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New Imperialism

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This article is part of
the New Imperialism
series.
Origins of New Imperialism
Imperialism in Asia
The Scramble for Africa
Theories of New Imperialism

New Imperialism refers to the colonial expansion adopted by Europe's powers and,
later, Japan and theUnited States, during the 19th and early 20th centuries;
expansion approximately took place from theFrench conquest of Algeria to World
War I ( 1830 - 1914). The period is distinguished by an unprecedented pursuit of
overseas territorial acquisitions.

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Rise of New Imperialism

○ 1.1 Britain and the New Imperialism

○ 1.2 France and the New Imperialism

○ 1.3 The New Imperialism and the newly-industrializing
countries

○ 1.4 Social implications of the New Imperialism

• 2 New Imperialism in Asia & Africa

• 3 Imperial rivalry

• 4 Theories

This activity followed the erosion of Pax Britannica. the balance of power established by the Congress of Vienna. Belgium and the United States. following the revolutions in the viceroyalties of New Spain. and the Rio de la Plata ended the first era of European imperialism. The 1846 repeal of the Corn Laws marked the adoption of free trade by the UK. Peru. Needing external markets for their manufactured goods. As the "workshop of the world. these revolutions helped show the deficiencies of mercantilism. During this period. Especially in the United Kingdom (UK). New Granada. The erosion of British hegemony after the Franco-Prussian War was occasioned by changes in the European and world economies and in the continental balance of power following the breakdown of the Concert of Europe. during which British industrial and naval supremacy underpinned an informal empire of free trade and commercial hegemony." Britain could produce finished goods so efficiently and cheaply that they could usually undersell comparable. locally manufactured goods in foreign markets. the United Kingdom was even supplying a large share of the manufactured goods consumed by such nations as Germany. commerce. the doctrine of economic competition for finite wealth which had supported earlier imperial expansion. The establishment of nation-states in Germany and Italy resolved territorial issues that had kept potential rivals embroiled in internal affairs at the heart of Europe (to Britain's advantage). Economically. Britain reaped the benefits of being the world's sole modern. such as Germany and the United States. . The Pax era also saw the enforced opening of key markets to European. particularly British. adding to the commercial competition of old rivals like France were now the newly industrializing powers. • 5 Other Readings • 6 References • 7 See also • 8 External links [edit]Rise of New Imperialism Main article: Rise of the New Imperialism The American Revolution and the collapse of the Spanish empire in the New World in the early 1810-20s. all sought ways to challenge Britain's dominance in world trade – the consequence of its early industrialization. industrial power. As the "workshop of the world". between the 1815 Congress of Vienna (after the defeat of Napoleonic France) and the end of the Franco-Prussian War(1871). France.

in Italy. which added to pressure on governments to promote home industry. a prolonged period of price deflation punctuated by severe business downturns.This competition was sharpened by the Long Depression of 1873-1896. while supplying cheap raw materials. leading to the widespread abandonment of free trade among Europe's powers (in Germany from 1879 and in France from 1881). Britain's lag in other fields deepened her reliance on invisible exports (such as banking. the latter half of the 19th century has been seen as the period of displacement ofindustrial capitalism by finance capitalism. [edit]Britain and the New Imperialism British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli andQueen Victoria In Britain. insurance and shipping services) to offset a merchandise trade deficit . and later the U.S.[1][2] The resulting limitation of both domestic markets and export opportunities led government and business leaders in Europe. tropical empires in India and Burma were seen as outlets for what was deemed a surplus home population. and to a lesser extent in Germany and Britain. to see the solution in sheltered overseas markets united to the home country behind imperial tariff barriers: new overseas colonies would provide export markets free of foreign competition. Also. As the country's relative commercial and industrial lag encouraged the creation of larger corporations and combines.. close association of industry and banks added to the influence of financiers over the British economy and politics. The revival of working-class militancy and emergence of socialist parties during the Depression decades led conservative governments to view colonialism as a force for national cohesion in support of the domestic status quo.

(such as Egypt). Joint Anglo-French financial control over Egypt ended in outright British occupation in 1882. the military actions needed to secure empire were seen by colonial enthusiasts as 'the first. such as Jules Ferry of France. brought increased pressure for their systematic protection. At the same time. [edit]France and the New Imperialism Government leaders. Fear of Russia's centuries-old southward expansion was a further factor in British policy: in 1878. Britain's entry into the new imperial age is often dated to 1875. During the 1890s." Although it had been official British policy for years to support such investments. however. some powerful industrial lobbies and government leaders in Britain. did . faltering steps of convalescence'. The Great Game in Inner Asia ended with a bloody and wholly unnecessary British expedition against Tibet in 1903-1904. came to view formal empire as necessary to arrest Britain's relative decline in world markets. or as a primarily strategic or pre- emptive attempt to protect existing trade links and to prevent the absorption of overseas markets into the increasingly closed imperial trading blocs of rival powers. since its opening six years earlier as a channel for shipping between Britain and India. This plan. and invaded Afghanistan to forestall an increase in Russian influence there. the large expansion of these investments after about 1860 and economic and political instability in many areas of high investment. Britain took control of Cyprus as a base for action against a Russian attack on the Ottoman Empire. Britain adopted the new policy wholeheartedly. and thereby keep her "out of the red. The expansion of the French colonial empire was also seen as a method of 'rejuvenating' the country after its humiliating defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871. when the government of Benjamin Disraeli bought the indebted Egyptian ruler Ismail's shareholding in the Suez Canal to secure control of this strategic waterway. concluded that sheltered overseas markets would solve the problems of low prices and over-accumulation of surplus capital caused by shrinking continental markets. exemplified by Joseph Chamberlain. Britain's adoption of the New Imperialism may be seen as a quest for captive markets or fields for investment of surplus capital. The failure in the 1900s of Chamberlain's campaign for Imperial tariffs illustrates the strength of free trade feeling even in the face of loss of international market share. quickly emerging as the front-runner in the scramble for tropical African territories.dating from the beginning of commercial liberalization in 1813.

the main features of the U. capital investments within the Philippines and Puerto Rico were relatively small (figures that would seemingly detract from the broader economic implications on first glance). However. Although U.meet with some popular resistance. as in other newly industrializing nations where government sought to accelerate internal development. so would Germany following its own unification in 1871. be associated with the high McKinley Tariff of 1890.S. the result of the war was that the U. would also spur on her . contributed to fears of constrained natural resource. and unemployment. "imperialism" for the United States. and Theodore Roosevelt advocated a more aggressive foreign policy to pull the United States out of the depression. Both countries undertook ambitious naval expansion in the 1890s. It was. emerged as one of the world's leading industrial. Advocates of empires also drew upon a tradition of westward expansion over the course of the previous century.S. The "closing of the Frontier" identified by the 1890 Census report and publicized by historian Frederick Jackson Turner in his 1893 paper The Significance of the Frontier in American History. The Panic of 1893 contributed to the growing mood for expansionism.. came into the possession of Cuba. and violent labor disputes such as the Pullman and Homestead strikes. Like the Long Depression in Europe. and Ferry himself was removed from office twice over colonial disputes. United States expansionism had its roots in domestic concerns and economic conditions. depression included deflation. And just as Germany reacted to depression with the adoption of tariff protection in 1879 and colonial expansion in 1884-85. formalized in 1904 by the Roosevelt Corollary to theMonroe Doctrine.S. opposition to expansionism was strong and vocal in the United States. which aggravated the bitter social protests of the "Gilded Age"—the Populist movement. Influential politicians such as Henry Cabot Lodge. Economic depression led some U. however. for three decades.S. William McKinley. [edit]The New Imperialism and the newly-industrializing countries Just as the U. only the Philippines that remained. military and political powers after the Civil War. following the landslide election (1896) ofWilliam McKinley. Puerto Rico and the Philippines.S. rural decline. Whatever the causes. as a colonial possession. the free-silver crusade. businessmen and politicians from the mid- 1880s to come to the same conclusion as their European counterparts—that industry and capital had exceeded the capacity of existing markets and needed new outlets. so would the U.S.

Many of Europe's major elites also found advantages in formal. Observing the rise of trade unionism. [edit]Social implications of the New Imperialism The New Imperialism gave rise to new social views of colonialism. elites sought to use imperial jingoism to co-opt the support of part of the industrial working class. formal titles. and her expansionism drew on the harnessing of traditional Japanese values to more modern aspirations for great-power status. but also under the mistaken notion that Germany's entry into the colonial scramble could press Britain into conceding to broader German strategic ambitions.displacement of Britain as the predominant investor in Latin America—a process largely completed by the end of the Great War. Rudyard Kipling. overseas expansion: large financial and industrial monopolies wanted imperial support to protect their overseas investments against competition and domestic political tensions abroad. The new mass media promoted jingoism in the Spanish-American War (1898). Korea in 1910 and a sphere of influence in Manchuria (1905). bureaucrats wanted and sought government offices. and the Boxer Rebellion (1900). While Social Darwinism became current throughout western Europe and the United States. Japan's development after the Meiji Restoration of 1868 followed the Western lead in industrialization and militarism. socialism. regardless of whether they wanted this civilization or not. for instance. and other protest movements during an era of mass society in both Europe and later North America. Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck revised his initial dislike of colonies (which he had seen as burdensome and useless). enabling her to gain control of Taiwan in 1895. following her defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War. In Germany. Japan was responding in part to the actions of more established powers. and high office. and the traditional but waning landed gentries sought increased profits for their investments. not until the 1930s was Japan to become a net exporter of capital. partly under pressure for colonial expansion to match that of the other European states.[3] Despite apparent benevolence existing in the notion of the "White Man's Burden". urged the United States to "Take up the White Man's burden" of bringing European civilization to the other peoples of the world. Such special interests perpetuate empire building today and throughout history. the Second Boer War (1899-1902). the unintended consequences of imperialism might greatly outweigh the potential . the paternalistic French-style "civilizing mission" (In French: mission civilisatrice) appealed to many European statesmen. military officers desired promotion.

and Emperor Meiji (Japan) discussing how to cut up a plate with Chine("China" in French) written on it. Imperialism creates clients of ruling elites abroad that are brutal and corrupt to their own people. Acts in 1773 and 1784 had already empowered the government to control Company policies and to appoint the Governor-General(Viceroy). Marianne (France). Governments become increasingly paternalistic at home and neglect the individual liberties of their citizens.[4] The notion of rule over tropical lands commanded widespread acceptance among metropolitan populations: even among those who associated imperial colonization with oppression and exploitation. For example. the 1904 Congress of the Socialist International concluded that the colonial peoples should be taken in hand by future European socialist governments and led by them to eventual independence. Wilhelm II (Germany). A shocked mandarin in Manchurobes in the back. following the Indian Mutiny (Also known as the Sepoy Rebellion or Mutiny) of the previous year. the highest Company official in India. . the corrupt elites are able to consolidate power through imperial rents and impede social change and economic development.Nicholas II (Russia).benefits. usually leading to an "imperial overreach". [edit]New Imperialism in Asia & Africa Main article: Imperialism in Asia The transition to formal imperialism in India was effectively accomplished with the transfer of administrative functions from the charteredBritish East India Company to the British government in 1858. "nation building" can create cultural sentiments of racism and xenophobia. Consequently. Furthermore. with Queen Victoria(United Kingdom). Military spending expands.

replaced the rule of a monopolistic enterprise with that of a trained civil service headed by graduates of Britain's top universities. against which General Gordon (later the imperialist 'martyr' in the Sudan) is often credited with having saved the Qing Dynasty. David Livingstone's explorations. China's institutions and level of economic development rendered her capable of providing a secure market in the absence of direct rule by the developed powers. Imperialist ambitions and rivalries in East Asia inevitably came to focus on the vast empire of China. China survived as a more-or-less independent state due to the resilience of her social and administrative structures. King Leopold II of Belgium organized the International African Association. with more than a quarter of the world's population. the 1880s saw the completion of Britain's conquest of Burma and France's takeover of Vietnam and Cambodia. opened tropical Africa's interior to European penetration. India's princely states (with about a quarter of the country's population) retained their quasi- autonomous status." In Southeast Asia. continued from the 1870s by H. crowned with Queen Victoria's proclamation as Empress of India in 1876.M. it is suggested that rather than being a backward country unable to secure the prerequisite stability and security for western-style commerce. leaving the kingdom of Siam (now Thailand) with an uneasy independence as a neutral buffer between British and French-ruled lands. obtained . despite her past unwillingness to admit western commerce (which had often taken the form of drug-pushing). such as the epic Taiping Rebellion of 1850-1864. whose own rivalries would preclude such an outcome.The new administrative arrangement. by 1882. But China's size and cohesion compared to pre-colonial societies of Africa also made formal subjugation too difficult for any but the broadest coalition of colonialist powers. On the one hand. its objective was limited to suppression of the anti- imperialist Boxer Rebellion because of the irreconcilability of Anglo-American and Russo-German aims. In 1876. When such a coalition did materialize in 1900. subject to British overlordship and official "advice. which. Western powers did intervene militarily in China to quell domestic chaos. Stanley. but can also be seen as a reflection of the limitations to which imperialist governments were willing to press their ambitions in the face of similar competing claims. during the following decade France completed her Indochineseempire with the annexation of Laos.

a staunch advocate of free trade. Britain's 1882 formal occupation of Egypt (itself triggered by concern over the Suez Canal) contributed to a preoccupation over securing control of Nile valley. though Belgian control of the Belgian Congo Free State and German control of German East Africa prevented such an outcome until the end of World War I. Between 1885 and 1914. Britain brought nearly 30% of Africa's population under its control. when Great Britain acquired the latter territory. TheBerlin Conference of 1884-1885 sought to regulate the competition between the powers by defining "effective occupation" as the criterion for international recognition of territorial claims.over 900.300. France and Germany quickly followed. but also the greatest gains in the conquest of Africa. British gains in southern and East Africa prompted Rhodes and Alfred Milner. The codification of the imposition of direct rule in terms of "effective occupation" necessitated routine recourse to armed force against indigenous states and peoples. Léopold was allocated the misnamed Congo Free State in 1885. leading to the conquest of the neighboring Sudan in 1896 -1898. renamed Rhodesia after its head. thanks to its long-standing presence in India. Paradoxically the United Kingdom. In 1899. which in turn led to confrontation with a French military expedition at Fashoda (September 1898). Uprisings against imperial rule were put down ruthlessly.000 km²) of territory in the Congo basin through treaties with African chiefs. Britain's High Commissioner in South Africa. Britain set out to complete its takeover of the future South Africa. most spectacularly in German South-West Africaand German East Africa in the years 1904-1907. which it had begun in 1814 with the annexation of the Cape Colony. There. 7% for Belgium and 1% for Italy: Nigeria alone contributed 15 million . the atrocities committed by his agents and European concessionary companies (majority owned by the King) eventually led to international scandal. which became his personal possession. The chartered British South Africa Company had already seized the land to the north. which forced him to turn over the territory to the Belgian government in 1908. emerged in 1914 with not only the largest overseas empire. to urge a "Cape to Cairo" empire linking by rail the strategically important Canal to the mineral-rich South. the Cape tycoon Cecil Rhodes. by invading the Afrikaner republics of the gold-rich Transvaal and the neighboring Orange Free State. sending political agents and military expeditions to establish their own claims to sovereignty. to 15% for France. reflecting its advantageous position at its inception. 9% for Germany.000 square miles (2.

unexploited raw materials and little competition. The Fashoda incident of 1898 represented the worst Anglo-French crisis in decades. In Africa (exclusive of what would become the Union of South Africa in 1909) the amount of .A. Some have criticized Hobson's analysis. each signaling the advent of a new imperial great power. British policy in South Africa and German actions in the Far East contributed to the dramatic policy shift. which in the 1900s. Britain's takeover of Egypt a year later caused a marked cooling of her relations with France. arguing that it fails to explain colonial expansion on the part of less industrialized nations with little surplus capital. aligned hitherto isolationist Britain first with Japan as an ally. Hobson and popularized by Lenin centered on the accumulation of surplus capital during and after the Industrial Revolution: restricted opportunities at home. drove financial interests to seek more profitable investments in less-developed lands with lower labor costs. [edit]Imperial rivalry The extension of European control over Africa and Asia added a further dimension to the rivalry and mutual suspicion which characterized international diplomacy in the decades preceding World War I. which had hoped to take the country and which retaliated by allying with Germany and waging a decade-long tariff war with France. and then with France and Russia in the looser Entente. J. or the entire German colonial empire. [edit]Theories Main article: Theories of New Imperialism The accumulation theory adopted by Karl Kautsky. France's seizure of Tunisia (1881) initiated fifteen years of tension with Italy. The most striking conflicts of the era were the Spanish American War of 1898 and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05. or the great powers of the next century — the United States and Russia — which were in fact net borrowers of foreign capital. respectively.subjects to Britain. but France's climbdown in the face of British demands foreshadowed improved relations as the two countries set about resolving their overseas claims. Opponents of Hobson's accumulation theory often point to frequent cases when military and bureaucratic costs of occupation exceeded financial returns. more than in the whole of French West Africa. such as Italy. German efforts to break the Entente by challenging French hegemony in Morocco resulted in the Tangier Crisis of 1905 and the Agadir Crisis of 1911. the argument goes. the United States and Japan. adding to tension in the years preceding World War I.

and not of strength: "Stuck with outmoded physical plants and outmoded forms of business organization. (1961). 289-305. (London: Longman). Cain and A." but do not reject the influence of "the City's" financial interests. imperial historian Bernard Porter views Britain's adoption of formal imperialism as a symptom and an effect of her relative decline in the world. P..G Hopkins contest Hobson's conspiratorial overtones and "reductionisms. and Western. ^ Porter. [2] [edit]See also  Benjamin Disraeli . 2. pp. Bharati. (1996)." newly industrialized states. and Steve Davies.capital investment by Europeans was relatively small before and after the 1880s." [edit]Other Readings  Ankerl. ^ Coyne. and Steve Davies. Guy: Coexisting Contemporary Civilizations: Arabo-Muslim. no. gradual extension of capital investment from the "core" of the industrial countries to a less developed "periphery. 2000. Geneva. The Lion’s Share: A Short History of British Imperialism 1850-1995. Recent imperial historians Porter. INU PRESS. Echoing Wallerstein's global perspective to an extent. Vol. "Empire: Public Goods and Bads" (Jan 2007). pp.118ff. 1850-1913”. The World-Systems theory approach of Immanuel Wallerstein sees imperialism as part of a general. such as Germany. Chinese. B. P. "Empire: Public Goods and Bads" (Jan 2007). [1] 4. “Foreign Trade and Economic Growth: Lessons from Britain and France. Christopher J. ISBN 2-88155-004-5. 3. Christopher J. The Economic History Review.J. C. ^ Kindleberger. 2. [edit]References 1. [Britain] now felt the less favorable effects of being the first to modernize. and the companies involved in tropical African commerce exerted limited political influence." Protectionism and formal empire were the major tools of "semi-peripheral.. 14. seeking to usurp Britain's position at the "core" of the global capitalist system. ^ Coyne.

Hobson's Imperialism: A Study: A Centennial Retrospective by Professor Peter Cain  Extensive information on the British Empire  British Empire  The Empire Strikes Out: The "New Imperialism" and Its Fatal Flaws by Ivan Eland. (an article comparing .A.Oxford [edit]External links  J. The colonial policy of British Imperialism. director of defense policy studies at the Cato Institute.  British Empire  Cecil Rhodes  Commonwealth of Nations (successor to the British Empire)  Dollar Diplomacy  Gold standard  History of the United Kingdom  Imperialism in Asia  John Tyndall  Joseph Chamberlain  Jules Ferry  Léopold II of Belgium  Meiji Emperor of Japan  Napoléon III of France  Rudyard Kipling  Social Darwinism  Victor Emmanuel III of Italy  Queen Victoria  "The White Man's Burden"  Wilhelm II of Germany  William McKinley "Ralph Fox.

[3]  http://www.html  http://www.columbia.Coyne. John Rees. "Empire: Public Goods and Bads" (Jan 2007). Christopher J. Christopher J. and Steve Davies.edu/~lt95/altlect14. [4] Categories: New Imperialism | History of the United States (1865–1918) | Modern Europe | European colonisation in Africa • New features • Log in / create account • Article • Discussion • Read • Edit • View history Top of Form Bottom of Form • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article Interaction • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact Wikipedia • Donate to Wikipedia • Help Toolbox . and Steve Davies.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook34. contemporary defense policy with those of New Imperialism (1870-1914)  The Martian Chronicles: History Behind the Chronicles New Imperialism 1870-1914  1. Chris Harman. and Mike Haynes  2. "Empire: Public Goods and Bads" (Jan 2007).fordham.htm (a course syllabus)  The 19th Century: The New ImperialismBroken Link  Marxism and The New Imperialism by Alex Callinicos.Coyne.

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