A Report Submitted In Partial Fulfilment Of The Requirements Of Rural Marketing Subject.

M/s. Kriti Swarup Associate Professor


a village is seen in darkness the adjacent image. Worldwide nearly 2 billion people do not have access to clean and reliable lighting. polluting the homes. projects and plans.S. inexpensive lighting to the poor and needy. will not be provided through the slow process of electrifying our villages. The low energy consuming white LEDs housed in a lantern type case powered by a small storage battery. the benefits will accrue to the most needy! This 100 billion U.ABSTRACT:An experiment with low-cost. dollars a year. Even better. (see the well lighted village in adjacent image) These hours “earned” have been estimated to be worth nearly 25 million US dollar a day and 100 billion U. charged either by grid or by solar would make the lighting the poor people homes a reality. solar-powered light emitting diode (LED) lamps that is lighting up the lives of a handful of families in rural India could become a beacon of hope for millions of poor people worldwide who currently rely on kerosene lamps and other lighting solutions that are toxic--and frequently lethal-when used indoors. The use of Kerosene or fuel wood for simple lighting is inadequate for light. . dollars “earned” is equal to the entire amount spent over the past sixty years by donors. Artificial lighting. Half of the population of the Huge and modernizing India do not have access to reliable and clean lighting. INTRODUCTION:Emerging technologies in LEDs offer promise of reliable. essential today. The LED HOME LIGHTS can/will also help people to lengthen the productive day for many of their daily household tasks or lucrative jobs by extending the hours of light available to them. more effort in organizing and finally do not help any productive work. international institutions and governments through a host of schemes.S.

. they released its current model of the LED Lighting System which comes in a highly robust polymer casing. which were powered by a common apparatus consisting of a 36w Solar panel mounted on one rooftop. and after being absolutely convinced that LEDs were definitely the future of Lighting systems. This lamp runs on a 6v 4. effectiveness. and studied the uses. and it was virtually impossible for the Government to provide electricity supply here.5ah sealed lead acid battery that has to be charged once in a while. Here 33 houses were each provided with 3 LED light bulbs each. They have monitored the usage of these lamps over a period of 6 months. Companies implemented its LED lighting technology in a remote lamabdi tribal habitation called Choututla in Nalgonda district of Andhra Pradesh as proof of concept. This provided an additional livelihood option for Rural entrepreneurs. LEDs are more commonly thought of as the tiny red and blue dots of light on household remote control units. and up-gradations.HISTORY OF LED IN RURAL AREAS:LED Lighting projects started in small way back in 2003 when the concept of using LEDs as an alternative to costly and inefficient incandescent light bulbs. based on the learning's from the field and after several changes. and which is capable of providing over 80hrs of clean and bright light. modifications. who are provided with charging systems. Technical Information on LEDs:LEDs are very fast emerging technology in lighting that is considered as brilliant a technology breakthrough as the Edison light two centuries ago and is considered by the World Bank to be the solution for lighting up the 'bottom of the pyramid’. decided to go ahead and provided a similar model to several other remote habitations in Andhra Pradesh. Over a period of time. and for a small fee help in re-charging the batteries. and changes in life-style of the tribal folk. consists of a modular and state of the art microcontroller based circuitry. and a charge controller. a 40amp 12V lead acid battery. but the new generation of LEDs give out useable white light that can be used in any light product. and not so efficient CFLs was yet to be realized in India. and helm maintain the lamps. including Peddarutla Habitation. which lies bang in the centre of the dreaded Nallamalla forest range which is one of the biggest forest range in India.

they just lose 10-20% of their rated intensity. which means they last more than 50 times longer than incandescent bulbs and 15 times longer than CFL bulbs.000 hours. LEDs have a lifetime of over 100. The lights have very low failure rates (less than 1 in every 1000) and consume very little power (either from the grid or from solar recharging). This means LED lights use approximately 10% of the energy consumption of incandescent bulbs (normal light bulbs) and 30% of the energy of compact fluorescent lamp ('CFL') bulbs. which may not be noticeable in many applications. respectively. with the newest models delivering around 70 to 100 lumens per watt. A summary of the differences between the performance LED and solar lights is provided below:- . Even after 100. the LEDs don't just burnout .LEDs are durable semi-conductors that provide one of the world’s most energy efficient light sources.000 hours.

A saving of $55billion would alleviate the need to build 65 new coal-burning power stations. the country could save $55 billion in utility costs cumulatively by 2025 (cost of LEDs v normal bulbs ?). . future developments in LEDs are expected to result in future LEDs having twice the current lumens per watt which would double these has recently raised500 million Indian rupees for its LED lighting expansion activities through an IPO. The US example can be applied across the world. Furthermore. MIC Electronics www.micelectronics. the current market players have yet to take advantage of the opportunity. which was over subscribed several times. There therefore exists significant scope for professional and competent firms to succeed in the market. and if 25% of the light bulbs in the US were converted to LEDs. For example.LED lights offer significant cost savings compared to normal incandescent lights. Compared to the large potential market. the US Department of Energy estimates that approximately 22% of the electricity consumed in the US goes toward lighting. LEDs in India LEDs are slowly finding their way into the Indian market in the form traffic signal lightning. LED display panels and other applications. By way of illustration.

Energy Soure (Kerosene Expensive and Dangerous):Kerosene is also expensive for people living in poverty. LED lamps are simply more efficient and provide more useful light. Separate reports by the Intermediate Technology Development Group and the World Health Organization indicate that indoor air pollution from kerosene and similar fuels used for indoor lighting and cooking cause more than 1. In rural India. a professor of electrical engineering at the University of Calgary. Canada and the founder of Light Up the World Foundation (LUTW). buying kerosene requires nearly 4 percent of a typical household budget.5 billion people worldwide use kerosene to light their homes. but the fuel is dangerous. Finally. for example. LED lamps produce “nearly 200 times more useful light than a kerosene lamp and almost 50 times the amount of useful light of a conventional bulb.LED Lamps Provide Safer and Better Light For Less:Replacing kerosene lamps with clean solar-powered LED lamps also provides healthier and safer living conditions as well as better light for less money. According to The Christian Science Monitor. . According to The Christian Science Monitor.” says Dave Irvine-Halliday. The risk of fire is another significant health hazard with kerosene lamps. about 1. LUTW has used solar-powered LED technology to light nearly 10.5 million deaths annually.000 homes in 27 developing countries. Founded in 1997.” “This technology can light an entire rural village with less energy than that used by a single conventional 100 watt light bulb.


India has. too. but building a factory would cost approximately $5 million. this would create jobs for the villagers which could in turn reduce their migration to big cities.Strategies Needed to Reduce the Initial Cost of LED Solar Lamps:For the program to work long-term in India. This however. Even if the government goes ahead with the electrification of these areas the most obvious source would be coal-based power plants since coal is the cheapest power resource. This project can open up several other economic avenues for the millions of unemployed rural youth. Economic Benefits:Projects like the distribution of solar-powered LED lamps would certainly meet a part of the lighting demand in the rural areas. GSBF says it will be necessary to lower the cost of the LED lamps by manufacturing them inside India instead of importing them from China and elsewhere. These recharging station could also work as distributed power generation units. Rural Electrification and Carbon Emissions:One of the biggest problems in connecting remote rural areas to the national grid is the lack of infrastructure. The solar panels or the biofuel-powered recharging station would require construction work and maintenance. for long. The World Bank. . and investment capital is not easy to find. would significantly increase country’s carbon emissions output and could jeopardize India’s goal of reducing its carbon intensity by 20 to 25% from 2005 levels by 2020. argued that it cannot agree to mandatory absolute emission reduction targets since it has to electrify hundreds of thousands of villages. Many of these villages are not connected to the gird and any proposed projects to make electricity available to these villages get entangled in the bureaucratic web of the Indian administration. Thousands of school children complain about lack of lighting facilities at their homes which makes it impossible for them to study at home. Students can reap direct benefits from this scheme. Manufacturing the lamps locally would lower the cost from $55 to $22 per unit. thus reducing the need for connecting these villages to the national grid. has agreed with the government’s stand.

are exposed to kerosene lantern fumes equivalent to two packs of cigarettes a day. • Avoids the air pollution in the homes that is generated through kerosene lights . Hopefully these modest initiatives eventually turn into large scale power generating alternatives to centralized power generation and can bring sustainable economic wellbeing to India’s villages. whereas there is no attraction to the white LED light. This is because mosquitoes are attracted to the carbon dioxide that kerosene lights emit. Key User Benefits:• Provides clean and reliable lighting to rural / tribal homes. Another similar project was launched by The Energy and Resources Institute. mostly women and children. Such projects bring hope to a country suffering from the lack of basic infrastructure.despite being heavily subsidized Kerosene consumes nearly 4% of a typical rural Indian household's budget.The capacities of these recharging stations can be increased and local biomass such as farm residues or animal waste can be used as energy sources. • • • • • • • • Research indicates that using LED lights instead of kerosene could help reduce the risk of malaria.a recent report by the World Bank suggests that indoor air pollution from kerosene results in 1. Helps the children study at night Helps the women and men do any vocational activity that can be done from homes in the night and raise income. Improves the lifestyle and productivity of the women in cooking and dining in ambient lighting. The World Bank also notes that 780 million people in the developing world. Reduces the cost of lighting . Provides safety / security for women walking at night in the dark. Creates employment opportunities as for every 100/150 lights one person gets full employment for maintaining and charging the LED Home Lights and for every 1000 lights one person gets full employment in servicing the lights. wherein about 200 million solar powered lanterns are being distributed in villages across the country. Common people and businesses can contribute to this project by donating money.6 million deaths worldwide every year. Creates social entrepreneurs opportunities for youths to increase their income and have an avenue to service their communities. THRIVE will .

in addition to the huge social benefits in health and education described above. In addition to the poor. Key Commercial Benefits:- • The Government of India through state governments currently provide subsidies on kerosene that costs Rs 75 each month (Rs 900 each year) for each family. and general household activities in times when there are power cuts.a. Using an LED light compared to a kerosene lamp saves one ton of carbon emissions over 3-4 years. THRIVE 's LED light will be marketed to Governments and NGOs for a sale price of Rs 800-900 which means there will be a 'pay-back' within 1 year. • • Key Environmental Benefits:- • The use of LED lights will reduce the environmental damage that kerosene lighting creates. training and self esteem. In addition. assuming of 3 liters of kerosene for each family each month. they could expect to see an improvement in economic productivity of at least another US$ 250m each year. In urban areas. Therefore if the State Government of Andhra Pradesh could provide 10 million LED home lights to every needy family in the state they would save US$ 225m of subsidy on kerosene a year.• be promoting light entrepreneurs every where in the world and provide a line of support. the urban middle class require an emergency or regular light that help uninterrupted studies of children. product. which equates to US$ 30 of gold standard carbon credits. For every LED home light that the government can provide it could save Rs 900 (cUS$ 22) p. Therefore 10 million LED lights would save 10 million tons of carbon emissions. which would equate to US$ 300 million • . LED provides effective substitution in the time of power cuts and compares favourably (both in performance and cost) to other emergency lights in the market.

A typical project / order would work as follows:An NGO or a government / semi-government agency will contact to Company or Organization because it wants to bring light to a village where it has a presence. At this stage the NGO also collects the advance deposit from the householder at an agreed rate. Lamps will be sold to the NGO for 800-900 Rupees each (costing Organization 600-700 Rupees to manufacture). the NGO and other stakeholders to buy into the project.Routes to Market and Implementation:Route to market has. Villages will usually be within a maintainable distance of 10 km. The charging station . The local NGO volunteers and staff will then identify the villages and plan for the phasing of the implementation and start developing registers and village household data. until now. Phased implementation then begins with charging stations identified and battery charges installed in the stations. From each village the NGO will have a volunteer / coordinator for programmes in that village. Every 10 days or so the volunteer organizes the charging of the batteries at the charging station (either through grid power or through a solar charging station wherever there is no grid power). Organization will prepare a good GIS map for the area and with the help of the NGO will understand the local electricity supply and usage situation. Each station can serve up to 10 villages depending on the proximity of the station to the villages. the World Bank and the Department for International Development. The NGO will then expect the householder to pay an upfront contribution (say 350 Rupees) and will then collect a monthly payment for the next 5 years to pay for the light (say 30 Rupees per month) and pay for the maintenance / battery costs (say 5 Rupees per month). been almost exclusively through NGOs and World Bodies like the United Nations. Organization will then organize training for the NGO and explain the steps and stages involved in the project. Organization will then install some demonstration lighting in the village (either using its own funds or some initial funding from the NGO). Generally the NGO will have an office in relative proximity to the village and some field volunteers in the village. This helps the community.

will always keep 3-4 spare fully charged batteries as well as 2 lights.will typically operate in small rural towns / villages from a shop (also their home) and a vehicle. This example assumes the NGO is required to borrow the funds at a commercial rate and repay within 5 years.90W & 120W • Maintenance free . based on the number of LED Home Lights they maintain and service.60W. which are 'plug and play' which means they can be simply removed and replaced without any soldering and unscrewing. Monthly rental is collected by the volunteer and paid to the NGO and volunteer share is distributed. The village entrepreneur can earn a monthly income of Rs1000 to Rs2000. It is frequently the case that the NGO is 'granted' the money or its is lent on an interest-free scenario. In these scenarios the NGO will either have great 'profit' to reinvest into the villages or will be able to reduce the cost of the lamps to the villagers. Advantages of LED Lighting: • • • • • • No Filament burn-outs Less power consumption High Luminous efficiency Solid-state Technology -. Accounts are maintained and capital cost (in case needed) is paid back to the lender. In addition there will be district maintenance units that will carry spare display PCBs and control circuits.000 Burning Hours • Available in 36W. LED / Solar Entrepreneurs . They will buy lights from Organization on a sale or return basis and will be responsible for servicing the lights and charging the batteries and will charge for extra to his customers for this. The table below provides an example of how the funding of a typical NGO project would work.Vibration & Impact Resistant High Luminaire efficiency Long Life Street lighting Salient features • High Lumen Output • Long Life >50.

googleimages. commercial and industrial applications.• • • • • • • • High Energy Savings > 50% CRI 70+ CCT 5000-6500K Intelligent Sensor Dimming compliant Material : pressure die cast Aluminum Finishing : Silver Powder coating Low Glare Applications • • • Municipalities All Industry Street Lighting Applications All Road way Applications Solar LED Home Lighting Features The solar home lighting system harnesses the power of the Sun to provide reliable. References:1.wikipedia. With such an excellent solution we have positioned ourselves amongst principal LED solar home lighting manufacturers and suppliers in India and abroad maintaining International 2. www. LED Home lighting System is powered by solar energy using solar cells that convert solar energy (sunlight) directly to electricity. Solar Home system is an excellent solution for household level electrification in rural . These systems are useful in non-electrified rural areas and as reliable emergency lighting system for important domestic. cost effective electricity wherever it is needed. www. The electricity is stored in batteries and used for the purpose of lighting whenever required.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful