English Language Teaching

Understanding language 1. Introduction to language 2. The communication process 3. Components of language

What is language? A code or a symbol used for communicating ideas, experiences, emotions and messages to other people. Language code- is arbitrary- accepted and understood by every member of the community. Communication takes place when both people communicating understand the code. The sound code- alphabetic code “a, b, c” Communication – requires 2 parties Party to send the message Party to receive the message Oral language Written language Sign language Language 4 communication (ORAL): Receptive Listening Reading Language 4 communication (WRITTEN): Reading Reading aloud Reading silently Language Mastery – able to listen, understand and speak the language well Speaking Writing Expressive

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can be communicated using

Pragmatics Language Component Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Pragmatics Meaning The sound system of a language The structure of a word can convey more than one meaning. This is the area of semantics The use of language Listening Comprehension . Morphology.Language Components: Phonology. The words and phrases used in large convey meanings. Syntax. Semantics. The small meaningful unit is called morpheme. Pertains to the rules governing how words are ordered in a sentence.

Understanding words with multiple meanings 6. Understanding compound sentences 8. Following verbal directions: Provide example of verbal directions that you give in the classroom 2. Understanding discourse Assessing listening comprehension Use pictures . Understanding irregular verb tenses 7. Understanding complex sentences 9. Auditory Processing ProblemA child who has no hearing impairment may still have difficulty understanding what he hears if he has s problem processing what he hears. Understanding jokes 4. Understanding figurative language 5. understanding will be a problem.Factors Affecting Listening Comprehension: 1) Hearing impairment 2) Low cognitive ability 3) Auditory processing problem 4) Aphasia Hearing impairmentProblem in the reception of auditory language. Understanding abstract concepts related to time & space: • Provide example of spatial concepts • Provide example of time concepts 3. There • • • • is a need to consider:Degree of hearing loss –dB (decibel) When hearing loss occurs The auditory training received Family background This happens when he has an:• Auditory discriminatory problem • Auditory figure ground problem • Auditory memory problem • Auditory closure problem Listening comprehension problem 1.

talk Expansion & elaboration Assessing Listening Comprehension . animals & fruits eg : Point to … • Adjectives – show some objects but with different characteristics & ask the students 2 point 2 the object with a particular characteristics eg: Point to the tallest boy Assessment Modeling & Direct instructions (P&P secara terus guru ajar murid ikut) • • • Teacher as a role model and students follow Student as a role model Repetition Practice in Modeling Teach the names of the animals using modeling & direct instruction Techniques 4 encouraging & understanding 4 student with limited language Techniques Self-talk How? When you’re demonstrating. Parallel. such as the routine of brushing his teeth. body parts. describe the actions that he is performing. describe the actions that he’s performing When the student is performing an action . Interpret what they are saying and complete the sentences for them. Use actual objects include objects in the vehicles. such as demonstrating to the students to make tea bag . A number of students use monosyllabic words on simple phrases to express what the want.• Nouns classroom .

Lips II. Understand direct and instructions 3. easier to understand. Soft palate III. Need to understand 2 concepts to understand language. Teeth V. Understanding tenses 2. Understanding discourse • Read from the text & ask questions based on the text Some listening skills to teach: Listening skills Auditory awareness of language sounds Understanding words & concepts What? Aware of the existence of phonemes in language : vowels & consonants. Don’t know how to use style of communication according to the situation V.1. Wrong use of language II. what make a chair a chair? 2. then you may have an auditory problem. Understanding sentences Understanding memory Auditory Expression Problems  Defect in vocal organs I. One needs to have a large vocab base to understand language We don’t use single words. Eg: for instance. Nose VI. Use only simple sentences III. Hard palate IV. Difficulty expressing abstract concepts & ideas IV. messages are conveyed through sentences. Communicational. Glottis  Auditory memory problem  Signs of an auditory expression I. 1. Not providing enough information Text connected. If you don’t remember what people said.during activities in Lesson Plan Techniques for enhancing speaking skills .

 Helps student say what you think he wants to say  Describe the activities as he performing it  Describe the activity you’re doing. Patterning (substitution): provide repeated exposure the same sentence patterns for the student to master the patterns. when you’re performing a series of action Activities for vocabulary acquisition  Ask the student to take the animal one by one and name it after you taught few names of animal  Set a shop and have an interesting activity in trading  Useful sentence patterns  Rapid naming for students to recall words  Taught together all these paired words Eg: Fork and spoon Bread and butter Paper and pen Cats and dogs Pots and pans .

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