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IS c08

XIV MEUNARODNA NAUNA KONFERENCIJA INDUSTRIJSKI SISTEMI


XIV INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS

ZBORNIK RADOVA
PROCEEDINGS

NOVI SAD, 2-3. OKTOBAR 2008.


NOVI SAD, OCTOBER 2-3, 2008.
Slobodan Dudi1, Dragan Šešlija1, Ivana Ignjatovi1
1
Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovia 6, Novi Sad, Serbia

ISTRAŽIVANJE UTICAJA DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE


ZAPRLJANOSTI FILTERA NA PAD OF DIRTY FILTERS ON
PRITISKA U SISTEMU PRESSURE DROP IN
VAZDUHA POD PRITISKOM COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM
Abstrakt Abstract
Zahtevi za poveanje energetske efikasnosti dovode do Demands for increasing the energy efficiency lead to that
potrebe preispitivanja svih uzronika gubitka energije u we have to analyse all the causes of energy loss in
pneumatskom sistemu, a jedan od znaajnijih su pneumatic system, and certainly one of the most
zaprljani filteri. U radu je dat pregled filtracije vazduha significant are dirty filters. In this paper are given an
pod pritiskom i izloženi su rezultati sopstvenih merenja overview of filtration and shown the results of own
pada pritiska na razliitim vrstama filtera. measurements of pressure drop on different types of
filters.
Kljune rei:
Pneumatski sistemi, Filteri, Pad pritiska Key words:
Pneumatic Systems, Filters, Pressure Drop
1. UVOD
1. INTRODUCTION
Vazduh pod pritiskom je jedan od najrasprostranjenijih
oblika enrgije koji se koristi u mnogim oblastima Compressed air is one of the most widely spread states of
industrije, a pneumatski sistemi, pored industrije, energy which has been used in many industrial areas and
primenjuju se i u mnogim oblastima ljudskog pneumatic systems. Besides industry, it has been used in
delovanja. Efikasan pneumatski sistem je rezultat many other areas of human sphere of action. An effective
dobrog projektovanja, korišenja i održavanja koje ima pneumatic system is a result of many factors, such as:
za cilj da obezbedi minimalan gubitak pritiska u proper design, usage and maintenance, which has to
distributivnom sistemu i odstranjivanje najveeg dela ensure a minimum of pressure drop through distributive
zagaivaa: prljavštine, re, estica koje nastaju system and as much as possible, elimination of the
habanjem elemenata, vode, ulja, biološkog optereenja i following main contaminants: dirt, rust, particles which
drugih kontaminanata. Opšta težnja ka poveanju are result of wearing between elements, water, oil,
kvaliteta kako proizvoda tako i proizvodnih procesa, biological particles and other defilers. Both, a product
poveana primena upravljakih sistema i and productive processes quality, as a commonly
automatizovanih mašina, izazvala je poveano accepted tendency, as well as increased control systems
interesovanje u svetu za potrebu obezbeivanja boljeg and automated machineries usage, have increased
kvaliteta vazduha pod pritiskom. Posebnu važnost u interest about compressed air quality, all over the globe.
dostizanju željnog kvaliteta vazduha pod pritiskom ima In achieving of a desirable compressed air quality level,
filtracija. filtration has been considered as a key factor.
2. FILTRACIJA VAZDUHA POD 2. COMPRESSED AIR FILTRATION
PRITISKOM Filtration has a very important role in preparation of
Filtracija ima znaajno mesto u pripremi vazduha pod compressed air. Filtration is one substance separation
pritiskom. Filtracija je proces razdvajanja jedne vrste from another by using a medium. Filtration can be
supstance od druge uz pomo nekog medijuma. divided into three following classes: physical – by
Filtracija može biti: fizika - primenom fizikih izvora i using physical sources and chemical - by dosing of
hemijska - doziranjem hemikalija. certain chemicals.
Fizika filtracija može biti: mehanika - kod koje se uz Physical filtration can be: mechanical – separation of
pomo nekog medijuma vrši razdvajanje jedne vrste one substance from another by using a medium in a
supstance od druge tako što se jedna od supstanci way

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zadržava na površini ili unutar filterskog medija, in which one substance remains on a surface or inside
elektrina - uz pomo elektrinih izvora i magnetna uz the filtration media, electrical – by using electrical
pomo magnetnih izvora. sources and magnetic by using magnetic sources.
Postoje razliiti tipovi filtera za vazduh pod pritiskom. There are several different types of compressed air
Generalno gledano, njihova struktura treba da je takva filters. Generally, all of them have to have a structure
da poseduju: veliku poroznost, stabilnu geometriju which is able to provide: high porosity, firm geometry
(nepromenjivost dimenzija pora) i strukturnu stabilnost (pores dimension constancy) and structural stability
(nerazrušivost filterskog materijala). (compactness of filtering material).
Iz prethodnog neposredno proizilaze bitne From the above mentioned have been derived the main
karakteristike filterskog materijala a to su mehanika characteristics of filtering material: mechanical
vrstoa, termika stabilnost i hemijska otpornost. strength, thermal stability and chemical resistance.
Zavisno od stepena zadržavanja filteri se mogu podeliti Based on the level of retaining, filters can be defined as
na: apsolutne i nominalne. either absolute or nominal.
Apsolutni filteri su oni kod kojih je najvea pora od Absolute filters are filters with their biggest pore
svih pora filtera manja od najmanje estice u medijumu among all their pores, is being smaller than the smallest
koji se filtrira. Postoji više definiciija nominalnih particle in the filtrated media. There are many various
filtera, a najkraa je ona po kojoj su nominalni filteri definitions of nominal filters, but the shortest one says
svi oni koji nisu apsolutni. that nominal filters are all the filters which are not
absolute ones.
Zavisno od konstruktivnih karakteristika filteri se mogu
podeliti na: dubinske, membranske i kombinovane. Based on their structural characteristics, all filters can
be defined as: deep, membrane or combined filters.
Dubinski filteri poseduju veliki kapacitet zaprljanja i
vrlo esto poseduju nekoliko sekcija koje su Deep filters possess high capacity to get contaminated
rasporeene od onih koje imaju vee pore do onih sa and very often they are designed with several sections,
manjom veliinom pora. Koriste se kao predfilteri i ree from sections with bigger pores towards those with
kao završni filteri u sluaju manje kritinih primena. smaller size. They have been used mostly as pre-filters or
Membranski filteri su veoma male debljine. very rarely as final filters (only in case of less demanding
Omoguavaju veoma efikasnu filtraciju i koriste se applications). Membrane filters have very small
naješe kao završni filteri u sluaju kritinih primena. thickness. They provide a very effective filtration and are
Kombinovani filteri predstavljaju kombinaciju više used mostly as final filters in critical applications.
razliitih membranskih filtera ili dubinskog i Combined filters are combination of few different
membranskog filtera. esto predstavljaju uspešno i membrane filters or a combination of a deep and
efikasno rešenje za predfiltraciju i filtraciju na jednom membrane filter. They are, very often, an effective
mestu. solution for pre-filtration and filtration, at the same place.
Prema svojstvima koje poseduju filteri se mogu podeliti According to their characteristics, all the filters can be
i na: hidrofilne, one koji imaju mogunost da primaju defined as: hydrophilic, those who have affinity for
vodu i hidrofobne, one koji odbijaju vodu. water or hydrophobic, those who lack affinity for
water.
Filteri se koriste kao bi odstranjivali samo estice,
estice i tene aerosole, pare i mirise, mikroorganizme. Filters are used to remove particles only, particles and
liquid aerosols, vapours and odours or micro-organisms
Za uklanjenje samo estica koriste se obini ili estini
For particles elimination only, regular or particle filters
filteri. Ovakvi filterski elementi mogu biti razliitog
are used. These filtering elements can be designed with
stepena zadržavanja i koriste se uglavnom za
a diversity of retaining levels and are used mostly for
predfiltraciju. estice i tene aerosole uklanjaju iz
pre-filtration. Particles and liquid aerosols are being
vazduha filteri koji se nazivaju koalescentni.
eliminated from air with coalescent filters. Those filters
Mehanizam rada ovih filtera sastoji se u ukrupnjavanju
work on a principle of aglomeration of aerosol particles
malih, tenih estica aerosola u vee unutar filterskog
and then are being eliminated by gravity. Air has been
materijala i njihovom odstranjivanju pomou
introduced into the coalescent filtering element from the
gravitacije. Vazduh u koalescentni filterski element, za
inside, as a distinction to particle filters. For vapours
razliku od estinih, ulazi sa unutrašnje strane.Za
and odours elimination from compressed air absorbing
uklanjanje para i mirisa u vazduhu pod pritiskom
filters are being used. Active carbon is being used
koriste se apsorpcioni filteri. Filterski medijum ovakvih
usually as a filtering media in this type of filters,
filtera je obino aktivni ugalj koji je u stanju da
because of its capability to absorb hydrocarbon aerosols
apsorbuje hidrokarbonske aerosole i pare. Sva tri ova
and vapours. All three type of filters mentioned above,
filtera spadaju u grupu dubinskih filtera.

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belong to deep filters group. Some of the filter types are shown in Fig. 1.
Neki od tipova filterskih elemenata su prikazani na sl. 1.

estini - 40Pm / 5Pm Koalescentni - 1Pm Apsorcioni – sa aktivnim ugljem /


Particle - 40Pm / 5Pm Coalescent - 1Pm Absorbing- with active carbon
Slika 1.Tipovi filtera
Fig 1.Types of filters

Za uklanjanje ili redukciju mikroorganizama u For micro-organisms elimination or reduction from


vazduhu koriste se mikrobiološki filteri. Ovi filteri su compressed air, microbiological filters are being used.
mebranski i zaslužuju posebnu pažnju. Those filters are membrane type of filters and they
deserve a special attention.
Dobro dimenzionisanje filtera je preduslov za
energetski efikasno fukcionisanje pneumatskog Proper filter dimensioning is a precondition for an energy
sistema. Filterski sistem ne sme da bude effective pneumatic system. Filtering system must not be
poddimenzionisan, ali ne treba da bude ni sub dimensioned, neither to be over dimensioned. A sub
predimenzionisan. Poddimenzionisani sistem nee dimensioned system will not be able to respond to
moi da odgovori na postavljeni zadatak ili e, u required task or, at best, it will be able to work for a short
najboljem sluaju, moi da radi vrlo kratko vreme – period of time-it will become contaminated quickly. An
brzo e doi do zaprljanja. Predimenzionisani sistem over dimensioned system is just partially used in most
je esto samo delimino iskorišen i retko se dešava cases and very rarely it has been used equally throughout
da ceo njegov kapacitet bude ravnomerno iskorišen. its full capacities. More energy has also been used in this
Pri tome troši i više energije. Pored toga, ovakve case. Besides that, these systems are usually related with
sisteme po pravilu prate i veliki, nepotrebni, high and unnecessary investment costs. Each single
investicioni troškovi. Svaki filtracioni sistem treba filtering system has to be designed with a certain reserve
dimenzionisati sa odreenom rezervom (safety (safety margin) which has to be based on well defined
margin), ali do nje treba doi na osnovu dobro starting points, exploiting and final filtering conditions.
definisanih poetnih, eksploatacionih i krajnjih
Speaking about proper filtering elements chooses, in
uslova filtracije.
general, they are expected to have:
Kad je re o izboru filterskih elemenata, generalno, x high flow rate,
od njih se oekuje da poseduju: x big filtration area,
x veliki protok, x high mechanical strength,
x veliku filtracionu površinu, x high thermal resistance,
x veliku mehaniku vrstou, x high contaminating capacity,
x veliku termiku otpornost, x long duration between servicing,
x veliki kapacitet zaprljanja, x low initial cost and low exploitation costs,
x dug period rada izmedju dva servisa, x proper certificates, compliancy to required norms,
x nisku cenu i niske troškove eksploatacije, standards and regulations which are in effect in
x odgovarajue sertifikate, mogunost their area of usage.
ispunjavanja normi, standarda i propisa koji
vaze u oblasti u kojoj se primenjuju.
3. EFFECT OF AIR PREPARATION LEVEL
AND FILTER CONTAMINATION ONTO
3. UTICAJ NIVOA PRIPREME VAZDUHA PRESSURE DROP IN THE SYSTEM
I ZAPRLJANOSTI FILTERA NA PAD
High compressed air quality is directly related to use of
PRITISKA U SISTEMU
dryers and high performance filters, which causes
Visoki kvalitet vazduha pod pritiskom podrazumeva
korišenje sušaa i filtera povišenih performansi, što

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dovodi do poveanog pada pritiska u sistemu, a time unneeded pressure drop in the system and lowering total
do smanjenja ukupne energetske efikasnosti itavog energetic effectiveness of the entire system.
sistema.
Fig 2. shows experimentally measured pressure drop in the
Na slici 2. je prikazan eksperimentalno utvren pad system depending on various types of filters
pritiska u sistemu za razliite vrste filtera.

Slika 2. Pad pritiska kod filtera razliitih karakteristika


Fig 2. Pressure drop for filters with different characteristics

Održavanje svih komponenti pneumatskog sistema Proper maintenance of all pneumatic system components
je, takoe, preduslov za njegovo energetski efikasno is also a presumption for its operation. in energy efficient
funkcionisanje. Nepravilnost u radu neke od way. A failure during the operation of some of the
komponenti sistema može uzrokovati nastanak novih components can initiate new contaminations, which are
zagaenja koji su posledica trošenja, habanja results of abrasion, natural deterioration of the
komponenti (ventili, klipovi razvodnika, zaptivke components (valves, pistons, seals, etc.). In such system
itd.). U takvom sistemu filteri trpe dodatno filters operate with additional load which has not been a
optereenje koje nije predvieno projektom filtracije. part of the scope during initial filtering design. This can
To može izazvati njihovo ubrzano trošenje ili lead to filters rapid deterioration or clogging. In Fig 3. are
zaepljenje. Na slici 3. je prikazan izgled potpuno i shown partially and totally contaminated filtering
delimino zaprljanih filterskih elemenata. elements.

Slika 3. Potpuno i delimino zaprljani filterski elementi


Fig 3. Totally and partially contaminated filtering elements
Koliki je znaaj redovne zamene filterskih uložaka Fig 4. illustrates importance of replacing filter cartridges
može se ilustrovati dijagramom na slici 4. Ako se on a regular basis. If filter cartridges are not replaced in
filterski ulošci ne menjaju u predvienim intervalima recommended intervals, pressure drop at them increases

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pad pritiska na njima se u toku vremena sve više by the time, which directly leads to more energy
poveava što direktno poveava i utrošenu energiju. consumption.

Slika 4. Promena pada pritiska u zavisnosti od zamene filterskih uložaka


Fig 4. Pressure drop as a function of filter cartridge replacement

4. EKSPERIMENTALNI REZULTATI 4. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS


Radi ilustracije kolike vrednosti, u stvarnim uslovima, Because of illustration of volume of pressure drop on
može da ima pad pritiska na filterima, prikazani su filters, some experimental results from one type of filter
rezultati ispitivanja na samo jednom tipu filtera. Za cartridge are shown. For experiment is used particle
ispitivanje je odabran estini filter FESTO LFR-1/8- filter FESTO LFR-1/8-D-MICRO with size of filter
D-MICRO sa filterskim uloškom od 5 μm (slika 5a). cartridge 5 μm (Fig. 5a). In order to obtain trustworthy
Radi što verodostojnijih podataka, merenja su vršena results as much as it is possible, experiment was carried
na 4 filtera istog tipa koja su u isto vreme puštena u rad out on four filter cartridges same type which were used
ali su korišena nasumino tako da nisu imala u in the same time but without any order. Because of that
potpunosti isto vreme korišenja, što u potpunosti they did not have the same period of usage, which totally
odgovara realnim uslovima rada. Filteri su ostavljeni fits to real conditions. Filters were been in use more than
da rade višestruko vei period nego što je preporueni is recommended period of their change, so they were
period zamene tako da su u trenutku ispitivanja bili dirty in the moment of experiment.
veoma zaprljani.
Pressure drop is measured with differential manometer
Merenja pada pritiska su vršena pomou FESTO SDE3-D10Z-B-HQ4-2P-M8 (Fig. 5b) and flow
diferencijalnog manometra FESTO SDE3-D10Z-B- measurement is carried out with FESTO AirBOX (Fig.
HQ4-2P-M8 (slika 5b), a merenje protoka je vršeno 5c).
pomou FESTO AirBOX-a (slika 5c).

a) LFR-1/8-D-MICRO b) SDE3-D10Z-B-HQ4-2P-M8 c) AirBOX


Slika 5. Merna oprema
Fig 5. Instruments for measurement

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U tabeli 1 su prikazane vrednosti eksperimentalno In Table 1 is shown experimentally measured pressure
utvrenog pada pritiska u sistemu pri vrednosti protoka drop in the system with the flow of 85 Nl/min, and in
od 85 Nl/min, a u tabeli 2 vrednosti pada pritiska pri Table 2 pressure drop with air flow of 170 Nl/min.
vrednosti protoka od 170 Nl/min.
Used filter enables maximal flow of 210 Nl/min. In
Kako ispitivani filter ima maksimalni protok od 210 experiment are used two values of flow, first which is
Nl/min za ispitivanje su odabrane dve vrednosti the most common (80% load from the nominal capacity)
protoka. Jedna koja odgovara naješim uslovima rada and second which works with small load.
(optereenje oko 80% nominalnog kapaciteta) i druga
It can be notices that pressure drop became higher on
kada radi sa malim kapacitetom.
contaminated cartridge filter how air flow grows. In
Može se uoiti da pad pritiska na zaprljanom filteru other words pressure drop and air flow are in direct
znaajno raste sa poveanjem protoka odnosno sa proportion.
približavanjem maksimalnoj vrednosti protoka.
Srednja
Q=85 l/min Filter 1 Filter 2 Filter 3 Filter 4
vrednost
Pad pritiska 'p [bar] 0,07 0,09 0,06 0,06 0,07
Tabela 1. Pad pritiska na zaprljanom filteru pri vrednosti protoka od 85 Nl/min
Table 1. Pressure drop on dirty filter with flow of 85 Nl/min
Srednja
Q=170 l/min Filter 1 Filter 2 Filter 3 Filter 4
vrednost
Pad pritiska 'p [bar] 0,13 0,21 0,12 0,10 0,14
Tabela 2. Pad pritiska na zaprljanom filteru pri vrednosti protoka od 170 Nl/min
Table 2. Pressure drop on dirty filter with flow of 170 Nl/min

5. ZAKLJUAK 5. SUMMARY
Nivo pripreme vazduha pod pritiskom mora da bude Level of preparation of compressed air must correspond to
odgovarajui vrsti aplikacije. esto se, sa dobrom the kind of application. In many occasions, based on a
namerom, pravi greška tako da se zahteva nepotrebno good intention, an unneeded high level of compressed air
visok kvalitet vazduha, što dovodi do poveanog quality is required, which causes an additional pressure
pada pritiska u sistemu, a time i do smanjenja ukupne drop in the system and the level of energy efficiency of
energetske efikasnosti itavog sistema. overall system is decreasing.
Imajui u vidu da zaprljani filterski elementi, takoe, Keeping in mind that contaminated filtering elements also
smanjuju efikasnost rada itavog sistema potrebno je decrease effectiveness of the whole system, it is necessary
posebnu pažnju posvetiti redovnom održavanju i to pay a close attention to a regular maintenance and to
zameni zaprljanih filterskih uložaka. Redovnim contaminated filtering inserts replacing. By performing
išenjem i zamenom smanjuje se pad pritiska cleaning and replacing on a regular basis, the air pressure
vazduha u sistemu. Radi boljeg uvida u stanje drop in the system is decreasing. In order to have a better
filterskog elementa potrebno je koristiti filtere sa view of filtering element condition, it is recommended to
vidljivim indikatorom stanja filterskog elementa. use filters with visual indication of the filtering element
condition.
LITERATURA/REFERENCES
[1] Šešlija D., Proizvodnja, priprema i distribucija vazduha pod pritiskom, IKOS, Novi Sad, 2002.
[2] Mitrovi, ., Golubovi, Z., Šešlija, D., ''Implementacija, znaaj i efekti filtracije u privredi'', Nauno-struni
asopis Istraživanja i Projektovanja za Privredu, broj 12, , god. IV, (2006.) str. 13 – 20.
[3] Golubovi, Z., Šešlija, D., Milovanovi, B., Majstorovi, B., Vidovic, M., ''The Challenges in Sterile
Pressurised Air Preparation'', BAM-CX.2007, Nr. 2295-2315, Proceedings of PAMM – Conference,
Balaton Almadi, Hungary, June (2007) pp. C152-153/2007.
[4] Dudi, S., Golubovi, Z., Šešlija, D., Stojiljkovi, M., ''O filtraciji vazduha pod pritiskom energetski
efikasnog pneumatskog sistema'', 21. Meunarodni kongres o procesnoj industriji PROCESING 2008.
Subotica, 4-6. jun 2008.

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