated. scornful. 2. moving from one subject to ˘ another without logical connection. lacking self-confidence. utterly lacking. 2. detract (di·'trakt) v. spread out. After the economy declined.

to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. . 2. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. or nearly so. insincere. ˘ hopelessly unhappy. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. 2. dogma ('daw ·ma) n. ˘ Some find the dogma inherent in religion a comfort.134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·kon·'surt) v. dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. inconsolable. a prescribed doctrine. dejected. be indecisive and uncertain. falsely pretending to be unaware. and only the very angriest protesters remained. 2. v. 2. 1. squander. 1. 2. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. a system of principles or beliefs. dither ('dith·er) v. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. but they didn’t listen. 1. Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. 1. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. to hesitate. to frustrate ˘ plans by throwing into disorder. a state of being despised. despise. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. dissemble (di·'sem·bel) v. to separate and scatter completely. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. sad. especially the right to vote. calculating. 1. to be extravagant and wasteful. not straightfor˘ ward or frank. whereas others find it too restrictive. to disperse to the point of disappearing. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so·lit) adj. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. to upset the composure of. disappointed. belittle. dissuade (di·'swayd) v. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives ˘ behind a false appearance. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. ruffle. to shake or ˘ quiver. The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unflappable Miriam. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. 2. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. 1. During a crisis. disdain (dis·'dayn) n.

inactive but capable of becoming active. anomalous. v. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj. E ebb (eb) n. something worthless. trick. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. 1. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. draconian (dray·'koh·ni·an) adj. temporarily quiescent. brilliant performance or achievement. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. exuberant. inactive. sludge. 2. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. or styles. irregular. as the tide. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. melodious. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. very harsh. extremely severe (especially a law or ˘ punishment). Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. 2. 1. someone who is easily deceived. v. gullible. harmonious. sweet-sounding. at rest. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. I am eager for a reconciliation. latent. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings. ˘ 2. to fall back.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·mant) adj. 2. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. 1. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. decline. great acclaim or applause. droll (drohl) adj. dupe (doop) n. bubbling over with enthusiasm. The ebul˘ lient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. commonplace. to flow back or recede. systems. This is a wonderful. or trivial. to deceive. the return of the tide to the sea. . conspicuous success. lying asleep or as if asleep. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. ebullient (i·'bul·yent) adj. éclat (ay·'klah) n. waste product. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. 1.

2. civil. towering above or more prominent than others. etc. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry. effrontery (i·'frun·te·ree) n. Enid was fired. distinctive style or flair.S. fla˘ grant. efficacious (ef·˘·'kay·shus) adj. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. insolence.. egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. vivacity. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. improving. ˘ standing above others in quality. overflowing. The bank robber was not caught during his first crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. 2. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. élan (ay·'lahn) n. lofty. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. eluding the grasp. eminent ('em·˘·nent) adj. describe or comprehend. instructing. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. president. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. reputation. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. The . eloquent ('el·o·kwent) adj. 1. to earn or accomplish laboriously. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. evasive. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a power˘ ˘ ful. a person or group regarded as superior. difficult to capture. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. egregious (i·' ree·jus) adj. fluent. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. Margaret’s efficacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. eke (eek) v. social. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. impudence. brazen boldness. and persuasive manner.136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. enthusiasm. gushy. producing the desired effect or ˘ result. characterized by or affirming the principle of ˘ equal political. profuse. distinguished. vigor. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. and economic rights for all persons. Within the student orchestra. acting effectively. character. The customs ˘ officials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. elite (i·'leet) n. 1. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class.

give rise to. something that is puzzling or difficult to understand. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·an) n. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. ephemeral (i·'fem·e·ral) adj. enervate ('en·er·vayt) v. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. to produce. Professor ˘ Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. to place or hide securely. before you know it.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. 2. especially by imitation.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten. transitory. empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. to try to equal or excel. to fix or settle firmly and securely. to make fee˘ ble or impotent. lasting only a very short time. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. excessive wickedness. Ricky ˘ admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior. emulate ('em·yu·layt) v. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e.. 2. engender (en·'jen·der) v. ensconce (en·'skons) v. 1. Joan became a true epicurean. conceal. it’s time to go back to school again. enigma (e·'ni ·ma) n. ennui (ahn·'wee) n. a ˘ ˘ baffling problem or riddle. was actually imported from Japan. deprive of strength or vitality. a hairy. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting. Kudzu. native to a particular region. larger territory. to weaken. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. prevalent in or characteristic of a specific area or group of people. bring into existence. enclave ('en·klayv) n. The math problem was difficult to solve and proved to be an enigma. based on observation or experience rather than theory. atrocity. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word.g. 1. purple-flowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. 1. a monstrous offense or evil act. 2. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and ˘ luxury. Summer ˘ ˘ always seems so ephemeral. he began his secret mission. endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another. .

calmness of temperament. artificial. etc. 2. . Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. 1. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. the spirit. a sudden. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. a perceptive revelation. eulogy ('yoo·lo· ee) n. The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable. equanimity (ee·kwa·'nim·i·tee) n. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. 2. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. erudite ('er·yu·d¯t) adj. especially under stressful circumstances. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. evade (i·'vayd) v. a manifestation of the divine. opinion. intuitive realization of the essence or ˘ meaning of something. etc. 2. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. When falling ˘ in love. The ethos of their group included a commitment to pacifism. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. ˘ scholarly. to root out and utterly destroy. something or someone that embodies a particular ˘ quality or characteristic. a representative example or a typical model. The scholarly work of nonfiction was obviously written by an erudite young man. epoch. 3. exterminate. to avoid fulfilling. having or showing great learning. to annihilate. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. 1. a feeling of well-being or high spirits.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a·nee) n. Epiphany. profoundly educated. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. patience and composure. especially one ˘ ˘ that is inferior. attitude. or inconsistent manner. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to ˘ mislead or conceal the truth. epitome (i·'pit·o·mee) n. ersatz (er·'zats) adj. being an imitation or substitute. or doing. region. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a) n. uneven. a brief summary or abstract. ethos ('ee·thos) n. answering. During an earthquake. even˘ temperedness. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone ˘ or something. 1. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz truffles. 2. moving or behaving in an irregular. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o·kayt) v. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade.

especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. violence. to clear from a charge of guilt. expunge (ik·'spunj) v. urgent. it served to exculpate Marcus. requiring immediate action or attention. a short-lived means to an end. exigent ('ek·si·jent) adj. 1. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. 2. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document. humorous and witty. crit˘ ical. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal ˘ or reasonable. The safety officer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the influence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. cleverly amusing. exact. the face or front of a building. annihilate. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. stated clearly and fully. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. When Anthony admitted to the crime. to eliminate completely. to try to partially excuse. to make worse. requiring much effort or precision. fleeting. to increase the severity. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. to make evident. The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. an artificial or deceptive ˘ front. suitable for a means to an end. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. ˘ ˘ sportive. appropriate ˘ for a purpose. straightforward.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a·'nes·ent) adj. delete. transi˘ ˘ tory. 2. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. evince (i·'vins) v. ˘ or bitterness of. 1. to free from blame. jocular. demanding. vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. 2. adj. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·ent) n. exacerbate (i ·'zas·er·bayt) v. . F façade (fa·'sahd) n. 1. facetious (fa·'see·shus) adj. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·tant) adj. After finishing probation. he is really a deeply emotional person. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. to wipe or rub out. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. to show or demonstrate clearly. inordinate and excessive.

a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect ˘ or illogical reasoning. ornate. lacking purpose or vitality. forbearance (for·'bair·ans) n. elaborate. flaccid ('fla·sid) adj. Mr. intense emotion. marked by good ˘ fortune. The presence ˘ of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. ˘ Ursula’s flippant remarks in front of her fiancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. fervor ('fur·vor) n. ardor. Gustaf ˘ dreaded the security check in the airport. deception. feign (fayn) v. incompetent and ineffective. 2. 1. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tus) adj. hanging loose or wrinkled. tolerance. to give the false appearance of. 1. apropos. suitably expressed. rosy. zeal. apt. 1. florid ('flor·id) adj. 1. feeble-minded and silly. mock. to pretend. Flappers in the early twentieth century flouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. . to impede or restrict. willingness to wait. put in chains. 2. The florid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. fertile. feeble. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. The fervor of the fans in the stands ˘ helped propel the team to victory. patience. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. to reject. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. something that misleads. disrespectful. not showing proper seriousness. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. Y and Z will automatically follow. complacently stupid. saucy. 2. weak. fecund ('fek·und) adj. The skin of cadavers becomes flaccid in a matter of hours. flabby.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a·see) n. not firm. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the ˘ growing community. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. flippant ('flip·ant) adj. 1. (of complexion) ruddy. 2. go against (as in a tradition or convention). fatuous ('fach·oo·us) adj. to shackle. weak. fetter ('fet·er) v. but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. careless. to disobey openly and scornfully. flout (flowt) v. 2. Because ˘ Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student.

1. however. garner (' ahr·ner) v. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to find that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. sparing. acquire. thrifty. ˘ My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. gigantic. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v. arguing with her was futile. to gather and store up. 2. characterized by stealth or secrecy. futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. renounce. 2. offensive due to excessiveness. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·an) adj. shifty. to deny under oath. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. careful and economical. fulsome ('fuul·som) adj. to explode or detonate. especially excess flattery ˘ or praise.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. costing little. gaudy. Wei chose a small. frugal ('froo· al) adj. It was a gargantuan super˘ market for such a small town. excessively bright or over-decorated. The diplomat was able to forestall a conflict by holding secret meetings with both parties. 1. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. In its true sense. . 2. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. Whitney garnered ˘ enough money to buy a used car. huge. to oppose. surreptitious. vain. happening by accident or chance. forswear (for·'swair) v. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj. 2. 1. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn. preempt. or declare false. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tus) adj. tastelessly showy. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. producing no result. to prevent by taking action first. berate. garish (' air·ish) adj. to amass. contradict. useless. occurring ˘ unexpectedly or without any known cause. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. hopeless. to deny. to give up. My mother would never let me attend the party. suggesting a hidden motive. 1.

The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. without tact. elegantly polite. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent. a configuration or pattern of elements so unified as a whole ˘ ˘ that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. to make holy. coarse burst of laughter. well bred. crafty deceit. 3. especially military confrontation. consecrate. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. 1. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. 2. and a very late arrival. gibe. refined. a noisy. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. clumsy or awkward. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s specifications. 2. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. unfortunate. the act of gerrymandering. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. v. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·der) n. grovel (' ruv·el) v. . guile ( ¯l) n. Alan used to be so diffident. gestalt ( e·shtalt) n. Panji. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. mock. lacking social graces or polish. gird ( urd) v. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. ˘ ˘ sociable. to encircle or bind with a belt or band. gauche ( ohsh) adj. seeking and enjoying the company of others. treacherous cunning. to sneer at. hum˘ ble. to divide an area ˘ into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. or fearful manner. and the soldiers girded for battle. 4. shrewd. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. to prepare for action. 2. unlucky. so be ˘ ˘ prepared to listen for hours. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. surround. talkative. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. to encompass. 1. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. 1. gregarious ( re·' air·ee·us) adj. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. The negotiations had failed.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u·lus) adj. missed connections.

dishonor˘ able. 2. disdainful. marked by shame or disgrace. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n. a tirade. 1. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. to sharpen. After he was laid ˘ off by the bank. or event that foreshadows or indi˘ cates what is to come. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. predominant influence or leadership. By practicing creating spreadsheets. despicable. v. hegemony (hi·'jem·o·nee) n. 2. The turbulent flight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. hone (hohn) v. and many members of the organization resigned. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. deserv˘ ˘ ing disgrace or shame. not of the nobility. make more effective. a gap or opening. to perfect. common. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. 2. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. 1. hiatus (h¯·'ay·tus) n. distressing. I honed my computer skills. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the financial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. a forerunner or precursor. having an airtight closure. ignominious (i ·no·'min·ee·us) adj. ignoble (i ·'noh·bel) adj. . harbinger ('hahr·bin·jer) n. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. to ˘ speak in a pompous maner. lacking nobility in character or purpose. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. beliefs. especially of ˘ one government over others. often scolding or bombastic speech. overbearing pride or presumption. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. 1. or institutions. 1.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha·'ran ) n. a person. 2. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. Using words as weapons. to declaim. scornfully arrogant and condescending. protected from outside influences. thing. creating great stress or torment. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas. an interruption or break. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. a long.

to ask incessantly. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. a deadlock. incapable of being penetrated. marked by violent force. In order for the plants to grow. 1. In Shakespeare’s comedies. to kill (oneself) by fire. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. 2. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a·liz·em) n. I had to immolate the weeds. an invocation of evil. 2. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. and a strike seemed imminent. having little or no money. bossy. to beg persistently and urgently. penni˘ ˘ less. Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. incapable of being placated or appeased. Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. overbearing. 1. 2. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. poor. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. . to kill. to destroy (one thing for another). as a sacrifice. Stella was ˘ relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. but most are relatively easy to serve. domineering. impasse ('im·pas) n. stalemate. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. importune (im·por·'toon) v. imprecation (im·pre·'kay·shon) n. inex˘ ˘ orable. forceful energy or ˘ emotion. Great Britain embraced imperialism. 1. ˘ 3. 1. the policy of extending the rule or author˘ ˘ ity of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. impervious (im·'pur·vee·us) adj. immolate ('im·o·layt) v. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. impulsive. make incessant requests. a difficulty without a solution. a curse. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. characterized by sudden. 2. impecunious (im·pe·'kyoo·nee·us) adj. implacable (im·'plak·a·bel) adj. a confused or difficult situation. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·us) adj. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. unduly hasty and without thought. In the book I’m ˘ ˘ reading. imperious (im·'peer·ee·us) adj. not able to ˘ be influenced or affected.

inflammatory. incense ('in·sens) n. 1. boldly showing a lack of respect. 3. insolent. shamelessly forward. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. to indoctrinate. burning readily. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. credit. impute (im·'pyoot) v. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. 2. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj. 1. incipient. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. The members of ˘ ˘ the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. causing or capable of causing fire. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s terri˘ tory. incomplete. The star was traveling incognito. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. to attribute to a cause or source. their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. just begun. incognito (in·ko ·ne ·toh) adj. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu·dent) adj. incontrovertible (in·kon·tro·'vur·t˘·bel) adj. in an initial or early stage of development. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. to contradict or call into question. or a human. ascribe. 1. indisputable. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition. . not yet fully formed. as they mature. or adv. incursion (in·'kur·zhon) n. hoping to find some measure of privacy on her vacation. to make (someone) angry. in disguise ´e or under an assumed character or identity. instill. The ˘ ˘ photographs showed Brad and Allison together. ˘ ˘ 2. a frog. undeveloped. unwilling to believe. (in·'sens) v. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. immodest. Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. of or involving arson. to attack as false or questionable. tending to incite or inflame. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. 2. undeniable. with one’s identity concealed. skeptical. it is difficult to distinguish between a cow. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v.

His performance ˘ ˘ on the tennis court was inimitable. 1. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. blithely unconcerned or carefree. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta·bel) adj. foolish. not easily discouraged or subdued. 1. lacking sophistication or worldliness. 2. certain. unfathomable. frank. absurd. Carlos argued that the agriculture ˘ department should interdict plans to produce genetically modified foods. inclined to avoid labor. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. for even though he didn’t know her well. not able to be vanquished or overcome.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a·bel) adj. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. lethargic. insouciant (in·'soo·see·ant) adj. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. one ˘ who does not accept a particular religion. 3. causing lit˘ ˘ tle or no pain. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. defying imitation. inevitable. inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta·bel) adj. 1. nonchalant. a person with no religious beliefs. forbid. inept (in·'ept) adj. inappropriate. lazy. 2. haughty and contemptuous. infidel ('in·fi·del) n. a nonbeliever. interdict (in·ter·'dikt) v. sincere. to prohibit. incompetent. insolent ('in·so·lent) adj. ˘ ˘ The volunteers were indefatigable. the members considered him an infidel. unmatchable. not to be avoided or over˘ ˘ come. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. indolent ('in·do·lent) adj. brazen. and he won three championships. 2. 1. not easily exhausted or fatigued. Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. disrespectful. not cunning or deceitful. doctrine. slow to grow or heal. inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta·bel) adj. incapable of being ˘ ˘ understood. 2. unable to mask feel˘ ings. or system of beliefs. bungling and clumsy. ˘ indifferent. artless. baffling. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. not suitable. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta·bel) adj. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his finances will get him in trouble someday. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. ˘ ˘ unconquerable. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. ˘ ˘ impertinent. tireless. .

irritate. and it no longer bothered her. intricate. brave. fearless. Young ˘ children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel film. adapted. . 1. wrath. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta·bel) adj. accustomed to. stubborn. lacking substance. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. vex. hot tempered. irritable. J jargon ('jahr· on) n. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. inured (in·'yoord) adj. I was filled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. ire (¯r) n. so if you talk to her. intransigent (in·'tran·si·jent) adj. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. inveigle (in·'vay· el) v. habitual. Professor ˘ Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. to annoy. involute ('in·vo·loot) adj. indecisive. meager. feeling or showing uncertainty. stubborn. the smallest possible quantity. and he faced the mammoth without fear. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. irk (urk) v. easily aroused to anger. irascible (i·'ras·˘·bel) adj. inveterate (in·'vet·e·rit) adj. nonsensical or meaningless talk. unwilling to compromise. iota (¯·'oh·ta) n. irresolute (i·'rez·o·loot) adj. anger. hence: (a) lacking in interest or significance. undaunted. specialized or technical language of a specific trade or ˘ group. Her ˘ irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the office. The young colt ˘ ˘ was intractable. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. you might help her make up her mind. I am an ˘ inveterate pacifist and am unlikely to change my mind. complex. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. to influence or persuade through gentle coaxing or flat˘ tery. and training had to be cancelled temporarily. deep rooted. to entice. ˘ Sandra is still irresolute. a very small amount. The tax reform committee faces an ˘ extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. hesitant. unmanageable. firmly established. 2. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. unruly.

merry. a massive. but in my opinion. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. a close relationship or link. 2. feeble. Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and profits are up for the third quarter in a row. one who maintains such communication. Juggernaut. sprightly and lighthearted. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. L laconic (la·'kon·ik) adj. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. hands-off. They claim to be avant-garde. not taut or rigid. languish ('lan · wish) v. weak. to lose vigor or strength. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. 'lee·a·zon) n. slack. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. succinct. 1. . 2. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible ˘ way. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. latent ('lay·tent) adj. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. lenient. flaccid. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. to become languid. often to ˘ the point of being curt or brusque. present or in existence but not active or evident. overwhelmingly powerful and unstop˘ pable force that seems to crush everything in its path. 2. they’re just a bunch of libertines. Alexi’s jocund ˘ nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. libertine ('lib·er·teen) n.148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·und) adj. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. terse. Julian’s ˘ latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. brief and to the point. lacking in rigor or strictness. 1. cheerful. title for the Hindu god Krishna. juggernaut ('ju ·er·nawt) n. 2. concise. 1. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. a channel or means of connection or com˘ munication between two groups. 1. lax (laks) adj.

Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. producing much money. especially those ˘ ˘ that are similar in sound. His malapropisms may make us laugh. 2. lucid ('loo·sid) adj. very clear. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·us) adj. sane or rational. to wound. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·shon) n. the act of plotting or devising. or injure. comical misuse of words. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. malinger (ma·'lin · er) v. often exag˘ geratedly or ridiculously so. misconduct or wrongdoing. My troubles ˘ are lilliputian compared to hers. malaise (ma·'layz) n. ˘ ˘ Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job. to mutilate. bungling.WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·shan) adj. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. The loquacious woman sitting ˘ next to me on the six-hour flight talked the entire time. clumsy. tiny. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. Wella finally ˘ learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. garrulous. intelligible. disfigure. 1. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. especially by a pub˘ ˘ lic official. disable. The maladroit waiter broke a ˘ dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. trivial or petty. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. 2. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. maladroit (mal·a·'droit) adj. cripple. easy to understand. Teaching is a very ˘ rewarding career. loquacious (loh·'kway·shus) adj. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from office. a crafty ˘ or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. a feeling of illness or unease. . 1. very small. malapropism ('mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. lucrative ('loo·kra·tiv) adj. but they won’t win our vote. 2. maim (maym) v. After several tests. malfeasance (mal·'fee·zans) n. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. inept. excessively dismal or mournful. talkative. profitable. improper professional conduct. 1.

make defective or imperfect. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. one who acts independently. 1. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. volatile. to distribute. a mixture or assortment. showily attractive but false or ˘ ˘ insincere. I meandered through the park for hours. 1. meretricious (mer·e·'trish·us) adj. 2. paying great ˘ ˘ ˘ attention to detail. move aimlessly or without a fixed direction or course. environment or setting. 2. apportion. meander (mee·'an·der) v. honeyed. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. mercurial (mer·'kyoor·ee·al) adj. Alice’s mettlesome atti˘ ˘ tude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. mettlesome ('met·el·som) adj. trying to figure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. rebel. 2. lively. gaudy. 2. mar (mahr) v. 2. 1. Her mel˘ lifluous voice floated in through the windows and made everyone smile. high-spirited. 1. easily molded or pressed into shape. who don’t feel they can trust him. meticulous (me·'tik·yu·lus) adj. to impair or damage. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. a falsehood or lie. to wan˘ der about. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. allot. extremely careful and precise. easily ˘ ˘ controlled or influenced. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. easily adapting to changing circumstances. 1. . sounding sweet and flowing. ˘ Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. nonconformist. to move on a winding or turning course. courageous.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a·bel) adj. mellifluous (me·'lif·loo·us) adj. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. tawdry. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. she’s quite a malleable person. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. maverick ('mav·er·ik) n. liable to change moods suddenly. ˘ ˘ changeable. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph. 3. With its casinos and attractions. mete (meet) v.

If you do not have passion for your job. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. dull. multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·us) adj. worldly. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. calm. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. n. one who hates or distrusts humankind. My daughter has been morose ˘ ever since our dog ran away. gloomy. vast amount.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. to soften. soften. trivial or trifling matters. not spiritual. evil person. 2. an immense number. alleviate. morose (mo·'rohs) adj. going to work each day can become mundane. His ¯o ¯ attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. innumerable. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. The joyous wedding celebration filled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. great merriment. very varied. melancholy. he’s a real misanthrope. The crying child was quickly mollified by her mother. as with studied refinement.. minutiae (m˘·no¯'she·a) n. 1. pl. debatable. 3. too numerous to be counted. to make less intense or severe. greatly diversified. undecided. having many ˘ aspects. to lessen in intensity. very small details. Although this is a moot issue. to moderate the force or intensity of. 1. to soothe the anger of. a villain. miscreant ('mis·kree·ant) n. 3. but today he was finally captured. to walk or speak affectedly. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say. mirth (murth) n. moot (moot) adj. 1. commonplace. sullen. 2. To the refugees from Somalia. diminish. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. 2. ordinary. . joyous laughter. Pay no mind to his criticism. The miscreant had ˘ eluded the police for months. myriad ('mir·ee·ad) adj. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. to cut into very small pieces. an indefi˘ nitely large number. 2. secular. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. criminal. 1. make less rigid. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n.

The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. nascent ('nas·ent) adj. . original. nemesis ('nem·e·sis) n. he’s the most obdurate person I know. 1. not showing anxiety or ˘ excitement. 1. ˘ noxious.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v. unpleasant and harmful. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tur) n. 2. nexus ('nek·sus) n. The noxious smell ˘ drove everyone from the room. the core or center. or different. bane. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. coming into existence. strikingly new. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. adj. harmful. In Frankenstein. unwholesome. nonchalant (non·sha·'lahnt) adj. 3. hardhearted. Marcus’s argument started off strong. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·em) n. 2. invalidate. 1. noisome ('noi·som) adj. the cause of one’s misery or ˘ downfall. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. 2. 1. stubborn and inflexible. a means of connection. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. I doubt he’ll change his mind. noxious ('nok·shus) adj. emerging. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. the very bottom. a connected series or group. a genre of literature. putrid. to make null (without legal force). a conclusion that does not logically follow ˘ from the evidence. The nascent movement ˘ gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action. indifferent or cool. a link or tie between a series of ˘ things. agent of retribution or vengeance. admiration or worship of oneself. not easily moved ˘ to pity. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. the lowest point. novel ('nov·el) n. foul. source of harm or ruin. offensive. especially in odor. but I could tell she was nervous. O obdurate ('ob·du·rit) adj. 2. excessive inter˘ est in one’s own personal features. ˘ The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel.

˘ thrusting out. beyond ordinary understanding. undesirably noticeable. 1. etc. the total lifework of a writer. contemptible. fawning. blunt. get rid of. 1. involving the realm of the ˘ supernatural.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. odious ('oh·di·us) adj. prominent. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. hidden. My officious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. hateful. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. unruly. . a work of art. to dim or darken. but it is clearly an oligarchy. The embezzler was good at keeping his financial records occult from the authorities. to muddle or make difficult to understand. for she is also a classical pianist. com˘ poser. aggressively ˘ ˘ boisterous. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. Walter only obfuscated it further. obtuse (ob·'toos) adj. to make obscure or unclear. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. eagerly offering unnecessary or ˘ ˘ unwanted advice. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed. stupid and slow to understand. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. to make unnecessary. projecting. ˘ ˘ In Greek mythology. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. Thankfully. intrusive. forward. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or ˘ ˘ submissive. 1. having unlimited or universal power or force. but he was not omnipotent. not sharp or ˘ pointed. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. 2. 1. incomprehensible. occult (o·'kult) adj. 2. 2. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. detestable. secret. meddlesome. noisily and stubbornly defiant. obsequious (ob·'see·kwee·us) adj. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. artist. Please don’t be so obtuse. 2. 3. 2. oeuvre ('uu·vre) n. Zachary found the work ˘ in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. omnipotent (om·'nip·o·tent) adj. bossy. officious (o·'fish·us) adj. Zeus was the most powerful god. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. Minsun survived the accident. obstreperous (ob·'strep·e·rus) adj. obtrusive (ob·'troo·siv) adj. Instead of clarifying the matter. concealed. you know what I mean. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. 3. 1.

onus ('oh·nus) n. pretended. a figure of speech containing a seemingly con˘ tradictory combination of expressions. to make something less intense or severe. task. 1. overweening (oh·ver·'wee·nin ) adj. abundant. lack of color. In ˘ a story with an omniscient narrator. paleness. It was ˘ Clark’s idea. 1. having infinite knowledge. duty or responsibility of doing something. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. to reject. ˘ 2. knowing all things. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. 1. wretched or contemptible. pitiful. affluent. cast out from a group or from society. mitigate. 2. to provide relief from pain. lacking in importance or worth. 1. opprobrious (o·'proh·bree·us) adj. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. but I believe they have already made their decision. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. overbearing. pallor ('pal·or) n. ostracize ('os·tra·s¯z) v. put a positive spin on. presumptuously arrogant. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·ent) adj. luxu˘ ˘ rious. 2. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. uninterrupted rhythm. as between two conflicting options or opinions. put forward (as of a ˘ reason) but not necessarily so. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. scornful. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. opulent ('op·yu·lent) adj. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. Lee is very wealthy. 2. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·bel) adj. such as friendly fire. possessing great wealth. seeming. but her pallor remained ˘ for several weeks. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. bringing shame or disgrace. immoderate. . excessive. appearing as such. Kendall ˘ was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. burden. to waver. insignificant. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. 1. The fever subsided. alleviate. contemptibly small in amount. 2. 1. vacillate. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. ˘ ˘ abusive. expressing contempt or reproach. to gloss over. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ron) n. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. 2.

WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a·d¯m) n. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se·lahns) adj. dull. translucent. or involving money. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the office. Elected “Employee of the Month. unremarkable. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. scarcity. peccadillo (pek·a·'dil·oh) n. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a ˘ group or cause. pedestrian (pe·'des·tri· an) n. marked by a narrow. commonplace. values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers. 1. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n. Although the film received critical acclaim. 2. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. . beliefs. parvenu ('pahr·ve·noo) n. especially of rules or trivial matters. (e. tiresome focus on or ˘ display of learning.. trite. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. pedantic (pi·'dan·tik) n. a member of an organized body of fighters who attack or harass an enemy. smallness of supply or quantity. beyond comparison. ˘ ˘ unimaginative.g.” Winona is a paradigm of efficiency. able to be seen through with clarity. Ronnel was nice enough. ˘ 2. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. an upstart. being the best or truest of its kind. of course. After he told a sexist ˘ ˘ joke. Don’t make such ˘ a big deal out of a little peccadillo. set of assumptions. of writing) very clear. a guerilla. ˘ 2. an outcast. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored. easy to understand. relating to. pariah (pa·'r¯·a) n. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. adj. 1. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or ˘ economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. pellucid (pe·'loo·sid) adj. partisan ('pahr·ti·zan) n. quin˘ tessential. 1. a walker. of. a small sin or fault. a walker adj. something that serves as a model or example. a rejected and despised person. a trivial offense. having the highest degree of excellence. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj.

Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. or course of action. not allowing contradiction or refusal. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. pervade (per·'vayd) v. putting an end to debate or action.156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·chant) n. 1. harmful. pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shus) adj. done out of a sense of duty or routine but ˘ ˘ without much care or interest. The perfidious knight betrayed his king. peremptory (pe·'remp·to·ree) adj. next to last. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. . 2. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. dictatorial. dis˘ ˘ loyal. holding ˘ firmly to a belief. a strong liking or inclination (for something). violating good faith. deeply thoughtful. We were not satisfied with his perfunctory work. I was petrified when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. perfunctory (per·'fun k·to·ree) adj. 3. Higgins would be their new teacher. commanding. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. ˘ ˘ 2. to stun or paralyze with fear. 1. pleasing in appearance or manner. deadly. perjury ('pur·ju·ree) n. the deliberate willful giving of false. not thorough. Consuela ˘ has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. permeate. extreme poverty. offensively self-assured. After ten years of penury. especially in a serious or melancholy manner. The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. to spread everywhere. superficial. imperative. it’s ˘ good to be financially secure again. Nancy’s opponent ˘ ˘ started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning. penury ('pen·yu·ree) n. After the terrible car accident. treacherous. or ˘ incomplete testimony while under oath. dishonest. or dread. ˘ ˘ ˘ Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. personable ('pur·so·na·bel) adj. extremely stubborn or persistent. perfidious (per·'fid·ee·us) adj. The pertinacious journalist finally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. pernicious (per·'nish·us) adj. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. very destructive. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. destitution. to be diffused or present ˘ throughout. to make hard or stiff like a stone. purpose. attractive. astonishment. misleading.

deeply moving. 1. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. experience. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with fire. pillage ('pil·ij) v. There was a plethora ˘ ˘ of food at the reception. an overabundance. placid ('plas·id) adj. plethora ('pleth·o·ra) n. 2. especially one uttered as if it were new. expressing sorrow. arousing emotion. to offend. pique (peek) v. piquant ('pee·kant) adj. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. 1. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. the heart or essence (of the matter. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. argumentative. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. especially in time of war. poignant ('poin·yant) adj. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. pivotal ('piv·o·tal) adj. pleasantly ˘ stimulating or provocative. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. sharp or tart in taste. but concise. polemical (po·'lem·ik·al) adj. being of vital importance. ˘ ˘ The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant. the wrong move now could ruin everything. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. The analyst presented ˘ ˘ a highly polemical view of the economic situation. keenly ˘ distressing. melancholy. Her brief. 2. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer. etc. They captured the poignant reunion on film. to plunder. calm and peaceful. mournful. to wound (someone’s) pride. the essential or central part.WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u·lant) adj. ignorant person. We are at a pivotal point ˘ ˘ in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. 2. to forcibly rob of goods. peevish. 2. pith (pith) n. 1. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. piercing or incisive. (in biology) the soft.). idea. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. a trite or banal statement. spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most flowering plants. extreme excess. 1. 2. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. agreeably pungent. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. touching. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. to arouse or provoke. but he’s really just a philistine. . free from disturbance or tumult. a smug. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. 1. crucial. controversial.

propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. practical. matter-of-fact. but she is sorely mistaken. especially with ˘ money. 1. lavish or profuse. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. foolhardy. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. proximity. 1. given in great abundance. to stray from or evade the truth. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. His prodigal actions led to his financial ruin. prodigal ('prod·˘· al) adj. Because we don’t have money or time to waste. presenting favorable circumstances. similarity in nature.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. profligate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. The profligate man quickly depleted his fortune. 1. lacking moral restraint. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tus) adj. Driving through the state park. unadulterated. fraught with danger. 2. free from contamination. extremely steep. someone who takes on airs to impress others. The ˘ primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. pure. ancient. propitious (proh·'pish·us) adj. in its original and unspoiled condition. The propinquity of these two elements make them difficult to tell apart. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. original. clean. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. proletariat (proh·le·'tair·ee·at) n. showy. to tell lies. 1. 1. 2. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·us) adj. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. 2. . affinity. a rule establishing standards of conduct. 1. nearness. dangerously unsteady ˘ or insecure. a phony. hasty. favoring utility. dropping sharply. 2. primeval (pr¯·'mee·val) adj. My first impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. dissolute. those who do manual labor ˘ ˘ to earn a living. precept ('pree·sept) n. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. ˘ rash. pompous. putting on airs. 2. 2. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. prodigal. pretentious (pri·'ten·shus) adj. Hannah thinks ˘ that being pretentious will make people like her. belonging to the earliest ages. the working class. ˘ These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. auspicious.

immature. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. After a few minutes. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. prudent ('proo·dent) adj.WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. quarrelsome. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and inter˘ ests. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to fight. bel˘ ligerent. proxy ('prok·see) n. to prohibit. to denounce or condemn. protocol ('proh·to·kawl) n. . a learned person or scholar. protean ('proh·tee·an) adj. taking many forms. to convert or seek to convert someone to another ˘ religion. pundit ('pun·dit) n. stinging. unimaginative. very meticulous ˘ and precise. provident ('prov·i·dent) adj. ordinary. having a strong. ˘ caustic. a document authorizing this substitution. I love the pungent taste of a good. 1. suitable only for children. wisely providing for future needs. childish. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. 2. versatile. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. forbid. Because my parents were so provident. ˘ belonging to or of childhood. 1. puerile ('pyoo·r˘l) adj. frugal. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·us) adj. 1. strong curry. Clarissa has always been very prudent. pungent ('pun·jent) adj. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. In ˘ Native American mythology. contentious. exercising good judgment. a first copy of a treaty or document. judicious. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. changeable. economi˘ cal. one who is an authority on a subject. 1. variable. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shus) adj. belief. 2. penetrating. ceremony. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. 2. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. dull. or procedure with regard to ˘ people’s rank or status. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. Jackson was fired for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. to banish or outlaw. eager to fight. proselytize ('pros·e·li·t¯z) v. 1. doctrine or cause. sharp taste or smell. etiquette. extremely attentive to detail. 2. 2.

dormant. He’s a cantan˘ ˘ kerous and querulous old man. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. but who knows when it will erupt again. to drink hurriedly or heartily. extravagantly chivalrous and unselfish. 2. romantically idealistic. commonplace. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. quiescent (kwi·'es·ent) adj. impractical. Q quaff (kwahf) v. latent. discontented. 2. 2. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. to draw back in fear. but I love him. . The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of ˘ dollars. to make or become clean. 1. to be intended to seem. at rest. purloin (pur·'loin) v. 1. quintessence (kwin·'tes·ens) n. flinch. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. pure. After Leon writes a draft. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. to steal. a thing given in return for something. 1. 2. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. purport ('pur·pohrt) v. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. the essence of a substance. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. Prudence ˘ took her quotidian dose of medicine. complaining. to swallow in large draughts. the perfect ˘ example or embodiment of something. quiet. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·an) adj. to free from impurities. inactive. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. The volcano is ˘ quiescent at the moment. 1. peevish. quail (kwayl) v. propose or intend. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn. cower. querulous ('kwer·u·lus) adj. daily. to have the appearance of being. queue (kyoo) n. pedestrian. an equal exchange or substitution.

to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. regale (ri·' ayl) v. raucous ('raw·kus) adj. ˘ ˘ especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. unmanageable. a bitter feeling of ill will. and this causes tension at family gatherings. abstruse. Greg is ˘ full of rancor towards his brother. refractory (ri·'frak·to·ree) adj. censure. . My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. recondite ('rek·on·d¯t) adj. refusing to obey authority. smartly dressed or mannered. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. unruly. 2. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho·ner·ee) n. boisterous. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. reconnoiter (ree·ko·'noi·ter) v. ˘ The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s office for the third time in a week. not easily understood. debonair. voracious. excessively greedy and grasping (especially for ˘ ˘ money). He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·trant) adj. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. The raucous music kept us awake all night. obscure. disobedient. 1. resisting control or dis˘ cipline. rapacious (ra·'pay·shus) adj. 2. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. unpleasantly loud and harsh. disorderly. jaunty in appearance or manner. 1. a person who favors political conservativism. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. ˘ disturbing the peace. deal˘ ing with abstruse or profound matters. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. ˘ one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. 1. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. 2. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. unconventional and disreputable. 2. long-lasting resentment. stubborn. a relapse or backslide. to reprove or reprimand. Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. plundering. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. 1. dissolute or debauched. rancor ('ran ·kor) n. to criticize sharply.

resting or being at rest. peace of mind. 1. one without ˘ scruples. 2. The repre˘ hensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. . Mrs. ˘ 2. a criminal. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. 1. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of ˘ inflicting at least as much harm in return. an immoral or unprincipled person. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. a deserter. repartee (rep·ar·'tee) n. especially of the death sentence. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. 2. objection. the ability to make witty ˘ replies. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and ˘ place. 1. and a traitor in his written confession. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. The house was replete with expensive antiques. 2. to bring or come together at a certain place. witty reply. disavow. 1.162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. a place where people meet. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. renegade ('ren·e· ayd) n. 1. to disown. rendezvous ('rahn·de·voo) n. to scold or reprove. repose (ri·'pohz) n. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. 2. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla fighters. 2. 1. to say or plead in protest. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v. widely known and esteemed. one who rejects a cause. 2. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. tranquility. postponement or cancellation of punishment. or opposition. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. famous. gorged. reprobate ('rep·ro·bayt) n. to meet at a rendezvous. deserving rebuke or censure. He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. especially a popular gathering place. 1. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·zal) n. 1. a quick. calmness. full. v. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·bel) adj. well stocked or abundantly supplied. etc. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch. group. 2. reject completely. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj.

unprincipled person. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. 3. 1. a pleasantly mischievous person. to repeal or cancel. a class or category. a heading. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. to anger or annoy. 2. to stir up or agitate. springing up or jutting out. reticent ('ret·i·sent) adj. confusing. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. silent.” not “alternative medicine. 2. resounding. When you look at Judith’s work. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. or note of explanation or direction. perceptive. Annette is very reticent. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. revere (ri·'veer) v. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. having great splendor or beauty.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·us) adj. rigmarole ('ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. . hold in highest respect or estimation. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. drawing ˘ attention through a striking quality. disrespectful or irreverent towards something ˘ regarded as sacred. The new announcer at the stadium ˘ ˘ has a wonderfully resonant voice. prominent. resonant ('rez·o·nant) adj. dazzling. ˘ reserved. echoing. to void or annul.WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v. to venerate. sound advice. ˘ ˘ wise. 1. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. sagacious (sa·' ay·shus) adj. title. 2. bril˘ liant. resplendent (ri·'splen·dent) adj. petty procedure. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery. incoherent ˘ talk. 1. rogue (roh ) n. to regard with reverence or awe. 1. untalkative. 2. conspicuous. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. rambling. rubric ('roo·brik) n. 3. Yesterday. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a flood zone. salient ('say·lee·ent) adj. a complicated. 1. a dishonest. having or showing sound judgment. highly noticeable. 2.

iota. to give official authorization or approval for. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. sanction ('san k·shon) n. contemptible. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. sparkling. mean. of the color of blood. brilliantly clever and animated. reme˘ dial. v. a penalty ˘ imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. a trace or particle. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. confidently cheerful. composure. sanguine ('san · win) adj. engaging in or ˘ promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority). arousing to insurrection or rebellion. schism ('siz·em) n. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·us) adj.164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. 1. She has not one ˘ scintilla of doubt about his guilt. . red. dark. to approve or permit. ratify. especially in dangerous or difficult circumstances. 2. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. mocking scornfully. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. 2. a separation or division into factions because of a difference ˘ in belief or opinion. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. shining brilliantly. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. seditious (si·'dish·us) adj. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. To promote better health. saturnine ('sat·ur·n¯n) adj. sullen. hypocritically pious or devout. scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. 1. optimistic. minute amount. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I find myself in a confrontational situation. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. The saturnine child sulked for ˘ hours. producing a beneficial or wholesome effect. ˘ excessively self-righteous. 1. graceful tact. savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. gloomy. 2. sarcastic. 1. scintilla (sin·'til·a) n. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. official authorization or approval. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature.

3. hard working. impropriety. petition. simian ('sim·ee·an) adj. After years of sedu˘ ˘ lous research. 2. expressing oneself tersely. 1. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. 2. solecism ('sol·e·siz·em) n. He claims it’s an issue of semantics. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj. clever but faulty reasoning. sodden ('sod·en) adj. to satisfy. lacking ambition. 1. 1. sinuous ('sin·yoo·us) adj. Scientists have studied ˘ humans’ simian ancestors. expressionless or dull. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. 2. moderate. sententious (sen·'ten·shus) adj. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his field. to reduce the intensity of. 1. The climax comes when Yolanda. to ask for earnestly. thoroughly saturated. or purpose. violation of ˘ ˘ good manners or etiquette. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. to approach with an offer for paid services. . abjectly submissive. soaked. I was looking for your honest opinion. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. diligent. slavish. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound. symbols. of or like an ape or monkey. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm. 2. I was amused by his sophistry. serpentine. winding. persevering. 2. undulating. 2. It is dangerous to drive ˘ fast on such a sinuous road. lazy and inefficient. 1. not a sententious reply. or other forms. the study of meaning in language. the meaning. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. 3. solicit (so·'lis·it) v. a mistake in the use of language. quench. finds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. 2. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. initiative. 1. ˘ unimaginative.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u·lus) adj. the researchers discovered a cure. slake (slayk) v. 1. but the matter is not open to interpretation. pithy. or interpretation of words. allay. connotation. pertaining to or befitting a slave or forced labor. to seek to obtain by per˘ suasion or formal application. full of ˘ maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner.

false. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won first place in the essay contest. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. 2. below the threshold of consciousness. Ian’s ˘ surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. morally degraded. Of course I’m angry! You stultified me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. lofty. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. counterfeit. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·nal) adj. stoical ('stoh·i·kal) adj. 2. ˘ When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. spurious ('spyoor·ee·us) adj. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. 2. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. discordant. shrill. firmly loyal and constant. deceptively pleasing ˘ in appearance. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. 1. 1. he is every bit as emotional as we are. 1. unpleasantly loud and harsh. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. to hinder. ˘ impassive. firm and constant in principle or loyalty. 2. concise. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. adora˘ tion. sordid. supreme. ˘ terse. resolute. firm and steadfast. having noble or majestic qualities. cripple. to overthrow. staunch (stawnch) v. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. Subliminal ˘ advertising is devious but effective. 1. morally repulsive. squalid. 1. 1. seemingly plausible but false. obstruct.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. adj. unswerving. 2. unswerving. not genuine or authentic. subvert (sub·'vurt) v. grating. Michael was stoical. 2. succinct (suk·'sin kt) adj. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. wretched. dirty. destroy completely. or reverence. strident ('str¯·dent) adj. to undermine. thwart. specious ('spee·shus) adj. firmly fixed or unchanging. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. indifferent. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. . (also stanch) stopping the flow of something. filthy and wretched. sublime (su·'bl¯m) adj. Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. but underneath. inspiring awe. 3. to impair or make ineffective. to ruin. to prevent the accomplishment of something. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain.

In some countries. disdainful. reserved. . v. a person who tries to win the favor of influential or ˘ ˘ powerful people through flattery. Sunil’s super˘ ˘ cilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly. haughty. Martha ˘ agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. conjec˘ ture. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. satiety. various. made.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·or) n. bad-tempered. After finding dirty footprints in her apartment. habitually untalkative. or disgust. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy. suave. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. the state of being or eating until excessively full. 2. a person who asks humbly for something. to guess. or obtained through stealthy. an excessive amount or overabundance. scornful. 1. surreptitious (sur·ep·'tish·us) adj. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. surmise (sur·'m¯z) v. to feed or fill to excess. 1. one who ˘ beseeches or entreats. a substitute. to infer based upon insufficient evidence. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. supplicant ('sup·l˘·kant) n. a fawning parasite. slender and graceful. supercilious (soo·per·'sil·ee·us) adj. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. done. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. 2. surly ('sur·lee) adj. miscellaneous. v. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. glut. one who takes the place of another. sycophant ('sik·o·fant) n. to pro˘ vide assistance or relief in time of difficulty or distress. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. gruff. or fraudulent means. svelte (svelt) adj. ˘ ˘ clandestine. surrogate ('sur·o· it) n. overindulge.

of or relating to a tangent. The fisherman found a stream teeming with bass. sticking firmly. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. brashness. tendentious (ten·'den·shus) adj. such as a right or ˘ ˘ principle. holding firmly. lacking confidence. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. palpable. 4. fearful. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. tenuous ('ten·yoo·us) adj. of no substantive ˘ connection. afraid. having little substance or ˘ validity. not relevant facts. audacity. tangible ('tan·j˘·bel) adj. not impartial. conviction. 1. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outfit as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. persistent. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. using no unnecessary words. or organization. 3. only superficially relevant. 2. it’s all hearsay. a belief. timid.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·shal) adj. partisan. This ˘ is no time for temerity. to be present in large numbers. flimsy. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. hesitant. gaudy or showy but without any real value. When it comes to fighting for equality. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate floor. 1. stubbornly unyielding. cohesive. After our disagreement. concise. to be full of. temerity (te·'mer·i·tee) n. (of memory) retentive. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. adhesive. biased. 1. timid ('tim·id) adj. 2. Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at first. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. flashy and tasteless. unsubstantial. terse (turs) adj. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. 2. fearful. tenet ('ten·it) n. able to be perceived by touch. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. shy. succinct. foolish disregard of danger. she is the most tenacious person I know. thwart (thwort) v. supporting a ˘ particular cause or position. or courage. holding firmly to something. group. tenacious (te·'nay·shus) adj. opinion. timorous ('tim·o·rus) adj. . real or con˘ crete. The stray dog was timorous. and it ˘ ˘ took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage.

and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. incisive. repeated too often. The theme of the novel was trite. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. fleeting. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·nal) n.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. 2. It was a trenchant argument. 1. 2. difficult or laborious work. easily managed or controlled. 1. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. especially with the goal of getting a customer. 1. trenchant ('tren·chant) adj. votes. noisy. a court of justice. or agitation. trite (tr¯t) adj. many writers had written about death in a similar way. a ˘ state of confusion. clear-cut. penetrating. v. overly familiar through overuse. turbulence. . disorderly. effective. hackneyed. tumult. obedient. etc. truculent ('truk·yu·lent) adj. to work laboriously. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. etc. bitterly ˘ ˘ expressing opposition. 1. a long. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. to promote or praise highly and energetically. vote. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. forceful. angry. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. 2. In the ˘ ˘ novel Brave New World. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·us) adj. tractable ('trak·ta·bel) adj. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. creating an uproar. 3. to solicit (customers. extremely per˘ ceptive. exhausting labor or effort. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. toil (toil) n. Since Andre was known for his temper. docile. fierce. and fluctuating prices wrought havoc for investors. a violent denunciation or condemnation. transient ('tran·zhent) adj. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. violent. sharply defined. transitory. often highly critical speech. defiantly aggressive. lasting only a very short time. 2.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. Their relationship was transient but profound. ˘ brief. labor strenuously. He will be sentenced for his war crimes ˘ by an international tribunal. tout (towt) v. 3. of a form of government in which those in ˘ control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. worn out. his tirade did not surprise his roommate.

a corrupt or depraved act. fluctuate. the babysitter undermined their mother. inconvenient. This TV ˘ show is yet another vacuous sitcom. by force and without right. unctuous ('un k·choo·us) adj. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. . elegant. to reprove. 2. 2. who had forbade them to eat sweets. condemn.. purposeless. stupid. to wrongfully take over. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. U umbrage ('um·brij) n. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely ˘ earnest or ingratiating. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. undulate ('un·ju·layt) v. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. resentment. course of action. 2. greasy. empty. waver. 2. to destroy in an underhanded way. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. suave. troublesome. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. inane. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. who was the rightful heir to the throne. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. to swing back and forth about an opinion. senseless. reproach sharply. to seize. but he’s really quite pedestrian. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. highly refined in manners. usurp (yoo·'surp) v. 1. adverse. to move or sway from side to side. to be indecisive. or take possession of. 1. admonish. undermine (un·der·'m¯n) v. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. vacuous ('vak·yoo·us) adj. improper. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. perverse. ˘ The curtains undulated in the breeze. 1.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. etc. slippery. fluctuate. 2. especially by wearing away at ˘ the foundation. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. 1. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. 1. extremely tactful and polite. unseemly. offense. wickedness. to weaken or injure.

The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. bitterly hostile or hateful. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. 1. the appearance of being true or real. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. Einstein was a veritable genius. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or ˘ ˘ forcefulness of expression or conviction. verbose (ver·'bohs) adj. face to face ˘ with or opposite to. or energy. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. ˘ Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. 1. long-winded. face to face. using more words than necessary. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. genuine. injurious or infectious. The venal judge was ˘ removed and disbarred. 1. ˘ ˘ 2. easily bribed or corrupted. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. true. irritate. After a few minutes of pandemonium. to compete with or contend. to strive for superiority or victory. venerable ('ven·e·ra·bel) adj. 2. wordy. acrimonious. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. veritable ('ver·i·ta·bel) adj. referring or directing attention to. berate. dig˘ ˘ ˘ nity. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. marked by great force. real. 2. a brief description or depiction. The film is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. the lights came back on. vis-à-vis (vee·za·'vee) adj. 1. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. extremely poisonous. vignette (vin·'yet) n. unprincipled. The two scientists were vying to be the first to find concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. venal ('vee·nal) adj. vituperate (v¯·too·pe·rayt) v. savagely hostile or bitter. caustic. character or position. vigor. 2. vie (v¯) v. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e·ment) adj. adv. indeed. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. to cause worry to. to cen˘ sure severely. Jin handed in her letter of resignation. . to annoy. virulent ('vir·yu·lent) adj.

Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. ˘ 2. devouring greedily. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. ˘ ˘ Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia. the spirit of the times. turning or rotating easily on an axis. having a great ˘ appetite for something. the highest point. 1. 2. language ˘ ˘ marked by great fluency. top. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. guarded. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to five highly qualified candidates. changeable. 3. filled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. 1. peak. cautious. 1. 2. . X xenophobia (zen·o·'foh·bee·a) n. voracious (voh·'ray·shus) adj. a strong dislike. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. inconstant. to separate the good from the bad. explosive. After being swindled by the street vendor. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. Z zealous ('zel·us) adj. likely to change suddenly or violently. rapid. 1. 2. rapacious. ˘ earnest. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. zenith ('zee·nith) n. fickle. voluble ('vol·yu·bel) adj. winnow ('win·oh) v. distrust. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. watchful. or fear of foreigners. fervent. varying widely.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a·til) adj. unstable. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. nimble speech. talking a great deal and with great ease. eager. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the fifties. the point in the sky directly above the observer. excessively greedy. W wary ('wair·ee) adj.

opposite or opposing. consensus contradict. detract disperse. opposing. antagonist. abduct. concontracounterdedis- not. together. countermeasure. community. away. and Word Roots PREFIXES The following table lists the most common English language prefixes. anab-. PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES a-. reversal. circumspect cooperate. antipathy bisect. contrary. about. anarchy. contraindication counterclockwise. Suffixes. com-. complementary do the opposite or reverse of. before opposite. against two. contrasting contrary. and examples of words with each prefix. off prior to. without from. absanteant-. apart. bicameral circumference. bilateral.WO R D LI ST APPENDIX B Prefixes. jointly against. twice around. reduce away from. antibicircumco-. in front of. their meanings. remove from. not atypical. antecedent. amorphous abnormal. circumnavigate. dismiss. dethrone. abscond antedate. antebellum antidote. disinterested 173 . counterpart deactivate. on all sides with.

(also il-. recent. ill. in front of (b) for. monogamy. monocle multiple. illicit. before. opposite or lack of one. inept. single. duet. wrong. introduction malfunction. away from duo. abnormal. postoperative precaution. prior to. during in. among. interact. exorbitant two out. subdue. postpartum. triumvirate unable. impart. translucent triangle. projecting false. partly. superficial. tricycle. excessive many. presage proceed. supercilious transmit. pseudoscience recall. incomplete under. inculcate invariable. impervious intervene. within bad. beneath.(also il-. uninterested. rescind semiannual. in. fake back. again half. wrong bad. in behalf of (c) forward. into. nonentity. multimillionaire. later (than). behind before (a) earlier. multiple new. a new form of not exceeding. proclivity. reconcile. intravenous introvert. exclaim. much after. subjugate superhero. exceeding across. unilateral in. malpractice. out of. nonchalant overabundance. below above. neophyte nonconformist. within in. unorthodox unite. alone many.174 PREFIX MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES duoexim. incessant. thrice not one . precede. translate. overstimulate polytechnic. profess pseudonym. through three. not im-. into. supporting. multifarious neologism. misanthrope monologue. miscreant. subsequent. malign misspell. semiconscious subconscious. surpassing. over. intermittent intramural. duality expel. polyglot postpone. beyond. neonatal. ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween. uniform. evil. within within.

-ence -ancy. renaissance agency. disposal. state of quality or state one that performs. -ent -ary -cide -cy -er. legitimacy. etc. state. condition. valor. activity process or action act or process. veracity entertainment. office or function state. state or doctrine of one who (performs. denunciation criticism. goodness biology. supremacy builder. sensor attraction. state or condition act. -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y (a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state. produces. dignitary. theology.P R E F I X E S. result. their meanings. metamorphosis exposure. means. dissident. amazement happiness. being in a specified state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer. -or -ion. vacancy. NOUN ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -age -al -an. readiness. imperialist clarity. or science. historian adolescence. homicide democracy. quality or degree doctrine. -ency -ant. persecution. embankment. makes. pediatrician. library suicide. S U F F I X E S. empathy. or performs act or process. feminist. believes. anachronism. censure laundry. state or quality of one that is. benevolence. oral or written expression condition. rank action or process of or relating to. or degree action or process. AN D WO R D R O OTS 175 SUFFIXES The following table lists the most common English language suffixes. object. legislature. succor diagnosis. reversal guardian.) quality. imperialism anarchist. a person specializing in action or process. or causes an action. theory. condition. or process. and examples of words with each suffix. pesticide. foreigner. amity. eulogy candor. marriage rehearsal. dialysis. does. -ian -ance. practice. anarchy . quality. orphanage. latency disinfectant. killing action or practice. promotes. activity or place of business drainage. or agent of an action or process state. miscreant adversary.

-ical -an. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to. culpable. characteristic of performing (a specific action) or being (in a specified condition) full of. -fy -ize to make. relating to characterized by. preeminent helpful. frighten beautify. plagiarize. fearless. of. relating to. having the qualities of. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. having the nature of without. American. futile. cursory. form into to cause to be or become. glorious. inscrutable educational. emanate quicken. -ial. egregious sleepy. chronic. rectify colonize.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. -ian -ant. peaceful. ephemeral human. having the qualities of. pensive endless. tending or inclined to flammable. squeamish sensitive. bookish. unable to act or be acted on (in a specified way) full of. related to. -y capable or worthy of. -ose. cooperative. to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. archaic fragile. incessant. tolerate. lengthen. to bring about violate. peripheral. wistful fantastic. lacking. synchronize . to come to be or have to make. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. or characterized by one who is or does. electrify. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). listless adventurous. full of. exacerbate. tending or liable to having the quality of. -ible -al. servile Swedish. agrarian important.

around life. eccentric ascertain. cipit cap. to decide time acid. carnage caste. ali. cret. preamble. to walk both. al al. synchronize . enact. to force. ennui anthro. toward. their meanings. concede. bonus accident. ruler self to be. chronology. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. spirit year man. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. to yield. acrimonious agent. to distinguish. chast ced. reincarnation. ept arch. alias. bell ben. headlong to take. principal. cour carn cast. ag ad. crim. cert. bemoan. antebellum benefit. animosity. capitulate capture. mind. inept hierarchy. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. chant cap. agitate adjacent. alter am amb amb. ambivalent. belittle rebel. acr act. cardiac. more than one. acute. to get heart flesh cut to go. belligerent. bitter to do. perennial anthropology. to drive. emancipate encourage. concentric. to lead to. soul. discord carnivore. adept. crit chron sharp. capit. archy auto be bel. another love to go. S U F F I X E S. cascade chant. cip.P R E F I X E S. fitness. ability chief. equanimity annual. benevolent. cord. to have a certain quality war good to fall. ceed. chastise. near other. castigate exceed. discern chronic. bon cad. andr apo apt. cid cant. to happen by chance to sing head. human away skill. cept card. and examples of words with those roots. misanthrope apology. ambush ambiguous. apotheosis adapt. alien amiable. To learn these roots. amity. allure alternative. adhere. There are more than 150 roots here. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. automaton befriend. apocalypse. recant capital. intercept. to judge. archi. monarchy. enchant. android. anarchy automatic. autonomy. amphitheater unanimous. cent. anniversary. critique. coincidence. incessant central. enamor ambulatory. amph anim annui. principal. to stop center to separate. cess centr cern.

duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. endow. incumbent culprit. transfer. fig. indubitable. bend running. cursory democracy. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. preclude exclaim. clu claim. recline.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. dyslexia epidemic. to cry out to lean toward. durable. fait. to bubble faith. indict dignity. indignant dogma. incubate. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. abnormal upon equal. reflect. well speak to do. autocracy. fervid. error. feign offer. to carry. flammable. culpable. dictionary. clam cli. dow dub duc. orthodox. enclose. proclivity recur. factory. fic. endow dubious. a course to govern to grow to believe. bureaucracy creation. obdurate dysfunctional. flexible fluid. cur crat. effervescent confide. close to shout. flam flect. paradox condolence. acquiesce euphoria. docile democracy. credit. incisive closet. infidel final. cresc. dict. erratic adolescent. cryptic. coalesce. diatribe. clamor decline. indoctrinate. fluctuation. dox dol don. exculpate doctor. flux to cut shut. to make to bring. doc dem di. euthanasia fable. dot. clo. to bear to boil. conducive endure. fidelity. feit. increase. superfluous . epigram. equanimity. pandemic dialogue. equivocate err. trust end to burn to bend to flow scissors. dia dic. epigraph equation. cret cred cryp cub. dubiety conduct. cracy cre. even to wander becoming good. through to say. incredulous crypt. eulogy. fam fac. epidemic. affinity flame. clin cour. famous. to tell. fy fer ferv fid fin flag. flex flu. precise. inflammatory deflect. induct. proliferate fervor. affable fiction. dit dign dog. cumb culp dac. dystopia. finite. dichotomy predict. incursion. to use words worth opinion suffer. increment incredible. indolence. proclaim. cryptography succumb. dolorous donate.

alleviate dialogue. diffuse generous. taxonomy. to choose lift. excessive one’s own to throw. lever. digress grateful. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam. eloquent. nym. autonomy native. S U F F I X E S. intermittent monitor. max man min min mis. nai nec.P R E F I X E S. fortuitous fracture. fortunate. innocuous nominate. rise word. imminent. nym nat. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. permutation economy. diminish. metamorphosis. admonish. manifest minute. ingratiate cohere. log. manufacture. remonstrate amorphous. forbear fortune. nascent. lum. homonym hyperactive. immutable. other same over. juxtapose jury. leg lev loc. gno grad. mit mon. to throw down to meet. infringe infusion. order to be born harm. nown death change rule. fraction. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. elude. deluge magnify. magnitude. fring to break fus gen gn. recognize. frac. lus lud. eclectic elevator. noxious. noun. frag. anthropomorphic fra. magnanimous manual. junction. renaissance innocent. hyperbole idiom. gress grat her. creation. perjury. aggressive. genetics. moratorium mutate. heterodox homogeneous. luv mag. dejected. idiosyncrasy. to join to swear to select. nom. ideology eject. preeminent transmit. noun. luminous illusion. lus lug. adherent. noc. lucid. hyperextend. minutiae prominent. allude lavatory. nominal . select. loquacious illustrate. light. dilute. loqu luc. death name immortal. homonym. morbid. nas. remit. race. junct jur lect. nic. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. gratitude. lut. incognito progress. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. maj. abjure election. heterogeneous. nox nom. forestall. homogenous ignore. inherent heterosexual. monit morph to pour birth. conjecture joint. nown.

omniscient pacify. neophyte object. philanthropy. science. poign que. education foot to pay. reprobate repugnant. quis qui rid. ris rog sacr. appease. over all peace all. paragon. oc. comply. neo. sult sci scribe. to place to carry to take. acquiesce riddle. query quiet. peripheral. petition. probation. expedite. wrong around to go. obsequious omnipresent. impetuous philosophy. po. punishment. pervade perimeter. implicit expose. circumscribe separate. complacent complete. antipathy. to test to fight to point. sanct. importune surprise. disparate. disease few. novel. insolent. omniscient scribble. pauper. pos. to jump to know to write apart announce. pat. to pay completely. op omni pac. portable. to get. derision interrogate. puncture. pod pen. placebo. penance depend. proselytize probe. denounce novice. pung. pun pend. poor child. sil. sanction assault. juxtapose import. pandemic. deplete. compensate. for. to bend to put. against. ridiculous. component. homophone. completely. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. sault. everyone equal next to. paradox passionate. impede penalty. peripatetic compete. permeate. obstruct. pu ped ped. profuse. a lot to prove. little. pens per peri pet. plethora complex. to compensate to hang. scrip se to announce new toward. pacifier panorama. pov. impugn point. conquest. pit phil phone plac ple plex. apathetic poverty. plic. to tangle. cacophony placid. peas pan par para pas. prise pro prob pug punc.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. nunc nov. nou ob. surrogate. of. panacea par. sacrament. tranquil. pronounce. ply pon. punctilious inquisitive. to weigh. to. pugnacious. abrogate sacred. bibliophile telephone. reprisal proliferate. encyclopedia. apprehend. to twist. pedantic pedestrian. impoverish pediatrician. suffering. desultory conscious. segregate. to strive love sound to please to fill to fold. beside feeling. prescribe. pound port prehend. path pau. pensive perplex. to seek. to seize much. parity parallel. seditious . secr sal. omnipotent.

sentiment. veritable revert. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. vigorous. tenacious extend. dissuade tacit. to draw to use to come. speculation. venture. tent. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. to plot to feel. dissent dissolve. to be still. resolution. tens. survey. theology. obsequious subside. dissolution perspective. ut ven. sequ sed. to thin god. spic. religion to drag. dissident sense. sid sens. sequel. benevolence . circumspect static. sustain. tenu theo tract us. volition. to free to look. obstinate. vis voc. advocate. to be aware to loosen. tenuous atheist. to see to stand. tic tain. aversion. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec. tent. versatile vivid. vok vol to follow to sit. reticent. tin tend. detract. equivocate volunteer. vent ver vers. apotheosis attract. to pull. spit sta. S U F F I X E S. taciturn detain. tension. to plan. usurp convene. intervene verdict. sent sol spec. tractable abuse. sess. persuade. vicarious evident. sti sua tac. utility. visionary vocal.P R E F I X E S. assiduous. ten. steadfast suave. verisimilitude. vert vi vid.


N OT E S .