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Q1. What is verification?

A: Verification ensures the product is designed to deliver all functionality to the customer; it
typically involves reviews and meetings to evaluate documents, plans, code, requirements and
specifications; this can be done with checklists, issues lists, and walkthroughs and inspection

Q2. What is validation?
A: Validation ensures that functionality, as defined in requirements, is the intended behavior of
the product; validation typically involves actual testing and takes place after verifications are

Q3. What is a walkthrough?
A: A walkthrough is an informal meeting for evaluation or informational purposes.

Q4. What is an inspection?
A: An inspection is a formal meeting, more formalized than a walkthrough and typically consists
of 3-10 people including a moderator, reader (the author of whatever is being reviewed) and a
recorder (to make notes in the document). The subject of the inspection is typically a document,
such as a requirements document or a test plan. The purpose of an inspection is to find problems
and see what is missing, not to fix anything. The result of the meeting should be documented in a
written report. Attendees should prepare for this type of meeting by reading through the
document, before the meeting starts; most problems are found during this preparation.
Preparation for inspections is difficult, but is one of the most cost-effective methods of ensuring
quality, since bug prevention is more cost effective than bug detection.

Q5. What is quality?
A: Quality software is software that is reasonably bug-free, delivered on time and within budget,
meets requirements and expectations and is maintainable. However, quality is a subjective term.
Quality depends on who the customer is and their overall influence in the scheme of things.
Customers of a software development project include end-users, customer acceptance test
engineers, testers, customer contract officers, customer management, the development
organization's management, test engineers, testers, salespeople, software engineers,
stockholders and accountants. Each type of customer will have his or her own slant on quality.
The accounting department might define quality in terms of profits, while an end-user might define
quality as user friendly and bug free.

Q6. What is good code?
A: A good code is code that works, is free of bugs and is readable and maintainable.
Organizations usually have coding standards all developers should adhere to, but every
programmer and software engineer has different ideas about what is best and what are too many
or too few rules. We need to keep in mind that excessive use of rules can stifle both productivity
and creativity. Peer reviews and code analysis tools can be used to check for problems and
enforce standards.

understandable. or programmers and software engineers feel they have job security if everyone can understand the code they write. too. mistakes will be made. because scheduling of software projects is not easy and it often requires a lot of guesswork and when deadlines loom and the crunch comes. testing. too. it should be hard to read. easily modifiable and maintainable. The result is bugs. data communications. errors made in bug tracking. Other times the tools are poorly documented. including visual tools. class libraries. integration. programming errors. can make mistakes. compilers. For large organizations with high-risk projects. a serious management buy-in is required and a formalized QA process is necessary. in some fast-changing business environments. Why are there so many software bugs? A: Generally speaking. • There are unclear software requirements because there is miscommunication as to what the software should or shouldn't do. Sometimes customers do not understand the effects of changes. changes in requirements. What is software life cycle? A: Software life cycle begins when a software product is first conceived and ends when it is no longer in use. coding. • As to changing requirements. client-server and distributed applications. It includes phases like initial concept. test planning. Q8. rescheduling of resources and some of the work already completed have to be redone or discarded and hardware requirements can be effected. enormous relational databases and the sheer size of applications. or understand them but request them anyway. understandable code. like everyone else. • Time pressures can cause problems. • Software complexity. continuously modified requirements are a fact of life. which can create additional bugs. or they believe if the code was hard to write. • Programming errors occur because programmers and software engineers. is robust with sufficient error handling and status logging capability. scripting tools. there are bugs in software because of unclear requirements. And the changes require redesign of the software. but often refers to functional design or internal design. Q9. What is good design? A: Design could mean too many things. document preparation. • Software development tools . All of the followings contribute to the exponential growth in software and system complexity: Windows interfaces. Good functional design is indicated by software functionality can be traced back to customer and end-user requirements. documentation planning.Q7. Sometimes developers get kudos for quickly turning out code. functional design. poorly documented code and/or bugs in tools used in software development. can introduce their own bugs. updates. • Code documentation is tough to maintain and it is also tough to modify code that is poorly documented. Q10. software complexity. How do you introduce a new software QA process? A: It depends on the size of the organization and the risks involved. internal design. • Bug tracking can result in errors because the complexity of keeping track of changes can result in errors. maintenance. requirements analysis. Good internal design is indicated by software code whose overall structure is clear. retesting and phase-out. management and . For medium size organizations with lower risk projects. and works correctly when implemented. Sometimes there is no incentive for programmers and software engineers to document their code and write clearly documented. time pressure.

test engineers and testers. Q11. in a GUI and has an automated testing tool record and log the results. 2. Use documentation that is electronic. design. Have schedules that are realistic. or customers have unrealistic expectations and therefore problems are guaranteed. A lot depends on team leads and managers. tools of change management. or not testable. Promote teamwork and cooperation. The schedule is unrealistic if too much work is crammed in too little time. testing. bug fixing. Do testing that is adequate. and plan for sufficient time for both testing and bug fixing. adequate testing. Regardless the size of the company. A: Solid requirements. developers. Give me five common problems that occur during software development. Use prototypes to help nail down requirements. adding new features after development is underway and poor communication. unrealistic schedules. attainable and testable. or ongoing long-term projects. If changes are necessary. Require walkthroughs and inspections when appropriate. once development has begun and be prepared to explain consequences. in order to keep any bureaucracy from getting out of hand. 4. re-test after fixes or changes. Be prepared to defend design against changes and additions. feedback to developers and good communication is essential among customers. Ensure documentation is available and up-to-date. therefore there will be problems. Stick to initial requirements as much as possible.organizational buy-in and a slower. 4. For example. 3. A: Poorly written requirements. Q12. Requirements are poorly written when requirements are unclear. QA processes should be balanced with productivity. Miscommunication either means the developers don't know what is needed. Communicate. realistic schedules. detailed. re-testing. step-by-step process is required. All players should agree to requirements. Allow adequate time for planning. based on a . cohesive. A common type of automated tool is the record/playback type. Give me five solutions to problems that occur during software development. firm requirements and good communication. ensure they're adequately reflected in related schedule changes. Avoid new features. For smaller groups or projects. 5. Start testing early on. But for small projects. The recording is typically in the form of text. buttons. Ensure the requirements are solid. complete and testable. the time needed to learn and implement them is usually not worthwhile. not paper. 3. complete. an ad-hoc process is more appropriate. 1. Use prototypes early on so customers' expectations are clarified and customers can see what to expect. dialog box choices. changes and documentation. clear. It's extremely common that new features are added after development is underway. 1. inadequate testing. Do automated testing tools make testing easier? A: Yes and no. For larger projects. 2. the greatest value for effort is in managing requirement processes. they can be valuable. too general. Software testing is inadequate if none knows whether or not the software is any good until customers complain or the system crashes. etc. where the goal is requirements that are clear. Personnel should be able to complete the project without burning out. managers. this will minimize changes later on. 5. make extensive use of e-mail. incomplete. Q13. a test engineer clicks through all combinations of menu choices. Generally speaking. networked bug-tracking tools.

Good QA engineers understand the entire software development process and how it fits into the business approach and the goals of the organization. here's another comment. What makes a good resume? A: On the subject of resumes. gives the test engineer an appreciation for the developers' point of view and reduces the learning curve in automated test tool programming." I have heard some more. Rob Davis' communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. I wish I could put my job at IBM on my resume but if I did it'd make my resume more than one page. the recordings have to be changed so often that it becomes a very time- consuming task to continuously update the scripts. Q14. If the resume is getting you interviews. Good test engineers have a "test to break" attitude. It all depends on who you are and how much experience you have." "Gosh. have a strong desire for quality and an attention to detail. Some . Joe Blow (car salesman) said I should have a one-page resume. or some underlying code in the application is changed). there seems to be an unending discussion of whether you should or shouldn't have a one-page resume. If a change is made (e. The purpose of a resume is to get you an interview. One problem with such tools is that if there are continual changes to the product being tested." "I'm confused. So what's the answer? There is no scientific answer about whether a one-page resume is right or wrong. then you should change it. Small fonts can make your resume harder to read. "People just don't read resumes that are longer than one page. Additionally. Communication skills and the ability to understand various sides of issues are important. The first thing to look at here is the purpose of a resume. What makes a good QA engineer? A: The same qualities a good test engineer has are useful for a QA engineer. Why? Because. Previous software development experience is also helpful as it provides a deeper understanding of the software development process. etc. • Has an attention to detail. What makes a good test engineer? A: Rob Davis is a good test engineer because he • Has a "test to break" attitude. He's also • Tactful and diplomatic and • Has good a communication skill. data. both oral and written. new buttons are added. too. logs. Q15." Or. the application is then retested by just playing back the recorded actions and compared to the logged results in order to check effects of the change. Another problem with such tools is the interpretation of the results (screens. then it is considered to be a good resume. scanners don't like odd resumes. Rob Davis understands the entire software development process and how it fits into the business approach and the goals of the organization. The biggest mistake you can make on your resume is to make it hard to read. and I was told to never make the resume more than one page long. Q16. should my resume be more than one page? I feel like it should. but I don't want to break the rules.) that can be a time-consuming task. I read a book and it said you should have a one page resume. If the resume isn't getting you interviews." "I can't really go into what I really did because if I did. they take the point of view of the customer." "Well. for one. but we can start with these.g. Tact and diplomacy are useful in maintaining a cooperative relationship with developers and an ability to communicate with both technical and non-technical people. it'd take more than one page on my resume. • Has a strong desire for quality. And he • Has previous software development experience. • Takes the point of view of the customer.scripting language that the testing tool can interpret. The followings are some of the comments I have personally heard: "Well.

customer contract officers. if possible. A testable requirement would be something such as. scope. customer acceptance test engineers. In some organizations. bug reports. The real audience for these short resumes is people with short attention spans and low IQs. Requirements are the details describing an application's externally perceived functionality and properties. future software maintenance engineers. Care should be taken to involve all of a project's significant customers in the requirements process. in light of the current scanning scenario. Customers could be in-house or external and could include end-users. "user-friendly". the resume needs to be longer. Q17.for people long on experience -. resume readers do not like eye strain either. so that they are repeatable. attainable and testable. customer management. Five. I assure you that when your resume gets into the right hands. QA practices should be documented. Please put your experience on the resume so resume readers can tell when and for whom you did what. configurations. for example. more than one page is not a deterrent because many will scan your resume into their database. Two. functional specification documents. test plans. designs. able to promote teamwork to increase productivity. resume readers don't like to guess and most won't call you to clarify what is on your resume. have the people skills needed to promote improvements in QA processes. Specifications. they just throw it aside for one that is easier on the eyes. there should be a system for easily finding and obtaining of documents and determining what document will have a particular piece of information. design documents. Four. business rules. Q19. there are lots of resumes out there these days. Without such documentation there will be no clear-cut way to determine if a software application is performing correctly. which is too subjective. if possible. The process of preparing a test plan is a useful way to think . salespeople and anyone who could later derail the project. Big mistake. some type of documentation with detailed requirements will be needed by test engineers in order to properly plan and execute tests. it will be read thoroughly. as well as able to run meetings and keep them focused. No matter what they are called. Once the resume is in there and searchable. Three. Requirements should be clear. testers. Ideally. What about requirements? A: Requirement specifications are important and one of the most reliable methods of insuring problems in a complex software project is to have poorly documented requirement specifications. able to promote cooperation between Software and Test/QA Engineers. Use documentation change management. approach and focus of a software testing effort. What is a test plan? A: A software project test plan is a document that describes the objectives. Short resumes -. Q20. your resume should tell your story. "the product shall allow the user to enter their previously-assigned password to access the application".are not appropriate. Q18. complete. If his/her expectations aren't met. able to maintain enthusiasm of their team and promote a positive atmosphere. cohesive. Generally speaking. What is the role of documentation in QA? A: Documentation plays a critical role in QA. code changes. a one-page resume is just fine. What makes a good QA/Test Manager? A: QA/Test Managers are familiar with the software development process. reasonably detailed.candidates use a 7-point font so they can get the resume onto one page. able to communicate with technical and non-technical people. If the resume is mechanically challenging. test cases. you have accomplished one of the goals of resume distribution. A non-testable requirement would be. have the ability to withstand pressures and say *no* to other managers when quality is insufficient or QA processes are not being adhered to. user manuals should all be documented. inspection reports. they should be included as a customer. or other documents at various levels of detail. and that is also part of the problem. requirements may end up in high-level project plans. If you're a college graduate looking for your first job. If you have a longer story.

• Input data requirements/steps. requirements. The completed document will help people outside the test group understand the why and how of product validation. libraries. It should be thorough enough to be useful. insufficient integration testing. Additionally. improper build or release procedures. with the detailed input of software test engineers. software. Q21. What if the software is so buggy it can't be tested at all? A: In this situation the best bet is to have test engineers go through the process of reporting whatever bugs or problems initially show up. • Test conditions/setup. poor design. patches. compilers. for regression testing to check the fixes didn't create other problems elsewhere. If a problem-tracking system is in place. Please note. coordinate and track code. Rob Davis has had experience with a full range of CM tools and concepts. such as insufficient unit testing. Q23. etc. Common factors in deciding when to stop are. Rob Davis can easily adapt to your software tool and process needs. • Test case identifier. After the problem is resolved. but not so thorough that none outside the test group will be able to read it. the process of developing test cases can help find problems in the requirements or design of an application. determinations should be made regarding requirements. Q24. managers should be notified and provided with some documentation as evidence of the problem. Q25. problems. hardware. Since this type of problem can severely affect schedules and indicates deeper problems in the software development process. if possible.through the efforts needed to validate the acceptability of a software product. A variety of commercial. What is a test case? A: A test case is a document that describes an input. For this reason. it needs to be communicated and assigned to developers that can fix it. safety impact. How do you know when to stop testing? A: This can be difficult to determine. Q22. A test case should contain particulars such as a. reproduce it and fix it. problem- tracking/management software tools are available. change requests. • Objective. it is useful to prepare test cases early in the development cycle. changes made to them and who makes the changes. fixes should be re-tested. What is configuration management? A: Configuration management (CM) covers the tools and processes used to control.. What should be done after a bug is found? A: When a bug is found. designs.. • Test case name. it should encapsulate these determinations. get an idea of its severity. in order to determine if a feature of an application is working correctly. Many modern software applications are so complex and run in such an interdependent environment. documentation. and • Expected results... or event and its expected result. that complete testing can never be done. since it requires you to completely think through the operation of the application. action. with the focus being on critical bugs.. . will give the team complete information so developers can understand the bug. tools. These tools.

. testing deadlines. every possible combination of events. or write up a limited test plan based on the risk analysis. Q28. or everything that could go wrong. every dependency. Use risk analysis to determine where testing should be focused. so that later changes do not require redoing the application from scratch. or requirements reaches a specified point. • Move new requirements to a 'Phase 2' version of an application and use the original . The checklist should include answers to the following questions:  Which functionality is most important to the project's intended purpose?  Which functionality is most visible to the user?  Which functionality has the largest safety impact?  Which functionality has the largest financial impact on users?  Which aspects of the application are most important to the customer?  Which aspects of the application can be tested early in the development cycle?  Which parts of the code are most complex and thus most subject to errors?  Which parts of the application were developed in rush or panic mode?  Which aspects of similar/related previous projects caused problems?  Which aspects of similar/related previous projects had large maintenance expenses?  Which parts of the requirements and design are unclear or poorly thought out?  What do the developers think are the highest-risk aspects of the application?  What kinds of problems would cause the worst publicity?  What kinds of problems would cause the most customer service complaints?  What kinds of tests could easily cover multiple functionalities?  Which tests will have the best high-risk-coverage to time-required ratio? Q27. • Bug rate falls below a certain level. • Coverage of code.. • In the project's initial schedule.g. However. not the size of the project. common sense and experience. • Use rapid prototyping whenever possible. Additionally. release deadlines. this will help customers feel sure of their requirements and minimize changes. • Test budget has been depleted. this makes changes easier for the developers. • Deadlines. What can be done if requirements are changing continuously? A: Work with management early on to understand how requirements might change. or • Beta or alpha testing period ends. It is helpful if the application's initial design allows for some adaptability. • Test cases completed with certain percentage passed. if extensive testing is still not justified. risk analysis is appropriate to most software development projects. risk analysis is again needed and the considerations listed under "What if there isn't enough time for thorough testing?" do apply. so that alternate test plans and strategies can be worked out in advance. e. • Ensure the code is well commented and well documented. What if the project isn't big enough to justify extensive testing? A: Consider the impact of project errors. try to. Q26. This requires judgment skills. functionality. What if there isn't enough time for thorough testing? A: Since it's rarely possible to test every possible aspect of an application. The test engineer then should do "ad hoc" testing. allow for some extra time to commensurate with probable changes.

. after all. the best bet is to minimize the detail in the test cases. • Negotiate to allow only easily implemented new requirements into the project. but less time will be required for late-night bug fixing and calming of irate customers. There is no easy solution in this situation. attempts should be made to keep processes simple and efficient..e. Then let management or the customers decide if the changes are warranted. move more difficult. If not removed. requirements for the 'Phase 1' version. • Ensure customers and management understand scheduling impacts. in order to minimize regression- testing needs. which it would indicate deeper problems in the software development process. especially in new technology areas. • Focus less on detailed test plans and test cases and more on ad-hoc testing with an understanding of the added risk this entails. How can software QA processes be implemented without stifling productivity? A: Implement QA processes slowly over time. • Design some flexibility into test cases. it should be removed. Use consensus to reach agreement on processes and adjust and experiment as an organization grows and matures.  Hire good people (i. or set up only higher-level generic-type test plans. Productivity will be improved instead of stifled. new requirements into future versions of the application. it may not be a significant risk. • Focus initial automated testing on application aspects that are most likely to remain unchanged. What if organization is growing so fast that fixed QA processes are impossible? A: This is a common problem in the software industry. However. If the functionality only affects areas. like bureaucracy and in the short run things may slow down a bit. What if the application has functionality that wasn't in the requirements? A: It may take serious effort to determine if an application has significant unexpected or hidden functionality. other than. A typical scenario would be that more days of planning and development will be needed. At the same time. • Design some flexibility into automated test scripts. such as minor improvements in the user interface. Problem prevention will lessen the need for problem detection. this is not easily done. promote computer-based processes and automated tracking and reporting.. • Devote appropriate effort to risk analysis of changes. If the functionality isn't necessary to the purpose of the application. minimize time required in meetings and promote training as part of the QA process. especially talented technical types. Panics and burnout will decrease and there will be improved focus and less wasted effort. design information will be needed to determine added testing needs or regression testing needs. inherent risks and costs of significant requirements changes. hire Rob Davis)  Ruthlessly prioritize quality issues and maintain focus on the customer. • Balance the effort put into setting up automated testing with the expected effort required to redo them to deal with changes. Management should be made aware of any significant added risks as a result of the unexpected functionality. as it may have unknown impacts or dependencies that were not taken into account by the designer or the customer. Q31. that's their job. no one. Q29. minimize paperwork. Q30.  Everyone in the organization should be clear on what quality means to the customer.

with overall QA processes monitored by project managers. Rob Davis can provide QA and/or SWQA. efficient. While there will be little affect on black box testing (where an understanding of the internal design of the application is unnecessary). Standards and templates maintain document uniformity. Why do you recommend that we test during the design phase? A: Because testing during the design phase can prevent defects later on. He will also recommend improvements and/or additions. is also oriented to *detection*. feedback to developers and communications among customers. Prevention is monitoring and improving the process. 3. Software Testing. with standards and templates. Q35. This document details some aspects of how he can provide software testing/QA service. It depends on what best fits your organization's size and business structure. Q33. Q36. Verify the design incorporates enough memory. Also common are project teams.what is supposed to be in a document? A: All documents should be written to a certain standard and template. How is testing affected by object-oriented designs? A: A well-engineered object-oriented design can make it easier to trace from code to internal design to functional design to requirements. compact. Standards and templates . Rob Davis' QA service depends on the customers and projects. he will follow them. It also helps in learning where information is located. making sure any agreed-upon standards and procedures are followed and ensuring problems are found and dealt with. white-box testing can be oriented to the application's objects. If the application was well designed this can simplify test design. which include a mix of test engineers. standards and templates and test readiness reviews. how to pass data.why follow them? A: Detailed and well-written processes and procedures ensure the correct steps are being executed to facilitate a successful completion of a task. Q37.. Once Rob Davis has learned and reviewed customer's business processes and procedures. 1. Lastly. making it easier for a user to find what they want. testable and maintainable. Testing involves the operation of a system or application under controlled conditions and evaluating the results. developers' test engineers and testers. testers and developers who work closely together. starting state of each module and how to guarantee the state of each module). managers. They also ensure a process is repeatable. What is quality assurance? A: Quality Assurance ensures all parties concerned with the project adhere to the process and procedures.Q32. Verify the design meets the requirements and is complete (specifies all relationships between modules. information will not . I/O devices and quick enough runtime for the final product. We recommend verifying three things. what happens in exceptional circumstances. Process and procedures . It involves the entire software development process. What is software quality assurance? A: Software Quality Assurance (SWQA) when Rob Davis does it is oriented to *prevention*. when performed by Rob Davis. Q34.. Organizations vary considerably in how they assign responsibility for QA and testing. Sometimes they are the combined responsibility of one group or individual. A lot will depend on team leads or managers. 2. Verify the design is good.

What is usability testing? A: Usability testing is testing for 'user-friendliness'. Q38. or that test drivers are developed as needed. Q44. Black box testing are based on requirements and functionality. Q42. Tests are based on coverage of code accidentally omitted from a document. Q46. Q40. Clearly this is subjective and depends on the targeted end-user or customer. video recording of user sessions and other techniques can be used. Each level of testing is either considered black or white box testing. . What is unit testing? A: Unit testing is the first level of dynamic testing and is first the responsibility of developers and then that of the test engineers. integration testing begins. Q45. Programmers and developers are usually not appropriate as usability testers. Test cases are developed with the express purpose of exercising the interfaces between the components. or test engineers. This may require that various aspects of an application's functionality are independent enough to work separately. when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable/acceptable based on client input. What is integration testing? A: Upon completion of unit testing. What is functional testing? A: Functional testing is black-box type of testing geared to functional requirements of an application. User interviews. Test engineers *should* perform functional testing. he will use them. Unit testing is performed after the expected test results are met or differences are explainable/acceptable. before all parts of the program are completed. Integration testing is black box testing. paths and conditions. He will also recommend improvements and/or additions. Q41. At each test level. not based on any knowledge of internal software design or code. Q39. What is incremental integration testing? A: Incremental integration testing is continuous testing of an application as new functionality is recommended. What is black box testing? A: Black box testing is functional testing. Integration testing is considered complete. software engineers. What is parallel/audit testing? A: Parallel/audit testing is testing where the user reconciles the output of the new system to the output of the current system to verify the new system performs the operations correctly. What is white box testing? A: White box testing is based on knowledge of the internal logic of an application's code. This type of testing may be performed by programmers. Q43. surveys. Once Rob Davis has learned and reviewed your standards and templates. he documents the results. The purpose of integration testing is to ensure distinct components of the application still work in accordance to customer requirements. This activity is carried out by the test team. What are the different levels of testing? A: Rob Davis has expertise in testing at all testing levels listed below. branches.

What is regression testing? A: The objective of regression testing is to ensure the software remains intact. For a higher level of testing it is important to understand unresolved problems that originate at unit and integration test levels. A baseline set of data and scripts is maintained and executed to verify changes introduced during the release have not "undone" any previous code. Q48. What is security/penetration testing? A: Security/penetration testing is testing how well the system is protected against unauthorized . such as interacting with a database.Q47. Q53. All discrepancies are highlighted and accounted for. Q52. all unit and integration test results are reviewed by SWQA to ensure all problems have been resolved. or interacting with other hardware. etc. What is system testing? A: System testing is black box testing. What is sanity testing? A: Sanity testing is performed whenever cursory testing is sufficient to prove the application is functioning according to specifications. performed by the application's System Administration. What is end-to-end testing? A: Similar to system testing. as defined by requirements. Q49. System testing simulates real life scenarios that occur in a "simulated real life" test environment and test all functions of the system that are required in real life. System testing is deemed complete when actual results and expected results are either in line or differences are explainable or acceptable. or install/uninstall processes. or system. system testing is started. Q54. and at the start of the system testing the complete system is configured in a controlled environment. application. What is installation testing? A: Installation testing is testing full. using network communication. The installation test for a release is conducted with the objective of demonstrating production readiness. it can be regarded as a distinct level of testing. the evaluation of data readiness. volumes and response times. the *macro* end of the test scale is testing a complete application in a situation that mimics real world use. following installation testing. When necessary. partial. and dynamic tests focused on basic system functionality. Upon completion of integration testing. performed by the Test Team. printers. such as the testing of a web site under a range of loads to determine at what point the system response time will degrade or fail. It normally includes a set of core tests of basic GUI functionality to demonstrate connectivity to the database. What is load testing? A: Load testing is testing an application under heavy loads. before testing proceeds to the next level. Q50. Before system testing. The purpose of system testing is to validate an application's accuracy and completeness in performing the functions as designed. Q51. Performance testing verifies loads. based on client input. Expected results from the baseline are compared to results of the software under test. application servers. This level of testing is a subset of regression testing. This test includes the inventory of configuration items. a sanity test is performed. What is performance testing? A: Although performance testing is described as a part of system testing. upgrade.

. The acceptance test is the responsibility of the client/customer or project manager. Technical Analyst. not programmers. They execute test procedures and scripts.internal or external access. scripts and generate data. Q59. software engineers. communicates testing status to management and manages the test team. Depending on the project. or willful damage. Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager. Q58. Minor design changes can still be made as a result of alpha testing. Alpha testing is typically performed by end-users or others. System Administrator. or test engineers. What testing roles are standard on most testing projects? A: Depending on the organization. Test Build Manager and Test Configuration Manager. Database Administrator. Q61. the following roles are more or less standard on most testing projects: Testers. evaluate results of system/integration/regression testing. or test engineers. What is alpha testing? A: Alpha testing is testing of an application when development is nearing completion. software engineers. or network environment. What is comparison testing? A: Comparison testing is testing that compares software weaknesses and strengths to those of competitors' products. or other catastrophic problems. operating system. They also. For instance. What is compatibility testing? A: Compatibility testing is testing how well software performs in a particular hardware. What is beta testing? A: Beta testing is testing an application when development and testing are essentially completed and final bugs and problems need to be found before the final release. What is a Test/QA Team Lead? A: The Test/QA Team Lead coordinates the testing activity. What is acceptance testing? A: Acceptance testing is black box testing that gives the client/customer/project manager the opportunity to verify the system functionality and usability prior to the system being released to production. Test/QA Team Lead. Q57. procedures. What is recovery/error testing? A: Recovery/error testing is testing how well a system recovers from crashes.. Beta testing is typically performed by end-users or others. The test team also works with the client/customer/project manager to develop the acceptance criteria. it is conducted with the full support of the project team. Test Engineers may also wear the hat of Technical Analyst. They create test cases. Q62. Test/QA Manager. Test Engineers. analyze standards of measurements. Q60. . Q56. however. Q55. Q63. software. This type of testing usually requires sophisticated testing techniques. one person may wear more than one hat. not programmers. What is a Test Engineer? A: Test Engineers are engineers who specialize in testing. hardware failures.

For instance. For instance. • Provide documentation required by FDA. Depending on the project. maintain and back up test environment hardware. System Administrators. For instance. • Maximize the value of your software. Depending on the project. System Administrators and Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment. a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a System Administrator. install the application's software and apply software patches. one person may wear more than one hat. maintain and back up test environment hardware. set-up. For instance. to both the application and the operating system. one person may wear more than one hat. What is a Technical Analyst? A: Technical Analysts perform test assessments and validate system/functional test requirements. • Reduce your risk of legal liability. • Save money by discovering defects 'early' in the design process. one person may wear more than one hat. software and test data. Q66. set-up. Q68. What is a Test Configuration Manager? A: Test Configuration Managers maintain test environments. a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Test Build Manager. • Promote continual improvement. Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Test Configuration Manager. What is a System Administrator? A: Test Build Managers. before users get discouraged. Q65. one person may wear more than one hat. so the development team can devote its time to build up your product. • Speed up the work of your development staff. scripts. Depending on the project. before failures occur in production. Test Engineers may also wear the hat of a Technical Analyst. Q67. Database Administrators deliver current software versions to the test environment. • Help the work of your development staff. . What is a Database Administrator? A: Test Build Managers. to both the application and the operating system. Depending on the project. to both the application and the operating system. one person may wear more than one hat. install the application's software and apply software patches. Depending on the project. or in the field. • Give you the evidence that your software is correct and operates properly. before shareholders loose their cool and before employees get bogged down. • Maximize the value of the devices that use it. • Save the reputation of your company by discovering bugs and design flaws. install the application's software and apply software patches. For instance. maintain and back up test environment hardware. What is a Test Build Manager? A: Test Build Managers deliver current software versions to the test environment. set-up. a Test Engineer may also wear the hat of a Database Administrator. • Assure the successful launch of your product by discovering bugs and design flaws. Q64. FAA. • Improve problem tracking and reporting. before bugs and design flaws damage the reputation of your company. other regulatory agencies and your customers.

Creating a test strategy. • A description of roles and responsibilities of the resources required for the test and schedule constraints. • Testing methodology. change request. a schedule of all test activities and resource requirements. Outputs for this process: • An approved and signed off test strategy document. including test tools. e. 2. a list of related tasks. file outputs. A test strategy is developed for all levels of testing. • Requirements that the system can not provide. This is based on known standards. writes the test strategy and reviews the plan with the project team. Creating a test plan/design. Q73. Q71. What is the general testing process? A: The general testing process is the creation of a test strategy (which sometimes includes the creation of test cases). creation of a test plan/design (which usually includes test cases and test procedures) and the execution of tests. test plan. report results. pass/fail criteria and risk assessment. conditions. Executing tests. data to be used for testing and expected results.. as required. This information comes from requirements. Q70. The test plan may include test cases. technical and functional design documents. What is software testing methodology? A: One software testing methodology is the use a three step process of.. How do you create a test strategy? A: The test strategy is a formal description of how a software product will be tested. • Test cases and scenarios are designed to represent both typical and unusual situations . including test cases.. • Functional and technical requirements of the application. Test procedures define test conditions. This information comes from manhours and schedules.. This information comes from the test environment. This methodology can be used and molded to your organization's needs. the test environment. What is a test schedule? A: The test schedule is a schedule that identifies all tasks required for a successful testing effort. Usually this requires additional negotiation at the project management level. and 3. Q72. Rob Davis believes that using this methodology is important in the development and in ongoing maintenance of his customers' applications.g. The test team analyzes the requirements. including database updates. system limitations. Inputs for this process: • A description of the required hardware and software components. • Testing issues requiring resolution. How do you create a test plan/design? A: Test scenarios and/or cases are prepared by reviewing functional requirements of the release and preparing logical groups of functions that can be further broken into test procedures. including test tool data. 1.Q69. Generally speaking.

Inputs for this process: • Approved Test Strategy Document. • A good understanding of software complexity and module path coverage. All discrepancies/anomalies are logged and discussed with the software team lead. or automated test tools. • Test procedures or scripts define a series of steps necessary to perform one or more test scenarios. • Test documentation problems uncovered as a result of testing. if applicable. Q74. software design document. e. • Reports of software design issues. programmers. • Test engineers define unit test requirements and unit test cases. • A pre-test meeting is held to assess the readiness of the application and the environment and data to be tested. • Test data is captured and baselined. and results are . test conditions and test data. • Test tools. develops test cases and scenarios for integration and system testing. • Test scripts are mapped back to the requirements and traceability matrices are used to ensure each test is within scope. • It is the test team who. • The output from the execution of test procedures is known as test results. software engineers and documented for further investigation and resolution. if applicable. prior to testing. Checkpoint meetings are held daily. Outputs for this process: • Approved documents of test scenarios. • Test procedures or scripts may cover multiple test scenarios. Test results are evaluated by test engineers to determine whether the expected results have been obtained. • Test scenarios are executed through the use of test procedures or scripts. • Test procedures or scripts include the specific data that will be used for testing the process or transaction. This data serves as the foundation for unit and system testing and used to exercise system functionality in a controlled environment. • Some output data is also baselined for future comparison. • A pass/fail criteria is used to determine the severity of a problem. Every company has a different process for logging and reporting bugs/defects uncovered during testing. test cases. an entry is recorded in a test execution log to note the execution of the procedure and whether or not the test procedure uncovered any defects. status and activities. Baselined data is used to support future application maintenance via regression testing. hardware test lead.g. Test engineers also execute unit test cases. source code and software complexity data. As each test procedure is performed. with assistance of developers and clients. if required. to address and discuss testing issues. that may occur in the application. How do you execute tests? A: Execution of tests is completed by following the test documents in a methodical manner. • Previously developed scripts. A test readiness document is created to indicate the status of the entrance criteria of the release. Checkpoint meetings are held throughout the execution phase. given to software developers for correction. derived from general and detailed design documents.

Change Request Documents. as documented in the Configuration Management Plan. • Availability of the test team and project team. Inputs for this process: • Approved test documents. The severity of a problem. • Developed scripts. • Baselined package. Fixes are regression tested and flawless fixes are migrated to a new baseline. • Changes to the design. i. • The test team reviews test document problems identified during testing. Software Design Document. Test Cases. it is the responsibility of the Configuration Manager to coordinate the migration of the release software components to the next test level. Software QA (SWQA) Manager and/or Test Team Lead. • Reports on software design issues. if applicable. • After a particular level of testing has been certified.e. This needs to be approved and signed-off with revised testing deliverables. based on the severity of the problem. Following completion of the test.e. i. unit tested code. ready for migration to the next level. also known as tested source and object code. • Changes to the code. • A software that has been migrated to the test environment. given to software developers for correction. Requirements Document. Outputs for this process: • Log and summary of the test results. • Document Updates. and update documents where appropriate. recorded in a test summary report. Test Procedures. via the Configuration/Build Manager. . e. The software is only migrated to the production environment after the Project Manager's formal acceptance. Examples are bug reports on code issues. found during system testing. members of the test team prepare a summary report. The summary report is reviewed by the Project Manager. • Formal record of test incidents.g. usually part of problem tracking. is defined in accordance to the customer's risk assessment and recorded in their selected tracking tool. also known as test fixes. • Test tools. • General and Detailed Design Documents. including automated test tools. • Test document problems uncovered as a result of testing. Usually this is part of the Test Report. i. Examples are Requirements document and Design Document problems.e. • Proposed fixes are delivered to the testing environment. Test Plan. • Test Readiness Document. • Test data.