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2009 International Conference on Industrial Mechatronics and Automation

Multi-parameter Monitoring System for Coal Mine based on Wireless Sensor
Network Technology

Shi Wei Li Li-li
Liaoning Technical University Liaoning Technical University
School of Electronics and Information Engineering School of Electronics and Information Engineering
Fuxin,China Fuxin,China

Abstract—According to the characteristics of coal mine Server
environment, in this paper we propose a multi-parameter Database
wireless sensor network monitoring system based on Zigbee
technology for coal mine tunnel. The system can real-time
monitor the underground environment and production
parameters and intelligently give early warning by using a RS485
variety of sensors and wireless sensor network. It is flexible Intranet
to add sensors and enhance stability of monitoring computer
software through RS-485 communication protocol and
hardware modular. Experiments have proved feasibility and Tunnel 1
good stability of the system.

Keywords-coal mine safety; multi-parameter monitoring;
wireless sensor network; Zigbee protocol; RS-485 Tunnel 2 Terminal Terminal

Now most coal mine safety monitoring systems use
cables and fixed sensor networks, but with the mining face
moving, monitoring blind spot will appear. Coal mine Figure 1. Overall block diagram for the system
safety monitoring system based on wireless sensor
network can timely and accurately reflect dynamic
situation of staff in the underground regions to ground III. DESIGN OF SYSTEM HARDWARE
computer system. So that managers can keep the
A. Main Devices Selection
distribution of underground staff and the trajectory of each
miner, in order to schedule and manage them 1) Wireless communication module: Select Zigbee
reasonably[4]. wireless transceiver CC2420, the chip's sensitivity index is
superior to standards of 802.15.4, this ensures
II. DESIGN OF OVERALL SYSTEM effectiveness and reliability for short-distance
The mine multi-parameter monitoring system designed communication, and the chip can be used to built a
in this paper can real-time monitor underground gas, wireless network containing 65535 nodes to rapidly
temperature, humidity and other signals. And it achieve a multi-point to multi-point network.
automatically sends warning signals to ground main 2) MCU: MCU plays a central role in the whole node
control room and completes corresponding control. Data
hardware, ATMEL's 8-bit VAR chip ATmega128 is used
processing flow of the system is as follows: At first,
sensor nodes carried by miners real-time collect signals in the system. As the size of Zigbee protocol stack is only
such as underground gas, wind speed, temperature, a quarter of Bluetooth, the demand for hardware resources
humidity, etc.. Data collected by sensor nodes is sent to is very low, that 8-bit microprocessor can meet the
central node in multi-hop routing manner through a requirements. ATmega128 is a low-power component and
number of routing nodes placed in the tub, tunnel and can enter sleep mode when no data acquisition, it is
operating levels, and then it is packaged by the central suitable for mobile sensor nodes which can only be
node to be sent to monitoring center. Then after control powered by battery.
center server receives the data, it saves data in 3) Sensors: It is not necessary for each single node
corresponding database tables according to data types. At accuracy in the wireless sensor network to be very high,
last, clients query and analysis of relevant data from
the system monitors multiple underground parameters by
database, and display to users[1]. Overall block diagram for
the system as shown in Figure 1. gas sensor MC112, temperature sensor LM35 , humidity
sensor HM1 and so on[2,3].

978-1-4244-3818-1/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE ICIMA 2009

it can actively scan sensor nodes within its coverage area. Zigbee sending module. Sensor module monitors information collecting in the regions. central Mobile node is composed of sensor module.7V the output service module uploads data to the server. on Jennic CodeBolcks compiler and debugger.B. SYSTEM TEST the only one connecting with the monitoring system After debugging all parts of hardware and software. work current in launching state is 80~90 routing node in the following aspects: First expand RS485 mA. idea is that communication effects can be guaranteed Lower computer software is generally composed of the within 60m distance. the monitoring watching the value of quality monitoring bits. and automatically switch to backup battery when the power cables fail[8. less than 200μA in communication interface and LCD basing on routing dormant state. Operating system quality together with transmission failure rate the general used by embedded software is Basic Operting System[10]. Main program flow chart control center in the whole network. Main program module calls module. we through the RS485 in the entire wireless sensor network. the highest bit is reserved. Central node hardware design is different from alkaline batteries. Design of Mobile Node Hardware data acquisition modules. normally use between cable power supply and battery-powered. lower quality monitoring bits are a part of header descriptor computer software is programed in C language under accounting for one byte.. wireless communication module and power other modules to complete the business logic operations. the receiving is 75~80 mA. the greater value means the better quality. Communicating Distance Test After testing we know the maximum communicating IV. Routing node hardware designing is relatively simple. Central node can automatically switch nodes. then change the way of power supply. Control module controls all the sends it to monitoring center in accordance with RS485 business logic operations of the node. project As shown in Figure 4. and obstructions and weather following parts: main module.Test In the entire monitoring system it plays a role in contents are as follows: connecting: On the one hand. on the other hand. Central node levels. cables for power supply. Power Supply and Power Consumption Test wireless sensor network data and sends it to upper Mobile sensor nodes work normally with two 3V computer. test the wireless sensor network monitoring system. Node hardware connection as shown in Figure 1. and transmits them to data processing module[5-7]. DESIGN OF SYSTEM SOFTWARE distance between two nodes is around 110m.9]. In power module 3V alkaline battery is used. and visually debugging. It is V. it receives upper computer instructions for network setting. converts to digital signals. B. 226 . communication module. it packs A. supports the functions of codes auto-completion. basing on the design of sensor node it only needs to reserve power module. and it is responsible for network access and dynamic address assignment. Node hardware connection C. with other nodes. considering the communication management. Continuous part of upper computer is developed in Visual C++. Wireless communication protocol. module. even if battery voltage is as low as 0. CodeBolcks behalf of 0-127. Main program flow as shown in communication module is responsible for communicating Figure 3. Design of Routing and Central Node Routing node receives data from sensor nodes and sends it to central node. Network System software design mainly includes upper communication quality can be understood through computer software and lower computer. Warning LCD RS485 circuit I/O Sensors MC112 MCU SPI Zigbee A LM35 / ATmega128 Module D HM1 JTAG 3V Power TPS6112X Figure 2. controll node service module etc. Central node is the Figure 3. Data acquisition module collects data. packs data and to MCU is still around 5V. controll module and wireless communication module. Zigbee conversion device TPS6112X is needed for transforming module packages and sends the digital. as Communication module establishes a data link between the normal working level of MCU is 5V. DC-DC nodes.

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