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Extra Wide Input Voltage Range and High Efficiency

DC-DC Converter Using Hybrid Modulation
Xinke Wu, Wei Lu , Junming Zhang, Zhaoming Qian
College of Electrical Engineering, Zhejiang University
Hangzhou , P.R China

Abstract--In this paper an interleaving phase shift with a common filter inductor. Obviously, the volume of
modulating (PSM) control strategy for Dc-Dc converter is the transfer is large because of the half wave rectifier
proposed based on two conventional PWM half bridge structure and single-end flux in the transformer. For the
converters. A new rectifier structure suitable to the interleaved phase shift full bridge converters [9, 10] the
interleaving technique is proposed. With the proposed hybrid
volume of transformer and the filter can be reduced. But
control method (PSM and PWM) and the proposed rectifier
structure the DC transfer gain of the converter can be these converters are not suitable to high output current
improved. Therefore, it can be employed in a wide input application because they suffers from the high conduction
voltage application to reduce the current stress and loss in secondary side due to the series switches in the
conduction loss in primary. According to the proposed rectifier diodes.
control strategy, a new rectifier structure is proposed to
reduce the voltage stress of the diode and the filter In order to achieve high DC transfer gain for wide
requirement. Based on the proposed converter, a cell input voltage application, a new control concept is
structure concept is proposed. Using this cell structure a proposed based on conventional interleaving technique.
multi-phase converter can be constructed with any wide Both the interleaving phase angle and duty cycle are
input voltage rang. A two phase prototype (100k/500W) is modulated. Therefore there are two the modulation
built to verify the theoretical analysis. methods in the proposed converter, IPSM and PWM. A
I INTRODUCTION new rectifier structure is presented corresponding to the
hybrid modulation method. This technique can be applied
In the front-end DC-DC rectifier the input voltage is to multi-phase interleaved structure, and the phase number
always between 300-400V because of constant output of can be determined according to the input voltage range. To
the PFC stage. However, in a universal application where demonstrate the improvements of the proposed control
the line voltage is from 85Vac to 265Vac the conduction strategy and rectifier structure, the operation principle of
loss at low line for PFC stage is too high to keep high two phase half bridge converter shown in Fig.1.
constant output voltage (400V). To release the conduction
loss stress in the PFC stage either the variable output II PRINCIPLE OF THE HYBRID MODULATING STRATEGY
voltage control method or the variable circuit structure A) Operation Principle
with a choosing switch [2, 3] is adopted according to
different line voltage in the PFC stage, which causes It can be seen from Fig.1 that the converter is
variable DC voltage for a cascade DC-DC converter. With constructed with two phase half-bridge converter and a
these methods in PFC stage, considering the hold up time three diodes legs as rectifier. Either symmetrical control
requirement, the input voltage variation is almost between strategy or asymmetrical control strategy can be applied to
100V and 400V. The conventional full bridge is quite the proposed converter. In following section only the
difficult to be optimized in such a wide input voltage symmetry control for the half bridge switches is analyzed.
range due to the large duty variation. The fly-back
converter is suitable to the wide input voltage application Q1 Q3 m Lf
[4] C1 C3 n:1
. However it is only accepted in low power level due to
its high current stress. With piecewise control technique [5] +
T1
a
Cb1 Cf
the input voltage range can be extended. But the control Vin
b
strategy is complex because different modulation methods - Vo RL
Cb2
are used in different input voltage range based on digital c
control. In [6] auxiliary switches are used at secondary T2
Vmn
Q2 Q4
side windings of transformer to change the DC gain to C2 C4 n:1
match wide input voltage range. With interleaving n
technique between multi-phase converters [7] the transfer
Fig.1. Proposed two phase interleaving half bridge converter with three
gain can be improved, and the primary conduction loss rectifier diode legs structure.
can be reduced because the turn ratio of the transformer
can be reduced. Furthermore, the transfer gain is limited The two phase half-bridge converters are controlled in
due to it’s Y type rectifier structure. But the circuit is an interleaved manner. Fig.2 shows the control signals for
complicated and the devices count is large, which causes primary switches, where α is the phase angle between two
high cost. In [8] two forward converters are interleaved switch legs. The maximum αmax is T/4 for symmetry
controlled PWM half bridge. Three diode legs a, b, c
588
1-4244-0365-0/06/$20.00 (c) 2006 IEEE

Detailed circuit operations for each mode are described as follows. and they can be half-bridge applies a positive voltage Vin/2 on the primary neglected in the principle analysis. Control signals for primary switches b Cf Case 1: At high input voltage the phase angle keeps at T/4. which results in small filter n requirement. With this rectify side winding of the transformer. Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 C Q1 Lf 4 m MODE 0 1 2 3 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 1 T1 + a Cb1 (a) Case 1: 0<D<α Vin b Cf - D Vmn T α C2 Q1 n Q2 Q3 (a) Mode 0 Q4 m Lf MODE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 (b) Case 2: α<D<T/2 a Fig. Fig. inductor current waveforms in case 1. It can be seen as a series connection of the secondary side windings and the ILf rectified output voltage is double. there is no drive signals. The other six modes are in the same way as the two modes shown below. the rectifier 0 D output voltage Vmn comes out a platform with the value Vbc Vion/2n.3. the averaged output voltage Vo equals to Vin*D/n. Transformer primary voltage and rectified output and the filter inductor current for Case 1 The maximum voltage across the output rectifier diode is Vin/2n. 589 . Fig.consist the rectifier. the magnitude of Vmn is Vin/n. Hence. In the overlap interval of Vab 0 abd Vbc. the converter operation principle can be divided into which causes the output inductor current to increase two cases: linearly. According to the form of Vmn is Vin/2n. where n is the turns-ratio from the primary side to the secondary side of the transformer. The capacitors Cb1 and Cb2 are the Mode 0(t0-t1): In this mode. The rectified output Vmn is four time of the primary frequency. Case 2: When input voltage decreases and the duty T cycle increase to higher than α/T.4 shows equivalent circuits and current directions corresponding to various operation modes. Fig. The frequency of Vmn reduces to double of 0 primary switches. and it across the output filter inductor Lf. there si a overlap Vab α between the voltages Vab and Vbc. Q1 is on and the left auxiliary DC blocking capacitors. Meanwhile the top diode structure the rectified voltage Vmn has different forms at of leg a and bottom diode of leg b conduct. Hence. The current in the output inductor is in α freewheeling mode through rectifier diode legs. T D Mode 1(t1-t2) During this mode. The voltage different input voltage range.2.5 shows the key Io 0 waveforms of rectified voltage Vmn. Vmn. Fig. c and the PWM method is effective to regulate output voltage. the secondary side MODE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 voltage Vac and Vbc and the filter inductor current Ifl. The filter requirement is still reduced Vmn Vin/2n Vo due to the platform of Vmn.3 illustrates the voltage across each transformer primary windings and the corresponding (b) Mode 1 voltage at the output of the rectifier as well as the filter Fig.4. Equivalent circuit of different modes in case 1.

5 C2 C4 D n Fig.6 (a).5 − α < D ≤ 0. conclude the expression of the conversion gain in overall Cb2 c Vmn input voltage range.25 Cb1 0 .5 (1) n M ( D. Vout=Vin*(D+α/T)/n. The other four modes work the same secondary winding of the two half-bridges work in series. way as the two modes shown below. where α is determined by a feed forward circuit from input voltage. the operation modes.3 0 . which causes the inductor current rectifier output voltage is higher than the single decrease linearly. + a Cb1 Vin From the above analysis of two cases. When α is zero. voltage across the two transformers’ secondary windings. Vin/n. 590 . Therefore the secondary side windings of In this phase. we can b Cf .6 shows equivalent circuit Mode 2(t2-t3): The voltage across the transformer structures and current directions corresponding to various primary windings is in same direction.1 0 .5.6. the output of the transformers secondary two half-bridges work in parallel. and the minimum voltage the winding of T1 is Vin/2. which causes the inductor current to increase linearly. At other input - Vmn voltage α doesn’t equal to zero. and the averaged output voltage is across the output rectifier is still Vin/2n. α is b Cf modulated to zero to increase transfer gain. which means the output rectifier is Vin/2n. The voltage across the windings overlaps in certain area. Transformer secondary side voltage and rectifier output and the Mode 0(t0-t1): In this mode the voltage across filter inductor current for phase 2 transformer windings of T1 and T2 are in reverse direction as in Fig.7 DC transfer gain of the converter in function as duty cycle D (n=1). Fig.7 shows the (a) Mode 0 transfer curve in function as D at different phase shift angle according to (1). Detailed circuit The voltage across the output rectifier is the summation of operations for each mode are described as follows.6 M(D) T1 + a α = 0 . 1 T1 But α is modulated when input voltage varies. The overlap interval is (D-α). and only + a Vin Cb1 when input voltage decrease to lowest value. the maximum voltage Mode 1(t1-t2): During this mode the voltage across transferred to the output is Vin/n. C2 1 /( 2 ⋅ n) + ( D − α ) / n 0. The voltage is Vin/2n.1 0 .8 Q1 Q3 Lf α = 0 .4 V in b Cf .4 0 . m Q1 Lf C1 C3 Mode 3(t3-t4): This mode is similar to mode 1 except T1 for the positive voltage is supplied by T2.2 Cb2 c T2 Vmn 0 0 0 . Fig.2 C1 C3 m 0 . the proposed C Lf Q1 m converter is same to conventional full bridge converter. 0 . Fig. we Q4 T2 can get the transfer gain curve according to different phase C2 C4 n shift angle and duty cycle. If we suppose that n equal to 1. In fact. T ( c) Mode 2 Vab α Lf 0 D C3 Q3 m Vbc + 0 V in b Cf - Cb2 c Vmn Vmn T2 Vin/n Vin/2n Vo C4 0 n I Lf Io (d) Mode 3 0 MODE 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 Fig.5 −α (b) Mode 1 1 α = 0 α = 0 . transformer secondary winding output voltage.2 0 . Hence. Equivalent circuits for different modes in case 2. and T2 is shorted. α ) =   2 D / n 0 < D ≤ 0 .

Combination of the cell structure and control method Half Full bridge Three level bridge Vin / 2 n (2) Vdiode =  Vin / n Asymmetry PWM √ √ 400 Symmetry PWM √ √ √ Conventional full bridge Phase shift control √ √ Vdiode( Vin) 200 Proposed converter Lf Overlap range Without overlap 0 a b c m n 100 200 300 400 Vin Cf T1 T2 Tm RL Fig. c: three level winding is determined by the maximum input voltage. three cells work In order to reduce the voltage stress of the rectifier without overlaps at secondary sides of the transformers. When Vin is lower than voltage decreases to lower than 150V. which means that the converter operates in case 1 out overlap at secondary sides of transformers. which seems be in input voltage range 100V-400V. the shift angle between cells voltage for rectifier diode is decided according to the disappears. structure except that the digital control strategy is utilized. and both IPSM and PWM are overlap at secondary sides of transformers. When the input voltage is between 300V-400V. At the lowest operating. diode the phase shift angle α begins to being modulated Every cell has a T/6 shift angle. Equation (2) describes loss of primary can be reduced more. two cells begin to coming voltage. To demonstrate the improvement of the every cell structure and Vinmax is the maximum voltage. the diode can be With more cell structure paralleling. an example design process is illustrated structures. proposed converter.B) Key improvement for voltage stress reduction designed according to 300V-400V input range. which is analyzed in above (a) (b) (c) paragraphs. 9 Primary cell structures (a: half bridge.1. III EXPERIMENTAL VERIFICATION Table 1 shows the control method for the cell structure.9. case 2 begins. b: full bridge. When the voltage when input voltage decreases to half of maximum input decreases to lower than 300V. the conduction designed according to 200V-400V. every structure is series. where Vinmin is the minimum voltage for 50V/10A. a full bridge with conventional PWM control is designed and compared. the two For example. In fact primary structure can be other PWM structure as shown in Fig. The key parameters of the prototype between the conventional full bridge converter and the proposed converter are listed in Table 2.1 primary structure is the symmetry PWM controlled half bridge. Fig. the transformer is assumed ideal and the parasitic parameters are neglected. Fig. The maximum voltage across its secondary Fig. When the when Vinmax/2<Vin<Vinmax. A) Decision for Key Parameters The proposed rectifier structure with the hybrid modulation strategy can be extended to multi-phase In this section. to explain how the proposed converter is optimized.10 is the rectifier structure with m phases.10 Multi-phase rectifier structure In the presented converter in Fig. if we apply three cell structures into the secondary windings appear an overlap. there is three cell Vinmax/2. The voltage across the rectifier diodes will be 591 . For proposed converter the turn ratio of transformer can be designed according to 200V-400V because the converter can get the same DC gain to full bridge at 100V input with the same turn ratio. In the following paragraphs. half bridge) When the input voltage is less than 200V. A The input voltage range can be extended to prototype is designed with Vin: 100V to 400V and Vo: Vinmin/M-Vinmax.8 Comparison between full bridge and proposed converter of the voltage variation across rectifier diode (n=1) C) Phase Cell structure for multi-phase interleaved converter Fig. With this modulation method the breakdown input voltage 100V. for a converter with input range 100V--400V.8 shows the breakdown voltage for diode in TABLE 1 function as input voltage with this modulation strategy. designing process for half wide range. For example. But the control the voltage variation across the diode for the proposed strategy is complex for higher than three cells paralleling converter in Fig.

The phase-shifted angle is achieved by the synchronized pin of UC3825 and a dual monostable multivibrator and modulated by the feed forward Vgs of Q3:10V/div controller. But at this time.13. But the number of semiconductor in the secondary winding is overabundance. the input voltage is less than half voltage. Control logic for the proposed converter. a feed forward circuit is needed to determine the shift angle. the volume of single transformer is reduced by 50% around.12. predicted. TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF KEY PARAMETERS BETWEEN NORMAL FULL BRIDGE AND PROPOSED CONVERTER Normal full Proposed bridge converter converter Fig. Drive signal for primary switches. so the maximum voltage measurement and the calculation at low input voltage.11. This implies when Vin is high. Rectifier output voltage and one drive signal in case 2 592 . the voltage across Volume of output filter Large Small the output rectifier still maintain a low level which will Diodes MUR3040 MBR20200 optimize the selection of the rectifier semiconductor. across the rectifier diodes under this condition is as the which is duty cycle loss caused by the leakage inductance same as the its high input voltage condition: 100V as of the transformer. In this test unit. duty cycle of proposed converter turn ration for 2:1 2:1 transformer: n C) Prototype Test Results Number of transformer 1 2 Experimental voltages and currents of the prototype Volume fo single Large Small are shown in Fig13-Fig17.12. the experimental results match very closely with the ideal ratio in high input Fig. As expected. DELAY Synchronous UC3825 Dual Circuit UC3825 Monostable Vgs of Q1:10V/div Multivibrator Proportion modulation PID compensation Feed forward Feed back Fig. There is a little deviation between the of the maximum input voltage. the maximum voltage across output rectifier Plotfit curve calculation diodes is reduced to half compared with full bridge. Measured DC gain vs. the voltage across diode Switches IRFP450 IRFP450 doesn’t access 150V when the input voltage is 400V. As can be seen.doubled.14. The voltage rectifier diode across the two transformers’ secondary winding is flapped in case2 when D>0. Although the number of transformer is increased. Considering the voltage ringing. As analyzed above. the frequency of transformer the output filter current is four times the switching Maxim voltage across Vinmax/n Vinmax/2n frequency in case 1 and two times in case 2. B) Control logic implementation Vgs of Q1:10V/div To implement the phase shift angle modulation in function as input voltage.25. two half-bridges single-phase converters are controlled by two UC3825.25 but independent in case 1 when Count of rectifier diodes 4 6 D<0. G Q1 G Q2 G Q3 G Q4 Fig. when interleaving control strategy measurement is adopted. Vmn: 50V/div The measured actual conversion ratio for the prototype is shown in Fig.

‘‘Active Voltage Clamp in Fly-back Converters Operating in CCM Mode 94. Amy Johnson.51.00% 88.pp. the optimizations for transformers and output rectifier (a) case 2 diodes are got easily. “A PFC rectifier for telecommunication (b) case 1 high power application” In Proceeding of INTELEC’02.50% Efficiency DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Applications” In 91.00% Conventional FB 86. Issa 93. Panza. Nov. REFERENCES [1] Tognolini.E.00% 89.00% Bataresh. [6] L.pp.50% Conventional FB Low Voltage Fuel Cell Applications” Industry Applications. Abu-Qahouq. “Piecewise Digital Control Method For DC/DC Converters” In proceeding of IEEE APEC 2005. Mikihiko Matsui. Etc. Thomas Sahlstrom. 93. Vgs: 100V/div A cell structure is proposed to extend the input voltage range to wider range. 424-431.00% Vol. Yangyang Wen. Ehab Shoubaki. 754-759.17 Measured efficiency for the proposed converter at different input Fig. Interleaving control method is used to get different gain at different input voltage. pp. Rufer. Issue 6.C. “Methods of Improving Efficiency in Wide Input Range Boost Converters at The measured efficiency for the proposed converter Low Input Voltages” In proceeding of INTELEC’00.50% Proposed Converter 87.50% 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 Output(W) Fig ..00% Vin=110V proceeding of APEC’05. Zubieta and G. Pontus Melchert. “A Wide Input Voltage and High 91.632-640. and the efficiency of converter can be improved by using low break-down voltage diodes as rectifier diodes in a wide input voltage application. With interleaving technique the secondary windings of the transformers work in series when input voltage is low but Current in primary winding in parallel when input voltage is high. [4] Nikolaos P.50% 88.16 Drive signal of Q1 and current in transformer in case 1 [3] Ilkka Lindroth.50% Efficiency 89.pp. 593 .41 – 49.00% 90. In proceeding of IEEE APEC’00.pp.E Baggio. pp.-Dec.50% Proposed Converter [7] Changrong Liu. Fig. “ A DSP based control for a symmetrical three-phase two-switch PFC-power supply for variable output voltage” In proceeding of PESC’96. Efficiency 92. M. and conventional PWM full bridge is shown in Fig. [2] J. “A Novel ZVT Circuit for Interleaving Two-transistor Forward Converter”. H.50% Vmn: 50V/div 90. Tatakis.17.50% Under Wide Load Variation’’ In IEEE Tran On I.00% 6-10 March 2005 . and the turns-ratio of transformer is reduced as well.00% Transactions on Volume 41. Current in primary winding ACKNOWLEDGEMENT of T1: 10A/div This research work is supported by NSFC. Volume 1. and Jih-Sheng Lai. Papanikolaou and Emmanuel C. “A Novel 90. 94.50% [5] Jabar A.L Hey.pp. No 50237030. IEEE 89. 91. 2004.1588-1594. Geof Potter.15 Experimental waveforms in Case 1 voltage IV CONCLUSION Vgs: 10V/div A hybrid modulation concept is presented with a new rectifier structure.. A.00% Vin=380V Vgs of Q1:10V/div 87.pp.634-640. So.00% Three-Phase High-Power Soft Switched DC/DC Converter for 89. Xu Dehong.1691 - 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 1697 Output(W) [8] Feng Han. With this structure the maximum voltage across the output rectifier diodes is reduced to half compared with conventional full bridge. 90.50% 92. 2005 . The boundary of T1: 10A/div condition of the variation is determined by the phase shift angle between two half bridges.85-89.

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