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EE2005

Electronics

Lecture 01
Supplementary Slides
Since EG1108 is a pre-requisite for EE2005, we will assume that you have mastered basic concepts
of analyzing simple circuits (e.g. superposition, KCL, KVL, Thevenin’s theorem).

If you need further examples, these materials are for your self-learning. Exercises are suggested to
test your understanding of KCL and Thevenin’s theorem. If you need more practice, you can try out
problem sets in basic electrical engineering textbooks.

1S-1
NUS EE2005 AY2008-09 YC YEO

+ R= VR Since VO + VR = 4 V (by KVL).e.5 kΩ we have GND VO = (4 – 1. 1S-2 NUS EE2005 AY2008-09 YC YEO .Constant Current Source: Review An ideal constant current source supplies a constant current IO. for any value of voltage VO across it.5)V = 2. - 1. .5 kΩ) = 1. i. .R = (1 mA) x (1. IO Voltage Vo across Current Source  Example 1.5 V.5 V. VR = IO. + IO = 1 mA + VO This allows us to find the voltage VR 4V across R. An ideal constant current source has a horizontal I-V characteristics + Current Io through Current Source IO Constant Current Value is IO VO . Find the value of VO across the current source in the following circuit: I The current IO = 1 mA and also flow through the resistor R.

Constant Current Source: Check Your Understanding  Test your understanding with the following cases for this circuit: (a) If V1 = 10 V and R1 = 0 Ω. 3V find I and VO. (Answer: I = 1 mA. . 1S-3 NUS EE2005 AY2008-09 YC YEO . IO + find I and VO. find I and VO. Discuss with your classmates. GND find I and VO. VO = 4 V) 2m - + IR (c) If V1 = 7 V and R1 = 1 kΩ Ω. R = 1 kΩ (Answer: I = 1 mA. I . VO = 2 V) (d) If V1 = 5 V and R1 = 0. VO = 7 V) VO + V1 (b) If V1 = 7 V and R1 = 0 Ω. R1 (Answer: I = 1 mA. A (Answer: I = 1 mA. VO = 1 V) Assignment for adventurous students: Draw your own circuits that comprise at least one current source and test your understanding.5 kΩ Ω.

33 V R1//R2 = . Find the Thevenin’s Equivalent Circuit for the following circuit: We need to find the value of RTH : RTH = R1//R2 = 200 kΩ Ω R1 We also need to find the value of 600 kΩ Ω VTH which is equal to the open circuit voltage VOC. + 200 kΩΩ A - A 1S-4 NUS EE2005 AY2008-09 YC YEO . Answer: The Thevenin’s B + Equivalent Circuit is 10 V + - R2 VOC = 300kΩΩ/(300kΩ Ω+600kΩ Ω)× ×10V B = 3.33 V 300 kΩ Ω 3.Thevenin’s Theorem: Review Example 2.

find VR and IR without R1 invoking the Thevenin’s Theorem. find VR and IR by + applying the Thevenin’s Theorem.Application of Thevenin’s Theorem: Example 3. A resistor R connected between nodes A and B (below): (a) If R = 300 kΩ. R IR = 3.0067 mA IR - A VR = IRx(300kΩ)= 2 V.33 V 200 kΩ Ω We shall use the circuit on the left. 1S-5 NUS EE2005 AY2008-09 YC YEO . See that the answers in parts (a) and (b) are the same. IR - IR = VR/R = 2V/300kΩ = 0. + VR .33V/(200kΩ +300kW) = 0.0067 mA A B (b) If R = 300 kΩ. IR1 VR = (R2//R)/[R1 + (R2//R)]x(10 V) B + = (300kΩ//300kΩ)/[600kΩ + 10 V + . 3. VR (300kΩ//300kΩ)]x(10 V) R2 R = (150kΩ)/[600kΩ + 150kΩ]x(10 V) 300 kΩ Ω = 2 V. 600 kΩ Ω By voltage division rule.

and answers in parts (a) and (b) are the same. we considered the case where R = 300 kΩΩ. 2. Test your understanding: In Example 3. VOC = 6 V R2 VOC RTH = 1 kΩ 2 kΩ Ω 1 mA - A 1S-6 NUS EE2005 AY2008-09 YC YEO .Thevenin’s Theorem: Check Your Understanding 1. You may wish to show that this is generally true for any R. Another exercise you can consider: Find the Thevenin’s equivalent circuit for this network: R1 2 kΩ Ω R3 B + 1 kΩ Ω Answer: 10 V + .

Thevenin’s Theorem: Check Your Understanding 3. R1 2 kΩ Ω R3 B + 1 kΩ Ω 10 V + . If a resistor R = 2 kΩ Ω is connected between A and B. VR = 4 V IR = 2 mA A 1S-7 NUS EE2005 AY2008-09 YC YEO . find VR and IR with and without invoking Thevenin’s theorem. You should see that the answers are the same. VR R2 R 2 kΩ Ω Answer: IR 1 mA .