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XIV MEUNARODNA NAUNA KONFERENCIJA INDUSTRIJSKI SISTEMI


XIV INTERNATIONAL SCIENTIFIC CONFERENCE ON INDUSTRIAL SYSTEMS

ZBORNIK RADOVA
PROCEEDINGS

NOVI SAD, 2-3. OKTOBAR 2008.


NOVI SAD, OCTOBER 2-3, 2008.
Ivana Ignjatovi1, Dragan Šešlija1
1
Faculty of Technical Sciences, Trg Dositeja Obradovia 6, Novi Sad, Serbia

KORENI INDUSTRIJSKOG ORIGINS OF INDUSTRIAL


INŽENJERSTVA I MENADŽMENTA ENGINEERING AND MANAGEMENT
Abstrakt Abstract
U radu je opisan istorijat nastanka industrijskog In this paper the history of genesis of industrial
inženjerstva na evropskim univerzitetima. Samo engineering on European universities is described.
industrijsko inženjerstvo vezuje se za industrijsku Early beginnings are tightly connected with an
revoluciju, kada je došlo do iznenadnog i naglog industrial revolution. In that period, each field of
razvoja svih društvenih sfera. Industrijsko inženjerstvo society passed through sudden and hasty development.
se tada pojavilo kao prilaz u fabrikama, ne zato što su Industrial engineering appeared as a concept in
preduzetnici to hteli, ve iz razloga što im je bilo factories, not because businessmen wanted that, but
neophodno za rešavanje problema sa kojima su se because of necessities for solving the problems which
susretali u procesima proizvodnje. Takoe se kao they had in production processes. One of the reasons
razlog za nastajanje industrijskog inženjerstva navodi i for industrial engineering appearing is need for
potreba za širenjem znanja i iskustva. Iz tog razloga je i dissemination of knowledge and experience. For that
razumljiva injenica da su prve škole industrijskog reason is understandable that successful businessmen
inženjerstva osnovali upravo uspešni preduzetnici. were establishers of schools of industrial engineering.
Industrijsko inženjerstvo se kao program na Industrial engineering appeared on the universities in
univerzitetima pojavilo sredinom XIX veka i to najpre u the middle of XIX century and first in the countries
zemljama koje su bile industrijski razvijene i mone which had been industrial well developed and military
vojne sile. U radu je opisan proces stvaranja powerful. In this paper the process of genesis of
industrijskog inženjerstva na nekoliko najstarijih industrial engineering on few the oldest universities in
univerziteta u Evropi. Dati su i pregledni starih zapisa i Europe is given, and also reviews of old notes and
novinskih lanaka. articles.
Opisano je i raanje i razvoj industrijskog inženjerstva Also are described the origins of industrial engineering
u Srbiji, a posebno na Fakultetu tehnikih nauka u in Serbia on Faculty of Technical Sciences in Novi Sad,
Novom Sadu na osnovu sauvane arhive i razgovora sa on the basis of archive and interview with one of the
jednim od osnivaa prof. dr Dragutinom Zelenoviem. founders Professor Dragutin Zelenovi.
Kljune rei: Key words:
Industrijsko inženjerstvo, Istorija, Evropa, Univerzitet Industrial Engineering, History, Europe, University
1. UVOD 1. INTRODUCTION
Sam nastanak industrijskog inženjerstva vezuje se za The origin of industrial engineering is connected with
industrijsku revoluciju, kada je došlo do iznenadnog i industrial revolution. That period was a period of
naglog razvoja svih društvenih sfera. Industrijska revo- sudden and rapid development of all areas of society.
lucija dovela je do brzog razvoja proizvodnih procesa. Industrial revolution led to fast development of
Uvoenjem novih tehnologija, tehnoloških sistema, production processes. Implementation of new
poveavanjem obima proizvodnje, usložnjavanjem po- technologies and machines, expansion of production
stupaka rada, angažovanjem veeg broja radnika, javili volume, more complex working procedures and
su se mnogobrojni komunikacioni, organizacioni i upra- involvement of larger number of employees cause a lot
vljaki problemi. Potrebno je bilo da pojedinac pose- of problems in communication, organisation and
duje znanje iz više naunih oblasti: iz tehnikih, ekono- management. The demand was that each individual
mskih i humanistikih nauka, kako bi mogao na pravi- must have knowledge from different scientific areas:
lan nain da pristupi problemu, pronae mogua technical, economical and humanities, in order be able
rešenja, analizira rešenja i obezbedi implementaciju to approach to problem, find solutions, analyse all
optimalnog rešenja. solutions and implement the best of them.

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Efekti koje je izazvala industrijska revolucija i koji su Effects of the industrial revolution, which includes new
se ogledali u projektovanju proizvodnih sistema, plani- approaches in design of production systems, production
ranju proizvodnje, analizi toka procesa i analizi troško- planning, analysis of production flow and financial
va, predstavljali su suštinski odgovor na neorgani- analysis, had been just a response to disorganised
zovano stanje koje je zavladalo u fabrikama. situation which became dominant in factories.
Iako je industrijska revolucija zapoela u Velikoj Bri- Despite the fact that industrial revolution begun in
taniji, industrijsko inženjerstvo se kao profesija prvi put Great Britain, industrial engineering as a profession
pojavilo u Francuskoj još 1829. godine. Sledei primer appeared in France 1829. Following French example
Francuske, mnoge zemlje su sredinom XIX veka poele many countries started to establish polytechnic schools
sa osnivanjem politehnikih škola. U poetku, na njima during the middle of XIX century. In the beginning
nije postojalo industrijsko inženjerstvo kao zaseban industrial engineering was not separate course but the
studijski program ve su se u okviru svake profesije main concepts such as process and production
izuavali organizacija proizvodnje i procesa, upravlja- organisation, process management, etc. had been
nje procesima, itd., što sve predstavlja koncepte indu- subjects in the other courses. Soon after that industrial
strijskog inženjerstva. Ubrzo potom, industrijsko inže- engineering became individual course on the most of
njerstvo se izdvojilo kao zaseban studijski program. polytechnic schools.
2. FRANCUSKA-KOLEVKA 2. FRANCE-THE CRADLE OF
INDUSTRIJSKOG INŽENJERSTVA INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING
Pored želje za vojnom dominacijom, Francuska je žele- Beside the tendencies for military domination, France
la da se ravnopravno takmii sa Velikom Britanijom na strove to be equal to Great Britain in the field of
polju industrijskog razvoja, koja je krajem XVIII i industrial development, which was powerful industrial
poetkom XIX veka bila mona industrijska sila upravo force at the end of XVIII and beginning of XIX century
zahvaljujui industrijskoj revoluciji. Tehnološke inova- thanks to industrial revolution. Technological
cije su doprinele tome da se veliki broj operacija, koje innovation led to that that many manual operations had
su se tradicionalno obavljale runo, zameni mašinskim been mechanised. That caused expansion of production
radom. Time je došlo do poveanja ekonomije obima i volume and appearance of mass production. Concept of
pojave masovne proizvodnje. Konceptom proizvodnih production system, which appeared in factories which
sistema, koji se pojavio u fabrikama koje su napravljene were made on the basis of new technologies, presented
uz primenu novih tehnologija, najavljen je zaetak the origins of the modern industrial engineering. Soon
modernog industrijskog inženjerstva. Odmah potom after that appeared the concepts of labour division,
javili se se koncepti podele rada i motivacije zaposle- motivation of employees, organisation and management
nih, organizovanja i upravljanja proizvodnjom. Ubrzo of production. After that followed the concepts about
nakon toga poelo je da se razmišlja o upravljanju costs management, reduction of rejects and increasing
troškovima, smanjenju škarta i poveanju produkti- the productivity [1]. In that period was noticed that
vnosti [1]. Tada je i uoeno da je neophodno postojanje establishing of the educational institutions which will
obrazovnih institucija koje bi edukovale kadar koji bi educate personnel who would be able to respond to the
bio u stanju da odgovori na nove zahteve privrede. new industry demands.
2.1 “École Polytechnique” 2.1 “École Polytechnique”
Davne 1794. godine Napoleon je u Parizu osnovao 1794 in Paris Napoleon Bonaparte established
„Politehniku školu“ („École Polytechnique”). Škola je Polytechnic School („École Polytechnique”). 1829
1829. godine preimenovana u „Centralna škola school was renamed in Central School of Art and
umetnosti i industrije“ („École Centrale des Arts et Industry („École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures“)
Manufactures“) i ta godina se vezuje za pojavu and that year can be considered as the year of birth of
industrijskog inženjerstva na univerzitetima. Najza- industrial engineering on universities. Meritorious
služniji za ovaj dogaaj su etiri francuza, koji su bili people for that act was four Frenchmen, who had
naroito naprednih shvatanja u pogledu razvoja nauke u progressive ideas concerning the development of
industriji: Alfonso Lavale (Alphonse Lavallée), science in industry: Alphonse Lavallée, businessman
biznismen iz Nanta, Žan-Baptist Duma (Jean-Baptiste from Nantes, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, famous scientist,
Dumas), poznati naunik u to doba, Teodor Théodore Olivier, professor and Eugène Péclet also
Olivije(Théodore Olivier), profesor i Eugen Pekle professor.
(Eugène Péclet), profesor. Studying on the „Central School of Art and Industry”
Školovanje na „Centralnoj školi umetnosti i industrije“ lasted three years. Students could not be younger than
trajalo je tri godine. Studenti koji su se upisivali nisu eighteen and had elementary school or secondary
smeli biti mlai od osamnaest godina i morali su da industry school finished. The subjects on the first year

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imaju završeno osnovno obrazovanje, odnosno srednju were: Basics of Technical Drawing, Descriptive
školu iz oblasti industrije. Na prvoj godini su prou- Geometry, Analytical Geometry, Mechanic,
avane osnove tehnikog crtanja, analitika geometrija, Transformation of Motion, Physics, Chemistry,
mehanika, promene kretanja, fizika, hemija, higijena, Hygiene, Natural History, Applied to the Arts, etc.
opšta istorija, primena nauke, itd. Na drugoj godini Subjects on the second year were: Technical Drawing
postojali su predmeti: viši kurs iz tehnikog crtanja, (advanced), Industrial Physics, Mechanics’ Material
industrijska fizika, materijali u tehnici, analitika hemi- Used in the Construction of Machines, Analytical
ja, javni radovi, procesi prerade gvoža i elika, itd. Chemistry, Public Works, Manufacture of Iron and
Predmeti na prvim dvema godinama su bili obavezni za Steel Technology, etc. Subject on the first two years
sve studente. Tek je na treoj godini bio omoguen were obligatory for all students. On the third year
izbor predmeta, a meu izbornim predmetima nalazili subjects were elective and those were: Steam Engines,
su se: parne mašine, hidrostatika, konstruisanje, orga- Hydrostatics, Construction of Machines, Organic
nska analiza, industrijska organska hemija, poljo- Analysis, Industrial Organic Chemistry, Agriculture,
privreda, arhitektura, livenje metala, tekstilna industrija, Architecture, Furnaces and Foundries, Textile
grnarstvo, predenje, tehnike glodanja, itd. [2]. Kao što Materials, Potteries, Spinning, Milling, etc. [2]. As can
se može primetiti prouavani su procesi iz svih grana be noticed processes from different kinds of industries
industrije koje su tada postojale i studenti su bili obua- from that time were studied. The aim was to introduce
vani tako da se u potpunosti upoznaju sa procesima, students with industrial processes in order to realise
kako bi mogli da uvide njihove nedostatke i izvrše their disadvantages and optimise them. That totally fits
optimizaciju. To se poklapa sa današnjim shvatanjem to modern concept of industrial engineering.
profesije industrijskog inženjerstva. Twenty years after the establishing, the first graduates
Dvadesetak godina nakon osnivanja pojavili su se prvi were promoted. They got attention of academic and
diplomirani inženjeri industrijskog inženjerstva koji su expert public because of their innovations, team spirit
privlaili pažnju akademske i strune javnosti svojom and managerial skills. The most famous industrial
inovativnošu, timskim duhom i smislom za upravlja- engineers from Central School of Art and Industry are
njem. Najpoznatija imena su svakako Ajfel (Eiffel, koji Eiffel (who graduated 1855.), Leclanché (graduated
je diplomirao 1855. godine), Lehlanš (Leclanché, 1860.), Michelin (graduated 1877.), Peugeot (graduated
1860.), Mišelin (Michelin, 1877.), Pežo (Peugeot, 1895.), Blériot, (graduated 1895.) [3].
1895.), Blerio (Blériot, 1895.) [3].
3. GREAT BRITAIN-GAP BETWEEN
3. VELIKA BRITANIJA – RASKORAK INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT AND
IZMEU INDUSTRIJSKOG RAZVOJA I INDUSTRIAL EDUCATION
INDUSTRIJSKOG OBRAZOVANJA Modern industrial development had started in Great
Velika Britanija predstavlja perjanicu modernog indu- Britain. In that country appeared a lot of revolutionary
strijskog razvoja. U toj zemlji došlo je do innovations in the areas of agriculture, production and
revolucionarnih inovacija u oblastima poljoprivrede, transportation. There were a lot of innovations in the
proizvodnje i transporta, poev od inovacija u oblasti areas of textile processing and manufacturing and in the
proizvodnje i prera-de tekstila, preko Vatove parne industry of iron refining. Certainly the most important
mašine, pa sve do inovacija u oblasti industrije prerade was Watt steam engine. Industrial revolution caused the
gvoža. Industrijska revolucija dovela je do strong economic development of Great Britain. Also,
ekonomskog napretka Velike Britanije, ali i do velike industrial revolution brought the great division of
podele rada u proizvodnim pogonima kako bi efikasnost human labour in the factories in order to increased
proizvodnje bila što vea. To je zahtevalo i primenu efficiency of production. All that had required
koncepata projektovanja proizvodnih sistema, appliance of concepts of designing the production
organizacije rada, upravljanje proizvodnim sistemima, systems, work organisation, management of production
itd. U skladu sa novim zahtevima koje je nametnula systems, etc. In accordance with new demands which
industrija, ovi koncepti poeli su da se izuavaju i na were forced by industry, those concepts became
mašinskim institutima koji su se osnivali u Velikoj subjects on mechanical institutes which were
Britaniji u ovom periodu. Meutim, otvaranje established in the Great Britain. Establishing of
obrazovnih ustanova nije pratilo dinamiku nastajanja i education institutions was not synchronised with
širenja industrijskih dostignua. Širenje znanja i spreading of industrial accomplishment. Training of
obuavanje radnika vršili su sami proizvoai (vlasnici employees was made by businessmen and other
firmi) i njihovi zaposleni. employees by themselves.

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3.1 Mašinski instituti u Britaniji u prvoj 3.1 MECHANICAL Institutes in Britain in the
polovini XIX veka first half of XIX century
Poetkom XIX veka, u stotinama industrijskih gradova Mechanical institutes had opened in more than hundred
u Velikoj Britaniji osnivani su mašinski instituti. industrial cities in Great Britain at the beginning of XIX
Osnivai su bili kapitalisti i njihovi zaposleni, pošto century. Founders were capitalists and their employees,
država u prvih stotinu godina od poetka industrijske because state was not interested to educate nation in the
revolucije nije preuzela odgovornost za obrazovanje first hundred years from the beginning of industrial
nacije. Osnivai mašinskih instituta smatrali su da revolution. Founders of mechanical institutes
Velika Britanija treba da se koncentriše na predoa- considered that state should have educated workers
vanja ljudima (radnicima) menadžerskih i naunih about managerial and scientific principles which are in
principa koji stoje u pozadini novostvorenih naina the background of new ways of working processes.
obavljanja posla i uslova rada i oni su ujedno bili i Also, founders were the most important financiers of
glavni finansijeri ovih institucija [4]. these institutions [4].
3.2 „University of Manchester“ 3.2 „University of Manchester“
Kako su prve fabrike i njihove administrativne kancela- The first factories and their administrative centres were
rije nastale u Manesteru, tako su i prve obrazovne in Manchester. According to that the first educational
usta-nove na kojima se javljalo industrijsko institutions in Great Britain which had industrial
inženjerstvo u Velikoj Britaniji nastajale takoe u ovom engineering had appeared also in this city.
gradu. At April 7th 1824 a group of prominent Manchester’s
Grupa uglednih manesterskih kapitalista, na elu sa capitalists headed by George William Wood had made
Džordžom Vudom (George Wood) napravila je 7. aprila a plan for establishing of Mechanical Institute. They
1824. godine plan o osnivanju Mašinskog instituta. Njih gathered round idea to increase efficiency and organise
je okupila zajednika ideje o poveanju efikasnosti i production. Industrial revolution cause rapid
organizovanju proizvodnje. Kako je sa industrijskom development of technique and machines. The main
revolucijom došlo do razvoja tehnike i pojave mašina, problem became how to supply machines with
glavni problem u fabrikama postao je kako snabdeti necessary raw materials and how to organise the
mašine potrebnim sirovinama i kako organizovati proi- production processes in order to exploit machines to
zvodnju, da bi bilo obezbeeno njihovo maksimalno their maximum. Finally, 1825 Mechanical Institute in
iskorišenje i najviša efikasnosti. Konano, 1825. Manchester was established.
godine osnovan je Mašinski institut u Manesteru. Until industrial revolution, specialisation for separate
Umesto usavršavanja za obavljanje pojedinih operacija working operations had dominated, but after that the
rada, koje je do tada preovlaivalo, težilo se upozna- main concept was to get know employees with the
vanju radnika sa celokupnim procesom proizvodnje, working processes in general, how they could be able to
kako bi svaki radnik imao uvid u celinu i u svoj nepo- realise the whole and their own position and importance
sredan položaj i znaaj u procesu. Dakle, težilo se siste- in the processes. It was a system approach. That
matskom prilazu. Smatralo se da bi se time znaajno approach significantly increased efficiency and quality
poveala efikasnost i kvalitet rada. Takoe su i radnici of work. Employees had been involved in creation of
doprinosili formiranju nastavnih predmeta. Oni su znali subjects on the Institute. They had the best overview
kakvo je sve znanje bilo potrebno posedovati za oba- what were the necessary things which employee had to
vljanje nekog posla, šta može radnik oekivati sve na know, what can expect on the working place and how
svom radnom mestu i kako najbolje može biti obuen can be the best trained for it [5].
za njega [5].
3.3 „London Mechanics’ Institute“
3.3 „London Mechanics’ Institute“ At November 11th 1823 George Birkbeck had formed
Džordž Birbek (George Birkbeck) osnovao je 11. London Mechanics Institute. Since the beginning of
novembra 1823. godine Mašinski institut u Londonu XIX century Birkbeck had been giving the lectures
(London Mechanics Institute). Od poetka XIX veka about usage of scientific principles in mechanical
Birbek je držao predavanja o primeni naunih principa industry, working access, organisation of work, etc. The
u mašinskoj industriji, o pristupu radu, o nainu organi- lectures were free and were held in the evenings and
zovanja rada, itd. Predavanja su bila besplatna i održa because of that they were crowded. Until than only
vana su u veernjim asovima i samim tim su bila aristocracy and priests could afford education. The
veoma dobro poseena, budui da je do tada biggest interest attracted lectures about working
obrazovanje bilo dostupno uglavnom imunima i processes which were present in factories. Employees
sveštenstvu. Vladalo je veliko interesovanje za had great desire for their own improving and increasing
upoznavanje sa celokupnim odvijanjem procesa koji su
bili prisutni u fabrikama. Zaposleni su imali velike

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želje za usavršavanjem i poveanjem sopstvene efika- their own efficiency. In accordance to that on his
snosti i doprinosom ukupnoj produktivnosti sistema. U lectures Birkbeck had been talking about structures of
skladu sa tim, Birbek je na svojim predavanjima priao working processes (mostly mechanic and textile,
o strukturama procesa proizvodnje (uglavnom mašinske because the most of factories in Great Britain were that
i tekstilne, pošto je u Velikoj Britaniji bilo najviše kind) and ways for organisations of working processes.
fabrika tog tipa) i nainu organizovanja procesa rada. Institute expanded very fast from the hired professors
Institut se veoma brzo širio, ako se uzme u obzir broj and student who attended lectures point of view. In the
angažovanih profesora i studenata koji pohaaju same time Institute had caused opening similar
nastavu. Istovremeno, institut je uticao na pojavu institutes all over the Great Britain. 1862 were formed
slinih instituta širom Velike Britanije. Tako je do more than hundred institutes like London Mechanics’
1826. godine bilo osnovano oko stotinu slinih instituta, Institute. 1841 this number increased to 300 [6].
a 1841. ovaj broj je dostigao 300 [6].
4. SPAIN-„EL REAL INSTITUTO
4. ŠPANIJA-„EL REAL INSTITUTO INDUSTRIAL DE MADRID“
INDUSTRIAL DE MADRID“ The first school of industrial engineering in Spain was
Prva škola industrijskog inženjerstva u Španiji osno- founded 1850 with the name The Royal Industrial
vana je davne 1850. godine, pod nazivom „Kraljevski Institute of Madrid („El Real Instituto Industrial de
industrijski institut“, sa sedištem u Madridu („El Real Madrid“). Every year from the opening day to 1858
Instituto Industrial de Madrid“). Svake godine, od dana (when the industrial studies were reorganised) Institute
svog osnivanja pa do 1858. godine (kada je nastupila became richer for new 100-150 students. Soon after that
reorganizacija studijskog programa), institut je upisivao the labour market in Spain was full of industrial
od 100 do 150 studenata. Ubrzo je došlo do toga da je engineers. That situation became worse when the
tržište rada postalo zasieno ovim profilom. Tome je schools of industrial engineering were opened on the
doprinelo i otvaranje škole industrijskog inženjerstva na universities in Barcelona, Seville and Valencia.
univerzitetima u Barseloni, Sevilji i Valensiji. Even it was almost 200 year ago The Royal Industrial
Institut je bio, sa organizacionog stanovišta, veoma do- Institute of Madrid was very well structured. Its
bro struktuiran. Sastojao se iz više funkcionalnih delo- organisational chart was rather complex. Basically, the
va: škole industrijskog inženjerstva, poslovne škole i Institute comprised the following bodies: the Industrial
škole za obuku predavaa i umetnikog konzervatori- School, the Business School and the Teacher Training
juma. Škola industrijskog inženjerstva podrazumevala School. The Industrial School offered the three levels of
je tri nivoa studija, i to: osnovne, studije srednjeg nivoa studies: elementary, intermediate and higher. The
i visoke studije. Poslovna škola obuhvatala je obrazo- Business School provided commercial education. The
vanje iz ekonomskih nauka. Škola za obuku predavaa Teacher Training School produced teachers for other
formirala je obrazovni kadar za ostale škole industri- Spanish industrial schools between 1851 and 1854. The
jskog inženjerstva u Španiji, u periodu od 1851. do Arts Conservatory provided practical training for
1854. godine. Umetniki konzervatorijum je obezbe- workers and craftsmen with special emphasis on
ivao praktinu obuku majstorima i zanatlijama i drawing and mathematics.
poseban naglasak bio je na usavršavanju tehnikog Except education of experts, Industrial Institute had
crtanja i matematikih alata. considerable human and material resources. Its
Osim obrazovanja strunog kadra, Institut za industri- activities reached beyond teaching. They had organised
jsko inženjerstvo imao je zavidne ljudske i materijalne seminars and trainings which were significantly
resurse, organizovao je seminare i obuke, koji su bili progressive in comparison with situation on other
znaajno ispred svoga vremena i situacije na ostalim universities. The Institute was frequently involved in
univerzitetima. Institut je u znaajnoj meri saraivao sa industrial counselling, reporting and patent and
industrijom. esto je obavljao konsultantske poslove, trademark issuing activities, etc.
bio angažovan u pisanju izveštaja, rešavao probleme Decade after forming, Industrial Institute faced with
patentiranja i zaštitnih obeležja firmi, itd. one big problem. Europe got into “Great Depression”
Deceniju nakon osnivanja, institut se suoio sa jednim (economic and politic crisis). Industry had a lot of
velikim problemom. Evropu je zahvatila „Velika depre- problems and because of that the needs for industrial
sija“ (ekonomska i politika kriza). Usled problema koji engineers fell down. Industrial engineers met more and
su se javljali u industriji, došlo je do sve manje potrebe more serious difficulties while they were finding
za ovom profesijom, tako da su poteškoe prilikom employments. Faced with deep crisis in country, Spain
zapošljavanja industrijskih inženjera postajale sve ozbi- gradually closed industrial institutes. First were closed
ljnije. Suoena sa sve veom i veom krizom u zemlji, industrial institutes in Gijón and Vergara in 1860, than
Španija je najpre zatvorila industrijsko inženjerstvo na in Valencia in 1865 and Seville in 1866. At the end the
Univerzitetima u Gijónu i Vergaru u 1860. godine, Royal Institute was also closed down, in the summer of

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potom u Valensiji 1865. i Sevilji 1866., i naposletku 1867. The only remained educational institution
došlo je do zatvaranja instituta u Madridu 1867. godine. which provided industrial engineering course was
Kao obrazovna ustanova za profesiju industrijsko The School of Industrial Barcelona („La Escuela
inženjerstvo, sa radom je nastavila jedino Škola Industrial de Barcelonesa“) which was formed one
industrijskog inženjerstva u Barseloni („La Escuela
year after establishing The Royal Industrial
Industrial de Barcelonesa“), koja je osnovana godinu
dana nakon osnivanja Instituta u Madridu [7].
Institute of Madrid [7].
Following the example of Central School of Art and
Sledei primer „Centralne škole umetnosti i industrije“
Industry from Paris, many countries started with
iz Pariza, mnoge zemlje su sredinom XIX veka poele
establishing of polytechnic schools in the middle of
sa osnivanjem politehnikih škola. Kao najpoznatije
XIX century. Industrial Institute in Berlin, Polytechnic
škole mogu se izdvojiti „Industrijski institut“ u Berlinu,
School in Dresden and Polytechnic Schools in
„Politehnika škola“ u Drezdenu, i „Politehnike škole“
Augsburg, Munich, Nuremberg and Vienna and Swiss
u Augsburgu, Minhenu, Nirnbergu i Beu, kao i
Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich
Državni tehniki univerzitet u Cirihu („Eidgenössische
(„Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich“) can
Technische Hochschule Zürich“). Na njima nije posto-
be distinguished as the most famous. It the beginning
jalo industrijsko inženjerstvo kao zaseban studijski pro-
did not exist industrial engineering as a separate course,
gram ve su se u okviru svake profesije izuavali i
but the concepts of industrial engineering such as
orga-nizacija proizvodnje i procesa, upravljanje
organisation of working processes, process
procesima, itd. Na taj nain u isto tehniko
management, etc. hade been parts of all the courses. On
obrazovanje uvedeni su aspekti organizovanja i
that way, in pure technical education the aspects of
upravljanja, odnosno indu-strijskog inženjerstva.
organisation and management (industrial engineering)
5. ZAOSTAJANJE AMERIKOG were included.
OBRAZOVANJA ZA EVROPSKIM 5. LAGGING OF AMERICAN EDUCATION
U izdanju „The New York Times“ (slika 1) od 20. juna BEHIND EUROPEAN
1885. godine se navodi da ameriko inženjersko
In publishing of The New You Times (Fig. 1) from July
obrazovanje i dalje zaostaje za inženjerskim obrazo-
20th 1885 is written that American engineer education is
vanjem u Evropi. Evropski studenti pored kvalitetne
still lagging behind engineer education in Europe.
teorijske nastave koja im je organizovana na
Beside top quality theoretical lectures on the
fakultetima, imali su i praktine vežbe, na kojima su
universities European students had trainings where they
mogli da primene teorijska znanja. Analize amerikanaca
applied in practice all theoretical knowledge which they
o evropskom sistemu školstva imale su zakljuke da je
got. American analysis about European education
inženjersko obrazovanje u Evropi mnogo bolje zbog
system had conclusions that engineering education in
praktinog rada koji je evropskim studentima
Europe is much better than in America because of
omoguen u toku studija [8].
practical trainings which European students had during
their studies [8].

Slika 1. Iseak iz novina „The New York Times“ iz


1885.
Fig. 1 Newspaper clipping from The New York Times
Amerika je slala veliki broj svojih diplomaca na studije from 1885
u Evropu (Nemaku, Englesku, Belgiju, itd.). Studenti
Many students from America had been coming to study
su se nakon završetka studija vraali u Ameriku gde su
in Europe (Germany, England, Belgium, etc.). After
se zapošljavali, pošto su Sjedinjene Amerike Države,
graduating they had backing to America where they got
ve od poetka XX veka, dostigle visok stepen
employment. From the beginning of XX century USA
industrijskog razvoja. Meutim, i dalje je postojao
reached high level of industrial development. However,

22
veliki nedostatak u kvalitetnom inženjerskom obrazo- big disadvantage in quality of engineering education
vanju, sve do poetka XX veka kada se industrijsko still existed until beginning of XX century when
inženjerstvo pojavilo na univerzitetima u Americi. industrial engineering appeared on American
universities.
6. INDUSTRIJSKO INŽENJERSTVO U
SRBIJI 6. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING IN SERBIA
Industrijsko inženjerstvo se u Srbiji prvi put pojavilo u Industrial engineering in Serbia for the first time
Novom Sadu, na Fakultetu tehnikih nauka. Katedra za appeared in Novi Sad on the Faculty of Technical
unapreenje industrijske proizvodnje, koja predstavlja Sciences. Department of Improvement of Industrial
preteu današnjeg Departmana za industrijsko inže- Production was formed at May 15th 1960 and it was the
njerstvo i menadžment, osnovana je 15. maja 1960. precursor of today’s Department of Industrial
god. i predstavljala je deo Mašinskog fakulteta u Engineering and Management. It the beginning it was a
Novom Sadu. part of Mechanical Faculty in Novi Sad.
Najznaajniji doprinos postojanju industrijskog inže- The most significant contribution to development of
njerstva na Fakultetu tehnikih nauka u Novom Sadu i industrial engineering on Faculty of Technical Sciences
uopšte na prostorima Balkana, nesumnjivo je dao prof. in Novi Sad and Balkan in general, undoubtedly made
dr Dragutin Zelenovi. Kao diplomirani inženjer Professor Dragutin Zelenovi, Ph.D. After graduating
mašinstva Beogradskog Univerziteta više od deset on the Mechanical Faculty on the University of
godina proveo je radei u privredi, što mu je u Belgrade, he spent more than ten years working in
znaajnoj meri pomoglo da uvidi koja su znanja neo- industry. That experience helped him to realise what
phodna industrijskim inženjerima za uspešno obavljanje kind of knowledge industrial engineers must obtain in
posla. Znaajno iskustvo i znanje steeno u radu u order to be able for successful work. Knowledge and
privredi u oblastima razvoja proizvodnih programa, experience in the areas of improvement of production
projektovanju tehnoloških-proizvodnih struktura, programmes, designing of technological and production
oblikovanju organizacionih postupaka i razvoju structures, improvement of managerial procedures and
informaciono upravljakih sistema, prof. Zelenovi je development of information systems, Professor
ugradio u razvoj Departmana za industrijsko Zelenovi used in development of Department of
inženjerstvo i menadžment. Industrial Engineering and Management.
Industrijski sistemi su se 1973. godine prvi put pojavili Industrial Systems (the first name for industrial
kao zasebno i izdvojeno usmerenje na mašinskom engineering) appeared for the first time in 1973 as a
odseku Fakulteta tehnikih nauka. Predlog o izdvajanju separate sub course on Department of Mechanic on the
Katedre za industrijske sisteme sa Instituta za Faculty of Technical Sciences. 1978 Industrial Systems
proizvodno mašinstvo u poseban Institut za industrijske was not any more part of Department of Production
sisteme prihvaen je 1978. godine. Tako je 29. juna Mechanic, it separated in independed Department of
1979. godine osnovan Institut za industrijske sisteme na Industrial Systems. At June 29th 1979 officially formed
Fakultetu tehnikih nauka u Novom Sadu sa ciljem Department of Industrial Systems with the following
razvoja programa obrazovnog, nauno-istraživakog aims: improving education, scientific and research work
rada i rada na primeni razvijenih rešenja u privredi. and implementation of developed solutions in industry.
Danas Institut za industrijske sisteme nosi naziv Today Department of Industrial Systems has name
Departman za industrijsko inženjerstvo i menadžment i Department of Industrial Engineering and Management.
organizaciono je podeljen na etiri katedre: Katedra za Department comprised of the following sub-
proizvodne sisteme, organizaciju i menadžment, departments: Sub-department of Production Systems
Katedra za mehatroniku, robotiku i automatizaciju, Sub-department of Mechatronics, Robotics and
Katedra za informaciono-komunikacione sisteme i Automation, Sub-department of Information and
Katedra za kvalitet, efektivnost i integralnu sistemsku Communication Technologies, Sub-department of
podršku i sprovodi studije u tri stepena: osnovne akade- Quality, Effectiveness and Integral Systems Support.
mske studije (bachelor), traju etiri godine; diplomske There are three levels of studies: bachelor, which lasts
akademske (master) studije, koje predstavljaju nastavak three years, master, addition to bachelor and lasts two
osnovnih akademskih studija i traju godinu dana i years and doctoral studies, which lasts three years [9].
doktorske studije, koje traju tri godine [9]. 7. CONCLUSION
7. ZAKLJUAK Industrial engineering as a profession appeared as a
Industrijsko inženjerstvo kao profesija pojavilo se kao response on numerous problems which businessmen
odgovor na mnogobrojne probleme sa kojima su se suo- had in their own production systems. The necessity for
avali preduzetnici u proizvodnim sistemima. Iz potrebe spreading the industrial knowledge and skills forced
za širenjem steenog znanja i veština, uspešni predu- businessmen and professors to establish schools of
industrial engineering. Industrial engineering as a

23
zetnici i biznismeni, kao i ugledni profesori poeli su sa profession firstly appeared in France 1829. Following
osnivanjem škola industrijskog inženjerstva. the example of France many countries started with
Industrijsko inženjerstvo se kao profesija prvi put establishing of polytechnic schools in the middle of
pojavilo u Francuskoj još 1829. godine. XIX century. In the beginning industrial engineering
Sledei primer Francuske, mnoge zemlje su sredinom was not separate course but the main concepts such as
XIX veka poele sa osnivanjem politehnikih škola. Na process and production organisation, process
njima nije postojalo industrijsko inženjerstvo kao management, etc. were studied as subjects in the other
zaseban studijski program ve se se u okviru svake courses. The whole century after appearance of
profesije izuavali i organizacija proizvodnje i procesa, industrial engineering as a profession, Faculty of
upravljanje procesima, itd. itav vek nakon pojave Technical Sciences in Novi Sad formed Department of
industrijskog inženjerstva kao profesije, na Fakultetu Improvement of Industrial Production which today has
tehnikih nauka u Novom Sadu osnovana je Katedra za name Department of Industrial Engineering and
unapreenje industrijske proizvodnje, pretee Depa- Management. Few years later universities in Belgrade,
rtmana za industrijsko inženjerstvo i menadžment. Tek Zagreb, Mostar, Banja Luka, etc. introduce course of
nekoliko godina kasnije došlo je do uvoenja studijskih industrial engineering.
programa na univerzitetima u Beogradu, Zagrebu, Even it is relatively young profession, industrial
Mostaru, Banja Luci, itd. engineering had fast development. Today production
Iako mlada profesija, industrijsko inženjerstvo je za processes are almost inconceivable without industrial
relativno kratko vreme doživelo veliki razvoj. Danas se engineers who will take care of increase efficiency, who
gotovo ne može zamisliti proizvodni proces u kojem will permanently try to eliminate waste of time, money,
nije prisutan industrijski inženjer koji e se baviti materials, energy and other resources.
problemom poveanja efikasnosti, odnosno, koji e REFERENCES
pokušavati da eliminišu gubitke vremena, novca,
materijala, energije i ostalih resursa. [1] Maynard, H., B., Zandin, K. B., Maynard's
industrial engineering handbook, McGraw-Hill
REFERENCE Professional, 2001., 1
[1] Maynard, H., B., Zandin, K. B., Maynard's [2] The New York Times, Free Aducation and
industrial engineering handbook, McGraw-Hill Industrial Schools – Lecture of Alexander Jones,
Professional, 2001., 1 February 19, 1853.
[2] The New York Times, Free Aducation and [3] École Centrale Paris,
Industrial Schools – Lecture of Alexander Jones, http://www.ecp.fr/en/A_ecp/A4_histoire/A4a_fond
February 19, 1853. ation_histoire.htm
[3] École Centrale Paris, [4] Wrigley, J., The Division between Mental and
http://www.ecp.fr/en/A_ecp/A4_histoire/A4a_fond Manual Labor: Artisan Education in Science in
ation_histoire.htm Nineteenth-Century Britain, The American Journal
[4] Wrigley, J., The Division between Mental and of Sociology, Vol. 88, 1982, S31-S51
Manual Labor: Artisan Education in Science in [5] Spartacus Educational,
Nineteenth-Century Britain, The American Journal http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/EDowens.ht
of Sociology, Vol. 88, 1982, S31-S51 m
[5] Spartacus Educational, [6] George Birkbeck and the London Mechanics
http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/EDowens.ht Institute, http://www.infed.org/walking/wa-
m birb.htm
[6] George Birkbeck and the London Mechanics [7] Cano Pavón, J., M., The Royal Industrial Institute
Institute, http://www.infed.org/walking/wa- of Madrid (1850–1867). A Historical Overwiev,
birb.htm Quaderns D’Histria de L’Enginyeria, Vol. V,
[7] Cano Pavón, J., M., The Royal Industrial Institute 2002-2003., 66-73
of Madrid (1850–1867). A Historical Overwiev, [8] The New York Times, The System of Industrial
Quaderns D’Histria de L’Enginyeria, Vol. V, Schools in Europe, June 20, 1885.
2002-2003., 66-73 [9] Interview with Professor Dragutin Zelenovi, Novi
[8] The New York Times, The System of Industrial Sad, 16.06.2008.
Schools in Europe, June 20, 1885.
[9] Razgovor sa prof. dr Dragutinom Zelenoviem,
Novi Sad, 16.06.2008.

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