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I. Frydrych1,2, G.

Dziworska1,
J. Bilska2
Comparative Analysis of the Thermal
1Institute of Textile Architecture, £ódŸ, Poland
ul. Piotrkowska 276, 90-950 £ódŸ
Insulation Properties of Fabrics Made
2Technical
e-mail: iat@iat.com.pl
University of £ódŸ, Poland of Natural and Man-Made Cellulose Fibres
ul. ¯eromskiego 116, 90-543 £ódŸ
e-mail: ifrydryc@ck-sg.p.lodz.pl

Abstract
Yarn made of natural and man-made cellulose fibres is nowadays commonly applied in textiles. It is
already apparent that the type of raw material and fabric structure influences the properties of the fin-
ished goods. The main aim of this paper was to present a comparative analysis of thermal insulation
properties (such as thermal conductivity, absorption and thermal resistance) of fabrics made of cotton
and Tencel. 6 samples of cotton fabrics and 9 samples of fabrics from Tencel yarns were produced for
the purpose of these tests. All fabrics had warp and weft yarns of nominal linear density of 20 tex.
Three kinds of weaves were applied: plain, combined and twill with nominal warp and weft densities
of 320/dm. The measurements were carried out on finished fabrics with the use of the ALAMBETA
device. The results are presented graphically and discussed. The finished fabrics made of Tencel yarn
showed lower values of thermal conductivity and thermal absorption than fabrics made of cotton yarns,
and higher values of thermal diffusion and resistance. The influence of the type of weave on thermal
properties was observed for all fabrics made of cotton and Tencel.
Key words: thermal insulation, thermal conductivity, thermal absorption, thermal diffusion, ther-
mal resistance, cellulose fabrics, cotton fabrics, fabric structure.

user. Thermal insulation properties are bodies. Its advantage consists in the
determined not only by the physical peculiarity that thermal absorption
parameters of fabrics but also by struc- does not depend on the conditions of
tural parameters such as weave and the experiment, and is directly related
drape. to other thermal properties such as
thermal conductivity and diffusion.
Kawabata & Yoneda [4] pointed out
the importance of the so-called ‘warm- Nowadays, yarn made of cellulose
cool feeling’’. This property tells us fibres (natural and man-made) is com-
whether a user feels ‘warm’’ or ‘cool’’ monly applied in textiles. It is apparent
at the first brief contact of the fabric that the kind of raw material and the
with human skin. Hes [5,6] introduced fabric structure will influence the
the term of ‘thermal absorption’’ as a properties of final goods.
measure of the ‘warm-cool feeling’’ of
textiles. Thermal absorption deter- The main aim of this paper is to pre-
mines the contact temperature of two sent a comparative analysis of thermal

Table 1. Physical and mechanical properties of cotton and Tencel yarns.

Parameter Unit Tencel 100%, 20 tex Cotton 100%, 20 tex
Breaking force cN 514.0 248.4
Strain % 008.7 006.9
Tenacity cN/tex 026.2 012.5
Variation coefficient of tenacity % 010.6 006.4
Variation coefficient of strain % 008.4 007.2
■ Introduction Number of twist 1/m 771.0 803.0
Thermal properties are among the Variation coefficient of twist % 004.5 005.3
most important features of textiles [1- Metric twist coefficient 107.0 113.3
3]. For instance, thermal insulation
determines the elementary function of Linear density tex 019.6 019.9
garments. Most of the studies hitherto Variation coefficient of linear density % 001.1 000.9
carried out are devoted to measure-
CV% Uster % 015.2 015.6
ments of static thermal properties such
as thermal conductivity, thermal resis- Thin places unit/1000m 012.0 018.4
tance, and thermal diffusion. Thermal Thick places/1000m unit/1000m 072.0 024.0
insulation is a very important factor
for estimating apparel comfort for the Neps/1000m unit/1000m 010.4 028.8

40 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October/December 2002

2 44.3 43.8 67. Desizing Enzymatic finishing Resin finishing dards.8 12.2 ■ Resin treatment by the PAD-DRY- FIX method.7 68.3 such enzymatic treatment. The physical and mechanical proper.0 340.0 350.6 138.3 0.4 134.9 -4.2 56.0 334. Strain at break in dry conditions warp % 9.0 328.6 716. canvas and twill.2 conditions warp size before weaving.0 332.5 44.9 63. thermal re- sistance and others for fabrics made of cotton and Tencel yarns.0 9.9 weaves: plain.8 68.0 347.9 63.2 -5.4 were applied for this finishing Shrinkage warp % -3.0 307.7 -2.2 done by enzymatic treatment.2 -3.0 339.3 -4.6 15. Fabric weaves.plain.1 38.5 19.twill).6 in the range of 110-150°C.0 19.5 14.7 5. and the results are shown in ■ Starch finishing. weft daN 45. T .6 0. Soft han- Crease resistance warp % 47.1 62.0 339.4 0.1 826.0 325.0 345.5 64.4 69. STABITEX made of Tencel and cotton yarns were The measurements of thermal insula- GFA (resin).7 0.4 48.8 37. Physical and mechanical properties of finished fabrics made of Tencel yarn (P .9 147.0 ic emulsion and desizing medium.3 0.2 62.7 40. vas.7 thickness meter sive desizing in a solution of nonion. weft % 48.0 dle and in some cases the ‘peach Breaking force in dry conditions warp daN 35.8 65.can- ties of Tencel and cotton yarns are pre.7 temperature of the process was in the range of 45-55°C and the reaction Number of threads per 1dm warp 344.3 13.3 ried out by a periodic method using enzymes of the cellulase type.1 136.7 0.6 0.0 325.4 13. Soft han.0 335. mm 0. The fabrics examined were Parameters Unit P C T P C T P C T manufactured with three kinds of Weight per square metre g 151. and also to study the influence of the type of weave and finishing on thermal prop- erties. The effect depends on the mechanical activity of the Table 3.plain. C .8 skin' effect can be obtained by using weft daN 33.5 ride and acetate acid of pH 4-4.8 17.3 process.0 Breaking force in dry The fabrics made of 100% Tencel yarn conditions warp daN 64.0 333.5 0.7 37. ■ Experimental Materials ■ and Procedure An assessment of thermal insulation was carried out for fabrics made of Figure 1.0 341.3 0.6 58.4 -4.5 were applied for Parameter Unit P C T P C T the enzymatic finishing process.8 73.0 305.5 35.3 -2.6 dle and fabric crease resistance was improved using this resin treatment.6 0.0 343.2 were processed according to three dif. Shrinkage warp % -4. The Weight per square metre g 137.0 345.7 -4.4 15.1 -1.8 60.8 753.5-5.6 31.6 ferent kinds of finishing: Strain at break in dry ■ Enzymatic desizing and removal of warp % 22.7 0.8 71.6 135.2 198. All properties were determined according to Polish Stan.5 -3.0 1 dm of 32/cm (Figure 1).9 770.3 50. applied raw material components.0 333.8 24. Table 2.1 11.1 262.5 462. weft dm-1 333.9 61.8 64.2 52. this was weft % 19.6 496.5 15.1 -4.1 154 152.twill).0 -2. magnesium chloride assessed according to Polish Stan.8 58. The fabric properties at a drying temperature of 140°C.0 -1. The drying temperature was weft % -3. Tables 2 and 3. using natural starch temperature of 150-160°C. 2% diazym 100 (Diamall) and acetate Starch finishing Elastomeric finishing acid of pH=4.4 -4.0 339.6 0.4 53.0 -2.0 -1.7 6.0 340.8 68.6 155.0 342.4 -4.8 33.5 18. weft % -2.4 11.6 73.1 1106.3 -4.4 340.8 17.0 41.5 -1.8 54.8 31.4 72.1 -1.3 5.0 337. 100% cotton and 100% Tencel yarns with a nominal linear density of 20 tex.2 Air permeability dm3m-2s-1 104. which caused an improvement in ties of all the types of finished fabrics fabric crease resistance.0 22.0 328.3 0.7 136. C .can- enzyme used.0 342.6 acted on the fibril ends and caused Air permeability dm3m-2s-1 308.4 61.4 -4.6 their shortening to obtain a slight pick-out surface. this was car- Crease resistance warp % 62.2 62.4 136.1 139. The physical and mechanical proper.4 ■ Enzymatic treatment.9 -2. weft % 14.0 17. as well as on the vas.5 16.7 66. measurements.5 142.0 time was set to 60 minutes. by Thickness measured by means of a-amylase and then inten.7 0.0 314.9 60.2 18.5 Thickness measured by thickness meter mm 0.2 18.8 148.0 0.3 -4.3 62. 20% magnesium chlo.4 8.4 53.0 -2. absorption.1 937. T .2 60.1 47.1 53.0 62.6 16. tion parameters were performed on FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October/December 2002 41 . presented are the mean values of 20 ■ Ennoblement elastomeric finishing.7 45. sented in Table 1.0 8. all Number of threads per with weft and warp nominal density warp dm-1 347. which weft % 47.0 326.2 71.5 Fabrics made of 100% cotton yarn were processed according to two kinds of finishing: and Heliofor PBO were used at a dards.0 331. weft 326. Physical and mechanical properties of finished fabrics made of cotton yarn (P .insulation properties such as thermal conductivity.8 59.

it can be noted that the influence of finishing is noticeable. it can be both sample sides. ■ Results Thermal diffusion is an ability related Thermal conductivity to the heat flow through the fabric Five measurements for left and five for The measurement result of thermal structure. finishing is also apparent. Thermal diffusion Thermal diffusion is defined by the relationship: finished fabrics with the use of the While assessing the utility properties. Fτ metic mean of results obtained for σ fabrics (Figure 3a).cotton. fusion. When testing the influence of finish- ing on both cotton and Tencel fabrics. Considering cotton fabrics. mal absorption b. This device is ∆T .Tencel. conductivity is based on equation (1): sion. In the case of thermal diffu- right sides for each fabric were made. Wm −1K −1 (1) ∆T higher thermal diffusion than cotton parameters calculated as the arith. we observe the opposite situation The assessment of thermal properties to that noted previously. Thermal absorption b: a .b).Tencel.time of heat conducting.specific heat of fabric. Fabrics made of cotton have better thermal conductivity than fabrics made of Tencel. the ratio of maximal to stationary heat λ . we can state that fabrics made Tencel plain fabrics have the highest repeated tests with the same fabrics we of cotton yarn have higher thermal value of thermal diffusion for desizing obtained similar results to those pre.amount of conducted heat. probably in a state of ongoing devel. b . In the case of canvas and twill weaves of Tencel fabrics. thermal resistance r. While observing the influence should be considered as rough esti. fabrics have the higher value for resin 42 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October/December 2002 . In all cases.Tencel. If we consider this parameter according to the kind of weave. and should where: ductivity λ. and stationary heat flow density qs at the contact point. Thermal conductivity λ: a . Unfortunately. rics. The results ob- tained show that all kinds of finishing and both kinds of raw materials influ- ence thermal conductivity. of the kind of weave. c . however in the case of plain weave. than are fabrics after starch finishing surement accuracy of the particular τ . λ ALAMBETA device constructed by we assumed that the fabrics produced a= . ducted.cotton. ther. ensure good heat transfer from the ρ . However. which did not differ Q . ductivity in relation to the raw materi. properties measured. the fabrics with desizing finishing have in general the highest value of thermal conductivity. Tencel yarn (Figure 2a. Analysing the influ- where: ence of the kind of finishing. σ . We cannot make a comparison of the types of fin- ishing between cotton and Tencel fab- Figure 2. Figure 4. seen that cotton fabrics after elas- significantly. Thermal diffusion a: a .drop of temperature.cotton. flow density υ. when carrying out al used. Six parame. b . body to the environment. we can see no clear opment.area through which the heat is con- higher values of thermal diffusion not inform us exactly about the mea. the differ- ence between starch and elastomeric Figure 3. conductivity than those made of and enzymatic treatment (the canvas sented in this paper. (Figure 3b). thermal diffusion a. and those with resin finishing the lowest. b . m 2 s −1 (2) Hes (Czech Republic) [7]. For Tencel fabrics. for summer clothing. ρc (thin cotton and Tencel) are designed ters were determined: thermal con.fabric density. and so the measurement influence of finishing on thermal dif- results presented in the next chapter Comparing the values of thermal con. we can see that plain fabrics made of both cotton and Tencel yarns have the highest values.fabric thickness. the fabrics with elastomeric finishing are characterised by a higher value of thermal conductivity than the fabrics with starch finishing. the pro- tomeric finishing are characterised by ducer of the ALAMBETA device did F .heat conductivity. because suitable finishing was used for the raw materials applied. All types of Q weave fabrics made of Tencel have was carried out based on the values of λ= . the fabric after enzymatic treatment has the highest value. we noted that mates.

cotton. smooth surface give a cooler feel- ing in comparison with fabrics of lower regularity and smoothness. whereas for cotton fabrics ρ . elastomeric finishing are characterised a higher value after elastomeric finish- c .thermal conductivity. A small dependence was noted for the type of weaves for Tencel fabrics and a more prominent one for cotton fabrics. The opposite character in the aspect of its ‘cool. the fabric structure.fabric density. it is apparent that Thermal absorption is a surface prop. b . in which this parameter is higher than after enzy- matic and resin treatment. FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October/December 2002 43 . between thermal absorption and the type of finishing for Tencel fabrics. thickness than plain fabrics. Ws m K 1/ 2 −2 −1 (3) warmer feelings than fabrics made of where: cotton yarns (Figure 4a). and twill fabrics the lowest. processes can change it. where: σ . In Figure 7. The Thermal absorption can be expressed as: Tencel fabrics have a much lower value influence of the type of finishing was of thermal absorption. the case of Tencel fabrics. Considering those after starch finishing. and is proportional to the fabric structure. and higher surface roughness. but the dif.Tencel.Tencel. Summing up the above results. ideal for summer clothes. we can observe the processing). b = λ ⋅ ρ c . b . and therefore the finishing clear dependence was observed ness. b .cotton. we have to say that fabrics with a regular. thermal insulation. This parame. twill fabrics after all kinds of finishing have the highest thermal resistance. whereas plain fabrics have in general the lowest value of this parameter (Figure 5). We stated that fabrics with twill weave for both kinds of yarn have the highest value of thermal resistance.thermal conductivity. Stationary heat flow density qs: a . increase of thermal insulation. Thermal resistance R: a . A plain fabrics have the smallest thick- erty. Thermal resistance is a very important parameter from the point of view of Figure 8.fabric thickness. so they give us also noted. Cotton fabrics after elastomeric finish- ing have higher thermal resistance than fabrics after starch finishing. m 2 KW −1 (4) λ Figure 6. Fabrics after not regular. Fabrics with a low Fabrics with twill and canvas weaves cotton yarns.the specific heat of the fabric. Thermal resistance Thermal resistance is connected with fabric thickness by the relationship (4): σ R= .cotton. Fabrics made of Tencel with plain and canvas weaves have a value of thermal resis- tance at more or less the same level.Tencel. plain fabrics have the highest absorption. and the twill Tencel fab. value of thermal absorption give us a are characterised by a slightly greater ‘‘warm’’ feeling. situation is noted for fabrics made of warm’’ feeling. which is not For Tencel fabrics the influence was λ .cotton. apart from the fabric with plain weave after desizing finishing. es for the space insulated by the textile. ference is not essential (Figure 4b). Ratio of maximum and stationary heat flow qmax/qs: a . by lower thermal absorption than ing could be observed. and in rics are characterised by the lowest ter allows assessment of the fabric’s the same way the decrease of heat loss- value of this parameter. flat. λ . which Thermal absorption results from the fabric structure. Thickness σ : a . b .Tencel. In both cases. Due to increase in thickness. Figure 5.

F . 1990. S. Mecheels J. Thermal properties of nonwovens.V. Körper-Klima-Kleideng. Elastomeric objective evaluation of thermal insulation and Tencel fabrics. Instruction manuals of the Alambeta instrument have the lowest value. Le C. Melliand qs = .2002 44 FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe October/December 2002 .G. vol. but also by applying appropri- time the heat flow stabilised itself at a Air permeability is a hygienic property ate weaves and appropriate finishing determined level qs. The stationary heat flow density qs is defined by the equation: Air permeability was determined References according to Polish Standard PN-EN- Q 1. (1995). The highest stationary densi.. Heat and Moisture Transfer in where: and in Figure 9.12. Wm −2 (5) ISO 9297:1998. Tencel fabrics after resin treatment No 4. ❏ ratio value. 100% cotton yarn of canvas weave 5. we can state that fabric porosity. New achievements in the area of the est values of this heat flow density for have the lowest value. No 9. its thermal properties than those made of cross-section and shape. a small influence of the higher value of air permeability than Republic. In: have the highest value of air perme. 6. s 773 (1997). The measurement Textilberichte Part I.e. 4. user. M.cotton. We have also observed the of weave of Tencel fabrics. Part I. Mechanical influence of the type of finishing.the amount of heat. Tencel fabrics. dm 3m −2 s −1 terised by a higher ratio value than Fτ ( ∆p ) the subjective point of view of which fabrics after starch finishing.. fabrics made of cotton yarn. qmax) from the skin to the fabric This can be achieved not only by the appears at the moment of contact of choice of thickness or the fabric cover the cold fabric with human skin. and the lowest . Czech Tencel fabrics. and fabrics after resin fin- ishing the lowest. Geneva 1987.drop in pressure of the medium. kind of finishing is also apparent.02. Ly N. Cotton fabrics after starch finishing are characterised by a higher value of this twill weave. In the case of Fabrics made of Tencel yarn have a SENSORA Liberec Registered Company. fabrics after desizing have the highest V . ronment and the flow of fresh air to some fabric properties characterising ters which characterise fabric thermal their thermal and utility comfort. this point of view they are more suit- able for summer clothing. A Theoretical higher value of stationary heat flow Consideration on the Objective Measurement density than fabrics made of Tencel Considering the influence of the kind of Fabric Warm/Cool Feeling. Congress Index 87. whereas twill fabrics 7. Vol. so from ❏ Received 04. and those of twill the treatment allows for higher values of thermal-contact properties of textiles.2002 Reviewed: 03. the lowest. Kawabata S. Text. In the property is more important for the where: case of fabrics made of Tencel yarn. V the choice of raw material depends on A= . the type of raw materials influences imum heat flow is one of the parame. Vol. Cotton fabrics Tencel fabrics are superior. With ■ Air Permeability factor.. with plain weave.time of flow. Therefore. No 3.. matic and resin treatment the values of Science and Technology. Thermal The ratio of maximum to stationary Tencel yarns when they are applied for properties are essentially influenced heat flow density for cotton fabrics is summer clothing (from the point of by air permeability. the Textile Machinery Society parameter than after elastomeric fin. this parameter than do fabrics with Asian Textile Conference. 65. The max. value was observed for fabrics with Properties and Performance. The maximum heat flow density (i. Moreover..the area through which the heat is have in general the smallest values of 3. and fabrics of plain weaves . It was noted that Textile Assemblies. the highest Specification of Fabric Quality. Res. which is called the of textiles which influences the flow of processes. Air permeability A: a .. edited by S. air permeability. Hes l. It was stated that cotton fabrics have a same level. and those after resin finishing human body and the environment. Fabrics made of in Japan 1982. Ideal Fabrics. 1201-1203 ty of heat flow characterises the plain starch finishing. gas from the human body to the envi.capacity of the flowing medium. But 7). we noted only a small influence of cool’’ feeling and air permeability. whereas after enzy. The 3rd lowest -. A Guide Line for Manufacturing conducted.for those Kawabata et al. Objective (Figure 8). ability. Fabrics of plain weave have the high.the area through which the medi. we can state that there are many possi- bilities for creating fabric properties which influence their comfort of use. and similar to thermal the results obtained. is a surface property [5]. higher than for Tencel fabrics (Figure view of thermal conductivity). Stationary heat flow ∆p . Yoneda.Tencel.time of flow. (1995). which means the num- absorption. Q . Air permeability depends on insulation.. b . from the point of view of the ‘warm- Air permeability is defined by the ing. Kawabata. pp 134- this parameter are more or less at the 140 (2000). 12. after elastomeric finishing are charac. From the body. s 203. τ . J. Concerning the influence of finish. ■ Summary On the basis of the results obtained. II pp. Hes L. International Journal of Clothing τ . fabrics made of cotton yarn have better ber of canals in the textile fabric. F . equation: this factor on the ratio. for summer clothing which were the objects of research should ensure Ratio of maximum and stationary Fabrics after desizing have the highest appropriate heat transfer between the heat flow density values. it was noted that stationary heat flow density. F ⋅τ results are presented in Tables 2 & 3 2. um is flowing. The thin cotton and Tencel fabrics used Figure 9. ishing.