REPORTED SPEECH (Estilo Indirecto
I.- REPORTED STATEMENTS (Oraciones declarativas) a) Principales aspectos del Estilo Indirecto: - No hay comillas (“”). - La oración normalmente empieza con un verbo introductorio como say, tell, ask, inquire, think, explain, complain, warn, point out, remark, declare, state, announce, protest, claim, etc. - El tiempo del verbo de la oración subordinada “da un paso atrás” si el verbo introductorio está en pasado. - No hay preguntas, por lo que el verbo auxiliar no aparece al principio de la frase. - Las palabras que indican lugar, tiempo, pronombres, posesivos, etc. normalmente cambian. Note: después de los verbos say, tell y think podemos omitir that, pero después de verbos como explain, complain, point out, etc. that no se omite. b) Cambios: 1. Si tenemos más de un verbo auxiliar en la frase, sólo cambia el primero. “My house is being redecorated”, she said. She said (that) her house was being redecorated. Estos cambios no tienen lugar: - Cuando el verbo introductorio esté en presente o futuro: “I love soup”, says Mary. Mary says (that) she loves soup. - Cuando estemos hablando sobre una situación permanente o algo que es habitual: “London is the capital of Great Britain”, she pointed out. She pointed out (that) London is the capital of Great Britain. “Peter lives in High Street”, I told them. I told them (that) Peter lives in High Street. 3. Expresiones de tiempo:
now today yesterday tomorrow tonight next week/month last week/month a week/month ago 4. Otros cambios:
û û û û û û û û
then that day the day before, the previous day the next/following day, the day after that night the following week/month the previous week/month, the week/month before the week/month before
this these here
û û û
that those there
Shall “When shall I have my own house?”
Note: Los verbos modales should. had better y used to no cambian.5.
. could. mustn’t y might. Should He asked (that) when he should have his own house. No changes: He said (that) she had been studying English. y los semimodales ought to.
Tiempos verbales: cambios que se producen cuando el verbo introductorio esté en pasado: Direct speech Reported Speech
Present Simple “She studies English” Present Continuous “She is studying English” Present Perfect “She has studied English” Present Perfect Continuous “She has been studying English” Past Simple “She studied English” Past Continuous “She was studying English” Past Perfect “She had studied English” Past Perfect Continuous “She had been studying English” Future Simple “She will study English” Future Continuous “She will be studying English” Can “She can study English” May “She may study English” Must/Have to (obligation) “She must/has to study English” Must (deduction/possibility) “She must be at home. The lights are on”
Past Simple He said (that) she studied English Past Continuous He said (that) she was studying English Past Perfect He said (that) she had studied English Past Perfect Continuous He said (that) she had been studying English Past Perfect He said (that) she had studied English Past Perfect Continuous/Past Continuous He said (that) she had been studying/was studying English No changes: He said (that) she had studied English. Conditional Simple He said (that) she would study English Conditional Continuous He said (that) she would be studying English Could He said (that) she could study English Might He said (that) she might study English Had to He said (that) she had to study English Must He said (that) she must be at home because the lights were on. would.
3. He inquired if / whether I was working those days
El sujeto y el orden del verbo ha cambiado (no hay inversión). She asked if / whether I had spoken to John the night before “Are you working these days?”. El resto de los cambios siguen siendo los mismos que para las “Yes/No” questions: 1. no hay ningún cambio en el orden de las palabras:
“Who told you this story?”. would like to know. want to know. mandar. El verbo introductorio utilizado debe indicar “ordenar. she asked. She shouted. Hemos utilizado if /whether (pueden usarse ambos indistintamente). La expresión de tiempo también ha cambiado. command. 5. enquire. Las comillas y la interrogación han desaparecido.REPORTED COMMANDS (Órdenes indirectas) Cambios: 1. instruct. @ “Wh-” questions: Cuando pasamos a estilo indirecto este tipo de preguntas. he asked me. con el significado de “ordenar”.. etc. order. he inquired. 1. he asked He asked who had told us that story.
Nota: los verbos más utilizados en las preguntas indirectas son ask. y por eso el verbo say no se utiliza en las órdenes indirectas: He said. pedir”.
III.REPORTED QUESTIONS (Preguntas indirectas) Cambios: @ “Yes / No” questions: Observa lo que sucede en los siguientes ejemplos:
“Did you speak to John last night?”. “Don’t shout” ! He told me not to shout El verbo. Si la partícula “wh-” es el sujeto de la frase. debe ir seguido de un pronombre objeto o un sustantivo indicando a quién se da la orden (Sujeto + verbo introductorio + objeto + TO + infinitivo): He said. he said to me ! He warned me not to touch that
2. 3. El tiempo verbal ha cambiado (el “paso atrás”). “Be quiet” ! He told us to be quiet Aparte de “tell” se pueden utilizar otros verbos con significado similar: warn. “Don’t move!” ! She ordered us not to move.. entonces la pregunta indirecta no lleva el auxiliar antes del sujeto:
“Where did you go last summer?”.
4. utilizamos la partícula interrogativa “Wh-”en lugar de “if/whether”.
Si la partícula “wh-” no es el sujeto de la oración. He asked me where I had gone the previous summer. wonder. 2.: “Don’t touch that”. “Stay here” ! He told us to stay here. 4. El imperativo se cambia a infinitivo con su forma positiva o negativa: He said.
. Hemos cambiado los pronombres de acuerdo con la situación.
Si el verbo let no se usa en la petición.Let’s. beg.
b) Sugerencias: Las sugerencias pueden expresarse de varias maneras: . please”. ! “Why don’t we go to the theatre?”...Why don’t we. she said. punto 3). La persona que recibió la petición va después del verbo introductorio. she said. ! “Let’s go to the theatre”.. don’t open the window. Con una oración subordinada introducida por that (no tan frecuente): She suggested that we (should) go to the theatre.
4.Why not.Shall we.REPORTED REQUESTS AND SUGGESTIONS (Peticiones y sugerencias indirectas) a) Peticiones: 1.IV. . I asked/requested/begged John not to open the window. . Para poner una sugerencia en estilo indirecto. utilizamos el modal y la estructura con infinitivo desaparece: I asked my neighbour if I could use her phone. she said. I asked my neighbour. La palabra “Please” se omite: “John.
2. invite y request (con la misma estructura que en los Reported Commands...
... I asked my neighbour to let me use her phone.. ! “Why not go to the theatre?”. Los verbos pueden ser ask.
2. she said. I said..
3. Si se usa el verbo let en la petición. también tiene que estar en el estilo indirecto pero omitiendo el modal antes de él: “Can you let me use your phone. demand. ! “Shall we go to the theatre?”. usamos el verbo introductorio suggest de dos formas diferentes: 1. . please?”. Seguido de un gerundio (muy frecuente): She suggested going to the theatre.
She reminded me to ring Ann. “I didn’t take the book”. “That’s why I didn’t take it”. He recommended me trying that beer. they said to us. he said (to me). “Of course I’ll pay you”. she told me. she said to him. “I must go with you”. she said to me. she didn’t take that book”. “Please. He agreed that it was a big house. He exclaimed that it was a sunny day. They warned us not to go near the rocks. “Come here”. “You’d better see a doctor”. He reminded me that I had to/should phone her.Verbos introductorios más comunes clasificados por su estructura:
Verb + TO + Infinitive agree offer promise refuse threaten “Yes. He offered to open the door. She boasted of/about being the fastest of all. I told her the secret”. “Don’t go near the rocks”. He commanded me to stand to attention. he said to her. he said to me. “She’s a beautiful girl”. She complained that he was always lying to her. He explained (to me) that/why he hadn’t taken it. He asked me to help him. she said to me. She advised me to see a lawyer. He threatened to punish me if I didn’t stop crying. “I’m the fastest of all”. She said (that) she preferred doing/to do it herself. said she. she told me the secret”. I won’t go with you”. he told me. “Let’s have a party”. He insisted on going with me. “Yes. They suggested having a party. he said to her. He accused her of taking/having taken the money.
. “Stop crying or I’ll punish you”. he said. “Sure! Ann will help you”. “Shall I open the door?”. she said to me. said he. “You should try this beer”. he said. “Stand to attention!”. He promised to pay her. “He knows nothing about it”. “No. he said (to me). “It’s a nice town”. he said. I’ll help you”. she said. He refused to go with her. he told her. “Remember to phone her”. he told me. said she. He thretened that he’d tell mum if I did it. She denied taking/having taken the book. He complained (to me) of having a toothache. “I’m sorry I arrived so late”. She told me to go there. “Tom mustn’t attend the meeting”. She claimed that he knew nothing about it. “Could you help me?”. “Will you have dinner with me?”. I’ll tell mum”. “What a sunny day!”. he said to me. she said to him. “I’d rather do it myself”. he said. please don’t hurt her!”. she said to me. She remarked that it was a nice town. “Leave the cat alone!”. “You must come with us”. he said to me. He admitted that she had told him the secret. he said. “I live in London”. She begged me not to hurt her. He told me that she is/was a beautiful girl. said he. he told me. He warned that Tom mustn’t attend the meeting. he said to me. Verb + “-ing” accuse sb of admit apologize for boast of/about complain (to sb) of deny insist on (say sb) prefer recommend suggest “You took the money”. He denied that she had taken that book. he said to me. he said to me. he said to us. He agreed to help her. He replied that he lived in London. “No. he said to her. She ordered me to leave the cat alone. “You’re always lying to me”.
* Este verbo admite la construcción con THAT si no es una orden o una petición. they said. “I have a toothache”. He admitted telling/having told her the secret. she said. He invited me to have dinner with him. It’s a big house”. “If you do it. “Don’t forget to ring Ann”. she said. He insisted that I had to/should go with them.
Verb + Object + TO + Infinitive advise ask beg command invite order remind tell warn “You should see a lawyer”. he answered. said he. “You’re right. said he. She suggested that I should see a doctor.
Verb + “THAT” clause admit agree claim complain deny exclaim explain (to sb) insist promise remark remind sb reply suggest tell sb * threaten warn “Yes. He apologized for arriving so late. He promised that Ann would help us.