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11. Basic Definitions

Many structural applications require the use of materials combining,
simultaneously, superior strength and stiffness with low weight. Composite
materials are excellent candidates for fulfilling these requirements because of their
high specific properties. In this scenario, one of the most interesting aspects is the
fact that the material itself is also a structure, which consists of two or more
phases on a macroscopic scale, as shown in Figure 1-1[1].

Figure 1-1: Phases of a composite system (after [1])

A structural composite is designed with the following purpose in mind: the
properties and mechanical performance of the composite material are superior to
those of the constituent materials when acting independently.
The matrix is the less stiff and weaker phase and is a continuous medium. The
reinforcement is usually discontinuous, stiffer and stronger. Needless to say, the
properties of a composite structure depend on the properties of the constituents,


geometry and phase distribution. The homogeneity of the material system
depends on the more or less distribution of the reinforcement. Composite
materials are, therefore, rather anisotropic in their nature. This fact implies that
the material’s properties, at a certain point, vary with direction or depend on the
orientation of the reference axes (Figure 1-2).

Figure 1-2: Unidirectional ply and principal coordinate axes (after [1])

A laminate is made up of several unidirectional plies stacked together with
various orientations as shown in Figure 1-3 [1]. Since the principal material axes
vary from ply to ply, it is desirable to analyse laminates using a common fixed
system of coordinates (x,y,z). The orientation of each ply is given by the angle
between the reference x-axis and the major principal material axis (fibre
orientation) of the ply, measured in a counter clockwise direction on the x-y

12. Applications of Composite Materials
Composites have unique characteristics that make them perfect material choices
for several applications, such as: high strength, high stiffness, long fatigue life,
low density and great adaptability to a specific function.


Figure 1-4: Boeing 777 commercial airliner (after [2]) 59 . Figure 1-3: Multidirectional laminate and reference coordinate system (after [1]) The aerospace and aeronautical industries have been major users of composite technology in the last decades. such as the Boeing 777 shown in Figure 1-4 [2]. weight savings while preserving high material properties has always been an issue in commercial aircrafts. From small parts to fairly large structures.

not only on the aerospace and aeronautical industries. 2001. Based on these predictions. France) developed significantly different views regarding the future of commercial air travel. composed of several composite parts. Trends in major civil aircraft manufacturers After the terrorist attacks of September 11.Another example is a speedbrake structure of a military aircraft. As of 2005. 13. although populations continue to concentrate in and around major metropolitan areas. Figure 1-5 [3]. a negative financial fallout occurred with many air carriers. Airbus developed 60 . The Boeing Co. (Seattle. Airbus reasoned that the number of non-stop flights between large number of paired cities would decrease. Washington) and Airbus Industrie (Toulouse. Figure 1-5: A7 speedbrake structure (after [3]) The examples of composite applications shown above are only a small part of many hundreds of other similar applications. a slow recover took place and the two main commercial aircraft carriers and rivals. the Vought A7.

especially with rising fuel prices.). Boeing.the super-jumbo A380. Being this a mid-sized jet. 14. capable of carrying 555 to as many as 890 passengers to fly at lower per-passenger costs. 61 . In the quest for more efficient aircraft. Consequently. large aircraft like the B747 and the A380. both aircraft manufacturers turned their attention once again to composite materials. on the other hand. General Materials Information on the B787 The B787 “Dreamliner” will be the first full size commercial aircraft with composite wings and fuselage (Figure.. and taking into account that this category makes up the greatest number of in-service commercial jets. According to Boeing’s calculations. expected the population distribution to contribute to an increase in new non-stop flights and growth in the number of trips between paired cities. airlines began to look more at fuel efficiency. belonging to the same category as the B767. while almost 4300 are expected to be regional jets over the next 20 years. Boeing came up with the 7E7 (“E” means efficiency) and then renamed 787 “Dreamliner”. will be only 4% (790) of the total commercial jet fleet..

Figure 28-B787 Dreamliner fusellage section Composites on the B787 (Figure. Steel will comprise 10% and other metals 5%..) will account for 50% of the aircraft’s structural weight. namely 15%. 62 .. Aluminium will comprise only 12% of the mentioned weight. Titanium will make up a greater percentage than aluminium.

for every 1% addition of lithium. the alloys are strong. therefore.. In addition to being light and stiff. However.s. and corrosion resistant. low short-transverse properties of thick plates. Outside of the U. such as the wings and fuselage. product quallty is more diff1cult to control than for conventional alloys. They also have correspondingly higher stiffness and offer a 25% advantage in specifIc stiffness.R. the technology 63 . aluminium lithium alloys are particularly attractive because of their weight-saving potential. weight saving in aircraft structures of up to 10% is possible in strength-critical structures and of up to 18% in stiffness critical structures. is Toray’s 3900-2 prepreg material (comprised of intermediate-modules T800 carbon fibre and a toughened 350F-cure epoxy).9-2. 15. Therefore. limited experience with manufacturing requirements. their properties are strongly sensitive to processing conditions and. where several alloys were developed in the 1960s. With alurninum-lithium alloys. damage tolerant.The material to be used on the B787’s primary structures. and 8091 contain from 1. and limited amounts of design data. The commercial alloys typifIed by 2090. used in both unidirectional tape and woven formats.7% lithium. 2091. Aluminium-lithium alloys were introduced more than 30 years ago by Alcoa as alloy 2020 for use on the RA-5C Vigilante military aircraft.S. Special Materials for the Aerospace and Aeronautical Industries Aluminium-Lithium Alloys Among the new aircraft materials. there is approximately a 3% reduction in alloy density and an increase in stiffness of about 6%. Other short comings include high anisotropy of unrecrystallized products caused by the strong crystallographic textures developed during processing. lack of thermal stability of some products. 8090. When aluminium is alloyed with lithium. they offer up to about 10% density advantage over the 2000 and 7000 series alloys.

g. U.appeared to lay dormant until the mid-1980s. Alloys 2090-1'83 and 2090T62 are used by McDonnell Douglas for some flooring sections fi the C-17 air lifter craft. In contrast. Alloy 8090-T83 is used in limited quantities by Airbus 1ndustries.g.K. whereas the Al-Fe-X (8XXX) alloys provide opportunities for high-temperature performance 64 . respectively. The alloys are also being tested for a variety of new applications. and 2091. Westland- Agusta. 8091-1'8). the 7000 series alloys offer higher strength potential' and the 6000 series alloys are conducive to good corrosion resistance and improved machinability.. medium strength combined with corrosion resistance and damage tolerance (e. a mechanically alloyed powder metallurgy product known as AI-905XL (formerly IN 9052) was also introduced by IncoMAP and.g. Aluminium Bases Metal Matrix Composites The 2000 series alloys offer strength and damage tolerance. The latter material has excellent weldability. 8090T8XXX.. a cast Al-Li-Cu alloy known as Weldallte 049 (now registered as alloy 2095) was developed by Martin Marietta Laboratories. 2091-T8X)./Italy is unique in making extensive use of 8090 forgings and sheets and 2090 and 2091 sheets for the EHI0l helicopter. including alloy 2219. 2091-T8XXX). when Alcoa. and is a strong contender as fuel tank material for NASA's space shuttle because of the material's excellent cryogenic properties. 209O-T8X. more recently. Applications of AI-Li alloys are not widespread to date. or high damage tolerance (e. superior to that of the 2000series alloys. During the late 1980s. and Alcan and Pechiney joint1y introduced alloy 8090. The 2000 and 8000 series AI-Li alloys are available commercially in a variety of forms and tempers which can be selected to meet the specific design requirements of either high strength (e. for the D-nose skins of the leading edge of the A330/340 aircraft wing. The new Boeing 777 aircraft makes only limited use of AI-Li alloys. and Pechiney introduced alloys 2090.. 8091. Alcan. inc1uding lower wing skins and fuselage applications (panels and doors).

Several reinforcing mediums have been used for AMCs. was developed in the late 1970s at Delft University in the Netherlands and Fokker Aircraft and was later commerciallzed in collaboration with Alcoa and Akzo. the ARALLi!!) and GLARE@ laminates. illustrated schematically in Fig. and Sialon fibbers. Particulate reinforcement is often used for wear- resistance applications and offers high stiffness but only low strength and low toughness. Hybrid Composites Hybrid composites are FRP-metal sandwich laminates consisting of alternating layers of high-strength aluminium alloys and fibre reinforced epoxy adhesive. Fibbers provide the highest stiffness. complementing the original ARALL product through provision of higher compression strength. GLARE laminates are a more recent development. whereas whisker reinforcement offers high stiffness. which differ in the type of f:1ber used for reinforcement. The 65 . but SiC is the most common reinforcing medium. 9. to f:1ve layers of aluminium with four interspaced FRP layers. In GLARE laminates. carbon. including alumina. strength. Both ARALL and GLARE laminates come in different configurations ranging from two layers of aluminium with one FRP layer in between. This hybrid structural material. both ARALL and GLARE laminates can be fabricated with different aluminium alloys. the glass fibres can be layed up in a cross-ply configuration. ARALL laminates (for aramid reinforced aluminium laminate) use 50% fibre volume of adhesive prepreg of high-modulus aramid fibres. and low toughness. GLARE laminates (for glass reinforcement) are unidirectional or bi-axial reinforced with 60% fibre volume of high strength glass fibres. Composite properties are also strongly influenced by the type of reinforcing medium. Two categories of hybrid composites are available commercially today. This allows laminate properties to be c10sely tailored to component design requirements. and toughness combination. medium strength.Meanwhile. a matrix based on AI-Li provides a unique combination of high stiff- ness and low density. Also.

As cracks develop in the aluminium face sheets. fibre bridging across a propagating crack causes the unbroken fibres to carry increasing portions of the load. After curing. GLARE laminates are particularly well suited for f1rewall applications because of a high bum-through resistance. Figure 29-A380 Materials overview 66 . which makes the materials highly damage tolerant. ARALL laminates can be stretched to eliminate undesirable residual stresses.laminates are produced by curing in a heated platen press. which may decrease the stress intensity at the crack tip to the point where the cracks cease to grow. FRP-metal laminates have the ability to impede and self-arrest fatigue crack growth. This makes the material particularly well suited to applications requiring good fatigue resistance.

which requires expensive fixtures to be built. Drilling composite Materials Generally. tool geometry and tool wear. 67 . Delaminations can be introduced into the workpiece and several types of damages can be observed on the workpiece surfaces.16. feed rate. in the basic operations of drilling or milling. New problems may arise during the machining of composite materials when compared to the machining of traditional materials like metals. the need to unify components by mechanical fastening is still considerable. the thrust and torque applied on a drill bit depend on speed. Fibre reinforcement in composites is usually very abrasive which leads to rapid tool wear and deterioration of the machined surfaces. and so a significant reduction in the number of fastener holes leading to cost reduction. after which it drops sharply when the tool exits the laminate on the opposite side (FigureÞ). Experimental testing showed that as drilling progresses. Parts must be very well supported to resist force applied by the tools during machining. Machining of Composite Materials Although composite parts may have the advantage to replace many mechanical fastened pieces. thrust increases steadily until a nearly constant value corresponding to steady drilling through the thickness of the laminate is reached.

the amplitude is much lower. separating the thin uncut layer from the rest of the laminate. the amplitude of such oscillations is rather large.A sharp decrease in normal force as the bit enters the workpiece is always associated with the introduction of delamination by mechanical action of the tool peeling up the top layer of the laminate. Delaminations can be greatly reduced or eliminated by reducing feed rates near the exit and using backup plates to provide support and prevent deformations leading to exit side delaminations. With unidirectional (UD) composites. Delaminations near the exit side are introduced because the tool may act like a punch. The oscillations observed during the steady portion of the drilling process are related to the different ply orientations of the laminate. but in that case no discontinuities are observed in the normal force history. This phenomenon is associated with an almost instantaneous drop in normal force from its steady-state value to zero. Delamination of the top layer can also be produced by high thermal stresses generated by drilling. For cross-ply or quasi-isotropic laminates. Maximum normal force and maximum torque both increase significantly with the number of holes drilled 68 .

and the drill point geometry and flutes are ground in.025 mm/rev. 17. drill bits made out of high- speed steel (HSS) fail after drilling just a few holes in composite materials. For graphite-epoxy or glass-epoxy.5 mm thick graphite-epoxy laminates with a speed of 1900 RPM and a feed rate of 0.85 mm diameter drill bits in 6. particularly when used with portable drills. FigureÞ shows the increase in the maximum axial force with number of holes for an 8 mm split point carbide bit drilling 4. and the four-flute tapered straight flute bit shown in Fig.000 rpm and feed rates 0. Among those tested were the carbide tipped chisel point bit. The success of the eight-facet split point bit is attributed to the 69 . Another factor to consider in the selection of a drill bit is cost. the eight- facet bit. Tungsten carbide tools possess adequate life. MilIer tested nine types of 4.015 mm/min.025 mm. particularly when sub micrometer carbide is used. Another approach involves grinding the point angle into carbide tipped blank. and cannot be sharpened. best results are obtained with a solid tungsten carbide dagger drill or with PCD-coated twist drills. A solid carbide drill with an eight-facet split point and a jodrill with 30û helix geometry produced the maximum numbers of holes with a tolerance of +0. General Tool Design Because glass and carbon fibre s are very abrasive. A much higher number of holes can be drilled with tungsten carbide tools coated with polycrystalline diamond (PCD). These diamond veined drills can be sharpened.due to chipping and wear of the cutting surfaces. because its resistance to rupture is 50% higher and it is harder than the standard C2 grade carbide.051 and -0. 6. It must be determined if the longer tool life and improved hole quality balance the higher cost.35 mm thick graphite- epoxy at 20. PCD veins are then sintered in that groove. using portable self-feed air motors. the jodrill. PCD tipped drills are typically 20 times as expensive as solid carbide drills [28]. PCD-coated tools can be easily chipped.

which tends to minimize fibre breakout. the more fragile the cutting edge becomes. Figure 30-Examples of drill bits used with composite materials (a) carbide tipped chisel point. (c) jodrill. Positive rake angles (Fig. tapered. straight flute 70 .long taper angle at the shoulder. However. Solid carbide tools must be handled with care to prevent breakage and chipping of the cutting edges. The same effect is obtained in the jodrill using a step at the drill shoulder. (d) four flute. 7) are needed to generate the least amount of heat during cutting. (b) eight facet. The helix angle is not so important for machining graphite-epoxy composites because the chips are in powder form and are continually suctioned off. the more positive the rake angle. A micro grain carbide grade is recommended to provide as much toughness as possible. A small chisel angle is the second element of good tool geometry and serves to improve the penetration rate.

To drill this type of material. Then. This procedure. For these three types of drill bits. fibre s should be pulled from the periphery of the hole toward the center and then sheared. 7) in the range of 29-35û and 12-30û. 8) for drill press operation and a serrated countersink are also recommended. aramid fibre s have a tendency to recede within the matrix instead of being sheared off. Above that thickness. the hole must be reamed. Drilling aluminium with a tool designed for drilling graphite-epoxy calls for a tool of a very different shape in order to remove the long stringy aluminium chips. serrations are designed to trap the uncut fibres and shear them. The machining of materials containing aramid fibre s requires special tooling. A serrated spade drill (Fig. remove the tool.17 mm can be drilled without fluid cooling. were found adequate. The major problem encountered with boron-epoxy laminates comes from the heat generated. because the titanium chips damage the surface of the hole in the composite section as they are removed. Ways are sought to provide combination tools or to design drills that automatically change operating conditions as the drill bit enters different materials. involving three tools and three operations. Because of their low compressive strength. respectively. This can be accomplished by tools with protruding peripheral cutting edges and positive axial and radial rake angles. and drill the titanium part with a different tool. 8a). and the hole to be drilled must go through both the composite and the metal. Rake angles and relief angles (Fig. It is recommended to drill the composite first. 71 . is expensive. Self-centering drills were designed so that around the circumference.Composites are often bonded to aluminium or titanium parts. Frayed fibre s will protrude from the hole surface to create what is commonly known as fuzz. introducing a cutting action in both directions to cut unsheared aramid fibres. Drilling of composite materials with boron fibre reinforcement requires the use of diamond impregnated tooling. serrations are ultimately oriented upward and downward (Fig. Material thinner than 3. coolant must be supplied through the tool at pressures up to 75 psi to prevent damage to the workpiece. Drilling titanium with the same tool as is used for composites is difficult because tool wear makes drilling through titanium difficult.

A multilayered section would require too many tool changes and must be drilled with one tool. hole size. tool wear. roundness. It was decided that the most efficient stacking sequence would be to rest the Gr/Bi on top of the Ti alloy. Although ultrasonically vibrating the tool was not effective when drilling boron-epoxy. The main problems encountered with regard to the quality characteristics of drilled composite Ti stacks inc1ude severe tool wear. a two-tool approach is preferable. Drilling Graphite-Bismaleimide Titanium Stacks The fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) material used in this study was a multi- directional Gr/Bi composite consisting of IM-6 graphite fibre s and a 3501-6 ther- moset matrix with a ply orientation of [45/90/-45/0/-45/ 0/45/0/-45/90/- 45/0/45/0/45/90/-45/90/90]. it reduced friction. shape. Tool wear was shown to depend on prior heat treatment when drilling boron-aluminium composites.When a layer of boron-aluminium is bonded to one piece of titanium. Graphite-Bismaleimide Titanium To minimize the positional errors and to obtain tight tolerances during manufacturing. using a reduced feed rate when cutting through a titanium layer.62 mm with a ply thickness of 0. Ti 6AI-4V alloy sheets with 3. However. which was acquired from The Boeing Company. and presence of titanium burrs. heat induced damage. drilling of dissimilar material like graphite composite and Ti metal in a stack is a challenging task to manufacturing engineers because of the different machining properties for each material. surface texture. and the tendency of the aluminium to accumulate on the tool when drilling boron-aluminium. This approach in stacking sequence would result in the least amount of exit delamination. The Gr/Bi thickness was 7.1 mm thickness were used in the experiment.2 mm. Drilling experiments were performed with water soluble syn- 72 . Drilling with an ultrasonically vibrated tool was also successful in producing holes in boron-aluminium /titanium laminates. composite panels and structural parts are typically drilled together in a stack and assembled.

Two types of drill materials with a standard drill geometry were selected for this investigation based on their availability and widespread use in industry: high-speed cobalt (HSS-Co) and carbide. Figure 31-Hole quallty features of Gr/Bi-Ti stacks Tool Wear Tool wear was measured at the flank face on the drills. occurring at the outer cutting edges of the drill. Flank wear. The least amount of wear occurred at the tip of the point angle for all the drills tested. 73 . Flank and crater wear was observed on HSS-Co drills.Ti stacks. Tool wear on the HSS-Co drills occurred rapidly when drilling the Gr/Bi. Some of the more extreme tool wear was observed on the helical cutting edges of the HSS-Co drills as well.thetic coolant on a commercial vertical mill. Tool wear was measured by viewing the drills underneath a microscope. was more notable than wear on chisel edge and cutting lips. Drill wear was measured in various feeds and speeds to characterize the wear characteristics of each drill bits in drilling GriBi-Ti stacks. which was retrofitted with a CNC control and drive unit. Minor flank wear was beginning to form on the carbide drills.

Increasing the spindle speed created more heat generation due to friction in the cutting zone of the Ti plate. This seems be contrary to normal cutting conditions of the HSS-Co tools. However. slow feed was detrimental to tool life because of the long tool engagement periods. Ti alloys heat up rapidly during drilling and do not dissi- pate the heat quickly because of the low thermal conductivity. Figure 32-Effect of speed and feed on the hole production for HSS and HSS-Co drills: (a) constant speed. Fig.25 mm/rev and 660 rpm). the wear length was designated I mm. the longest HSS-Co tool life was achieved at the combination of high feed and low speed (0. or visually by noticing worn cutting edges and smoke.Ti stacks because high temperatures in the drilling region were detrimental to tool life and allowed for increased matrix degradation. Heat generation was the primary concern when drilling Gr/Bi. As a result. In the case of HSS-Co drills. Due to difficulties of measuring the wear length of failed HSS-Co drill bits. 8 present the tool wear at various feed and speed. decreasing the tool life. Therefore.The largest number of holes that failed were drilled using carbide drills. the time to failure of tool was determined either by the CNC machine stopping because a maximum thrust limit(~3700 N) was reached. fewer holes were produced when high spindle speeds and slow feeds were used for HSS-Co drilling. For the HSS-Co drills. (b) constant feed 74 .

speed. 1 presents hole quality features of Gr/ Bi.Ti stacks. and a Control Console. The effect of (b) feed and (c) speed on the carbide drill flank wear at the 20th hole Hole Quality Parameters Hole quality in Ti alloys and composite material were evaluated in terms of ma- terial integrity. spherical probe. and surface finish on the first hole drilled at each feed and speed.Figure 33-(a) Drill flank wear versus hole number with different tool materials. The first holes made by fresh drills at each drilling condition were used to verify the effect of feed. Ti burrs. Hole geometry and diameter were measured with a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) mounted with a 1 mm Renishaw ruby tipped. At least 40 points were measured to obtain the least square diameter and roundness at a 75 . The hole diameter error can be readily calculated as the difference between the actual hole diameter and the specified drill diameter. and tool materials on hole quality parameters. which displays all system functions and measurements. Fig. hole diameter and roundness.

08. and 0. 3 present the passed or failed conditions for both drills. The tool-life criterion is defined as the carbide drill flank wear length exceeding a value of 400 flm. Surface formation and topography were characterized in terms of surface describing parameters from the surface profile measurements. were measured and recorded. Optical microscopy was utilized to observe the drilled hole quality. For each hole. The thrust forces produced by a carbide drill did not increase drastically with increase in number of holes. carbide drills showed the least amount of tool wear because carbide has a greater hot hardness. average peak-to-peak height (Ry).03-0. Consequently. the condition was failed (F). It is obvious that the carbide drill wear increases exponentially with increase in the feed and spindle speed. average root mean square (Rq). as HSS-Co did. Selected feeds were 0. Selection of Drilling Conditions To select the feed and speed range. HSS-Co drills were not successful at making holes over 2720 rpm. preliminary experiments were performed at 0.25 mm/s drive speed. 0. respectively. Profilometer operation parameters consisted of a 0. and average roughness value of lO-point height (Rz). The surface roughness parameters such as. both drills failed to make a single hole.25 mm/rev. ln order to measure the burr height. 0. Fig. Surface roughness measurements were performed on both Gr/Bi and Ti alloy materials.20. This is due to the greater hot hardness of carbide.80 mm cut-off length and 0. high speeds and high feeds had negative effect on the too 1 life of carbide drilIs. At the combination of low speed and high feed. because heat generation was not a major factor on the carbide tool wear. If not. the condition was passed (P). 76 .given depth in the hole. average surface roughness (Ra). both diameter and roundness of a hole were measured at every 10-15 Ilm on the entire stack hole.25 mm/rev and 325-2750 rpm. The surface roughness across the depth of the hole walls were me asured on a Surfanalyzer System 4000. Unlike HSS-Co drills. an electronic digital height gage was used. If a drill made at least one hole on the stack at a given condition.13.

by both drills with various feeds and speeds. variation in the profiles tends to be higher for the Gr/Bi holes than Ti holes. li can be seen that the variation of the profiles of holes by HSS-Co drills is higher than carbide drills. Two types of material damage were present at the exit surface of the Gr/Bi. Fig. Fig. which was induced by both heat and metal chips. 5 show the typical hole profiles measured at the machined stack hole for both drills. By placing the Gr/Bi on top of the Ti alloy. whereas holes made by carbide drills tend to be larger than the drill size. Feed is negatively proportional to cylindricity.Ti stacks is dependent on the Gr/Bi plate. which defines the size tolerance.Ti interfaces and Ti burrs. 77 . Workpiece Damage HSS and HSS-Co drills produced workpiece damage inc1uding fibre exposure on the Gr/Bi. Cylindricity is a surface of revolution in which all points of the surface are equidistant from a common axis. A roundness (circularity) criterion specifies a tolerance zone bounded by two concentric circles within which each circular element of the surface must lie and applies independently at any plane. Generally. was measured by the CMM at a given depth of an entire hole. This phenomenon could be due to vibrations induced at higher feed and speed. The first damage was the discoloration ring located around the hole and the second can be referred as a damage ring. Speed has an effect on cylindricity of drilled holes in that higher speeds produce larger cylindricity. 4(a) and (b) show average values of the typical stack hole diameter error. the hole roundness of Gr/Bi. the exit plies of the composite were supported. HSS-Co drills have a tendency to produce undersize holes.Hole Diameter and Cylindricity The average hole diameter. The amount of oversize increases with increasing feed and speed in carbide drilling. which is a subtraction of the actual diameter from the drill diameter. Generally. because roundness deviations of Gr/Bi holes were reduced on higher feed for both drills. The discoloration zone may be due to heat generated during drilling. Thus. So. as the drill exited the composite there is very little delamination of bottom plies.

there was no fibre breaking and fibre s were not exposed at the discoloration ring. D is the hole diameter (Fig. were formed. 8(c). damage rings. The damage radial distance was measured. During drilling. thus the cutting edges remained sharper. delamination induced by both heat and the metal chips can be observed at the exit ply. The Gr/Bi damage was noticed when the HSS and HSS-Co drills were used. Fig. located iu exit plies of the composite at the Gr/Bi and Ti alloy interface.however. where 0 is the diameter of the damage obtained by subjective averaging and. 8(b). 78 . 8 shows micrographs showing damage at the interface surface of Gr/Bi specimens. as shown in Fig. Also. 8(a)). The radial distance of both the discoloration rings and damage rings increased as the number of holes drilled increased when both HSS and HSS-Co drills were used. In Fig. the damage revealed that the fibre s were exposed as a result of the matrix overheating. the damage was minimal when the carbide drills were used because carbide had a higher hot hardness com- pared to HSS and HSS-Co drills. at least for the amount of holes produced using carbide drills. causing a defect in the material. shearing away material more efficiently and generating less heat. Therefore. but minimal damage took place when carbide drills were used.

thus it was not measured. 79 . under 400 rpm.08 mm/rev and 1750 RPM (The Gr/Bi damage radial distance. Longer machining times led to more heat generation in the Ti alloy. is specified as t=(fi-D)/2) (b) The top view of Gr/Bi damage region produced by HSS-Co drill at 0. 2720 RPM (microscope) . In case of HSS-Co drills. (c) SEM Figs. t. the trend with various feeds seems to be unclear. but the damage radial distance is large at slow feed. 9(a) and (b) show that the damage radial distance decreases as the feed increases when HSS drills are used. and decreases at higher feed. The lower feeds resulted in longer tool engagement times between the tool and the workpiece. Damage by carbide tools was negligibly small. The radial distance increased with increasing speed for both HSS and HSS-Co drills. This damage was caused by localized heat generation in the Ti alloy around the cutting zone.08 mm/rev. Figure 34-(a) Gr/Bi damage region at the Gr/Bi-Ti interface at 0.

This could be due to the low thermal conductivity of Ti. li is dear that speed has a major influence on the exit burr heights. Also. Burr height is proportional to thrust force at the constant feed rate. The exit burr heights increased as spindle speed increased and slower feeds produced higher exit burr height. lower feed rate produces higher burr height. allowing the material to flow easier. the bottom surface layer of the Ti alloy became quite hot and the ductility increased. the last 80 . which are under 1 mm in all conditions. Heat generation was the primary concern when drilling Gr/Bi- Ti stacks. Prior study proved that thrust force and feed rate are major factors in exit burr heights. The exit burrs of Ti were induced on hole quality parameters in Gr/Bi-Ti stacks. Figure 35-Damage radial distance at the Gr/Bi interface Burrs Ti alloy burrs were found to depend upon spindle speed and feed. and slow feeds. The formation of a Ti burr was affected by several factors including thrust force and friction heat generated when drilling at high speed. long tool engagement time. As the drill pierced through the bottom surface of the Ti alloy material. which heat up rapidly during drilling but does not dissipate the heat quickly. carbide drills produced smaller exit burr heights. Generally. At the same thrust force. because high temperatures in the drilling region negatively effect too! life and exit burrs.

tm.48 to 2 r. while those in Ti ranged from 0. (d) constant feed (0. The average surface roughness.thin layer of Ti alloy did not get sheared properly because the cutting edges of the drill became worn out. (b) constant feed (0. However.08 mm/rev) Surface Quallty The surface roughness parameters in Gr/Bi are much higher than those in Ti.78 Surface roughness parameters of Gr/Bi 81 . creating the burr around the perimeter of the hole. in Gr/Bi ranged from1. surface roughness of Ti is very close in both HSS-Co and carbide drilled holes.08 mm/rev). Rapid tool wear in HSS-Co drills had induced higher thrust force and frictional heat which in turn produced the largest burr heights at high speed and low feed. (c) constant speed (660 RPM). the cutting edges pushed the Ti alloy outward. Figure 36-Entrance/exit burr height at the first hole of Ti alloys with various feed and speed: (a) constant speed. carbide drills experienced the 1east wear and resu1ted in the smallest burr heights. When the worn drill exited the Ti alloy. Ra.23 to 5. Also. 660 RPM.

Fig. while feed effects mostly in carbide drilling. For both drills. Overall. which do not exceed 15 ~lm. In case of positive angle between fibre orientation and cutting direction. so Rv (maximum peak-to valley) of Gr/Bi was chosen to quantify the surface characteristics of drilled holes. and drill material on the surface roughness parameter. which caused a pitting phenomenon. Ry. speed. general Jy occurred with the fibre at a negative angle to the cutting direction. it is expected that the holes made by HSS-Co drills have deeper fibre pullout than those by carbide drills. rougher surface were produced at high feed.are critical in drilling of Gr/Bi-Ti stacks. Torque by HSS-Co drills is at least 40% higher than that by carbide drills. In fibre reinforced composites. The surface damage generated in drilling Gr/Bi is dependent on the relative angle between fibre orientation and the direction of cutting motion. HSS-Co drilled holes have higher surface roughness parameters values than carbide drilled ones. Fig. The surface made by carbide drills has swallow fibre pullouts only at -45û plies. 7 show the optical micrographs of a typical surface of the sectioned holes made by HSS-Co and carbide drills. drill wear and heat generation were not severe enough for speed to affect the surface roughness parameter. Drill speed is a major factor in Ry of Gr/Bi in HSS-Co drilling. and much heat was generated cutting. the surface produced tends to be smooth and usually covered with matrix smearing and crushed fibres. Fibre pullout. deeper fibre pullouts occur while the depth of cut is getting larger. 6 show the effect of feed. As the depth of pits is dependent on the manner in which the cutting load was applied and the relative angle between fibre orientation and cutting direction. It can be seen that deeper fibre pullout regions occurred in -45û plies and 90û plies on a hole made by HSS-CO drill. In the case of holes made by carbide drills. It was observed that HSS-Co drill wear was drastically increased over 1115 rpm. 82 .

Figure 37-Surface roughness profiles 83 .