Discuss in detail on history of microbiology.

y Pasteur experiment ± germ theory of disease y Koch¶s postulates y Lister antiseptic technique y Jenner vaccine y Ehrlich¶s magic bullets.

y Pasteur experiment ± germ theory of disease

Louis Pasteur was born in Dole France, married to Marie Laurent and had five children. Three of his children died of typhoid fever, maybe leading to Pasteur's drive to save people from disease. He graduated in 1842 from Besancon College Royal de la Franche with honors in physics, mathematics, Latin, and drawing. Louis Pasteur later attended EcoleNormale to study physics and chemistry, specializing in crystals. In his early research Pasteur worked with the wine growers of France, helping with the fermentation process to develop a way to pasteurize and kill germs. He was granted U.S. patent 135,245 for "Improvement in Brewing Beer and Ale Pasteurization." Pasteur then worked within the textile industry finding a cure for a disease affecting silk worms. He also found cures for chicken cholera, anthrax and rabies. The Pasteur Institute The Pasteur Institute was opened in 1888. During Louis Pasteur's lifetime it was not easy for him to convince others of his ideas, controversial in their time but considered absolutely correct today. Pasteur fought to convince surgeons that

y discovering that weak forms of disease could be used as an immunization against stronger forms and that rabies was transmitted by viruses too small to be seen under the microscopes of the time. He proved that the ³invisible´ protozoans cause disease to the silk worms. and that his research was not at all original. He formulated a way to identify afflicted silkworm moths so that they would be destroyed and would not infect others. he saved the collapsing silk industry in Europe. The Germ Theory of Disease Louis Pasteur's main contributions to microbiology and medicine were. Pasteur's pasteurization process killed germs and prevented the spread of disease. y introducing the medical world to the concept of viruses. and dirty instruments and hands spread germs and therefore disease.germs existed and carried diseases. Controversy Over Louis Pasteur A few historians disagree with the accepted wisdom regarding Pasteur and believe that the evidence points to him as being a plagiarizer and fraud of note. y instituting changes in hospital/medical practices to minimize the spread of disease by microbes or germs. With Pasteur¶s ingenuity and expertise. Important Events That Strengthened the Germ Theory y In 1865. Louis Pasteur was able to prove that the new silk worm disease affecting the silk industry was caused by a protozoan. Note that the ³invisibility´ of the protozoans is due to their very tiny sizes (a few micrometers) which can only be seen under a microscope (Madigan 2006) .

which kills cattle and sheep. it also verified the notion that some diseases can be communicable ² not only anthrax. Madigan 2006) used the germ theory of disease to prove that the disease anthrax. which are a sequence of experimental procedures for directly associating a specific microorganism to a specific disease. He drew blood samples from anthrax-infected sheep and cattle. Amazingly. The bacterium was later given the scientific name: Bacillus anthracis. After a few days of incubating the bacterial culture. These postulates will be discussed in part 4 of this series . When surgeons found out that the phenol solution has dramatically reduced the incidence of infections and deaths to patients. This experiment proved that microbes can be transmitted from one organism to another. he injected samples of it into several healthy animals. but also others. He found out that the bacteria isolated from these dead animals were the same to the bacteria isolated from the dead sheep and cattle. Koch later on established his postulates (popularly known as Koch¶s Postulates). the animals became sick and died. He then isolated and cultured the bacteria found in the blood of these dead animals. He promoted carbolic acid (phenol solution) as the disinfectant. is caused by a bacterium. He claimed that doctors must disinfect their hands before surgically operating on a patient because their hands may be carrying microbes that could cause infection to the patient. They should also disinfect their hands after the treatment so that they would not spread any microbe they acquired during the surgical operation. knowing that it effectively kills bacteria. more doctors began using it until it became a standard operating procedure. then isolated and cultured the blood into nutrient broths.y English surgeon Joseph Lister used the germ theory of disease to promote his idea that disinfection is necessary to prevent the spread of diseases caused by microorganisms (Ingraham 2002). y The German physician Robert Koch (Ingraham 2002.

While a microorganism can be isolated from a human. or is coincidentally present while having no active role in the infection. the postulates can be applied to diseases caused by viruses and other infectious agents as well. healthy host. andprions cannot be grown in artificial laboratory media. the organism must be able to be isolated from the host and grown in the artificial and controlled conditions of the laboratory. Since the proposal and general acceptance of the postulates. some viruses. the subsequent use of the organism to infect a healthy person is unethical. According to the original postulates. Another limitation of Koch's postulates concerns instances where a microorganism that is normally part of the normal flora of a host becomes capable of causing disease when . German microbiologist Robert Koch (1843±1910) proposed the postulates in 1890. The fourth postulate stipulates that the same organism must be able to be recovered and purified from the host that was experimentally infected. the organism is a secondary cause of the infection. Being able to obtain the microbe in a pure form is necessary for the third postulate that stipulates that the disease must be reproduced when the isolated organism is introduced into another. If not. However.y Koch¶s postulates Koch's postulates are a series of conditions that must be met for a microorganism to be considered the cause of a disease. For example. Fulfillment of Koch's postulates requires the use of an animal that mimics the human infection as closely as is possible. there are four conditions that must be met for an organism to be the cause of a disease. with some qualifications. infections organisms such as some the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae. Koch originally proposed the postulates in reference to bacterial diseases. Secondly. Additionally. they have proven to have a number of limitations. the postulates are fulfilled for a human disease-causing microorganism by using test animals. the organism must be present in every case of the disease. Firstly.

After reading Pasteur's work. Despite these limitations. Born on the 5 April 1827 in Upton. Joseph Lister was the son of the British physicist Joseph Jackson Lister. In 1839 the chemist Justin von Liebig had asserted that sepsis was a kind of combustion caused by exposing moist body tissue to oxygen. collodion or resins. doubted this explanation. a British surgeon. and that 'wound sepsis' was a form of decomposition. Lister . Koch's postulates have been very useful in clarifying the relationship between microorganisms and disease. These observations had led him to considered that infection was not due to bad air alone. Serratiamarcescens.g. or when the host's immune system is malfunctioning (e. Joseph Lister (1827-1912) Joseph Lister. Staphylococcus aureus). Essex..g. Lister antiseptic technique By the middle of the nineteenth century. Concerned about the high rate of infection after surgery.introduced into a different environment in the host (e. Lister's Work English surgeon Joseph Lister (1827-1912.. Lister studied wound healing with the use of a microscope. post-operative sepsis infection accounted for the death of almost half of the patients undergoing major surgery. A common report by surgeons was: operation successfully but the patient died. For many years he had explored the inflammation of wounds. It was therefore considered that the best prevention was to keep air away from wounds by means of plasters. at the Glasgow infirmary. professor at London's King's College Hospital) applied this new knowledge of bacteria to develop a successful system of antiseptic surgery.

Lister first used the method successfully in an operation on a compound fracture of the leg in 1865. Doctors in the United States were especially resistant to the practice of antisepsis. Nevertheless. Listerian anti-septic surgery gained supporters worldwide. Drawing on a report of the effects of carbolic acid on sewage bacteria. . Lister's antiseptic method was not simple.concluded that microorganisms in the air caused the infection of wounds. where the technique was applied somewhat successfully in treating soldiers during the Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871). but it was effective. A published account of his successful application of the technique appeared in The Lancet in 1867 and ignited controversy (especially since Pasteur's germ theory of disease was still in dispute). Lister developed an antiseptic system using the acid. He sprayed a wound and surrounding areas to destroy infectious organisms and also protected the area from new invasion by bacteria by using multiplelayer dressings. Widespread acceptance came in the 1890s after German bacteriologist Heinrich Koch (1843-1910) effectively proved that germs cause disease. especially in Germany.

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