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Political System

Literal Meaning

Firstly, I want like to describe the terms of politic in general. The meaning of Politic in

general is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is

generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs. It also refers

to behaviour within civil governments, but politics has been observed in other group

interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. It consists of "social

relations involving authority or power and refers to the regulation of public affairs within a

political unit, and to the methods and tactics used to formulate and apply policy. 1

However in Islam, it comes from the word ‘polis’ means city (study of state). Political

Science is the systematic study of political and governmental institutions and processes.

Politics in Islam is defined as ‫ ﻪﻠﻟﺍ ﺓﺩﺎﺒﻌﻟ ﺀﺮﻤﻟﺍ ﺔﺳﺎﻴﺳ‬. It means the process that makes

human being serves Allah. For politics in Islam is based on enjoining the right and forbidding

the wrong.

Political system deals basically with government or political institution. State is an

organised group of individuals residing in a specific territory who possess sovereignty over it.

State consists of group of individuals, a territory, a particular lay system and sovereignty. In

Islam the Islamic state, which was established by the prophet Muhammad, is considered as

the first and perfect Islamic state.

1. Meaning from

Principles of Islamic Political System . of which the Khalifah is the head. A workable analogy of Khalifah and Khilafah is president and presidency or king and monarchy. The Khilafah is a fard kifaaya on the UMMAH. Khalifah is used to denote the government of the Muslim state. Khalifah is the first form of government. Government is the body of people and institution that make and enforce laws for a society. Later the Muslim scholars called it as Imamah.

all powerful and everything is under His disposal and sway. He alone is the Master. 1. And last. No one else is His associate in worship in any form or shape. However Islam highlights the basic principles of the political system. prophets and . the Day of Judgment and preordination of good or evil are incontrovertible facts. is unique and peerless. Based on the Concept of Tauheed (Oneness of Allah): Muslim belief in the Creator of the universe (Allah) is based on the following premises: First. Third. He possesses all the powers and attributes of sovereignty and none else whatever possesses any of these. the angels. Second. Allah alone is the Lord of all. Al-Hakimiyah ( Sovereignty ) The first principle of political system is Al-Hakimiyah that is mean sovereignty. Sovereignty belongs to Allah Taala as taught in the concept of Tawhid (unity of Allah). 1 Allah is Sovereign as Al-Quran tells us that Allah is the Creator and Lord of the whole universe including humankind and all that is associated with them. http://www. Islam does not explain the detail of political system for Islam gives room and chance to any Muslim societies to interpret and implement the shariah based upon the time and space or their culture. 1. all the concealed and mystified matters which were revealed to the Prophet ( Peace be upon him ). He alone is the Worshipped One and all worship is directed towards Him.scribd. For example.

Therefore. Al-Nubuwwah and Al-Khilafah ( Prophethood and vicegerency ) As we know. He alone has the right to command or forbid. We have receive two things from this source : the Book in which Allah has set out His law. sovereignty over all of humankind rightfully belongs to Allah and no human or nonhuman power could control or decide any of the human affairs. class or race can set themselves above Allah. no one and nothing else shares it in any way. Worship and obedience are due to Him alone. the sovereignty of this kingdom is vested only in Allah. the sovereignty of the entire universe only belongs to Allah alone and none other than Him has a share in it. We have received the laws of Allah is known as Risalah through the Prophet. individually or collectively. Allah alone is the Legislator. The constitution given by Him is the constitution of man’s life. This principle of the unity of Allah totally negates the concept of the legal and political independence of human beings. family. No individual. The medium through which we receive the law of Allah is known as Risalah through the Prophet. Men are entitled to follow his law by adhering all injunctions and avoiding all prohibitions of Him. 2. Similarly. and . Allah alone is the Ruler and His commandments are the Law.

1 By virtue of this position. Second. There are three features of a prophet that can be recognized from surveying the various messengers throughout history. it should not deviate from what was revealed before him or what might come after him.html What Allah has bestowed on His Messenger (Muhammad) from the towndwellers . Therefore.the authoritative interpretation and exemplification of the Book by the prophet. ‫ﮈ ﮉ ﮊ ﮋ ﮌ ﮍ ﮎ ﮏ ﮐ ﮑ ﮒ ﮓ ﮔ ﮕ ﮖ ﮗ ﮘﮙﮚ ﮛ ﮜﮝﮞ‬ ‫ﮟﮠﮡﮢﮣﮤﮥﮦﮧﮨﮩﮪﮫﮬﮭﮮﮯﮰ‬ 1. Allah’s prophet is supported by miracles to prove that he is not an impostor. http://www. Those miracles are granted by the power and permission of Allah and are usually in the field in which his people excel and are recognized as superiors. This is necessary because a prophet’s life serves as a model for his followers.islam101. in his capacity as the representative of Allah. every prophet states clearly that what he receives is from Allah for the well-being of mankind. First. His personality should attract people to accept his message rather than drive them away by his imperfect character. a prophet of Allah is the best in his community morally and intellectually. Finally. So the message is one in essence and for the same purpose. He also confirms what was revealed before him and what may be revealed after him. blessings and peace be upon him through word and the prophet acquires the status of a subordinate legislator and therefore his orders call for obedience to Allah that is due to the original Legislator.

Allah said : . Man is Allah’s vicegerent ( khalifah ). (Q 4:80) In the matter of vicegerent. the Messenger. They can use them to establish His wills in their lives as His representatives and not as autonomous entities. and whatever he forbids you from it. you abstain from it. he is required to exercise his Allah-given authority in this world within the limits prescribed by Allah. Allah is indeed stern in retribution (to those who set themselves against Him). And whatever order which the Messenger (peace be upon him) brings to you. the kindred (of the Messenger). and the wayfarers (who are stranded lacking provision and means of travel). accept and put it into practice. by virtue of the powers delegated to Him by Allah. or His representative on earth. and remain conscious of Allah. the poor. (Q 59:7) Furthermore. without having to fight. The nature of this vicegerency ( khalifah ) is : whatever capacities and abilities human possess are bestowed upon them by Allah. In order words. (This decision is made) so that the wealth shall not be going round and round among those who are already rich among you. belongs to Allah. it belongs to all believers. This khilafah has been entrusted on all believers. the orphans. the obedience of the Prophet means the obedience of Allah.

then those are the defiantly disobedient. The people of the Ummah are the actual repository of khilafah and those in authority must have the confidence and support of the Muslim population. In this context. Allah has promised those who have believed among you and done righteous deeds that He will surely grant them succession [to authority] upon the earth just as He granted it to those before them and that He will surely establish for them [therein] their religion which He has preferred for them and that He will surely substitute for them. [for] they worship Me. 3. after their fear. Shariah provides a broad framework within which the people under the umbrella of Divine Guidance participate in developing a civil society and its institutions including various organs of the state. that society must be governed by and in accordance with the will of the people. (Q 24:55) These two cardinal principles of governance are very important. Thus legitimacy in the Islamic political order comes first and foremost from accepting Allah Taala as the Sovereign and His Law. security. But whoever disbelieves after that . Al-Syura (mutual consultation) . not associating anything with Me. Second.

usually under a system of proportional representation. Shura is an Arabic word which literally means consultation and as a basic Islamic principle calls upon Muslims. The other meaning of shura is to extract honey from the hive or from anywhere it is contained. khalifah Omar admonished: . If we look shura trough the technical meaning. Shura is extracting an opinion as a result of consulting one another. whether it is carry out directly or indirectly through selected or elected representatives ‫ﮙﮚﮛﮜﮝﮞﮟﮠﮡﮢﮣﮤ‬ And also (better and more enduring for) those who answer to the command of their Lord and establish regular prayer and conduct their affairs by mutual consultation. which is closest to the truth. Al Duri and Al Khaliq state that Shura is to evaluate the opinion of experienced people on certain affairs so as to direct us to a positive position. through debate. Besides. based on Al Asfahani. forward formed opinions to the Khalifah which they feel are for the betterment of the Ummah. who bestow in alms a part of that which We have given them for sustenance. to gather and. (Q 42:38) Following the advice and lead. The whole system of Islamic states from its inception to the selection of the head of the state and all those in position power as well as its dealings must be conducted by shura.

‘’…continuous temporal legislation of our social existence. . Contemporary Islamic writers on the Islamic State and Islamic Social Policy such as the late Mohammad Asad and Tariq Ramadan have spent much time emphasizing the vital role which Shura plays within an ever evolving Ummah. There are two scopes of Al Shura. “There is no khilafah without consultation. There is a relation between shura and modernity. offering solutions to new issues which Islam has not previously encountered.” In Sunnah. Secondly. Abu Hurairah mentioned : “I have never seen anyone else who seek consultation of his companions more than the Prophet”. It was the Islamic community that selected the first four rightly guided khulafa. The practice of shura was the mechanism followed at all levels in the selection of political leadership by Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his followers.’’. Firstly. Shura is not applicable to questions/matters on which injunction exists in Al Quran and Sunnah. Asad states that Shura caters for the. and when describing the institution of Shura in general terms Tariq Ramadan describes it as ‘’…the space which allows Islam the management of pluralism’’. although the method of selection and the process of approval differed. They explain that the process of Shura is a means for allowing the Islamic Law (Sharia) to sensibly evolve. The result of Shura should not contradict with the legislative injunction in Al Quran and Sunnah.

Using the mechanism of Shura such issues are brought to the forefront and debated by a proportional representation of the Ummah. and justice and rebellion: He instruct you. the doing of good. Allah Said: Allah Said: ‫ﮁ ﯡ ﯢﮂ ﯣ ﯤﮃ ﯥ ﯦﮄ ﯧ ﯨﮅ ﯩﮆ ﯪ ﯫﮇﯬ ﯭﮈﯮ ﯯ ﯰﮉ ﯱ ﯲﮊ ﯳ ﯴﮋ ﮌ‬ ‫ﭻ ﯚﭼ ﯛﭽﯜﭾﯝﭿﯞﮀﯟ ﯠ‬ ‫ﯘﯙ‬‫ﭺ‬ Allah enjoins justice. justice means putting a right thing in proper place or placing something in its rightful place where it belongs. and liberty to kith and kin. The basic function of Shura which they allude to has been already investigated in this article. there is a great desperation within the Muslim world of today to address the social dangers of the internet to Muslim children which can in some cases threaten their safety. With great social. admonition. Al Quran highlights the importance of Al-‘Adalah in many verses. For example. 4. Al-‘Adalah (Justice) As in general meaning. Indeed most excellent is that which Allah exhorts .and he forbids all shameful deeds. to pass judgment upon men with fairness. technological and medical advancements arise new challenges which can be evaluated through the process of Shura. (Q 16:90) and (Allah commands you) whenever you have to judge between people. modesty and very belief system. that you may receive Truly Allah commands you to hand back your trusts(149) to their (rightful) owners. but in short the institution of Shura here takes on a new role in the modern and ever evolving technological age.

Deal justly (with all people) for justice is closest to God-consciousness. And remain conscious of Allah. (Q 5:8) Islamic Law based on the Quran and Sunnah is equally accessible to all equally applicable on members of the society from the lowest to the highest. you to do.Aware of all that you do. he continued: “ I swear by the Authority in whose control is Muhammad’s . for truly Allah is Ever. Do not allow your hatred for other men lead you into sin deviating from justice. All-Seeing. (Q 4:58) Allah said : ‫ﮨﮩﮪﮫﮬﮭﮮ ﮯ ﮰ ﮱ ﯓ ﯔ ﯕ ﯖ ﯗ ﯘ ﯛ ﯜ ﯜ ﯜ ﯜ ﯙ ﯚ ﯜ ﯞ ﯞ ﯞ ﯟ ﯠ ﯡ ﯢ ﯣ‬ ‫ﯤﯧﯧ ﯥﯧﯧ ﯦﯧ ﯧﯧ‬ O believers! Be dutiful to Allah bearing witness to the truth in all equity. The Prophet Muhammad was asked to declare that: ‫ﯞ ﯞﯞﯞﯞﯼ‬ “I have been commanded to maintain justice between you” (Q 42:15) The Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him ) said: “The nations before you were destroyed because they would punish the lower class criminals according to the law but would let go those from the higher class” Then laying further emphasis. without any distinction or discrimination. Truly Allah is All-Hearing.

economic and international. for oppression is darkness on the day of Judgement ” (Al Bukhari and Muslim) . All people have equal rights and each and everyone is equally responsible before the law. if Muhammad’s daughter is guilty of stealing. The example of justice are having upright and capable public officials. civil. I would cut her hand off” (Narrated by Bukhari. It is the obligation of the rulers to ensure that each member of the society particularly the political. cultural. social. and economics rights of an individual are guaranteed under Islamic law. managing the public policy in a just way. Also. political. all the personal. social. kitab Hudud) These quotations show an overriding concern for justice in all its dimensions: legal. And the Prophet Muhammad warned against oppression in all its forms when he (Muhammad) said : “ Stay clear of oppression. is given his due rights. distributing wealth and opportunities in an equitable manner and also placing righteous and just people in carrying out public matters. The prophet Muhammad mentioned the just ruler foremost among even whom Allah will cover with His shade on the day (day of Judgement) when there will be no shade but his.

Principle of equality before law considered to be the basis in establishing common freedom. The examples of personal freedom are freedom of life. security and liberty ( includes to choosing rulers.) Islamic legislation gives a great consideration and respect to this freedom because Allah has created man with a nature. freedom of property and personal freedom. Al Musawah (Equality) Equality means individuals comprised in a society are equals in rights. Freedom of thought and belief (the root of all these branches of freedom and it is the closest link between these freedom and the political system of the state) Freedom is divided into three parts that are freedom of education. free to hold elections. If this principle is neglected the structure of public system will collapse or become useless in practise. 6. terminate rulers. movement. liberties. origin. responsibilities and public duties which are to be enjoyed by all without discrimination of race. Al Hurriyyah (Freedom) Freedom means “the rulers must not tyrannize the ruled”. criticize. language or creed. . change government without bloodshed. 5. which entitles people to their freedom of choice in forming opinions and action according to them. evaluate the rulers.

‫ﯞﯞﯞﯞﯞﯼﯽﯾﯿﯞﯞﯞﯞﯞﯞﯞﯞﰈﰉﯞﯞﯞﯞ‬ ‫ﰎﰒﰒﰒﰒﰒﰒﰒﰒ ﯞ ﯞ ﯞ ﯞ‬ ‫ﯞﯞﯞﯞ‬ O Dawud! We have made you a vicegerent on earth: Therefore pronounce judgment with justice among men (in accordance with the Sacred Law which has been revealed to you) and do not yield to lust. Al Muhasabah (Accountability) Al Muhasabah (Accountability) is divided into two aspects that are permissibility to call the head of state to be accounted and the scope of obligation to obey. the crime of high treason. (Q 38:26) As Abu Bakar has mentioned in his khutbah. lest it should turn you away from Allah’s path. “I have been given authority over you.” . 7. Those that stray from Allah’s path shall have an awful punishment on the Day of Account for having forgotten (it). help me and if I do ill the put me right. violation of laws and any forms of misconduct and negligence as well as failure in performing the duty. Islam permits the head of state to be called for accountability in regards to common offences (in the state penal laws). but I am not the best of you. If I do well.

. Once they deviate from the wright path. against Allah’s laws. Islam indeed orders Muslims to obey the leaders as long as they obey the laws of the Al-Mighty. asking people to breach the teachings of Islam. at that particular moment. the ruled people are not obliged to obey him.