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2Twisted pair is the ordinary copper wire that connects home and many business computers to the

telephone company. To reduce crosstalk or electromagnetic induction between pairs of wires, two insulated
copper wires are twisted around each other. Each connection on twisted pair requires both wires. Since
some telephone sets or desktop locations require multiple connections, twisted pair is sometimes installed in
two or more pairs, all within a single cable. For some business locations, twisted pair is enclosed in a shield
that functions as a ground. This is known as shielded twisted pair (STP). Ordinary wire to the home is
unshielded twisted pair (UTP).

Twisted pair is now frequently installed with two pairs to the home, with the extra pair making it possible for
you to add another line (perhaps for modem use) when you need it.

Twisted pair comes with each pair uniquely color coded when it is packaged in multiple pairs. Different uses
such as analog, digital, and Ethernet require different pair multiples.
Although twisted pair is often associated with home use, a higher grade of twisted pair is often used for
horizontal wiring in LAN installations because it is less expensive than coaxial cable.

A parity bit is used for error checking against an array of data. One byte is made up of
eight bits of data, seven that actually contain data and the parity bit. The bit helps ensure
that the array is always either odd or even, one or zero. The parity bit allows transmitted
data to be checked for errors by allowing the receiving computer to make sure a group of
bits is either odd or even when the data arrives.

When data is transmitted, the binary digits sent must match the length of bits that the recipient is
expecting. If the data expected is even and the data sent with its parity bit is odd, the recipient can
reject the data because of an error in parity.

For example, suppose that a document is being transmitted for review and the document is contained
within one data packet. The data packet with its parity bit is odd. The packet is transmitted to another
computer somewhere on the Internet and the remote server is expecting the data packet to have an
odd parity. When the data arrives, the host machine receives a packet with even parity. The host will
reject the packet because the parity of the data sent does not match and must be in error.

If a data packet is received and it is out of parity, having the opposite parity bit of what is expected by
the receiving computer, the recipient will send a message denoting the transmission error to the host
that it did not receive the data as intended. Many times the original sender of the data packet will
resend the transmission after recalculating the parity of the data which can sometimes correct the
problem.

The parity bit error checking methods are far from perfect. The parity bit error
checking scenario is only able to correctly report an odd number of bit errors. If an even
number of transmitted bits have errors, the transmission will be reported as correct even
though the data within the transmission is corrupt.

Routing or routeing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to
send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including
the telephone network (Circuit switching) , electronic data networks (such as
the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with
routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology.

ICMP can also be used to relay query messages. The routing process usually directs forwarding on the basis of routing tables which maintain a record of the routes to various network destinations. in the narrow sense) outperforms unstructured addressing (bridging) in large networks. It is chiefly used by the operating systems of networked computers to send error messages—indicating. and it is an integral part of IP. routing directs packet forwarding. Thus. Routing. firewalls. structured addressing (routing. in a more narrow sense of the term. and has become the dominant form of addressing on the Internet. It is usually not used directly by user network applications. General- purpose computers can also forward packets and perform routing. ICMP . Because structured addresses allow a single routing table entry to represent the route to a group of devices. which are held in the router's memory. with some notable exceptions being the ping tool and traceroute. ICMP messages are typically generated in response to errors in IP datagrams (as specified in RFC 1122) or for diagnostic or routing purposes. Internet Control Message Protocol is part of the Internet Protocol Suite as defined in RFC 792. or switches. that a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached. but multipath routing techniques enable the use of multiple alternative paths. constructing routing tables. though they are not specialized hardware and may suffer from limited performance. It differs in purpose from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is typically not used to send and receive data between end systems. typically hardware devices called routers. Most routing algorithms use only one network path at a time.In packet switching networks. The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. for instance. bridges. though bridging is still widely used within localized environments. the transit of logically addressed packets from their source toward their ultimate destination through intermediate nodes. is often contrasted with bridging in its assumption that network addresses are structured and that similar addresses imply proximity within the network. is very important for efficient routing. gateways.[1] ICMP[2] relies on IP to perform its tasks.

In addition. When an email message is sent. Internet Service Providers (ISPs) each have amail server for handling their clients’ mail messages. Some websites also offer public email services. There are many types of email clients with differing features. The success of the Frame Relay protocol is based on the following two underlying factors: • Because virtual circuits consume bandwidth only when they transport data.[isp].com or it might be named after the Send Mail Transfer Protocol. The Frame Relay header contains the user-specified DLCI field. however. • The improved reliability of communication lines and increased error-handling sophistication at end stations allows the Frame Relay protocol to discard erroneous frames and thus eliminate time- consuming error-handling processing. the email program contacts the author’s ISP mail server to pass it the message. but they all handle email messages and mail servers in the same basic way. utilizing their own mail servers. and thus operate at higher speeds. sometimes referred to as private mail servers.com. This software is built around agreed-upon.errors are always reported to the original source IP address of the originating datagram. Commercial mailservers alFrame Relay is a protocol standard for LAN internetworking which provides a fast and efficient method of transmitting information from a user device to LAN bridges and routers. except that the frame header is replaced by a 2-byte Frame Relay header field. The mailserver is normally named mail. The Frame Relay frame is transmitted to its destination by way of virtual circuits (logical paths from an originating point in the network) to a destination point. An email client or email program allows a user to send and receive email by communicating with mail servers. the graphics they might contain. and attachment files. many virtual circuits can exist simultaneously across a given transmission line. To get around spam blockers on mail servers.[isp]. The mailserver scans the message’s imbedded headers for addressing information. SVCs are set up on a call-by-call basis. standardized protocols for handling mail messages. but critical information is contained here. Virtual circuits may be permanent (PVCs) or switched (SVCs).[1] A mail server is a computer that serves as an electronic post office for email. These two factors make Frame Relay a desirable choice for data transmission. they also necessitate testing to determine that the system works properly and that data is not lost. as often stated in the Terms Of Service agreement. each device can use more of the bandwidth as necessary. so employ virus and trojan filters. Mail exchanged across networks is passed between mail servers that run specially designed software. Frame Relay offers an attractive alternative to both dedicated lines and X. Mailing lists are the exception. some people attempt to install mail servers on their own computers.25 networks for connecting LANs to bridges and routers. which is the destination address of the frame. These headers are not usually visible in an email client unless the user configures the program to show the headers. It also contains congestion and status signals which the network sends to the user. . smtp. The Frame Relay protocol uses a frame structured similar to that of LAPD. Mail servers commonly also have filters that will block users from sending large amounts of duplicate mail messages to multiple addresses in another effort to curb spam. and operate with different software that identifies the traffic as legitimate. PVCs are set up administratively by the network manager for a dedicated point-to-point connection. Many ISPs consider this a breach of contract.

2-way radio. The layers are in two groups. TCP is one of the two original components of the suite. that in turn could become standards. and the software and hardware that enable you to put a signal on one of the lines attached to your computer. OSI was originally intended to be a detailed specification of interfaces. applications (such as your Web browser). Although OSI is not always strictly adhered to in terms of keeping related functions together in a well-defined layer. in a given message between users. The Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). the committee decided to establish a common reference model for which others could develop detailed interfaces. there will be a flow of data through each layer at one end down through the layers in that computer and. OSI divides telecommunication into seven layers. . whereas IP handles addressing and routing message across one or more networks.200 of the ITU-TS. TCP provides reliable. and therefore the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. In particular. and file transfer. TCP/IP or alternative transport and network protocols. Currently. Developed by representatives of major computer and telecommunication companies beginning in 1983. Messages intended for this computer pass to the upper layers. Other applications. "Duplex" simply means you're able to send and receive data (most often the human voice) from the same device whether that be with your phone. Instead. So.OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a standard description or "reference model" for how messages should be transmitted between any two points in a telecommunication network. The actual programming and hardware that furnishes these seven layers of function is usually a combination of the computer operating system. The upper four layers are used whenever a message passes from or to a user. with each layer adding its own set of special. many if not most products involved in telecommunication make an attempt to describe themselves in relation to the OSI model. ordered delivery of a stream of bytes from a program on one computer to another program on another computer. applications such as theWorld Wide Web. or PC. it is Recommendation X. The lower three layers (up to the network layer) are used when any message passes through the host computer. OSI was officially adopted as an international standard by the International Organization of Standards (ISO). The reference model defines seven layers of functions that take place at each end of a communication. complementing the Internet Protocol (IP). File Transfer Protocol (FTP) and Telnet are all examples of applications that require a reliable communication channel. which do not require reliable data stream service. e-mail. another flow of data up through the layers in the receiving computer and ultimately to the end user or program. related functions. The main idea in OSI is that the process of communication between two end points in a telecommunication network can be divided into layers. It is also valuable as a single reference view of communication that furnishes everyone a common ground for education and discussion. Each communicating user or program is at a computer equipped with these seven layers of function. Its purpose is to guide product implementors so that their products will consistently work with other products. TCP provides the service of exchanging data directly between two hosts on the same network. at the other end. may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) which provides a datagram service that emphasizes reduced latency over reliability. TCP provides a point-to-point channel for applications that require reliable communications. when the message arrives. TCP is the protocol that major Internet applications rely on. The seven layers are: The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet Protocol Suite. Messages destined for some other host are not passed up to the upper layers but are forwarded to another host.

but only one-way at a time. Such notifications can take the form of email messages. You must release the button to receive. other manufacturers embed networkmonitoring software in larger applications or software suites. at the very least. If the system does not respond or takes too long to respond. lost networkconnections. Those cut- off sentences and stop-start conversations can be frustrating to say the least. Other network monitoring software makes a practice of regularly taking virtual snapshots of the network’s workflow. But as long as you are holding the TALK key. network monitoring is something you want at least one of your systems to be doing. it pushes a virtual TALK button every time you start to speak and cuts off the person on the other end. you need to set aside at least one computeror set of computers to monitor network activity. if they are serious enough. Pings are intended to be replied to instantaneously. When you've finished speaking. then you know what half-duplex conversations sound like. Can you imagine having to do the same on all your business calls? Network monitoring is spying for a good cause. rather. also tracking such statistics as time of visit. backup generators attached to it. While your other systems are performing their vital functions. unless the network administrator programs it to. networkproblem messages should take the highest priority. and power outages. No matter what form they take. Network monitoring can alert a network administrator to problems caused by overloaded systems. Network monitoring is commonly done by sending a “ping. The network monitoring system is the most critical part of your network. pager alerts. Any irregularities in this workflow are logged and. the speakerphone then transmits what the person on the other end is saying. crashed servers. among other things. If you've ever used a walkie-talkie. since it is the one that sounds the alarm if something is wrong. Your network monitoring system should have dedicated power lines or. you can't hear what anyone else is saying. number of pages on the site visited. In essence. You have to push the TALK button to send your message. Network monitoring takes note of slow or failing systems and notifies the network administrator of such occurrences. or plain old phone calls. virus or malware infections. . This kind of network monitoring isn’t necessarily the kind that reports problems. That's the big problem with the old-fashioned speakerphone: it's only a step up from a walkie-talkie. Network monitoring can also be as basic as tracking the flow of visitors to and from a website. the network monitoring system does its job by notifying the networkadministrator of the problem. This network monitoring must be done by a system that is always on.Half-duplex devices let you send and receive. Some well-known software manufacturers make network monitoring applications that are standalone products. reported to the network administrator. website network monitoring software tracks and reports web activity for analysis. to each computer or system on the network. Think of network monitoring as policing your network traffic. and entry and exit URLs.” or test. Two- way radio etiquette has you saying "over" when you're finished speaking so whoever's on the other end knows they can begin speaking. anything else hints at a larger problem than just the absence of a ping. This last instance is why your networkmonitoring system needs to have backup power: You can’t very well be notified of a power outage if the system that is supposed to do the notifying also loses its power. Actually.

) The X. which is widely used by IBM's large customer base in mainframe computer environments. This mode of HDLC is known as Link Access Procedure Balanced (LAPB). adding data link control information to a new. a protocol used in both and wide area network. HDLC is based on IBM's SDLC protocol. It providesmultiplexing mechanisms that make it possible for several network protocols (IP. In the X. the protocol that is essentially SDLC is known as Normal Response Mode (NRM).25 version of HDLC uses peer-to- peer communication with both ends able to initiate communication on duplexlinks. HDLC (layer 2) encapsulates the layer 3 frame. In HDLC. IPX) to coexist within a multipoint network and to be transported over the same network media. and can also provide flow control mechanisms. larger frame. just above the Physical Layer) in the seven-layer OSI reference model. a primary station (usually at the mainframe computer) sends data to secondary stations that may be local or may be at remote locations on dedicated leased lines in what is called a multidrop or multipoint network. although communication is usually half- duplex. (This is not the network we usually think of. HDLC is one of the most commonly-used protocols in what is layer 2 of the industry communication reference model called Open Systems Interconnection (OSI). As the Ethertype in an Ethernet II framing formatted frame is used to multiplex different protocols on top of the Ethernet MAC header it can be seen as LLC identifier. Layer 3 is the higher level that has knowledge about the network. In Normal Response Mode. The Logical Link Control (LLC) data communication protocol layer is the upper sub- layer of the Data Link Layer(which is itself layer 2. programming in layer 3 creates a frame that usually contains source and destination network addresses.25 network is one in which packets of data are moved to their destination along routes determined by network conditions as perceived by routers and reassembled in the right order at the ultimate destination. In this arrangement. The HDLC protocol also manages the flow or pacing at which data is sent. including access to router tables that indicate where to forward or send data. public and private. Now an ISO standard.25 version of HDLC.25communications protocol and for frame relay. the data frame contains a packet. (Layer 1 is the detailed physical level that involves actually generating and receiving the electronic signals. The LLC sub-layer acts as an interface between the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer and the network layer.) Variations of HDLC are also used for the public networks that use the X.HDLC (High-level Data Link Control) is a group of protocols or rules for transmitting data between network points (sometimes called nodes). The LLC sublayer is primarily concerned with:  Multiplexing protocols transmitted over the MAC layer (when transmitting) and decoding them (when receiving). In HDLC. On sending. (An X. data is organized into a unit (called a frame) and sent across a network to a destination that verifies its successful arrival.  Providing flow and error control . it's a nonpublic closed network.

the number which looks vast enough to accommodate the need of all networks in the foreseeable future. There are two types of IP addresses: IPv4 and IPv6. detection. They are called octets because each of them represents 8 bits (in binary) of the address. and IEEE 802.hnstandard. Differences The following differences are worth noticing between IPv4 and IPv6: . This increases the number of possibilities to 2128 or 3. This limits the number of unique possible combinations of IPv4 addresses to 232. has 4 octets separated by decimals. Mac OS X and all modern Linux distributions come with native support for this protocol.for example. while HDLC specifies both MAC functions (framing of packets) and LLC functions (protocol multiplexing. A typical IPv6 address looks like this: 2001:0db8:85a3:08d3:1319:8a2e:0370:7334. the IP protocol at the Network layer or IPX.169. such as IEEE 802.The protocol used for LLC in IEEE 802 networks. The GPRS LLC layer also does ciphering and deciphering of SN-PDU (SNDCP) packets. Windows Vista. 59. phone lines and coaxial cables).3/Ethernet (if the EtherType field isn't used). which provides high-speed local area networking over existing home wiring (power lines.5. some protocols such as Cisco HDLC can use HDLC-like packet framing and their own LLC protocol. An LLC header tells the Data Link layer what to do with a packet once a frame is received. IEEE 802. The first octet represents the network address and the last three octets are to identify the host. Another example of a Data Link Layer which is split between LLC (for flow and error control) and MAC (for multiple access) is the ITU-T G. Each of the octets can take any number from 0 to 255 as that is the largest number possible in an 8-bit binary.408 X 1038.93. Some non-IEEE 802 protocols can be thought of as being split into MAC and LLC layers. and error control through a retransmission of dropped packets when indicated). flow control.11. An IPv4 address. is specified by the IEEE 802. and in some non-IEEE 802 networks such as FDDI. for example. It works like this: A host will receive a frame and look in the LLC header to find out where the packet is destined for .88. IPv6 on the other hand uses hexadecimal system and each address is assigned a space of 16 bytes (compared to 4 bytes in IPv4).2 standard. For example.

except that the frame header is replaced by a 2-byte Frame Relay header field. DM is the simplest form of differential pulse-code modulation (DPCM) where the difference between successive samples is encoded into n-bit data streams. the transmitted data is reduced to a 1- bit data stream. though the addresses in IPv6 are four times larger. This can increase the speed of data transfer over high MTU networks. multicast is possible. In delta modulation. the (option-less) IPv6 header is only twice the size of the (option-less) IPv4 header. • The address space of IPv4 is 32 bit whereas the address space of IPv6 is 128 bit. that is. The Frame Relay protocol uses a frame structured similar to that of LAPD. delta modulation must use oversampling techniques. • IPv4 limits the packet size to 64KB of payload. only an increase or decrease of the signal amplitude from the previous sample is sent whereas a no-change condition causes the modulated signal to remain at the same 0 or 1 state of the previous sample. As a result. secure VPN ( Virtual Private Network) will be easier to build and deploy. Which means that we can create a unique IP address by combining its LAN address with a prefix provided by the network router. • The packet header in IPv6 is simpler than the packet header that is used in IPv4. called Jumbograms. Multicast is transmission of a single datagram to multiple receivers. To achieve high signal-to-noise ratio. multi-media applications can be supported. the analog signal is sampled at a rate several times higher than the Nyquist rate. • The packet header of IPv6 has many rarely-used fields moved to separate options. that is. • IPv4 does not support Multicast whereas with IPv6. which can reach upto 4GB. stateless autoconfiguration of IP addresses becomes possible. • With IPv6. • With IPv6. Hence. Its main features are:  the analog signal is approximated with a series of segments  each segment of the approximated signal is compared to the original analog wave to determine the increase or decrease in relative amplitude  the decision process for establishing the state of successive bits is determined by this comparison  only the change of information is sent. IPv6 can handle much larger packets. Frame Relay is a protocol standard for LAN internetworking which provides a fast and efficient method of transmitting information from a user device to LAN bridges and routers. Delta modulation (DM or Δ-modulation) is an analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog signal conversion technique used for transmission of voice information where quality is not of primary importance. The Frame Relay header contains the user-specified DLCI .

The separate LMI specification has basically been incorporated into the ANSI specification. These two factors make Frame Relay a desirable choice for data transmission. In the Frame Relay structure. each device can use more of the bandwidth as necessary. Virtual Circuits The Frame Relay frame is transmitted to its destination by way of virtual circuits (logical paths from an originating point in the network) to a destination point.field. In addition. in place of the normal address and control fields. PVCs are set up administratively by the network manager for a dedicated point-to-point connection. This new Frame Relay header is 2 bytes in length and has the following format: Frame Relay header structure DLCI In telecommunications.25 networks for connecting LANs to bridges and routers. The success of the Frame Relay protocol is based on the following two underlying factors: • Because virtual circuits consume bandwidth only when they transport data. SVCs are set up on a call-by-call basis. Virtual circuits may be permanent (PVCs) or switched (SVCs). Frame Relay Structure Standards for the Frame Relay protocol have been developed by ANSI and CCITT simultaneously. the transmitted . The following discussion of the protocol structure includes the major points from these specifications. The Frame Relay frame structure is based on the LAPD protocol. Advantages of Frame Relay Frame Relay offers an attractive alternative to both dedicated lines and X. the frame header is altered slightly to contain the Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI) and congestion bits. however. direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) is a modulation technique. It also contains congestion and status signals which the network sends to the user. which is the destination address of the frame. As with other spread spectrum technologies. they also necessitate testing to determine that the system works properly and that data is not lost. • The improved reliability of communication lines and increased error-handling sophistication at end stations allows the Frame Relay protocol to discard erroneous frames and thus eliminate time- consuming error-handling processing. and thus operate at higher speeds. many virtual circuits can exist simultaneously across a given transmission line.

in which a broad slice of the bandwidth spectrum is divided into many possible broadcast frequencies. and fair queueing in devices such . Network protocols which use aggressive retransmissions to compensate for packet loss tend to keep systems in a state of network congestion even after the initial load has been reduced to a level which would not normally have induced network congestion. In general. These include:exponential backoff in protocols such as 802. packet loss or the blocking of new connections. A data signal at the point of transmission is combined with a higher data-rate bit sequence (also known as a chipping code) that divides the data according to a spreading ratio. also known as direct sequence code division multiple access (DS- CDMA). The name 'spread spectrum' comes from the fact that the carrier signals occur over the full bandwidth (spectrum) of a device's transmitting frequency. or frequency hopping code division multiple access (FH-CDMA). is one of two approaches to spread spectrum modulation for digital signal transmission over the airwaves. especially in local area wireless networks. or to an actual reduction in network throughput. In data networking and queueing theory. the stream of information to be transmitted is divided into small pieces. known as frequency hopping spread spectrum. Direct sequence spread spectrum. In direct sequence spread spectrum. but the performance of DS-CDMA systems is usually better and more reliable. Spread spectrum first was developed for use by the military because it uses wideband signals that are difficult to detect and that resist attempts at jamming. A consequence of these latter two is that incremental increases in offered load lead either only to small increases in network throughput. networks using these protocols can exhibit two stable states under the same level of load. In recent years. frequency-hopping devices use less power and are cheaper. The stable state with low throughput is known as congestive collapse. each of which is allocated across to a frequency channel across the spectrum.signal takes up more bandwidththan the information signal that is being modulated. window reduction in TCP. network congestion occurs when a link or node is carrying so much data that its quality of servicedeteriorates. Typical effects include queueing delay. The redundant chipping code helps the signal resist interference and also enables the original data to be recovered if data bits are damaged during transmission. Direct sequence contrasts with the other spread spectrum process. Thus. Modern networks use congestion control and network congestion avoidance techniques to try to avoid congestion collapse. researchers have turned their attention to applying spread spectrum processes for commercial purposes.11's CSMA/CA and the original Ethernet.

Let the distance of node Y be the distance from the initial node to Y. For example. if current node . conceived by Dutch computer scientist Edsger Dijkstra in 1956 and published in 1959. 3. 1. An example of this is 802.hn standard.[3] For a given source vertex (node) in the graph. but they help to alleviate the effects of congestion for some services. Let the node at which we are starting be called the initial node. For example. Assign to every node a distance value: set it to zero for our initial node and to infinity for all other nodes. Dijkstra's algorithm can be used to find the shortest route between one city and all other cities. Dijkstra's algorithm will assign some initial distance values and will try to improve them step by step. As a result. Set initial node as current.as routers. the shortest path) between that vertex and every other vertex. Mark all nodes as unvisited. One example of this is the use of Contention-Free Transmission Opportunities (CFTXOPs) in the ITU-TG. most notably IS-IS and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First). Another method to avoid the negative effects of network congestion is implementing priority schemes. This algorithm is often used in routing. An equivalent algorithm was developed by Edward F. Priority schemes do not solve network congestion by themselves. if the vertices of the graph represent cities and edge path costs represent driving distances between pairs of cities connected by a direct road. which provides high-speed (up to 1 Gbit/s) Local area networking over existing home wires (power lines. so that some packets are transmitted with higher priority than others. For current node. A third method to avoid network congestion is the explicit allocation of network resources to specific flows. phone lines and coaxial cables). It can also be used for finding costs of shortest paths from a single vertex to a single destination vertex by stopping the algorithm once the shortest path to the destination vertex has been determined. 2. the algorithm finds the path with lowest cost (i. Dijkstra's algorithm.1p. Moore in 1957. the shortest path first is widely used in network routing protocols.[1][2] is a graph search algorithm that solves the single- sourceshortest path problem for a graph with nonnegative edge path costs. consider all its unvisited neighbors and calculate their tentative distance (from the initial node).e. producing ashortest path tree.

overwrite the distance. A visited node will not be checked ever again. If this distance is less than the previously recorded distance (infinity in the beginning. (A) has distance of 6. set the unvisited node with the smallest distance (from the initial node. Otherwise. When we are done considering all neighbors of the current node. mark it as visited. and an edge connecting it with another node (B) is 2. 4. finish. considering all nodes in graph) as the next "current node" and continue from step 3. 5. zero for the initial node). the distance to B through A will be 6+2=8. its distance recorded now is final and minimal. The original version (sometimes referred to as RMON1) focused on OSI Layer 1 and Layer 2 information in Ethernet and Token . The Remote Network MONitoring (RMON) MIB was developed by the IETF to support monitoring and protocol analysis of LANs. If all nodes have been visited.

began to develop its Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) networking suite. Monitoring devices (commonly called "probes" in this context) contain RMON software agents that collect information and analyze packets. RMON is designed to operate differently than other SNMP-based systems:  Probes have more responsibility for data collection and processing. RMON is designed for "flow-based" monitoring. These probes act as servers and the Network Management applications that communicate with them act as clients.  Information is only transmitted to the management application when required. OSI has two major components: an abstract model of networking (the Basic Reference Model. In short. OSI Seven-Layer Model In the 1980s. Each entity interacts directly only with the layer immediately . RMON agents are built into many high-end switches and routers. One disadvantage of this system is that remote devices shoulder more of the management burden. It has been extended by RMON2 which adds support for Network. and event. Parts of OSI have influenced Internet protocol development. instead of continuous polling. alarm. A minimal RMON agent implementation could support only statistics.Ring networks. documented in OSI 7498 and its various addenda. which reduces SNMP traffic and the processing load of the clients. but none more than the abstract model itself. and a set of concrete protocols. and require more resources to do so. Some devices balance this trade-off by implementing only a subset of the RMON MIB groups (see below).and Application-layer monitoring and by SMON which adds support for switched networks. or seven- layer model). In this model. While both agent configuration and data collection use SNMP. history. Within each layer. a networking system is divided into layers. while SNMP is often used for "device-based" management. It is an industry standard specification that provides much of the functionality offered by proprietary network analyzers. The standard documents that describe OSI are for sale and not currently available online. RMON is similar to other flow-based monitoring technologies such as NetFlow and SFlow because the data collected deals mainly with traffic patterns rather than the status of individual devices. the European-dominated International Standards Organization (ISO). one or more entities implement its functionality. An RMON implementation typically operates in a client/server model.

Most newer designs use the seven-layer model. Ex: this layer defines the size of Ethernet coaxial cable. The original Internet protocol specifications defined a four-level model. Ex: this layer defines if and how retransmissions will be used to ensure data delivery. and provides facilities for use by the layer above it. There are several reasons for this. 3. as well as the electrical properties and interpretation of the exchanged signals. 4. 7. The Network Layer describes how a series of exchanges over various data links can deliver data between any two nodes in a network. addressing and checksumming of Ethernet packets. The Application Layer describes how real work actually gets done. The Transport Layer describes the quality and nature of the data delivery. 2.beneath it. Ex: this layer describes how request and reply packets are paired in a remote procedure call. The Presentation Layer describes the syntax of data being transferred. and protocols designed around it (like TCP) have difficulty fitting neatly into the seven-layer model. unimaginative protocols that nobody ever . The seven layers of the OSI Basic Reference Model are (from bottom to top): 1. 6. and the termination method. Ex: this layer defines the addressing and routing structure of the Internet. The Session Layer describes the organization of data sequences larger than the packets handled by lower layers. Ex: this layer would implement file system operations. The Data Link Layer describes the logical organization of data bits transmitted on a particular medium. 5. Protocols enable an entity in one host to interact with a corresponding entity at the same layer in a remote host. OSI's committee- based design process bred overgrown. Ex: this layer describes how floating point numbers can be exchanged between hosts with different math formats. Ex: this layer defines the framing. The Physical Layer describes the physical properties of the various communications media. \begin{soapbox} The OSI Basic Reference Model has enjoyed a far greater acceptance than the OSI protocols themselves. the type of BNC connector used.

Ad hoc networks. usually in a smaller office environment without the need for domains and the additional management and overhead that comes with them. has been loath to embrace yet another networking scheme where you have to pay to figure how things work. or due to shadowing from obstacles affecting thewave propagation. if one of the participants has a connection to a public or private network. They are often created on-the-fly and for one-time or temporary use. churning out thousands of pages of rubbish. Some retail stores even create networks within them to allow customers to obtain new game demos via the store's own ad hoc network. which. OSI protocols will be around. and dominated by big business players more interested in preserving investments than advancing the state of the art. fading may either be due to multipath propagation. and is often modelled as a random process. In wireless systems. Perhaps most importantly.Ad hoc networks are generally closed in that they do not connect to the Internet and are typically created between participants. Peer-to-peer or workgroup style networks were used to create a network environment for early Windows computers.Since the inception of wireless networking there have been two types of wireless networks: the infrastructure network. but we already have a de facto international standard - the Internet.25 (CONS is basically X. downloadable protocol specifications. This allowed these early computers to connect to each other to exchange information. sometimes referred to as shadow fading.Ad hoc networks are common for portable video game systems like the Sony PSP or the Nintendo DS because they allow players to link to each other to play video games wirelessly. The strongest case for its implementation comes from its status as an "international standard".25 data networks never caught people's imagination like the Internet. Ad hoc is Latin meaning "for this purpose. Think of these connections as spontaneous networks.An ad hoc network is one where there are no access points passing information between participants.25 for datagram networks). for example. But. X. including some local area networks (LANs). with a strong history of free.An ad hoc network can be thought of as a peer-to- peer network for the wireless age. Often. The fading may vary with time. . and the ad hoc network. And why should we? OSI's biggest problem is that doesn't really offer anything new. geographical position and/or radio frequency. fading is deviation of the attenuation that a carrier-modulated telecommunication signal experiences over certain propagation media. Infrastructure networks pass information through a central information hub which can be a hardware device or software on a computer. referred to asmultipath induced fading. on the other hand. do not go through a central information hub.accused of efficiency.a big. overgrown standards organization run by committees. but its most significant contribution is the philosophy of networking represented by its layered model.If the Internet community has to worry about anything. available to whomever is in a given area. A fading channel is a communication channel that experiences fading. generally use a server to which company workstations connect to receive their information. it's the danger of IETF turning into another ISO . Heavy European dominance helped protect their investments in X. In wireless communications. This will allow other users on the spontaneous ad hoc network to connect to the Internet as well." Ad hoc networks therefore refer to networks created for a particular purpose. this connection can be shared among other members of the ad hoc network. ad hoc networks are comprised of a group of workstations or other wireless devices which communicate directly with each other to exchange information. Office networks.

. the reach of an ad hoc network can extend quite far. With connection sharing and other methods to access public or private wired or wireless networks.The possibilities with ad hoc networks are quite endless.