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NANOTECHNOLOGY

Girish N. Chaple Tushar P.Upalanchiwar
6th Semister B.E 6thSemisterB.E
Department Of Electronics Engineering Department Of Electronics Engineering
B.D.C.O.E Sevagram,Wardha B.D.C.O.E Sevagram,Wardha
Girish.gnc@gmail.com Tushuplanchiwar@gmail.com

Abstract –
Nanotechnology is technic to design, characterization, production, and application of
structures, devices, and systems by controlled manipulation of size and shape at the
nanometer scale (nearly100nm) that produces structures, devices, and systems with at least
one superior characteristic or property. with two different approaches, bottom-up and top-
down. Atomic force microscopes (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopes (STM) are
basic tools use to look at surfaces and to move atoms around. nanotechnology use to improve
existing products by creating smaller components and better performance materials with vast
a range of areas of physics (such as nanoelectronics, nanomechanics and
nanophotonics),chemistry (nanofiltration, nanocomposites), biology (bionanoscience,
nanobiosensors ) etc.Nanotechnology has wide range of applications in medicines, energy,
communication,cosmatics, aerospace,environment.

Keywords – Nanomaterials, Nanoparticles, Nanorobotics, Nanoelectronics, Nanomedicines.

I. Basic concept of Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology Is study of the controlling of matter on an atomic and molecular
scale. Generally nanotechnology deals with structures of the size 100 nanometers or smaller
in at least one dimension.[1]

1meter=100cm
1cm=10milimeter
1milimeter=1000micrometer
1micrometer=1000nanometer & 1meter=10-9

Approaches & tools use in Nanotechnology Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology are the "bottom-up" approach & “top-down”. typical carbon-carbon bond lengths. It is all about building things atom by atom & molecule by molecule.[2] Top-down refers to making nanoscale structures by machining and etching techniques. the property of those products depends on how those atoms are arranged. Bucky Ball consists of 60 carbon atoms . nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control.By comparison. Bottom-up . all flowing from the ideas of the scanning confocal microscope developed by Marvin Minsky in 1961 and the Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) developed by Calvin Quate and coworkers in the 1970s.[3] III. or molecule-by-molecule. Goal of this technology is to make tiny devices called ‘Nanomachines’. Nanomaterials [A] Fullerene – fig. Top-down . materials and devices are built from molecular components which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition.15 nm. II. Manufacturing products made from an atom." applies to building organic and inorganic structures atom-by-atom. that made it possible to see structures at the nanoscale. There are other types of scanning probe microscopy.approach. Nanotechnology is exciting emerging science & technological field. are in the range 0. or "molecular nanotechnology. and a DNA double-helix has a diameter around 2 nm. or the spacing between these atoms in a molecule. whereas bottom-up.12–0. The atomic force microscope (AFM) and the Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) are two early versions of scanning probes that launched nanotechnology.approach.

nanofiber and in certain bioscience applications. ! " #$ % & ' fig. (particle diameter 600 nm) Iron Nanoparticles. polymers. soap and textiles. Thin film deposition of Silicon Nanoparticle quantum dots on the polycrystalline silicon substrate of a photovoltaic (solar) cell increases voltage output as much as 60% by fluorescing the incoming light prior to capture.[4] .Carbon nanotubes can behave like a conductive metallic or semiconductor depending on their structure. It is further classified according to size: in terms of diameter. fibers. fine particles cover a range between 100 and 2500 fig. while ultrafine particles in amorphous hydrated colloidal silica range of 1 and 100 nanometers. Zinc Oxide nanoparticles . which is useful for nanoscale electronic devices and in electrically conductive films in coatings. plastics. Colloidal crystal composed of nanometers. anti-biotic and anti-fungal agents when incorporated in coatings.Carbon nanotube Carbon Nanotubes are the stiffest and strongest known fibers and have unique electrical properties.[4] IV.[B] Carbon nanotube – Carbon Nanotubes are Single-Walled. Recently. Nanoparticles In nanotechnology. anti- bacterial. nanowire. including as an anti-microbial. plastics. . Iron Oxide Nanopowder. carbon nanotubes have been demonstrated to create the "darkest" known material absorbing all wavelengths or "colors" of light which will prove useful in solar and electronic applications. and several other elemental nanoparticles and alloys form a group of "Magnetic Nanoparticles" with promising application in medical treatment of cancer. Cobalt Nanoparticles. Double Walled and Multi-Walled black nano scale cylindrical tubes of graphitic carbon with numerous application. first aid bandages. are used for many applications. zinc nanoparticles and silver nanoparticles . a particle is defined as a small object that behaves as a whole unit in terms of its transport and properties. magnetic storage and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

nanoids.Molecular electronics area is the use of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components. V.5 nanometers across.g. capable of counting specific molecules in a chemical sample. nanorobotics refers to the still largely hypothetical discipline of designing and building nanorobots. microscopic scale of a nanometer (10−9 meters). Nanorobotics Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the .g. devices ranging in size from 0. the use of a beam of electrons to produce a pattern — typically in a polymeric resist such as PMMA. transistors). where they might be used to identify cancer cells and destroy them.[4] . in the environment.Imagenary-Nanorobot these hypothetical devices. resistive wires) and active (e. More specifically. both passive (e. Nanoelectronics [A] Moleculer Electronics – Molecular electronics is that branch of nanotechology.[4] VI. The names nanobots. which deals with the study and application of molecular building blocks for the fabrication of electronic components. molecular scale electronics focuses on single-molecule applications [B] Nanolithography – Nanolithography is that branch of nanotechnology. Nanolithography refers to the fabrication of nanometer-scale structures. Another potential application is the detection of toxic chemicals.which deals with the study and application of fabrication of nanoscale structures like semiconductor circuits. Nanolithography is used during the fabrication of leading-edge semiconductor integrated circuits (nanocircuitry) or nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS).both passive and active. An example is a sensor having a switch approximately 1.1-10 micrometers and constructed of nanoscale or molecular components. nanites or nanomites have also been used to describe Fig. meaning patterns with at least one lateral dimension between the size of an individual atom and approximately 100 nm. and the measurement of their concentrations. The most common nanolithographic technique is Electron-Beam Direct-Write Lithography (EBDW).

or temperature of cells in a body. For instance. Nanotoxicological studies are intended to determine whether and to what extent these properties may pose a threat to the environment and to human beings. pressure.[4] VIII. [B] Nanosensor – Nanosensors are any biological. and magnetic forces. displacement and velocity. Because of quantum size effects and large surface area. VII. they may be able to detect macroscopic variations from outside the body and communicate these changes to other nanoproducts working within the body. Nanomaterials. most notably those of cancer. concentration. or sugery sensory points used to convey information about nanoparticles to the macroscopic world. Diesel nanoparticles have been found to damage the cardiovascular system in a mouse model. One example of nanosensors involves using the fluorescence properties of cadmium selenide quantum dots as sensors to uncover tumors within the body. In addition. By measuring changes in volume. Nanotoxicology is the study of the toxicity of nanomaterials. Nanomedicines [A] Nanotoxicology – Nanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience which deals with the study and application of toxicity of nanomaterials. become highly active at nanometer dimensions. nanomaterials have unique properties compared with their larger counterparts. chemical. Medicinal uses of nanosensors mainly revolve around the potential of nanosensors to accurately identify particular cells or places in the body in need. even when made of inert elements like gold. gravitational. at the molecular level in order to deliver medicine or monitor development to specific places in the body. Future Of Nanotechnology – . nanosensors may be able to distinguish between and recognize certain cells. electrical.

Nature Nanotechnology.com . Tissue engineering might replace today’s conventional treatments like organ transplants or artificial implants. 4.cosmatics – One field of application is in sunscreens. Textiles with a nanotechnological finish can be washed less frequently and at lower temperature. 5. World Care. 3. environmental remediation.Memory storage – Electronic memory designs in the past have largely relied on the formation of transistors. The traditional chemical UV protection approach suffers from its poor long-term stability. Quantum dot lasers are cheaper and offer a higher beam quality than conventional laser diodes. (2006). doi:10. [2] Rodgers. Nanotechnology Initiative. 6.1038/nnano. 2008. medicine.[5] X. 2008. IX. research into crossbar switch based electronics have offered an alternative using reconfigurable interconnections between vertical and horizontal wiring arrays to create ultra high density memories. Responsible Nanotechnology. but for light or photons instead of electrons. 11 Nov.and stain- repellent or wrinkle-free. Applications of Nanotechnology – 1.. "Nanoelectronics: [5] "Applications/Products". A sunscreen based on mineral nanoparticles such as titanium dioxide offer several advantages. nanopowders and nanotubes already play a significant role in industry. Nanotech-now. thus they resemble a semiconductor. 2.Novel optoeletronic devices – Two promising examples are photonic crystals and quantum dots. science and even in the house “The best way to predict the future is to invent it " XI. [3] "Nanotechnology Introduction Pages".Tissue engineering – Nanotechnology can help to reproduce or to repair damaged tissue. despite views that nanotechnology is a far-fetched idea with no near-term applications. However.2006. html.nano." Center for Responsible Nanotechnology. Titanium oxide nanoparticles have a comparable UV protection property as the bulk material.gov/html/facts/appsprod.Increasing the efficiency of energy production – Thin film deposition of Silicon Nanoparticle quantum dots on the polycrystalline silicon substrate of a photovoltaic cell increases voltage output as much as 60% by fluorescing the incoming light prior to capture. References [1] "Nanotechnology Basics: For Students [4] "Nanotechnology Basics: For Students and Other Learners. “Tissue engineering” makes use of artificially stimulated cell proliferation by using suitable nanomaterial-based scaffolds and growth factors. World Care. Advanced forms of tissue engineering may lead to life extension. 11 Nov." Center for and Other Learners. P. http://www.Textiles – The use of engineered nanofibers already makes clothes water. Conclusion Developments in nanotechnology are some of the most important scientifc developments in recent years. They offer a selectable band gap for the propagation of a certain wavelength. National Single file". nanoparticles.