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All the objects that exist around us are made up of

chemical substances. These objects exist an element,
compound or mixture. All these objects contribute benefit
to humankind. As time goes on, human has done many
researches to ensure all these chemical substances will be
enough for the use of themselves.

Chapter 9 of Form 4 syllabus introduces the students

with manufactured substances in industry. This is
important for students to appreciate the knowledge of
chemistry that is still new for themselves. Personally, I
think that this chapter is an interesting chapter as it
revealed the way of scientist produces the material
around us. It also gives us a new knowledges of the uses
of chemical substances.

I hope, by learning this chapter, I will be more

interested in learning chemistry as it will help me in the
future. All the equations from this chapter make me more
understand of the previous chapters.

Definition for sulphuric acid

A highly corrosive, dense, oily liquid, H2SO4, colorless to

dark brown depending on its purity and used to
manufacture a wide variety of chemicals and materials
including fertilizers, paints, detergents, and explosives.
Also called oil of vitriol.
Properties of sulphuric acid

1. Sulphuric acid is a strong mineral acid.

2. Its molecular formula is H2SO4
3. It is soluble in water.
4. Sulphuric acid is a non-volatile diprotic acid.
5. It is a highly corrosive, dense and oily liquid.
6. Concentrated sulphuric acid is a viscous colourless

Soluble in
Diprotic water.

Properties of
Dense. sulphuric acid

Colourless Oily liquid.


Figure 1.1- Properties of sulphuric acid.

Uses of sulphuric acid

1. Sulhuric acid is one of most important industrial

About 140 million tonnes are manufactured in the world

2. The main use of sulphuric acid is in producing

particularly “superphosphate” and ammonium sulphate
a. Superphosphate fertiliser:
It is manufactured from the reaction between
sulphuric acid
and calcium phosphate.
2H2SO4(l) + Ca3(PO4)2(s) Ca(H2PO4)2(l) +
b. Ammonia sulphate fertiliser:
It is manufactured by the reaction between sulphuric
and ammonia.
2NH3(aq) + H2SO4(aq) (NH4)2SO4(aq)
c. Potassium sulphate:
it is manufactured by the neutralisation of sulphuric
acid and
potassium hydroxide.
2KOH(aq) + H2SO4 K2SO4(aq) + 2H2O(l)

3. initially, sulphonic acid is produced by the reaction

sulphuric acid and hydrocarbon compounds.
4. sulphonic acid then reacts with sodium hydroxide to
form sodium
alkyl sulphonate, which is a detergent.

5. Accumulators need an electrolyte to carry charges

and react with
the positive and negative plates during the charging
discharging processes.

6. In the acid accumulators, sulphuric acid acts as the


7. Uses of sulphuric acid in the laboratory:

Uses of sulphuric acid example

Drying agent Concentrated sulphuric acid
is generally used to dry gas
in the laboratory. However it
is not
suitable to dry alkaline
gases such as ammonia.
Oxidising Concentrated sulphuric
agent oxidises copper to copper(ll)
2H2SO4(l) +Cu(s) CuSO4
+ 2H2O + SO2 However
dilute sulphuric acid does
not react with copper.
Dehydrating When concentrated acid is
agent added to sugar, a violent
reaction occurs. The water
content in the sugar is
extracted by the acid and
the sugar
become carbon.
C6H12O6(l) 6H2O(l) +
Strong acid It reacts with the salt of the
weak acid such as sodium
ethanoate to form a weak
2CH3COONa(s) + H2SO4(l)
2CH3COOH(aq) +

Primitive humans called upon supernatural spirits to heal

their sick while modern medicine relies on science. DNA
and research has replaced spirits and shaman.

Looking at the history of medicine shows how ideas have

developed over the centuries. Medieval barbers were the
fore-runners of today's skilled surgeons and the ancient
Greeks set the foundations for modern diagnostic
techniques. Leonardo da Vinci was amongst the first to
dissect the human body to learn how it works. Medical
students still learn about anatomy in the same way.

Today's medicine has evolved over thousands of years as

each generation built on the knowledge of earlier times.
This will continue to happen. Our understanding of the
human genome will lead to fresh treatments and new
discoveries may open the door to unimagined advances in


Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with

restoring and maintaining health and wellness. Broadly, it
is the practical science of preventing and curing diseases.
However, medicine often refers more specifically to
matters dealt with by physicians and surgeons.

Medicine is both an area of knowledge (a science), and the

application of that knowledge (by the medical profession
and other health professionals such as nurses). The
various specialized branches of the science of medicine
correspond to equally specialized medical professions
dealing with particular organs or diseases. The science of
medicine is the knowledge of body systems and diseases,
while the profession of medicine refers to the social
structure of the group of people formally trained to apply
that knowledge to treat disease.

Uses of medicine

Sources and uses of traditional medicines

1. A medicine is a substance used to prevent or cure

diseases or to reduce
pain and suffering due to illnesses.

2. Traditional medicines are medicines derived from

natural sources such as
plants and animals without being processed chemically.

3. Since ancients, mankind had used various types of

plants and roots, animals and animal part to
cure diseases.

4. Medicines obtained from plants are known as herbal

medicines. The sources and uses of some herbal
medicines are shown in table below :

plant Part of the plant used Uses

Garlic Corm -For preventing flu attack
-For reducing high blood
Ginger Rhizome (horizontal -For treating stomach
underground stem) pain due
and leaves to wind in the stomach
-For supplying heat
energy to
keep the body warm
-For preventing flu attack
Aloe Vera Leaves -For preventing itchy skin
-For treating burns
on the skin
Lemon(lime) Fruits -For treating boils or
abscesses on the skin
-For preventing flu attack
-For treating skin
Quinine Bark of Chinchona -For treating malaria
tree -For preventing muscle
Ginseng Roots -As a tonic to improve
overall health of human
-For increasing energy,
endurance and reducing
Lemon Grass Stem/leaves -Has antibacterial and
antifungal properties
-For treating cough

Modern medicines

1. Before the 20th century, most medicines were

extracted from plants (herbal
medicines). Since 1900. Thousands of modern drugs have
been synthesised
from organic compound.

2. Modern medicines can be classified as follows based on

their effects on the
human body.

3. Some examples of modern medicines are analgesics,

psychotherapeutic drugs.

4. Modern drugs have a trade name and a generic name.

For example, the
analgesic aspirin (generic name) is sold under different
brand names such as
Caprin and Disprin. Similarly, paracetamol (generic name)
is sold under the
trade name of Panadol.

5. Modern medicines usually contain a mixture of active

ingredients prepared in
different forms, such as capsules, pills, solutions or
suspensions. For
example, Alka-Seltzer (used as an antacid) contains
sodium bicarbonate
(NaHCO3), citric acid and aspirin. It is the sodium
bicarbonate then neutralizes
the excess stomach acid.

Fucntion of each type of modern drug


1. Analgesics are medicines that relieve pain. Examples of

analgesics are
aspirin, paraccetamol, and codeine. Analgesics are
sometimes called

2. Aspirin and paracetamol are mild painkillers whereas

codeine is powerful

3. Analgesics relive pain but do not cure the disease.

4. Aspirin : pain relief and anti-inflammatory action

a) The IUPAC name of aspirin is acetyl aslicylec acid.
Aspirin contains two functional groups,
a carboxylic acid group and the ester group. Thus,
aspirin is aicidc in nature.
b) Uses of aspirin
Aspirin reduces fever and inflammable as well as
relives pain. Aspirin is used to :
(i) Reduce fever
(ii) Relieve headaches, muscle aches and joint
(iii)Treat arthritis, a disease caused by
inflammation of the joints
(iv) Act as an anticoagulant. It prevents the
clotting of blood and reduce the risk of the heart
attack and strokes.

5. Paracetamol
a) Paracetamol have the following structural formula.
Thus, unlike
aspirin, paracetamol is neutral in nature.
b) Paracetamol is similar to aspirin in its effects (that
is, reduces fever
and relieves pain) but it does not reduce
c) Paracetamol also reduces or relieves flu symptoms
such as fever, bone aches and runny nose.

6. Codeine
a) Codeine is an organic compound that contains the
elements of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen.
b) Codeine is an analgesics and is used to relive
mirror to moderate pain.Codeine is more
powerful than morphine. Codeine and morphine are
narcotic drugs
c) Codeine is also used in cough mixtures for
suppressing coughs.
Antibiotics : antibacterial medicine

1. Antibiotics are chemicals that destroy or prevent the

growth of infectious

2. Two examples of antibiotics are penicillin and


3. Antibiotics are used to treat diseases caused by


4. Antibiotics are not effective against diseases caused by

viral infections such as influenza, measles, or
small pox.

5. Penicillin
a) Penicillin is derived from the mould Penicillium
b) Penicillin are used to treat diseases, caused by
bacteria, such as
pneumonia, gonorrhea and syphilis.
c) Penicillin is only effective on certain bacteria. For
example, it cannot be used to treat tuberculosis.

6. Streptomycin is the antibiotic that is effective in

treating tuberculosis

Psychotherapeutic medicines

1. Psychotherapeutic medicines are a group of drugs for

treating mental or
emotional illnesses.
2. Psychotherapeutic drugs can be divided into a few
groups as shown in table below :
Types of psychotherapeutic Example
a) Stimulants Caffeine, amphetamine
b) Antidepressant Prozac
c) Antipsychotic agents Chloropromazin

3. Stimulants

a) Stimulants are naturally occurring or synthetic

drugs that stimulate
(excite) the activity of the brain and central
nervous system.

b) Adrenaline is a stimulant that the body produces

when it needs to
prepare for demanding or energetic activities.

c) Stimulants make a person more alert, more

energetic, less tired and
more cheerful.

d) Examples of stimulants are caffeine and

amphetamines. Caffeine is a week, naturally
occurring stimulant and is found on coffee, tea and
Cola drinks.

e) Amphetamines are strong synthetic stimulants and

increase alertness and physical ability.

f) Amphetamines increase the heart and respiration

rates, as well as the blood pressure. As a result, it
causes the body to postpone the need of sleep and
can reverse, partially and temporarily, the
symptoms of fatigue.

4. Antidepressants

a) Depression is a chronic illness. Most cases of

depression are caused by a chemical imbalance in
the brain.
b) People experiencing depression feel hopeless.
They experience a loss of interest in everyday
activities such as work or hobbies.

c) There is a strong correlation between the amounts

of special chemicals (called neurotransmitters) in the
brain and a person’s mood. If these chemicals get too
low, the person may feel depressed.

d) Antidepressants are medicines that increase the

brain’s level of
neurotransmitters, thus improving mood.

e) Antidepressants make a person feel calm and


5. Antipsychotic medicines

a) Psychosis is the serious mental illness in which

people lose touch with reality. People with psychosis
-Hear voice and see things that are not really
there (hallucinations)
-Have belief that are not based on reality

b) In psychiatry, there are a number of disorders that

are classified under ‘psuchosis’, such as
schizophrenias (madness), psychotic depression,
mania and so on.

c) Psychotic patients have extreme mood swings.

Their mood changes rapidly from high spirit to deep

d) Antipsychotic medicines do not cure symptoms to

help the person live a more normal life.
Side effects of traditional medicines

1. It is generally believed that traditional medicines have

little side effects
compared to modern medicines. In fact, traditional
medicines are sometimes used to counteract the side
effects of some modern medicines.
2. However, taking high doses of quinine for a prolonged
period may cause
hearing loss. German health officials recently reported
40 cases of liver
damage which were linked to the herbal medicine
containing kava-kava.
3. While the use of traditional medicine is rising globally,
health experts have
insufficient data about how it affects patients.
4. The World Health Organisation( WHO) hopes to set up a
global monitoring system to monitor
the adverse side effects of traditional medicines.

Type of modern Side effects

Aspirin -Can cause bleeding in the stomach
because aspirin is very acidic.
-Can cause allergic reactions, skin
rashes and asthmatic attacks
Amphetamines -People who abuse amphetamines
are excitable and talkative.
-Psychologically additive and can
cause heart attack.
-Can cause anxiety, sleeplessness,
aggressive behavior and decrease
-Can cause enlarged pupils, heavy
perspiration and trembling hands.
Codeine -Can cause addiction.
Penicillin -Can cause allergic reactions.
-Can cause death for people who are
allergic to it.
Streptomycin -Can cause nausea, vomiting,
dizziness, rashes and fever.
-Can cause loss of hearing following
long-term use.
Stimulants -Can cause addiction.
Antidepressants -Can cause addiction.
-Can cause headaches, grogginess
and loss of appetite.
Antipsychotic -Can cause dry mouth, blurred vision,
drugs urinary retention, constipation.
-Can cause tremor and restlessness.
-Sedation (make people calmer, or to
make people sleepy)

Correct ways of using medicines

In taking any medicine, we should know why the medicine

is prescribed, how the medicine should be used, what
special precautions should be followed, what special diet
should be followed, what are the side effects, and what
storage conditions are needed. In addition, we should note
the following points :

1. Self-medication
-Do not prescribe medicines for yourself (self-
medication) or for other people.Discuss with your
doctor and listen to him concerning the medicine to
be taken.

2. Follow the instructions given

-Follow the instructions given by your doctor or
pharmacist concerning the dosage and method of
taking the medicine.

3. Medicines for adult and children

-Medicines for adult should not be given to children
and vice versa.

4. Side effects
-Visit the doctor immediately if there are symptoms
allergy or other effects of the drugs.

5. Expiry date
-Like foods, medicines also have expiry date. Do not
take medicines after their expiry dates.