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Radio Receivers, from crystal set to stereo
on-line, FREE! author: Miomir Filipovic

It is hard to imagine what would the modern world look like without the permanent exchange of
huge quantity of information. It is being transferred by various means (newspapers, telephone,
the Internet etc.), however, the fastest way of doing it, and sometimes the only one, is by radio,
where transfer is being done by electromagnetic waves, traveling at the speed of light. This book
covers the history and principles of radio transmission and an array of different radio receivers...
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Chapter II PRINCIPLES OF RADIO TRANSMISSION 4.1.Superheterodyne AM Receivers
4.1.1. The Simplest AM Superheterodyne R
2.1. AM Transmitter (worldwide)
2.2. FM Transmitter 4.1.2. The Fully (not exactly 100%) superh
2.3. Wavebands Receiver No.1
4.1.3. The Fully (not exactly 100%) superh
4.2. Superheterodyne FM Receivers
3.1.The Simplest Radio Receiver 4.2.1. FM Receiver with TDA7000
3.1.2. The Antenna 4.2.2. FM Receivers with TDA7088T
3.1.3. The Ground Miniature FM Receiver
3.1.4. Other Components Stereophonic Receiver
3.2. The Simplest Amplified Radio Receiver
3.3. Simple Radio Receiver with TDA7050 IC Chapter V APPENDIX
3.4. Simple Radio Receiver with LM386 IC
3.5. Radio Receiver with Increased Sensitivity Audio Amplifier 5.1. Making PCB’s
3.6. Universal Audio Amplifier 5.2. Computer - Aided Radio Receiver Cont
3.7.Receiver with HF Amplifier 5.3. Receivers with NE612 IC
3.8. The Audion - Direct Receiver with Drain Detector 5.3.1. Synchrodyne AM Receiver
3.9.1. Reaction - Type Receiver 5.3.2. AM Receiver with Synchro - Detecto
3.9.2. Direct SW Receiver for AM, AM-SSB & CW Signals 5.3.3. Input Circuits for the Receivers with
3.10. Miniature Receiver with ZN414 (ZN414Z) IC 5.4. Universal Audio Receiver
3.11. Pocket Receiver with ZN414 & LM386 IC’s 5.5. Additional Circuits
3.12. Miniature Receiver with ZN415E IC 5.5.1. Fine Tuning
3.13. Receiver with ZN415 & LM386 IC’s 5.5.2. Electronic Tuning
3.14. Mini Receiver with ZN415 & TDA7052 IC’s 5.5.3. Signal Suppressing of Local Radio Tr
3.15. Direct (TRF) FM Receivers 5.5.4. Dual Tuning
3.15.1. The Simplest FM Receiver 5.5.5. Separation of Stages - Preventing th
3.15.2. The Simplest FM Receiver with Audio Amplifier 5.6. The Boxes
3.15.3. FM Receiver with One Transistor and Audio Amplifier 5.7. Bimboard, Protoboard
3.15.4. FM Receiver with (just) One Transistor 5.8. Universal PCB Plates
5.9. A Modern Oldtimer

mikroElektronika recommends:

On-line book
Components of electronic devices
This book is meant for the people with desire to create
electronic devices with their own hands. All the

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mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 2 de 101

examples are illustrated and each component in the
scheme is explained in details. Beside the complex
examples that can have practical application, there are
also elementary examples to guarantee successful
start for beginners. [more?]

To readers knowledge:

The contents published in the book "Radio receivers" is subject to copyright and it must not be reproduced
without an explicit written permission released from the editorial of mikroElektronika.

The contact address for the authorization regarding contents of this book: .

The book was prepared with due care and attention, however the publisher doesn't accept any responsibili
exactness of the information published therein, nor for any consequences of its application.

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CHAPTER 1 Introduction

It is hard to imagine what the modern world would look like without the constant exchange of a huge quant
information. It is currently disseminated by various means such as newspapers, telephone and the Internet
fastest way, and sometimes the only way, is by radio. This is where the transfer is by electromagnetic wave
the speed of light. In radio communication, a radio transmitter comprises one side of the link and a radio re
other. No conductor of any kind is needed between them, and that's how the expression Wireless Link cam
In the early days of radio engineering the terms Wireless Telegraph and Wireless Telephone were also
quickly replaced with Radio Communication, or just Radio.

Radio communication is created by means of electromagnetic waves, of which the existence and features w
described and predicted by James Maxwell, in 1864.
First experimental proof of this theory was given by Heinrich Hertz in 1888, ten years after Maxwell's death
It was already known at that time that electric current exists in oscillatory circuits made of a capacitor of ca
of inductance L. It was Thomson, back in 1853 that determined the frequency of this arrangement to be:

Hertz used an oscillatory circuit with a capacitor made of two bowls, K1 and K2 (Pic. 1.1), and the "coil" wa
straight conductors. The bowls could be moved along the conductors. In this way the capacitance of the cir
altered, and also its resonance frequency. With every interruption from the battery, a high voltage was prod
output of the inductor, creating a spark between the narrow placed balls k1 and k2. According to Maxwell's
as there was a spark, i.e. alternating current in the circuitry, there was an electromagnetic field surroundin
spreading itself through the surrounding space. A few metres away from this device Hertz placed a bent co
metal balls k3, k4 placed on the ends, positioned very close to each other.
This also was an oscillatory circuit, called the resonator.
According to Maxwell's theory, voltage induced by the electromagnetic waves should be created in the reso
existence would be shown by a spark between the balls k3 and k4.
And that's the way it was: Whenever there was a spark in the oscillator between the balls k1 and k2, a spa
produced by the resonator, between balls k3 and k4.
With various forms of the arrangement in Pic. 1.1, Hertz proved that electromagnetic waves behave as ligh
also be reflected and refracted.

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did not believe in the practical value of his electromagnetic waves experiments. Hertz. but the place of honor belongs to Nikola Tesla. An enormous impact on the world of radio was the invention of the transistor by Bardeen. The range further than a few meters. This was accomplishe (1917). The SW band was considered to be useless for radio broadcast on long file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.2 shows the arrangement of this broadcast system. they represented the birth of a new scientif Engineering. At that time TRF (Tuned Radio Frequency) receivers were used. In 1904 John Flemming created the diode. Pic. In the beginning. Compared to modern receivers they had bo selectivity and sensitivity.1. but also new designs. therefore the signal in the receiver had a amplitude and it wasn't possible to detect it at a greater distance. but back then they fulfilled the demands. The transmitted signal was very weak. It was partially solved with an increase in the number of oscillatory circuits in the receiver and the introduct feedback. but the true solution was the invention of the superheterodyne receiver. However crude and simple these experiments were at the time. But achieving long-d required very powerful transmitters. and improved by E. That year can be birth of electronics.H. with the triode being the first electronic component used in a circuit for signal amplifica Rapid development of radio engineering over the ensuing years produced many innovations and after the F huge number of radio stations emerged. however.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 4 de 101 It was also shown that light is of electromagnetic nature. This represented the groundwork of today's radio communications. However as the number of stations increased. The majority of listeners were satisfied with the reception o stations. Besides the short range. radio communication was being conducted in the LW and MW bands. This was followed by the introduction of the integrated circuit.htm 17-08-2006 . The pioneers of radio were Popov and Marconi. The number of radio stations was much and their transmitting power was much smaller. the problem of station out of the jumble of stations. and in 1907 Lee De Forest invented the triode. another shortcoming of the link was noted: If another similar transmitter was wor receiver detected all the signals at the same time. The possibility of amplifying the signal in not exist at the time. who demons broadcasting in 1893. Tesla's idea was to produce electromagnetic waves by means of oscillatory circuits and transmit them over receiver would then receive the waves with another antenna and oscillatory circuit being in resonance with circuit of the transmitter. Radio amateurs' contribution to radio engineering should also be emphasized. Armstrong (1918). Bretten & Schock reduced the size of the radio receiver and made truly portable sets a reality. It did not have the ability of isolation. was becoming increasingly more difficult. at the Franklin Institute. as well as their transmitting power. enabling the construction of devices that not better in every way than those using values. as stated by Maxwell.

Modern radio receivers differ greatly from the "classical" types. the adjust a frequency synthesizer controlled by a microprocessor and the reading is displayed on an optical readout. This was later explained by the influence layer. by using very low-power transmitters. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. something unexpected happened: Amateurs were able to accomplish extremely long distance tra (thousands of kilometres). with the frequency read from a scale with movable pointer.htm 17-08-2006 . however the working principles are the sam The only significant difference is in the way the receiver is tuned to a station. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster. In modern devices. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The were banned from using LW and MW bands by commercial radio stations.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 5 de 101 was given to radio amateurs. mikroElektronika. However. Classical devices used a varia or varicap diode. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . the existence of which was also predicted by Tesla. The inclusion of a microprocessor enables any one of a large number of pre-tuned stations to be selected a the use of a remote control makes the receiver even more user friendly.

music. being symbolically Pic. There. under the e the procedure called amplitude modulation is being carried out.1-c. is the way it would be in ideal case. the information being sent is always transformed in through the appropriate converter.1-b and 2.modulated signal.2.1. inducing the voltage in the reception antenna.1 AM Transmitter file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.3. as shown on Pic. except it has much smaller amplitude.1-a. image. AM Transmitter 2. In radio transmission can be presented with Pic. This voltage has the same prof Pic.1-c having con and their frequency being changed in accordance with the actual value of LF signal from the microphone. In telegraphy this converter is the pushbutton. Wavebands Transfer of information (speech. In the receiver. loudspeaker. in radiophony it's a micr television engineering an image analysis cathode ray tube (CRT) etc. In that case frequency modulation is being carried out in the tra the effect of LF signal coming from the microphone. due to device imperfection as well as th various disturbances.1 (excluding the HF signal shape) is also applicable in case of radi being carried out by frequency modulation. That is a transmission realized by amplitude . in our exam information being transferred is the sound.2.1-b. Since.1-a the electrical "image" of the sound being transferred. Traveling at the speed of light (c=300 000 km/s). Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex Chapter 2 Principles of radio transmission 2.) by radio can be presented in its simples . The block . the information is transformed back into its original for 2.2. and on its output high . HF voltage creates HF current in the antenn generating electromagnetic field around it. TV CRT etc. The low . the first step of such transmission is converting the sound into e this being accomplished by a microphone. the sound being generated by the loudspeaker differs from the one that acts upon the membrane. that sound being exactly the same as the sound that acted upon th This.diagram as on Pic. with this "electrical image" of in modulation is being done. This voltage is transformed into sound by loudspeaker. The modulated HF signal is being transferred into antenna and transmitted.1.frequency (HF) volt its amplitude changing according to the current LF signal value.2.1.2. computer data etc. that has the same profile as the one on Pic.htm 17-08-2006 . is being taken into the transmitter. On t place. the modulated signal from the reception antenna is being amplified and detected and then. This field spreads through the ambient space. First.1 with dashed circles.2.). the electromagnetic field gets place. Back to reality. therefore HF signals on Pics.2.2. FM Transmitter 2. naturally. Then.frequency (LF) voltage at microphone output (Pic.2.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 6 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on.2.diagram on Pic. the amplification and detection are carried resulting with the LF voltage on its output. again wit converter (pen recorder.

as sho Then It is clear that it isn't possible to draw a realistic picture.3-1 and uAM on 2. and that the time gap between the points t0 and t2 is 1 ms.3-b be.diagram on Pic 2.2.3-a.2.2 is a simplified schematic of an AM transmitter. being created into the amplified in the HF amplifier to the required signal level. exact value is 999 kHz). Suppose that car fS=1 MHz (approximately the frequency of radio Kladovo. The shape of the AM signal exiting the modula Pic.2.2. In that case. This signal is then amplif amplifier. and then led to the emission antenna. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.3-c. Block . however. block . it is a HF voltage of constant amplitude US and frequency fS. On Pic. even simpler block diagrams exist.). making the completion of an ordinary AM tran with just a few electronic components. From the point t0 this voltage has the same shape as that on Pic. With this signal the modulation of the carrier's ampl performed. On modulator's output the amplitude modulated signal UAM is acquired. therefore it is being called the modulating signal. being taken from the HF amplifier into the modulator.2. The shape and characteristics of the AM carrier.3-d. say. The amplitude modulation is being performed in a stage called the m signals are entering it: high frequency signal called the carrier (or the signal carrier). CD player etc.diagram of a simple AM (amplitu signal transmitter is shown on Pic. an electrical image of the ton by some musical instrument.htm 17-08-2006 . That is the picture that appears on screen of th connected on the output of the modulator: light coloured lines representing the AM signal have interconnec are thicker than the gap between them. and the low frequency (modulating) signal coming microphone or some other LF signal source (cassette player. record player. being amplified amplifier.2. cooling for ce For simple use. From the moment t0 the signal is being changed in accordance with the current value of the modulating signal. transmitter power supply.3-b the LF signal the input of the modulator at the moment t0 is shown.2.3-c should make a thousand oscillations and not just eighteen. are s a. In reality there are some addition professional transmitters that provide the necessary work stability. Let the LF signal on Pic. As you can see. in such a way that th (fictive line connecting the voltage peaks) has the same shape as the modulating signal.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 7 de 101 In order to better understand the way the radio transmitter works. Let's take a look at a practical example.2. since all the lines would connect into a dark picture of AM signal from this example is given on Pic. in period fr signals us on Pic.

2. In the oscillatory circuit of the varicap (capacitive) diode is located. Voltage shapes in FM transmitter are given on Pic.2.2.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 8 de 101 2. equal to the transmitter's carrier frequency fS. It is a diode whose capacitance depends upon the voltage between its being exposed to LF voltage. and when it is falling the frequency is also falling. The freque begins at moment t0 and the transmission frequency begins to change. The FM signal from the HF oscill proceeded to the power amplifier that provides the necessary output power of the transmission signal. but it would result in a black-square-shaped file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.5.htm 17-08-2006 .2. is a signal from some LF source. the maximum frequency shift of the transmitter (during the modulatio Because of that the FM signal should be drawn much "thicker". FM Transmitter Block diagram of an FM (frequency modulated) transmitter is given on Pic.4. i. the frequency modulation is being obtained.e. as shown on Pic. Information being transferre modulating signal. The carrier is a HF voltage of constant amplitude.2. The carrier frequencies of the radio difusion FM transmitters (that emmit the program for "broad audience") waveband from 88 MHz til 108 MHz.5-a shows the LF modulating signal. Due to that freque oscillator is also changing. whose frequenc absence of modulating signal. its capacitance is changing in accordance with this voltage. Pic. it is being amplified in LF amplifier and then led into the where the carrier signal is being created. As seen on information (LF signal) is being implied in frequency change of the carrier.5-b: Whilst curre signal is raising so is the trasmitter frequency.

3. S be reverberated from the ionosphere. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. Limits between the not precise. just as light. Wavebands While considering problems related to the realization of the long . mid. According to characteristics of their waves can be classified into several groups or ranges: long.htm 17-08-2006 .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 9 de 101 2. low frequency waves (be bend themselves following Earth's curvature. while the HF waves are moving in streamlines. For example. significant difference electromagnetic waves of various frequencies must be kept in mind. with the raise of their frequency the waves are gradually losing some features while gaining so division is shown in Table 1. others are passing through it etc. short and ultra-short.distance radio links.

w FM transmitter emitting at f=100 MHz frequency is L=3*108/100*106=3 m.htm 17-08-2006 . For example. Waves with wavelength smaller than 30 cm are also ca microwaves. one can easily get to the well known expression that gives the relation between the wav frequency: Using this formula one can calculate the wavelength knowing the frequency and vice versa. their boundary freque (rounded values): LW (long waves) 150 kHz (2km) 300 kHz (1 km) MW (mid waves) 500 kHz (600 m) 1500 kHz (200 m) SW (short waves) 6 MHz (50 m) 20 MHz (15 m) FM (ultra short waves) 88 MHz (3.4 m) 108 MHz (2. Here are the frequencies (in kHz) of some radio transmitters from the MW range. Similar to that. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . during the period that is equal to its oscillating period (T): ë=c*T. Having in mind t frequency is f=1/T. Bucharest 855 . EHF extra high frequencies. wavelength of is L=439 m. MW and SW the amplitude modulation is used. Radio diffusion is being performed in certain parts of the wavebands given in Table 1. mikroElektronika. UHF ultra high f super high frequencies. In the third table column the wavelengths are given. Belgrade1 684. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.78 m) In LW. MF mid frequencies. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. HF high frequencies. while in FM range it is the frequency modulation. VHF very high frequencies. Wavelength (ë) is distance that the wave passes movi of light (c=3*103 m/s). that can serve for tuning receivers being described in this issue: Timisoara 630. which makes its frequency equal to f=3*108/439=684 kHz. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 10 de 101 * LF low frequencies.

1. under the influence of electromagnetic fields from various radio transmit these voltages.14. It is an electrical conductor.3. reproduces that information.2.4. AM-SSB & CW Signals 3.10.9.Direct Receiver with Drain Detector 3. Universal Audio Amplifier 3. Pocket Receiver with ZN414 & LM386 IC s 3.e.4.11. Input Circuit 3.4. b. Direct SW Receiver for AM. It is the famous (years ago) Detector Radio Rece shortly. Direct (TRF) FM Receivers 3. Other Components 3.2.1. must be able to accomplish all these tas electronic diagram of one such device is given on Pic. Miniature Receiver with ZN414 (ZN414Z) IC 3. The Simplest FM Receiver 3.htm 17-08-2006 .2. Detector.8.15. The Simplest FM Receiver with Audio Amplifier 3.Type Receiver 3.1.1. Reaction .7. Mini Receiver with ZN415 & TDA7052 IC s 3.9.Receiver with HF Amplifier 3. Even the simplest radio. Basic roles that a radio receiver has are: a.2. FM Receiver with (just) One Transistor 3.15.13. FM Receiver with One Transistor and Audio Amplifier amplifies the extrapolated signal and take out information from it and c. where voltages of various and amplitudes are being induced. i. Simple Radio Receiver with LM386 IC 3. Receiver with ZN415 & LM386 IC s 3. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex Chapter 3 Direct (TRF) Radio Receivers 3. Miniature Receiver with ZN415E IC 3. Simple Radio Receiver with TDA7050 IC 3. The Simplest Radio Receiver Each radio receiver must have a reception antenna. The signal selection (separation) and voltage amplification are performed in the oscillator is file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. To separate the signal (voltage) of the radio station that it is tuned at from the multitude of other voltag suppressing (weakening) all other signals as much as possible.1.15. The Ground 3. The Audion .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 11 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on.1. Radio Receiver with Increased Sensitivity Audio Amplifier 3.The Simplest Radio Receiver 3.1. as well as those from fields originating from o or the Earth s atmosphere. restores it into its original shape. The Antenna 3. the one we are discussing in this chapter.15. The Simplest Amplified Radio Receiver 3. those induced by EM fields that are created by various disturbance sources (such as electric various household appliances spark-plugs of an automobile and all other devices where electrical current is switched on/off during work) are also present in the antenna.1.

depends on the frequency. especially considering the distant and small-power transmitters. The amount of its impedance (resistance to AC current) between points A and B marked with . Main advantages of this device lie in its extreme simplicity and the fact that it requires no additional energy its operation.1. which therefore has to be at least a dose long for proper operation.3. Input Circuit The capacitor that takes the signal from the antenna (so-called coupling capacitor) C1.1. Its main role is to separate the signal of station the receiver is t multitude of voltages (having various frequencies and amplitudes) existing in the antenna. being given by the Thomson s formula: As one may notice.2-b. the resonance frequency depends on the capacitance of the capacitor C and inductivity changes if one of them change. 3. a variable capacitor is used. variable capacitor C form the input circuit of the radio receiver.htm 17-08-2006 . capacitor C2 and resistance of the headphones. The most important c of this circuit is its resonance frequency.3. amplify that sign it over to the detector. and information resto very headphones.2-a. It is called The oscillator and is shown on pic.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 12 de 101 made of the capacitor C and coil L. as it is shown on the diagram on pic. the separation of information (speech or music) from the AM station sig detector that comprises the diode D. In our receiver. that can change its capacitanc to Cmin. therefore changing the resonance frequency in boundaries from to The area between fd (lower boundary frequency) and fg (upper boundary frequency) is the reception area o file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. All the energy required it draws from the antenna. In order to better understand the requests that are to be fulfilled during the practical realization of input cir necessary to know basic characteristics of circuit made of capacitor C and coil L. One can do without it but the reception w better. It is also useful to have a good ground.

and normal reception won t be possible. Is3 and Is4. to pic. between points A and B.2-b). for Is2. That means that the voltage that is being created in the oscillatory circuit by the s transmits on frequency fs2 will be ten times greater than the voltages being created by stations transmittin frequencies fs1 and fs3. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. On this picture. As one can see. acc. issued by the National Textbook Publishing Company from Belgrade. are equal.3. First of all. It is clear that stronger signals will cov weak ones. fs2 and fs4. by means of the oscillatory circui to some other station is performed by changing the capacitance of capacitor C. the impedance ZAB . Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. fs3 and fs4. the reality isn t so simple. Acc.2-b. to Ohm s Law.3.frequency dependance is shown in line. everything is just the way it should be: Parallel oscillatory circuit extrapolates one and supp other stations. The oscillatory circuit will do its previously described. while other stations s suppressed. There are also other problem solving will not be discussed herein. the impedance of the oscillatory circuit for that case is shown in dashed line. Since these voltages spread between the a the ground. having carrier frequencies of fs1. The voltages that ar them in the oscillatory circuit.htm 17-08-2006 . A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . to pic. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.g. carrier frequencies of four radio transmitters are being mark fs2. E. radio transmitters operate with variou (emission) powers and on various geographic distances from the receiver.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 13 de 101 circuit. thus disabling their reception. Imagin there are (only) four voltages in the antenna. to the product of cu impedance: UAB=I*ZAB. This is how selection of one station is performed. fs2.1-b. that have the same amplitude and are created by four radio transmitters. Is2. If its frequency happe (acc. To conclude this chapter. while for the station that is tuned it is equal to 200 kOhms.3. which caus the circuit output voltage of the station that transmits on frequency fs4 is acquired.2-b. but on its ends the voltage of the first transmitter will still be greater (20x) than that transmitter the receiver is tuned at. as shown on pic. we may say that the simplest radio receiver can cover only signals of the local an radio transmitters. if radio transmitter that emits on the frequency fs1 is geogra much closer to our radio receiver that the transmitter operating on fs2. as shown on pic. the voltage the former creates in th antenna can be even 200 times greater than the one created by the latter. Let us that the parallel oscillatory circuit is connected with the antenna and ground. and for cu and Is3 it is 10x smaller. At first glance. therefore making the voltages th signals create in the reception antenna very different in amplitude. as long as the resonance fre the oscillatory circuit does not become equal to the carrier frequency of that station. the impedance ZAB for all received signals whose carriers have frequencies less than f greater than fs3 is less than 20 kOhms. Unfortunately. mikroElektronika. In that case. and readers that are interested in those can read a book Radio Recei written by Momir Filipovic. four currents will flow through the oscillatory circuit: Is1. impedance of the circuit is ZAB=200 kOhms. Yugoslavia.3. The resonance frequency of the oscillatory circuit is set (by means of C) to be equal to the frequency of the second station: fs2.

You should. There is no need to remove the wire isolation if it exists since it does obstacle for the electromagnetic waves. In the sense of mechanical strength. of course. one ca isolators of a piece of thick wall plastic pipe where. to be as far from metal parts as possible (gutters.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 14 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. a buildin the yard etc. thick enough to resist conditions. between two buildings.1. if not impossible. various household electrical devices. It should placed in such a way not to touch the walls.3. The Better ). since every amp noise that makes the reception worse. which we about later.1. This fact is the cause for a radio-amateur saying th the best HF amplifier. electric motors e this. to Pic. 3. yo even longer (the author has a friend whose antenna is about 30 metres long). compensating that with supplying the receiver with amplifier stron the end result as if much better antenna have been used. however strong it may be. i. in case that happens. cars. one can think of using i modest antenna made of a piece of wire. let's just say that in mobile receivers ferrite antennas are being used. In amateur conditions. You it between two stronger laths attached to two opposite window frames of your apartment. The length of antenna is being determined in accordance with the " Longer.3. The wire can be crossed between two chim between a chimney and some pillar. If you have no o can put your antenna between the walls in your room. The antenna must be electrically isolated from the carriers being attached to. The Ground file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. acc. city groundin At the end of this chapter. but if you are in position. between two purposefully built pillars. a cable ma number of thin threaded copper wires.3. The antenna lead is another piece of wire which carries the signals from antenna into the receiver. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3. if your roof cover is not covered with tin. At first sight.e.htm 17-08-2006 ." The external (outside) antenna is being made of copper wire. an indent should be made with the round for the wire not to slip away. the best thing is to use the litz wire (cable). where it was spread). The Antenna Extremely important factor for good work of simple radio receivers is the outside antenna that has to be lon which voltages induced by the radio transmitters will be high enough. That. the best place for your antenna should be the building roof.2. is not the case. or to cause s damage. however. under NO CIRCUMSTANCES it should fall onto electrical network cables. always keep in mind that the wire. telephone leads and similar. can snap storm and. the attic could also be a good place for the antenna. It should be moved away fro electrical disturbances (public electricity cables. The antenna that we have been using for testing the receivers described herein was 6 length of the Radio Receivers Lab at "Tesla" highschool.

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 15 de 101

As all other sorts of ground, the ground for the radio receivers is being accomplished by connecting the rec
(point Z on Pic.3.1) to Earth over a coper wire. You can live without the ground but the reception is much b
though, especially considering simple devices, such as one at the Pic.3.1-a. Water plumbing is an excellent
heating pipes are not), but it is most often inappropriate for use. There is no housewife that would agree to
dreadful wire stretched across the house, from bathroom to the living room! House electrical installation's g
excellent, but it should be used under NO circumstances, since life-threatenning danger from electrical shoc
live on a ground floor, and there's plain soil beneath your window you can make your own ground by stickin
water plumbing in it, acc. to Pic.3.4. The pipe should be about 80 cm long, and on its end you should conne
ground, attaching it with a metal ring and a screw with the nut.

3.1.4. Other Components

a. On Pic.3.1-a with letters A, Z, S1 and S2 the hubs where one can connect the antenna (A), ground (Z) a
headphones (S1 and S2) are labelled. Since the cabinet for our radio receiver(s) is being made of material
electrical isolator (plywood, plastics etc.), the simplest metal hubs can be used, although hubs with isolatio
metal plate mounting) can be found in shops more easily, but are significantly more expensive.
b. C1 capacitor is the so-called coupled capacitor, through it the signals from the antenna being led into the
circuit. Its capacitance depends upon the length of the antenna, and it lies within the limits of few pF (anten
10 m), up to few dozens pF (a couple of metres long antenna), the optimal value is to be found through ex
Every reception antenna behaves as a voltage generator, having its own internal resistance and capacitance
resistance damps the oscillatory circuit and reduces its selectivity (which manifests as the "mixing" of statio
sensitivity (which exerts as signal strength reduction), and antenna's capacitance reduces the reception ban
precise, antenna's capacitance reduces the upper bound frequency of the reception bandwith (Pic.3.2), mak
the stations laying close to this frequency impossible. Both these features are undesirable and manifest the
as the capacitance C1 is smaller. On the other hand, the smaller the capacitance C1, the weaker the signal
through it from the antenna, the reception therefore getting weaker. As you can see, the compromise solut
go for, i.e. one must find the capacitance at which the signals from the antenna won't be much weakened w
simultaneously keeping the selectivity and the bandwidth big enough. You can start with C1 being about 30

using C, tune yourself to some radio stations you can receive. If all the stations that interest you are there,
strongest one of them still does not jam the reception of other stations all's well. Try then with some bigger
the capacitor C1. The reception will be getting louder, so do continue increasing C1 as long as it is still poss
C, to receive all the stations of your interest that can be heard in your place, without the interference of som
station. If, however, reception of some nearby station isn't possible, smaller C1 should be tried out. In this
biggest capacitance for C1 should be found, that allows optimal reception both regarding selectivity and ban
simplest solution is using variable capacitor for C1, its capacitance ranging from few picofarads to few doze
it to obtain optimal reception for each station individually. During this, whenever C1 is being changed, the r
re-tuned to the station using C.
c. The coil is one of the components that cannot be bought, therefore it has to be manufactured. Its main p
inductance L. As an example, we are going to take a look at how to build a coil for the MW receiver with ba
fd=540 kHz til fg=1620 kHz. The inductance is being calculated using the Thomson formula (being solved b

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mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 16 de 101

Where Cx denotes the so-called parasite capacitance. It comprises the capacitance of the trimmer capacitor
value) that is connected parallel to the variable capacitor C, input capacitance of the next stage of the rece
signal from the input circuit is being lead), antenna capacitance, coil capacitance and capacitance of the con
between the components of the input circuitry. The amount of this capacitance is not known in advance, th
assumed. Taking that value, the coil inductance is calculated and the appropriate coil is made, together wit
circuit. The error being made with the assumption of the capacitance Cx is then compensated with the abov
trimmer capacitor. In all our projects this capacitor had minimum capacity Cmin=12 pF. We assumed Cx=1

We made this coil, conented it with other components from Pic.3.1 and, after some experimenting and mea
upon the conclusion that its inductance should be somewhat smaller. We uncoiled a few reels, re-checked t
then uncoiled some more, re-checked again, and after several tries came up with the solution. With variabl
will be described in the following chapter, the abovementioned bandwidth is achieved with the coil of induct
The coil body i.e. the body where the coil is being reeled is a cylindrically shaped isolation material. For this
have been using the carton core of the household aluminium foil package, its diameter being 3.2 cm. The n
required and wire diameter are calculated acc. to the formulas from Pic.3.5.

In order to use these expressions coil length must be assumed first. If this length later proves to be incorre
wire is too thick or thin, new length is adopted and the calculation is repeated. Let us assume that coil leng
number of reels and coil diameter are:

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mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 17 de 101

Since there is no wire of such diameter, we adopt the closest existing value, d=0.3 mm. In that case the le
somewhat bigger, and so will be the number of reels. After a few iterations in calculus and later inductance
finished coil, we came upon the n=144 reels of lacquered copper wire (the mark for such wire is CuL), its d
d=0.3 mm.

This coil is shown on Pic.3.6. As you can see, two holes are made in coil body (with a bodkin) and through t
origin is being threaded twice. After that 90 reels are made, then a leg, then another 55 reels and finally th
again threaded twice, through the other two holes. The leg is made by multiple twisting the wire. It is then
these new ends about 5 mm of isolation is removed, after which they are tinned, twisted around each other
soldered (the easiest way to remove the isolation is by burning it with lighter, then carefully scrapping it wi
knife or similar). Two small pieces of wood are then glued onto coil's ends. When the coil is being mounted
they are pasted onto its top panel, as shown in the rightmost part of Pic.3.6-b.

If you are using a coil of different diameter, you should keep in mind that the necessary inductance for the
measures more than 3.2 cm in diameter will be obtained with number of reels less than 144 and vice versa
is less than 3.2 cm you will need more than 144 reels.
d. Variable capacitor C is hard to find in stores, therby we have been using in all our receivers the one that
disused commercial pocket size MW radio receiver, the one shown on Pic.3.7. On Pic.3.7-a you can see it to
reel with numbers that represent the frequencies, divided by 100, on which that receiver was able to be tun
Pic.3.7-b you can see the front, side and rear views of this capacitor. Electrical diagram is given on Pic.3.7-
notice, there are actually two variable capacitors under the same cover, Co and Ca, and two trimmer capac
parallel to them, Cto and Cta. The dashed line shows symbolically that the rotating plates of the variable ca
connected on a common shaft, so that by turning the reel their capacitances are being changed simultaneo
all four capacitors are parallel connected, by joining the legs O and A. The trimmers are set to minimal capa
way the variable capacitor is attained with capacitance ranging from Cmin=12 pF til Cmax=218 pF.

In commercial radios that can receive both stations from AM and FM ranges, variable capacitor shown on Pi
used. Four variable and four trimmer capacitors are placed under the same cover. If you wish to use capaci
the receiver from Pic.3.1 (and in most of the receivers described in this book), you should then connect in p
Ca and Cta, after which you shall obtain a variable capacitor ranging from Cmin=16 pF til Cmax=286 pF. O
from this block are not being used.
In all input circuits (more about them soon to come), one end of the variable capacitor is always connected
ground. For capacitors shown on Pics.3.7 and 3.8 that is the middle leg, marked as G.
During the dismounting of the capacitor from the old radio, you should pay attention not to loose the screw
attachment, and two screws for mounting the capacitor onto the PCB, since they are very hard to provide s

file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.htm 17-08-2006

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 18 de 101 If the reciever is being put into the box whose front pannel is made of isolating material not thicker than 1 file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.htm 17-08-2006 .

the voltage uizl appears on its output.1 should be placed into some kind of a box. a receive scale 1:1 on Pic. 1N21. It is useful to notify that o besides the LF voltage (speak. such as AA112.3. AA116. and nF. An example of this is given on Pic.9-a.9-1 and then mount the capacitor on it .10.1. an air variable ca in the first issue of Practical Electronics. bottom and side panes are made of 10 mm thick. its diameter being a little bit bigger than the reel.3. big enough to receive all the components. wood etc. and its stator with the point 1 of the coil. Cmax/Cmin>15. That can be any b isolation material (plastics. labeled Z. the shaft of the capacitor being too short to mounting the reel. uul is present on the input of the detector. The auxiliary plate wi should then be tightened onto this front panel with two small screws Z1 and Z2. Product of the capacitance C and resistance R (on Pic. but gives the device a mo looks.3. since the detector t the oscillatory circuit). the capacitor should then be smaller. and the reel on the capacit screw Z3 (While tightening this screw you should hold the reel with your other hand. its shape being the same as the envelope of the AM signal. s All the components of the receiver from Pic. That has the sake of better visibility.3. For example. for example.1 will be working as better as headphones' resistance is bigger. DC voltage Uo is also present. That means that if you're using the bigger resistor (which is advisable. if you're using headphones. When the AM signal of the station the receiver is tuned at is brought on its input. being placed in a box made of plywood. R is the headphones resistance) should be appro (microseconds). f. If snapping can be heard from them they are. The diode D. and for the box to be big enough to accept the devices that will be described la file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. care should be taken to connect its rotor with the grou Pic. parallel to them you should add a resistor of couple of hundreds of kiloOhms.). and not the capacitor a button made of a thick plywood can be glued to the reel. the radiator. There's a very s testing the high resistance headphones: Hold one end of their cable between your fingers while rubbing the surface of a big metal object. The receiver from Pic. The detection diode D must be of low-power GERMANIUM type. e.3. capacitor C2 and headphones' resistance comprise the AM signal detector.5 kŮ resistance that were serially connected. Having thicker front p represent a problem. The top. that allows for simple m variable capacitor. AA121. One can notice straightaway that the box is at least twice as big as it could be.). This is not necessary. also called the se detector. NF signal is obta output. music etc.3.e.11.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 19 de 101 mm hole should be drilled on it. We ha old fashioned electromagnetic headphones with 1.3. While connecting the capacitor.9- panel a round eye should be made. 1N34 etc. etc. The headphones are the electro acoustic convertor that transforms electrical signal into the sound.htm 17-08-2006 . As an example. if R=500 kŮ then C=100 pF. followed by two 3 mm holes.1). The front and the rear side are being made of some thinner material. In that case you will h auxiliary plate about 1 mm thick as shown on Pic. most likely. giving the t 3 kŮ.3. acc. say. The important thing for it is to have a big max/min capacitance rat i. to Pic. Different variable capacitors than the ones described here can also be used.3. as shown on Pic.

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 20 de 101 Component joining is being done by soldering. for the tinol to melt. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. put the soldering iron top onto the eye fr hold it like that a while. Put a piece of the tinol wire through the eye on the hub. you should turn the box for the part of hub where cables are being upwards. Performing soldering onto the hubs can represent a small pr to complete this operation successfully. until it hardens and cools pencers remove the heat and prevent its transfer onto the component that is being soldered. push the wire end into the melted solder while holding it with pencers. Then add some more tinol. until the eye is completely covered After that.htm 17-08-2006 .

F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster. mikroElektronika. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d .htm 17-08-2006 .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 21 de 101 Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003.

a han capacitor can be used. C4 and C5 can be simply removed. can be omitted in mo sake of simplifying the device. and a resistor of similar resistivity is then soldered on transistor T is any universal NPN . the smallest distortion adjusting the resistence value of the resistor R2. from entering the headphones. The simplest way to do it is to connect the trimmer of cou of the resistor. when C1 of very small capacitance is being used. which transform the amplified LF signal int The voltage negative feedback is being obtained with the capacitor C4. The capacitor C5 prevents the AM signal carrier which. They enhance the characteristics of the amplifier (increase its stability. which is then being lead into the LF amplifier with the transistor T.12.2. An NF sign its ends.3. although very we on the detector output. The electrical diagram of one such receiver is g The electrical load in the detection stage are no longer headphones. These 3 components however. The reception of signals from other too weak. Pic. which.1. its resistence measured. or to insert an amplifying stage into the receiver. limits.3. load in the collector circuit of the transistor are the headphones. but an ordinary resistor R1. The component data is given on the electrical diagram and in table on the rightmost side of Pic.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 22 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. over the coupling capacitor C3. The only thing that can be done is either to increase the length of the antenna. reduce distortion. then change the resistence until the optimal reception is b The trimmer is then put out. set the receiver on some station. Please note that in the case of a very long antenna. The Simplest Amplified Radio Receiver The most obvious shortcoming of the receiver described in the previous chapter is that it can perform the s reproduction loud enough only in case when the programme from some local or very powerful radio transm received. and its capacitance is changed simply by r wire from the ends. and the current negative feedback w R3. of course. The simplest way to perform the latter is to add a stage behind the detector in the detection receiver. If you file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. and a piece of wire should be soldered in Transistor operation point where the optimal reproduction (the biggest amplification. It is made by twisting two isolated wires. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3.type.htm 17-08-2006 . widen the rec they also reduce the amplification. which can create very strong signal in the reception antenna.

3. The PCB layout is given on Pic.3. Number of quirks between the legs isn't critical.4. especially if you 're not using the wire that is not pre tinned.13-c. since the pins are being soldere the copper foil. Electronic diagram of a simple radio receiver with LF stage built around the TDA7050 IC.14. therefore amplif technique are practically no more being made. Battery can be put inside the box in the same way as before. and that can be achieved by using vitroplast pla pertinax. On 3. or some other way. In book 5 of Practical have acquainted yourself in more detail with this IC.16 and 4. is given on Pic. resistance being 32 or 64 Ů. The layout of the entire receiver is given on Pic.15. in order to avoid cold solders. but you should then use smaller R1. You can read the text that follows Pics.3. The look of board upon completion is on 3.13. the second (5) after 30-th. both input and detection circuit described in two previous projects can be used. and less it reduces the recep However.3. those providing the optimal reception should be found. the less the detector damps and tunes out the input circui being transferred to the detector is also smaller. the signal that exits the antenna is then also smaller. The similar thing is with the leg where the d end) is connected: The closer it is to the ground. Let us just repeat that it can be purchased both in 8-p that we have been using. in a scale 1:1. where reproductio through modern-type headphones. however. into a piece of wood being glued to the front end box plate. The printed circuit is also visible on this picture. In that case changes on the PCB should be made consideri mounted on the copper side of the board. over two small pieces of wood. more than enough for amplifier device. to show you how to use the coil with multiple legs. the third (4) aft last one (2) after 55-th. using the calofonium or the tinol wire. The first leg (numerated 6) is made after the 15-th quirk. Regarding the Pic. As seen on Pic. bein closely to each other. We instead. suitable for surface mount. Its label in the latter case is TDA7 also be used without any problems whatsoever. Maximum output power is 150 mW. you can have even more legs.3. but that is not a must. switch etc. th glued to the top side of the box. as well as drilling the 0.15.6 to 6 V.8 mm ho that has been described in detail in PE2 issue (Practical realization of electronic devices). Voltage amplification is 32 dB supply voltage and 32 Ů headphones resistance. and that drilling is now obsolete. The picture of such coil is given on Pic.17 about soldering SMD components. We did this. If we add on this the fact that integrated amplifiers outreach competition both by price and quality.13-b. especially. Simple Radio Receiver with TDA7050 IC Readers that were able to browse through book 4 and.3. only for the sake of having a clear and unde drawing. v surprises that are hard to detect and locate. As in the previous receiver example. The board is being tightened with a screw. The component la Pic. put some tin on the wire ends. the legs being made as previously d book. Idle current is 3 mA on 3 V supply voltage.3. Sup the IC is in range from 1.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 23 de 101 pF capacitor (C2) you can put some of bigger capacitance. The battery is attached with a rubber band for wood glued at the back plate of the box. Etching is to be performed then. Before soldering the wires that connect the varia battery. 3. both the antenna and the detector are connected over these leg 5 have been used.3. it is then clear why we are going to use them in this book.13-a is a picture that should be copied with the thin alcohol mark cleaned copper side of the pertinax plate. since it offers more possibilities for experimenti achieve optimal reception.htm 17-08-2006 . file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.15. The closer the legwhere antenna is connected is to the ground (p it damps the oscillatory circuit (therefore increasing the receiver's selectivity). with the board. we convince themselves that there's a huge number of various audio amplifiers built with IC's. It is clear now that a compromise must be made: Experim various coil legs. book 5 of Practical Electronics edition. and in SO package.16. Y means do this.

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 24 de 101 file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.htm 17-08-2006 .

whose role is to pass through at the next stage the LF s detected. etc. observing their influence on the reception.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 25 de 101 Let us finally add that the antenna can also be connected to point 1.17. with the aid of the variable cap The resistor R2 and capacitor C2 create an LF filter. you should alter the capacitance C2 in orde PCB for this device is shown on Pic.14. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. but there's plenty of room for it.3. The only sign is that a 4. The receiver can be put in a box just as on Pic. preventing simultaneously the HF voltage do the same (this voltage originates from the AM signa filter circuit affects the LF signal tone colour.5 V battery pack must be used instead of 1. If you don't like it.5 V battery. over the coupling capacitor (C1 on Pic detector on one of the coil legs. or you can connect both the antenna and the diode's anode on the same le anode to point 1.3.htm 17-08-2006 . Y certainly re-tune the resonance of the oscillating circuit after every change. You should try various combinations out.

F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 26 de 101 Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. mikroElektronika. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d .htm 17-08-2006 .

On this leg the load (i. On Pic. The author has firstly met with the LM386 circuit over twenty years ago. The readers can find more informat in book 4 of PE.3. but even better would be using the loudspeaker with greater power and membrane diameter (Dur the 3 W . non inverting input (leg No. dio audio amplifier with LM386 IC.3. since their efficiency and sound quality are poor. and the sound quality was much better than with the one on the picture).3. Tha solution.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 27 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on.4.18 are given on Pic.18. LM386N-1. 8 Ohm impedance loudspeaker) is being pla over the C6 capacitor to the ground.5. As you can see. Other. especially for the cables being longer than a dozen centimetres. 8 Ohm loudspeaker has also been used. Simple Radio Receiver with LM386 IC Listening the programme over the headphones has its advantages. With smaller battery power supply voltages a 4 Ohm impedance louds be used.19 a 1W loudspeaker is being shown. that differ themselves by the supply voltage values and the o case the supply voltage being no greater than 12 V. In this project the simplest such receiver is being described. The LF voltage is being led over its moving end capacitor C2 onto the inverting input (leg No. The detection circuit is the log type 470 kOhms potentiometer. the voltage amplification of the IC is Au=20.3. whose membrane is 8 cm in diameter. The fact that this IC has survived at the market for such a long time is a considerable pr however. the cables connecting the loudspeaker with the PCB are firmly twisted arou This is a must. This resistor is shown in dashed line on Pic.3) is conn ground.3. The same has to be done w connect PCB with the battery and the main switch Z.htm 17-08-2006 . a 10 ěF electrolytic capacitor is connected between legs 1 and 8 ( as shown on Pic.2) of the LM386. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3. however. that allows the loudspeaker reproduction to be performed. any of these can be used in this receiver. and has ever since been using it v in various devices.18. but the true radio receiver is certainly th the loudspeaker. Adding a resistor in line with the abovementioned capac of amplification between 20 and 200 can be achieved. The PCB and components layout for the receiver shown on Pic.19. the amplification is Au=200. Electronic diagram of the direct radio receiver that has a LM386 IC in its LF stage is given on Pic. Miniature loudspe pocket-size radio receivers should be avoided. LM386N-3 and LM386N-4. consisting of input circuit.18 and with "*" sign. If. Purchasing this IC. its most significant advantage remaining extremely low price. in whi capacitor C7 can be omitted. one must have in mind that it is being manufactured in several versions LM386. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. If there's nothing in between the legs 1 and 8. especially i frequencies area. The output is on the leg No.e.3.

but the reception bandwidth will be getting sm some stations will not be heard any more. the reception is going to get louder and louder. can with the coil that has smaller inductivity and the coupling capacitor CA with greater capacitance. 200 pF). and the reception is going to get better.htm 17-08-2006 . For the a about 6 m long use the CA=33 pF. If using very short antenna. with bandwith being narrower in the area of the lower bound frequency. Try increasing the CA capacitan pF. as shown on Pic. by using only its' part between the legs 1 and 2.3.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 28 de 101 Significantly louder reception. others will start to "mix" etc. Radio Receiver with Increased Sensitivity Audio Amplifier file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. you could use t been previously described. For examp interested in radio stations that emits the signal in the MW area from 750 kHz to 1700 kHz.20.5. you should omit CA. it is up to you to find an optimum t best. and connect the antenna directly to the oscillatory c 3.

) depends upo transistor that is being used. pic.htm 17-08-2006 . The receiver is supplied from the 4. if you intend to use an supply voltage can be bigger. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.5 V battery but.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 29 de 101 If you cannot obtain the signal reception that is loud enough with receiver from the previous project.3.21.3. with a few MOhms trimme way it has already been described in chapter 3. C and L are located on the PCB. its maximum value being from 12 V (for the LM386) till 18 V (for the LM386- The optimal value for R3 resistor (obtaining the greatest amplification. which allows you circuit from pics. the se part of the device must be increased. minimal distortion etc. Please note that all the components except C1. The simplest way to manage this is adding a transistor pre-amplifier.20.15 and 3.2. The easiest way to finding it is by experimenting.

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 30 de 101 file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.htm 17-08-2006 .

htm 17-08-2006 .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 31 de 101 file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.

htm 17-08-2006 .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 32 de 101 file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.

yielding Au=470. and when it s at its leftmost RP=0. Universal Audio Amplifier In majority of the receivers described so far. but it can be something else. moving the slider changes the amplification from 0 to 470.22.g. the one pic.htm 17-08-2006 . When capacitors are being connected between the inpu maximum amplification gets lower than 470 but is still more than enough for our needs. the only difference laying in fact that TLO71 has the F and 741 . it is then RP=470 kOhms. Two IC s are used in it: operational amplifier TLO71 as the pre-amplifier. where RP stands for the potentiometer resistance from the sliding contact to its left en slider is at its rightmost position.21 (from C4 inclusive to the right). and LM386 as the powe TLO741 is exactly the same as the more famous 741.the bipolar transistor. That s says. somewhat different. as well as in many those that will be described further. therefore Au=0. Since inverting input is being used in the operational amplifier.6.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 33 de 101 3. e. As you can see. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. of course. the practice is. its voltage given by Au=RP/R1. an aud being used.3. This makes it useful to build an universal amplifier that would be used during testing of all rece be the circuit from pic.3. too.

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 34 de 101 * All the receivers that have been described so far. the ordinary wires can be use * The amplifier. 10 cm. PCB and com given on pic. If this is OK. on whose front p potentiometer. Th the wire marked as A should be connected to one probe of the multimeter.3. you will be able to hear the tuned station program loudspeaker. If cables are shorter than app. * Just before you start mounting and soldering the components.3. * To connect the potentiometer with the PCB. and if everything is fine you file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. and the wire marked as B on pic. The shi conductor) is connected to the Ground. Connect the loudspeaker. but then the left end of potentiometer is to be soldered in such a way to be connected to th R1. capacitors (all except C4).htm 17-08-2006 . The last com mounted is the C4 capacitor.23. if exist) are OK. IC s. which is to be set to measur Contact the plus battery pole with second instrument probe.23-c connect to the minus battery pole. can be tested with this uni That is done by taking the signal from the Detector output (through two wires as short as possible or throu microphone cable that can be significantly longer) to the amplifier input (between left end of C1 and Ground antenna. The sound volume can be adjusted by moving the slider of the potentiometer P. a shielded cable should be used. With these parts you have made yourself the so-called active lo which is a very useful gadget for every electronics lover. as well as the male. It s a piece of wire which ends are taken through the holes on the plate can be omitted. * KS marks the short-circuit wire. as well as all those to come. If the device is powered adapter. it is useful to also mount a LED. 5 mA. clean well the PCB copper conductors with sponge dipped in some cleaning powder. touch the pin No. the loudspeaker and the battery (or adapter) are put in the common box. and it will measure the idle current of the amp should be app. input circuit (and other stages. connecting wires and microphone cables (if used). the switch and some simple plug (the chinch will do) are mounted. but first you have to check whether the amplifier operates correctly.2 of the LM386 with finger. Components should be mounted and soldered in the following ord resistors.

If you hear the hum. If the Idle current is zero or is significantly bigger than 5 mA. mikroElektronika. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. etc. if you happened to mount some electrolytic ca upside-down. These two voltages should be equal to the battery ( Contact then pin No. Try to locate the malfunction based on your measurements. When you make sure that everything is fine. equal to the one half of the supply (battery) voltage. making the distance between them a few (say.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 35 de 101 Hz hum from the loudspeaker. 5) mm. Two distant-rings are to be mounted between the wood. etc.htm 17-08-2006 . you should check the DC voltages. Voltage LM386 and No. Check out if there are some discontinued coppe print. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster. check out w connected your instrument properly and whether it is functioning. if you hear the hum .your instrument However.2 of LM386 with your finger.7 of the TLO71 should be app. You can now solder C4. If it s zero. something is wrong. After all th connect the loudspeaker. (If you don t possess an instrument. whether all junctions are the way they should be. the hum should be heard again from the loudspeaker. Touch the left end of the connected to the C1 with your finger.6 of LM386. the LED (if used) etc. The power amplifier is OK. or if two adjacent lines are connected (by themselves or by a small piece of tin that you dropped from soldering). the battery. This voltage should be slightly smaller than the supply voltage. the amplifier is OK). Touch the pin No. if the instrument is OK. (These rings can be cut from some small plas screws are first to be put through the plate holes. Tighten the plate with two small wood side pane. its loudness de position of the slider of the potentiometer P. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. un-solder the potentiometer and the loudspeaker and put them box panel. the switch. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . Also mount the plug and the switch. Remove the instrument and connect the to the wires A and B. connect the battery on t and B and do the touching described. and then pin No. then the rings and then screwed in the panel.7 of the TLO71. Set your multimeter to measure DC vo one probe (the one marked with the ground sign) to the amplifier ground (minus battery pole) and with sec the plus battery pole first. placing the LM386 on top (above the TLO71).

between the emitter an the amplified signal is taken from the collector (i. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. In our case.24 is the transistor BC557 that operates in th base junction. This is being accomplished in the following m the simultaneous load of 4 voltages that are coming to emitter from the antenna. as in our example). The active element of the HF amplifier from Pic.3. The important difference in operation of circuits from pics.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 36 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on.24 having the same selectivity as the input circu receivers described so far. then transistor (in direction emitter-collector). and Is4. It also has the same role. as on pic.. Receiver with the HF Amplifier In HF amplifier the signal coming from the radio station is being amplified in its original form. The resonance frequency of this circuit is set ( equal to the frequency of one of the currents and it acts upon it as a huge resistor (200 kOhms. therefore HF amplifier from pic. 3.3. Working principle is similar to t input circuit explained with the Pic. t that AM signal is led at input of the HF amplifier.htm 17-08-2006 . diode detector and LF (audio) amplifier is p Pic. fs3 and fs4. the one consisting of two equal variable capacitors connected onto the common shaft. Is3. fs2. therefore th the LC circuit being much bigger. although more precise term fo Selective Voltage Amplifier (that's how it is called in professional books). The station signal that is being amplified is led onto the emitter (i. 3. the selectivity of would be exactly the same as the the one on pic. with addition of extra amplification. were present in the antenna: fs1. is ve these days. only amplitude.3 According to Ohm s Law. This device got its name because it is used to amplify HF signals.2-b) and they create much smaller circuitry (10x smaller.3. and on its output the same shaped signal is obtained.24.e.3. between it and ground). It would be better that way.1 an all currents are much smaller in the latter case (because of the amplifying effect of transistor). as on pic.e.3. but "technical reasons" made us not to include it: the double variable capacitor (like the o issue of PE) i.e. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3. For other 3 currents the cir resistor with much smaller resistance (less than 20 kOhms. this current creates voltage on the oscillatory circuit. All therefore flow simultaneously through the LC circuit as well. Th causing four different currents to flow through the LC oscillatory circuit: Is1.1-b. their frequencies being fS and fS4... Is2. but the one caused by the current Is2 was significantly times) bigger. To refresh your memory: we have been considering an example signals of equal amplitudes but different frequencies. They share the same circuit: from positiv through P1. The parallel oscillatory circuit that is o the collector . This receiver does not have a selective input circuit. due to the oscillatory circuit being set to its frequency. four currents flow simultaneously through the transistor. Electrical diagram of a direct receiver consisting of HF amplifier. All these cur creating some voltage on the ends of the LC circuit. over the LC circuit to the minus battery pole.1.

8.26 shows the voltage . which he gave up on later. On Pic.htm 17-08-2006 . Please notify that the signal is being taken from the u the coil.7-a). If the feedback still occurs. the voltage (measured a the osc. as previously explained. The Audion . circuit) of the station with carrier frequency fs2 is significantly bigger than the voltages of the stati frequencies fs1 and fs3. That is by no means necessary.3.frequency curve of the parallel oscillatory circuit that is made of the coil L and while being tuned to the station whose frequency is fs2. This is possible due to big input resistance (bigger than MegaOhm). It is. when connecting the capacitor C care should be taken to connect the rotor to th point on pic.. as it has been in previous projects.25 you can see the electrical diagram of this. anyway. with increased selectivity. for example. however. In case the circuit is not loaded (the next stage of not connected to it). Its electronic diagram is shown 3. is small input resist damping the circuit and the bandpass curve has file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. the one on the Pic. having in mind their own criteria for concepts of the beautiful. and not from its leg. when the next s containing the bipolar transistor as. Why is this so Pic. * There is also a better variation of HF amplifier. this curve is shown in solid line and. on you find the slider for all stations to be in rightmost position. nevertheless.3. and co antenna with emitter. very hard to make something better with so little compone the Author leaves to the readers of this chapter to name their own Best Receiver candidates. however. * The R3 resistor comprises with C2 and C3 capacitors the LF filter which prevents the feedback (that would unstable operation) between the LF circuitry and HF amplifier. the Author had decided to name this chapter The BEST Direct Receiver . any will do. simple.12. Device. picking one of described in this book.. by E-mail: tesla@drenik. The signal in station is lead to the Gate of the BF256 transistor. although all of them have the same size in the antenna. * In LF part of the receiver the audio amplifier with LM386 IC is used. put a resistor instead of potentiometer. having in mind the old Latin saying: DE GUSTIBUS NON DISPUTAND (Tastes should not be discussed). Narodnog Fronta 31.Direct Receiver with Drain Detector During the experiments with this receiver.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 37 de 101 * With P1 potentiometer the signal amplitude from antenna to the input of HF amplifier is regulated. * As with all input circuits. is connected. However. cheap and us mail your voices to me on the address: ET "Nikola Tesla" (Praktična ELEKTRONIKA).net. compared to the one of the bipolar transistor (couple of kiloOhms). Subject: Pe9. the R3 resistance increased. If.3.3.

3. C2. The simplest way to do it is to place a 50 kOhm variable resistor instead.the Audion). and the (fixed value) resistor of similar resistivity soldered in the circuit. The LF signal is then led on the volume regulation potentiometer. the oscillatory circuit on Pic.3.6 Since it is not loaded. * Since FETs have very different characteristics compared to each other. A loaded circuit has smaller Q-factor than the non-loa shown on Pic. It has the same shap signal obtained on the output of the diode detector. it might be necessary to change th resistor. which is most often being marked letter Q. It has been earlier noticed that the most important characteristic of a parallel oscillatory circuit being used its resonance frequency Its second most important feature is the Goodness Factor of the receiver.3. If you do that you should switch off the battery (over the switch S) every removing the coil from the circuitry (during experiments).For example. since the whole signal from the circuit is led in the next stage (instead partly. the oscillation in the circuitry and loud hum will be heard from the loudspeaker. over the filter that is suppress the remains of the HF signal carrier (R3 and C7). After that it goes to the audio . together with R1.26. R2. The popular name detector was . The LF signal being detected is received on the drain (D). comparing to the voltage of the tuned s Considering the curve marked as Q3. and with the electronic tubes . tune the receiver to som and then achieve the best possible reception by moving the slider. clearly. muc since all the other station voltages are more suppressed (reduced). if you wish more high pitch should then be decreased. marked as Q2. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. but is significantly bigger than it. the receiver has got bigger sensitivity (it s capable of receiving weaker signals).the Anode Detector.htm 17-08-2006 . when getting the the coil s leg). and the bandpass curve remains as shown in solid line. Similarly.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 38 de 101 he shape shown with the dashed line. since the drain detect amplifies the signal. * The R7 resistor can be omitted.When the FET is connected to the oscillatory circuit (as there is practically no damping. This is. If you fail to do so. C3 and C4 forms the so-called Drain Detector (its analogous circuit with transistors is the Collector Detector.receiver. the goodness factor of the circuit from Pic. and is therefore also known as the Q-Factor. The FET. The same go * The filter (R3 and C7) used to suppress the remains of the signal carrier affects the colour of the tone of t If you wish more bass tones you should increase the C7 capacitance. we will be discussing it more in context with the Pic. The resistor is then removed from the ci resistance measured.29-a. consequently being Q1>Q2.25 has smaller (narrower) bandpass and therefore bett Additionally.3.

With 6 m long antenna and the antenna capacitor C1=12 pF. The wire diameter isn t critical. y increasing the capacitance and the resistance until reaching the desired delay time. Such an antenna.legged coil. during the night and in the morning. SW2. w case with the end No. SW3 with a selector switch. * C6 is the block-type capacitor that (together with R4) prevents the receiver from working in an unstable r a thing occurs. however. practic be used. For these purposes we utilized a piece of carton cylinder already used for building our coil L (described projects). Since this resistance is quite big and so is the of C5. too). But. you will find very hard to re-solder it. This is being achieved through R4.27-b you can see means of attachment of such an antenna to the PCB. On Pic. it is the single one.3. consisting of a dozen very thin lacquer . and on shape and dimensions are given. The simplest thing to do isusing the antenna from an old pocket radio. you should by no means cut the coil e shorten them later.3. wrapped together with the thread. This coil should replace the coil Pic.1. Its supply voltage is the one on the C5 capacitor and the detect work until C5 doesn t fill. If the ferrite rod is longer than 6 cm. pro same one you took the variable capacitor from. If. * This receiver works well also with the ferrite antenna.27-a you can see the symbol for it.2 by touching those 3 remaining ends. In the lower right corner of Pic. together with attachment plates. the antenna can also be gl board.amateurs doing. To detect it in the group of three you will need an ohm-meter of some other condu which you should connect to the end No. solar activity etc. That is due to a fact doesn t work under small supply voltages. and to be able to choose SW1. It is good in the hours. its capacitance should be increased. Instead. the weakest reception quality is around noon. This can be changed by changing the number of bends on the coil and /or C1 capacitan way you can take a peek what s happening in the civil area. It is wrapped around the ferrite core.htm 17-08-2006 . All that is to be done is ma coil. the filling time is rather long. what are the radio . You can even make a multiple . som links etc. Th being shown is made of carton.28-b (number of bends isn t critica useful trying out some other values. as seen on picture.3.1 is easy to identify.28-a.3. since it is difficult to remove the lacquer from all the wires with (some of) them). therefor significant ends for us are those marked as 1 and 2. We shall be using the coil L. we bended tightly 6 bends of 0. This coil is shown on Pic. Th file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The screw is mo the hole and the antenna is then attached to the PCB. or if the detector is working you should try increasing R1 and R4. During the dismount.25. you just need the receiver that will have a late start . If that doesn t help either. the reception bandwidth should be a MHz till fg=10 MHz. has four ends.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 39 de 101 * The receiver will not start operating the very same moment the switch S is engaged.isolated copper wires.3. you should see it for yourself.2. and then glued to it. On it. Anyway. that isn t a depends on the season. If cable. The end No. you should carefully un-solder and unhook them from the PCB (the coil is mad wire . the envelopes should be mounted on both rod ends.6 mm copper wire. such as on Pic. Instead of screw and nut. have in mind that the reception quality of the SW stations isn t the same during the day. and then search for No. There s also a possibility of receiving professional stations working on considerably higher frequencies. * With this receiver the reception of the SW band stations can also be achieved.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. It is a directive antenna. The antenna diameter varies from couple of cm till few dozens cm. thicker wire or an metal band. mikroElektronika. is given on Pic.28-c. It is made of stronger. With same screws cables connecting the an the variable capacitor C are affixed. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . the being found by experiments. S antennas are used in radio .location (searching for whereabouts of an unknown radio transmitter). being ci shaped and then attached to the wooden plate with two screws. This gives you the opportunity of achiev optimum reception of the desired station and simultaneous suppression of others by rotating the antenna.htm 17-08-2006 . Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 40 de 101 then also an antenna.3. which means that the amount of voltage being induc depends also upon the direction where the waves are coming from.

capable to separa the station the oscillatory circuit is tuned at from the multitude of signals in the reception antenna. every time this receiver is being attuned to the whistling is being heard for a short while. that creates t shaped AC voltage. they have a diagram of the Hartle front of them and that connecting the source to the leg No.3. Much easier tuning was that of the superheterodyne receiver (invented also by Armstron reduced to turning only one reel. If the station signal is weak. The slider of P1 should now be carefully mo The transistor amplification is hereby reduced and the oscillating stops. loud and clear. however. Birthday.3. Armstrong.factor could increased (even by couple of tens of times). two months before his 23rd. here in Yugo file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The bigger it is. whose amplitude is a couple of volts.type Receiver In the previous project. are not significant. and trimmers TP set in such a manner that the oscillator is really oscillating. TP1 and TP2 variable resistors are set on the right values.htm 17-08-2006 .26. The receiver is now tuned on the desired station. the slider should be moved backwards until it stops. If Q=95 and the voltage in the anten the voltage exiting the circuit is then 95 mV. or. the so-called positive feedback (positive react But. the slider of the variable resistor P1 is in the middle of the range. i infinite but is still very big. receiver was the fact that optimal tuning required somewhat more skill and basic knowle working principles. in which case the slider P2 should be carefully moved downwards until station programme is heard. to a great extent. It behaves then as the generator. in the context of Pic. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3. and it contributed. It is then clear that the Q. Even no electrical diagram of some younger and more modern brother. or rather a grand-grandson of once famous appears in some popular electronics magazine. This is why it has been named The Whistler . The reception can then be made better.factor is now infinit shall produce a very strong whistling sound in the loudspeaker. by carefully operating If the whistling emerges again.3. He discovered that the Q. Radio engineering enthusiasts know that. The Q-factor is being reduced too. to its final victory. if the signal from the inlet circuit would be amplified with the t the small part of this amplified voltage adequately returned into the inlet circuit.3 is made o and the P1. at the s suppressing other signals. as soon as the signal from the input circuit is led on the gate (G1 source (S) isn t connected to the ground but to the coil leg (point No. Let us imagine that everything is OK right where it should be. As one may notice. The complete process was patented in 1913 by the Americ pioneer Edwin H. improvements can be made by using the silver . the main mishap of this regenerative. where the triode is replaced by a MOSFE Pic. many scientists had been working on it simultane Meissner being one of the more important ones. e be OK and the programme should be heard.factor as possible. but the reactive receiver did not retreat itself completely. of using ceram the coil body instead of carton etc. and the reception of very far stations became possible. The radio station signal co amplified to much greater extent. known as reactive. The solution for this found: It was the process known as the regeneration .29-a.factor should be as big as possible. Theoretically speaking. until then. we have seen how important it its for an oscillatory circu to have as big Q. From an average listener s point of view. If we come upon some the whistling will start immediately. the Q. i.e. These improvements.9-a Reaction . The battle betwee concepts lasted for almost half a century. the receiver gets more selective.coated wire instead of the plain copper one. One such diagram. the abovementioned labourers also know that the oscillator shall oscillate only if the leg No.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 41 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. the thing that wa thought of.3). There is yet another important thing to be emphasized: the voltage in the oscilla times bigger than the voltage that is being led to it from the antenna.

so that oscillating can occur. which signifies the amplitude . CW is for Continuous Wave. and P2 on maximum (slider full right). * During every station change (with C). The receiver is being tuned as follows: Put the slider of P2 in mid position and later. The SSB (Single Side Band) technique transmissions are also being placed in area. Carrier suppressing gives huge savings in transmission power (the to accomplish the desired reach of the signal is significantly smaller than in the conventional .3.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 42 de 101 The amount of the reaction (feedback. The reception becomes clear. you can s you wish. Start moving the slider P1 upwards. then put it back down a little. and fine tuning between closely plac Ct).htm 17-08-2006 . Move the variable capacitor C and tune the rec stations. then you can set the optimum reception with slider.29-a. These signals cannot be received with the earlier described receivers. Measure the TP2 and insert in the device the ordinary resistor o resistance. approximate setting is done with C. it should be connected as the r and TP2). Set the capacitor is minimum capacitance position (see Pic. * SW . 3. G2 is connected to the AC signal s ground over C2 simultaneously eliminati coming from the potentiometer. and the FET is de-coupled from the supply line (and therefore all other stag by the LF filter made of C3. AM-SSB & CW Signals SSB stands for Single Side Band. put the slider P1 fully upwards and start ca the resistance TP2 until the whistling stops. a maximum amount of reaction should be set (with P1).band stations can also be received with this device. as close to C as possible. You can read more about it also in the Appendix. * If the local radio station still corrupts the reception of other stations. you should potentiometer between the antenna (A) and the upper end of C1 capacitor. but they can with this one. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. With it the so-calle yielding can be done (the initial. The TP1 trimmer should be set in such a way to have as big resistance as possible. C4 and R2. conne and close the switch S.3. which sets the ma voltage on the gate G2 of the MOSFET. allowing twice as man usual to be placed into the same bandwidth.type transmi cancellation of one sideband makes the signal have its spectrum two times narrower. Another type of capacitor can be us more about it in the Appendix.9-b Direct SW Receiver for AM. and yo typical hiss or some radio programme from the loudspeaker. after tuning. the reaction gets stronger and stronger. * While receiving very strong signal (local transmitter). changing therewith the amount of its amplification. regeneration) is controlled with P1 potentiometer.modulated signal which gets its signal carr sideband suppressed in the transmitter. If the whistling starts. Move the s until the oscillating occurs. In t slider P1 should be moved a bit more upwards. being marked as Ct on Pic. b unrecognizable. with a different coil.7). Set the P2 at minimum resistance (slider full down). you should insert the circuit that wil signal. an overload can occur. It should be mounted on the front panel. put the slider P1 back down. keeping at t reaction effective throughout the entire reception bandwidth of the receiver. The range of thi determined with TP1 trimmer. which determines the radio link where the Morse Code is being transmitted by oscillator work in the transmitter. In this case it would be ver trimmer capacitor in parallel to the variable capacitor. If that happens.

and here we ll take a look at anot works so nice that we were sometimes having the impression it beats up much more sophisticated. Its electrical diagram is shown on Pic.29-a).29-b. resistance would then be zero. The quantity of this neg depends on the amount of the DC current flowing through the transistors. the HF s oscillator. do exist.factor therefore b therefor increasing both the selectivity and sensitivity of the oscillatory circuit. The red LED D and the resistor R2 comprise a simple voltage stabilizer. causing the voltage on the left end of R3 to vary between 0 a The signal of the station is being led from the leg No. For the latter any of the earlier described devices can be used. Simpler solutions.factor would become infinite. its amo sum of all the (actual) losses in the circuit. Put the slider P1 in the upmost position. If the whistling re-appears.factor while receiving usual (conventional) AM RG by its absolute value would not cancel each other completely. All this may seem rather complex at first. being such because of big energy losses in the circuitry. then back until it stops etc. but we can imagine in first approximation that there s a resistor RG in the circuit which represents resistance being such that the oscillating current transforms itself into heat dissipation energy on it. whose resistance would be negative and equal to the value of RG by its absolute value. The receipt can be done only by bringing another signal into the detector. being led onto the sound volume po and the audio amplifier. i. solve the problem of these losses if conn RG a resistor RG .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 43 de 101 SSB and CW signals are impossible to accomplish with the receivers that use the ordinary diode . furthermore. together with resistor R3.3. If strong whistling is heard that means the oscil Move the slider carefully downwards until the oscillating stops. Th circuit would.3 on the coil a therefore superimposing itself with the resistance representing losses of the circuit. however. but with a little practice and with two hand and smooth. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. the Q.8 V of stabilized voltage means that the voltage on the right end of R3 shifts between 0 and 1. The through the transistors thereat also changes. there would be no energy losses and the Q. Its name is the A signal is then.3 of the coil into the collector-type detector made of T C4. together with the components that create this negative resistance. which is being regulated by alter voltage on the right end of the R3 resistor (by moving the slider of the P1 potentiometer). and to suppress all others. but the losses would be made very small.station programme from the loudspeaker ( For the next station tune yourself with C.e. Transistors T1 and T2 constitute. We could. We don t really need an infinite Q. The reason for this of the oscillatory circuit. move the slider of the potentiometer very little do whistling should stop and you should be able to hear the radio . from the collector of T3. receivers with positive feedback. become an oscillator capa SSB and CW signals. These are th receivers. then move the slider P1 upwards until the whistling appears. obtaining 1. The coil L and capacitors C and C1 form a parallel oscillatory circuit whose role is to separate and amplify th tuned station. This negative resistance is connected between the leg No. a two-stage amplifier with strong positive feedb negative dynamic input resistance. You have been able to see one of them in the previous project (3. modern receivers.htm 17-08-2006 . It doesn t entirely succeed in that. That is an AM signal detector that performs both signal detection and its amplification. over the coupling capacitor C5. There are many kinds (rea losses. known as the BFO (Beat Frequency Oscillator). Then start slowly turning the rotor of the ca you come upon some station.type dete described AM receivers).8 V while moving the slider of P1. however. Tuning this receiver on the desired station requires both some knowledge and patience (that s what finally kind of receivers).

the nicest (?) one given on Pic.3. having 0. Latching of the wire ends (with small holes made in the coil body). It can also be accomplished diffe on Pic. * The feedback may happen to be not big enough. Switching between the in many ways.3. adjusting therewith the reception bandwidth of the device. on as shown on Pic.29-b.3 to 0. The jumper is in position marked with dashed lin making contacts x and y short-circuited.5 mm in diameter made on every fifth quirk.3. broadcast stations.29-d-c. un file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. In factory-made devices.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 44 de 101 The abovementioned method is for the signal reception of ordinary. If you don t have even that. causing that there s no oscillating even when the P1 sli rightmost position.5. The pla taken from an old device is the best. On the PCB the legs are being soldered in pairs.isolated copper wire. * The coil L is being made on the cylindrically . The isolation is then removed from all coil ends.29-b. so that articulate speech code signs (CW) can be heard from the loudspeaker. an carton.3. together with appropriate connectors. to connect the PCB to the loudspeake variable capacitors. y and z between them is 1/10 inch) the contact pins are soldered. The screw-shaped core allows the se inductance. to the instructions given with Pic. afte tinned. about 5 mm in length. In the contacts marked as x. adding every now an glue (UHU or similar). each one made of 5 wire rings. 4 separate coils. then make yourself one.3. the x and z contacts are in ju case the coil leg No.3.3 is used.shaped body 6 mm in diameter. these jumpers and contacts are used. When it is moved in vertical position. about 25 mm long. various switches etc. First. as well as leg making wire loops) can be done acc. When the glue gets dry. the end of one coil with the beginning of the next ( together in the same hole on the PCB). remove the coil body off the drill. thus creating the leg No.made cylinder can be used instead. In that case.6. and in the latter it is No. If you cannot find such coil body. The coil L has the total of 20 quirks of the lacquer . like the one shown on Pic. leg No. The real thing are separate junctions.29-d. For example. made with factory-made contact pins and jumpers.htm 17-08-2006 .2.3 of t two wires through one hole is not a very professional solution. O you can see a detail of the PCB for the receiver shown on Pic. * Setting the collector-type detector circuit to optimum operation is done by changing the R3 resistance. are made side-by-side on the coil body ends are fixed with scotch tape. If you wish to receiv CW signals you should move the P1 slider upwards until the oscillating is achieved. the end of the second and the beginning of the third c connected on the same line where contact for the left end of C3 capacitor is.14-b. Cut the 25 mm wide and about 150 mm long and reel it around the flat part of the 4 mm drill.2 of the coil should be used instead of No.

Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. which is accomplished w about 400 pF. the amateur range (about 3. The exact value for C1 is being determined experimentally and can be significantly different.2 V. * The antenna can be a piece of copper wire no longer than 50 cm. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. but with longer (few metres). * This receiver is scheduled for the reception of SW stations from 6 MHz till 9 MHz.htm 17-08-2006 . mikroElektronika. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d .75 MHz) is performed with bigger C1 capacitance. external a results will be much better. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 45 de 101 collector of BC549C is 1.

can be bad if the receiver is used in motion. which would reflect itself both on the price and the realizab solution. Such circuit does exist in modern receivers. The signal from the input file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.3. The mishap is that elect would then become significantly more complex. and is called the Automatic Amplificat circuit (AAR).25 (with th is tuned to some station. This would even be conv stationary . i. That means that when the receiver from Pic. AAR circuit could be added to some of the receivers described in previous projects.3.3.10. Miniature Receiver with ZN414 (ZN414Z) IC The receiver from Pic. right? Well. The voltage being induced in it under the effect of biggest if the ferrite rod is in horizontal position. however.e.type antenna. The directional fe antenna is useful here. since it would provide the constant sound strength in the loudspeaker during th signals of various power. and the receiver should be constantly turned towards the transmitter. This. the reception can be additionally improved by simply rotating it. does exist. perpendicular to the direction towards the transmitter). If the rod is being turned plane). The ferrite antenna is a directional . being promoted as an AM Receive diagram is given on the Pic. i that it would be increased when the signal in the antenna weakens and vice versa.type receivers.htm 17-08-2006 . It would clearly prove itsel an electronic circuit in the receiver that would be automatically changing the amplification of the receiver. not exactly. meaning that where are the waves made by transmitter coming from. When the ro to the direction pointing towards the transmitter.e. since the volume would changing. however. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3. and is rather simple: it s the ZN414 IC. aimed in such a manner that its axis is perpendicular to th spread of the waves (i. the voltage decreases and gets to minimum when the rod is turned for 90 degrees.30.25 can be made portable (without an external antenna) if ferrite antenna is used in carton-body coil.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 46 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on.

If you plan to make a different PCB. R3 R4 and C4. If you have no instrument. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. If resistance headphones that are sensitive enough connect them between the right end of C3 and the ground transistor.3 mA. therefore the necessary 0. Connect the voltmeter between th ground. its resistance must be such that DC voltage on the pin 1 (to the ground) when being received.5 mA (more data about ZN414 can be found in t Pic.9 V. The 1. especially those near the ZN414.30 the pin description given. since such amplifier does not load the oscillatory circu reduce its Q. The electrical diagram of a small portable MW radio receiver. you have to obey certain r have a reliable and stable operation: a.36). This DC voltage is being created on R2 resistor. measure its resistance and solder an appropriate resistor on the PCB. like BC107). reproduction being done over the headphones Pic.9V. and carefully move the slider until the instrument shows 0. its typical value being 0. You may put for start C2=82 nF (or even 100 nF). where the input signal is to be brought.3. and maximum 0. is equal to 0.31. either plastic (on t or metal (bottom. since i amplifier Z is between pin 2 and the ground. tune the station and move the slider carefully until you reach an optimum receipt. must be kept as short as possible. It is sub correct operation of ZN414. ferrite antenna and look of entire device are shown. As you can see.. This can even be done without the LF amplifier.). where no signal can be heard.32 the PCB. which is the input of the amplifier (Z) that has very b impedance (about 4 MOhms). While calculating the R2 one must have in mind that the idle current of th through it.5V battery is being used in this device. In the right part of the Pic.3. The splitting capacitor C2 has to be mounted as close as possible to the pin 1 of the ZN414. The LF signal is led from the ZN414 output over the coupling capacitor C3 to simple amplifier mad transistor (or similar). You could try with smaller capacitance. This is very significant. the amplif decrease but the reproduction will be better. turn o and set it on an empty place on the scale. One end of the oscillatory circuit is connected to the ground over the C1 capacitor (for AC voltages). experimenting with R2 please have in mind that its resistance should be in any case no less than 600 Ohms On Pic. Then turn the variable capacitor the entire scale. If everything the receiver. and reproduction quality pleases you .. so the compromise has to be found. etc. The automatic amplification regulation (control) is achieved by returning the DC component of the detected output to the input of the IC. All the connections. connect first a 5 kOhms trimmer instead of R2. disconnect the trimmer.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 47 de 101 circuit (with ferrite antenna) is led on pin 2 of the IC. speech. which we discussed about before.3. Its capacitan the amplification (which increases with increase of C2) and the limit frequency of the LF signal (which decre increase of C2). put its slider in the mid position.6V voltage drop is done with R2=1 should. b.htm 17-08-2006 . The signal is then being amplified through 3-stage HF amplifier (HFA) and demodulate thereby exiting the IC as an LF signal (music. it is placed in a housing usually used for small-power transistors. since the device works on high frequencies. over the R1 resistor. to ensure that receiver is working well throughout the entire reception range.factor.everything is in order. just in case.3.

but a groove must be made with the rasp all around. make two battery platforms of brass. The beginning and the end of the c the scotch tape (the starting quirks are pressed on the coil body and fixed with several reels of 3 mm tape. When the body is finished. If you can t find one. i. after which the rod can in two. Regarding the ferrite antenna. If you cannot do the former. The rotor (G. This solution is fi skilled in soldering and can easily un-solder the old battery and attach the new one.e. The coil body is. * The battery can be connected to the PCB with two pieces of wire that are soldered to it.8.leg) of the variable capacitor must be connected with the junction of R1 and C1. The simplest thing to d battery housing from an old receiver. If you still decide not to use the ferrite antenna. 0.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 48 de 101 c. made of paper tape that is spooled and glued onto the rod.33 and sold copper areas on PCB that are big enough to support them.32-c. The length of the ferrite rod is 42 mm. cut it dow cannot be done with the saw. you can use our coil fro that case. or it is unsuitable for some rea make it according to Pic. It is thus achieved that the doesn t lay firmly on the rod. Before you start several pieces of 0.3.5 mm wire (3 on the picture) should be inserted between the rod and the paper.3. more on this was told in the project No. changing thereby the inductance of th optimum value can be established. But if you intend to giv someone. If you have a longer rod. the best thing would be using some that is retrieved from some disused conv receiver. the leg should be kept in air . its diameter being app. and he/she is not a soldering-lover. it is not used. which can now be moved side-to-side.3. you ll have to find another solution. d. your PCB must be big file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. do the necessary adjustments and connect it with the PCB with two p (litz) wire. the wires are removed.htm 17-08-2006 . If you accept this solution. loudspeaker (if the cables connecting them to the PCB. again. The ferrite antenna and variable capacitor should be placed as far away from the battery. The co quirks of lacquer -isolated copper wire. done with the ending ones).2 mm. as shown on Pic.

5 V. Which one should it be? The one on the Pic. The board now also contains the holes for the screw fixing it onto the device box. a small spring can be provide a good contact. and then is slowly moved upwards until t pin 1 doesn t reach the level required.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 49 de 101 additional part is shown in dashed line.8 mA.32-a). to keep the b place.34.htm 17-08-2006 . On the platform that supports negative (-) battery pole. If you don t have such a spring. The slider is put in the lowest position.3. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. this circuit applies a big load onto the battery. by using the 50 kOhms trimmer.3. If you are using a power source whose voltage is greater than 1.34-d gives the best operating performance done with the TP trimmer. the R2 resistance should be increased for it is best to find as previously described. surging fro I=(9V-3V)/680Ohm=8. Even better solution is using o from the Pic.3. However. bend the platforms inwards a little. on Pic.

gets OK. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . you consider it to be The One . As you did in previous p potentiometer s slider in mid-position. The most important difference signal exiting the ZN414 does not go to the transistor amplifier but to the power amplifier built around the was used in some previous projects. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. If.11. and used them la book. 3.35 was: Works EXCELLEN will probably ask himself: Isn t this the aforementioned The Best Receiver ? No. re-position the slider again. Any other audio amplifier can be used instead. covering its entire s sure that receiver works well in its entire operating range. mikroElektronika.. Start changing the capacitance of the variable capacitor. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The R2 resistance must be no less than 600 Ohms. however. those on Pics. it isn t.15 With this receiver. If a problem occurs. special care should be taken regarding the voltage on pin No. please send your vote on E-mail: tesla@drenik This device is very similar to the one being described in the previous project. turn the receiver on and tune it to some station. Move the slider ca reach the optimum reception.g. e.htm 17-08-2006 .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 50 de 101 3. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.1. measure its resistance. turn the receiver off. and solder the resistor resistance on the board.. disconnect the potentiometer. Pocket Receiver with ZN414 & LM386 IC s The author was taking notes in his lab while testing the receivers being described herein.3. One remark about the receiver whose electrical diagram is given on Pic. just remembe GUSTIBUS.

Add a power supply based on 7809 voltage stabilizer IC. which are mass . As seen on the Pic. The separation stage allows us to connect small . All the nece are comprised in the IC. really. The smaller table given below it contains the data about the DC voltages on the pin something is wrong.fashioned radio receiver.5 V battery is used for the power supply of the circuit.12. being promoted as The World s smallest radio by its manufacturer (FERRANTI). Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3. the contacts. extremely simple. All these apply on th except for the last line. use a loudspe membrane diameter being about 15 cm.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 51 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. detector and t and LM386 (audio power amplifier). Someone will. Everything that is said about the ferrite antenna in the previous projects applies here as well. the receiver built around the ZN415 is. and is taken directly on the base pin of T2. and you and improved silicone . so t mounted parts would then be only the battery and the headphones? The answer is fairly simple: It isn t ye make the capacitors that would have enough big capacitance. etc. the first thing to do is check these voltages and if they are (approximately) as those g the IC is OK and the error is therefore to be searched in the printings. the 8-pin DIL package contains ZN414 IC with resistors. perhaps. AM Receiver with ZN415E & LM386 IC s This FRT AM receiver combines the features of two magnificent IC s.based model of an old . wonder why there are no capacitors integrated inside. 3. and is being connected between the pins 6 and mind the previous experience gained with the ZN414 IC.resista headphones.10. As described in project 3. The 1. built somewhat less than 100 yea file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.13. an amplifier with T1 transistor and the separation stage performed with T2 transistor.3. In the upper end of the Pic.3.htm 17-08-2006 . the LF signal exits the ZN414. in the monolithic IC s manufacturing proces this problem . which is sh line on the picture. Miniature Receiver with ZN415E (ZN416E) IC The ZN415 IC. Through the coupling capacitor C3 it is led on th and the amplified signal is obtained on its collector pin. put all this in one of the boxes described in the Appendix.37 the table with basic data about ZN415 circuit is given.36-a (IC s block diagram). is an im of ZN414. ZN416E (HF amplifier.produced these days and are the easiest ones to obtain. The rem signal are led to the ground over the C4 capacitor. the author recommends to the readers to try impr reception by adding the R2* resistor (helping themselves with linear 1-5 kOhms potentiometer). junctions.

The wi the loudspeaker and the adapter to the PCB have to be firmly twisted. if it is more then 10 cm away from th file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. Universal . as far from the loudspeaker as possible. the trimmer is disconnected.38. is being done over the R2 resistor and D1 and D2 diodes. especially those that connect the capacitor to the board.tuning of the voltage on the pin 6 is being done (the receiver is set to some station in the reception bandwidth (app. On the PCB. should be as short as possible. but any other low-power silicon diodes will do trimmer TP the fine . A conductors. you should certainly put it into some bigger box where bigger loudspeaker (~15 cm) ca The ferrite antenna should be mounted on the rear or side panel. although any circuit given on P used instead.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 52 de 101 The electrical diagram of this device is given on Pic. this resistor is marked as R3. The voltage reduction (and stabilization) from 9V needed by ZN415. and the slider of the TP is then used to obtain the optimum recep the receiver is switched off. If the rece the household use. 1500 kHz).39. The PCB.type diodes 1N4148 are used here. as shown on picture for the loudspea potentiometer is to be connected with the shielded microphone cable. its resistance measured and an equivalent resisto circuitry.htm 17-08-2006 .3.3. component layout and connections with other parts of the device ar shown on Pic.

The author recommends TDA7 features are: 1. and the shield wire to the closest ground. The 220 mF capacitor isn t needed if the power rectifier that has an electrolytic capacitor on its output i cables connecting it with the device are short. No clicking during switching ON/OFF 6. Output power Piz=1. No cooler necessary 4. Headphone used instead of loudspeaker. which is in every way great advantage. * Some more modern IC. if we exclude the (inevitable) 100 nF capacitor. It is then connected to the PCB via a cable.2 W (3x bigger than LM386) 8. Implemented output short-circuit protection 3. that will switch off the loudspea headphones are plugged in. in which case such connector must be chosen. can also be used in this device. Extremely stable operation 2. Voltage amplification is 39 dB 7.htm 17-08-2006 . Small power consumption. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. In that case the amplifier is practically made without the ext components. connecting its live end directly on pin No.5. other than LM386.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 53 de 101 A connector for 64-Ohm headphones can also be mounted on the box. IO=4 mA 5.

3. * The PCB and components layout is shown on the Pic.41. the pin 6 of ZN414 must be connected. all the external components it requires are two capacitors (C8 and C9). If you wish to use such adaptor.3.3. Electrical diagram of one pocket-type AM receiver that uses two of these for power suppl Pic. to the pin 8 of the TDA7050. and the adaptor is then to be co the pin 8 and the ground. since this two-batteries power supply cannot be simply some common-type 3V adaptor. placed in some convenient ho some old device.35. probably for its quite big price/capacity ratio. the purpose that is originally designated to it by (Philips). s never used in the pocket-type receivers today. Two IC's. etc.htm 17-08-2006 . Miniature receiver with ZN415E & TDA7052 IC s The 9 V battery is not so popular nowadays as it used to be. The DC supply voltage for TDA7050 must be e and should be no bigger than 4 V. Besides this nice feature.). ov resistor and one of the circuits from Pic.6 V. ZN415 and TDA7050 are being used in it. Between the plus pole of the left and the minus pole of the right battery the tin plate is in of 3 cables connecting the supply to the PCB soldered to it. * The 64 Ohm headphones are connected onto the output of the ZN415 (between pin 5 and Gnd). should be added only if the receiver does not opera Determining its exact value is explained in several previous projects. wakmans. In the left corner the batteries are shown.14. Much more frequently utilized these days are the cylindrical AA type batteries.42. * Caution must be expressed with the power supply. this IC has very small di low idle current (4 mA). file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. or instea loudspeaker (in which case the reproduction can be much louder).mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 54 de 101 3. which mak usage in the mobile-type devices (radios. shown in dashed line on the picture. The voltage being supplied from the batteries gets smaller during the use operates properly as long as it doesn't drop below 1. * The R2* resistor. Connecting other components is being done in manner as in the previous project.

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 55 de 101 Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.htm 17-08-2006 . F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster. mikroElektronika.

The FM tran other advantages. therefore allowing for the m frequency of the information (acc. the industry started right away with the sup made acc.1. In practical terms. this isn t so important since the most impo components are located below these 4. and that high-fr electromagnetic waves behave themself as light. and nobody is complaining). The radio-broadcast FM transmitter has a 250 kHz wide channel on its disposal. That mean being fully transferred and its quality is significantly better than in the case of the AM transfer. Considering the speech itself.5 kHz. using the as for the TV signal receipt and an audio amplifier connected to the audio output of the satellite receiver.e. therefore making maximum frequ information being transferred fNFmax=4. i.43 you can se the electronic circuit of an extremely simple direct FM receiver. so truncating them above 4. they make AM-FM receivers :) The direct-type (TRF) FM receivers have never been produced.5 kHz (during the telephone transfer. i receive the SW signal from anywhere on Earth. the coil L the variable capacitor C and internal capacitances of the T1 transistor. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 3. however. is not the result of t modulation itself. to the block diagram on Pic. all the components above 3. squeaking etc. and are therefore being called the super-reaction receiv 3. The T2 transistor tog R1 resistor. This ran marked as FM on the band scales of the radio receivers.15. and it is already being done. with their frequencies spreading up to 15 kHz. and stick to the FM s. Accordin treaties. Fo earthly conditions. And what can those interested in both do? Well.htm 17-08-2006 . for the transfer of music.2 cut. This is why obtaining this kind of radio-link requires optical visibility between the transmission and rece which is not the case for the links obtained on frequencies which are less than 40 MHz. whilst the range of an UHF link is limited to the horizon. perhaps the most significant of them being the possibility of eliminating various disturba manifesting themselves as snapping. Direct (TRF) FM Receivers Frequency modulation is used in radio broadcast in the bandwidth range from 88 MHz til 108 MHz.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 56 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. In amateur life. The signal. somehow? Yes we can. however. those that are interested in the worldwide news will make and use the AM receivers.5 kHz does deterio transmission quality.6. Or. each of the transmitters has a 9 kHz wide broadcasting channel. over the satellite links. to the characteristics of the FM signal) to be fNFmax=15 kHz. all abo simply truncated in the circuitry. which will later be discussed. according to the characteristics of the AM signal. not reflecting from t etc. These receivers have very feedback. The resonance frequency of this oscillator is being set by C to correspond to the one of the statio hear (meaning it has to be altered between 88 and 108 MHz).15. Music has much components. is extracted on the R1 resistor. spreading themselves in straight line.3.5 kHz. The Simplest FM Receiver On Pic. that is the question! Can we have it both. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. and the devices that are able to receive such s the FM receivers. MW and SW bandwidths. the direc do exist. having very simple electronic diagrams and being easy to manufacture. Radio broadcast transmitters are using the amplitude modulation on LW. the information being used in to perform the modulation. but rather of the fact that this method is being used on high frequencies. making the intermittent oscillations in it. say: The quality or the range.4. To put it m highest frequency of the sound that can be heard from the loudspeaker of an AM receiver is 4. comprises the oscillator. The main disadvantage. and being led from it to the high-resistance hea the coupling capacitor C1. Things stand different. however.

That is why C3 and C4 are added. mA is the current through R1. we were using the capacitor from Pic. If the coil is stretched the inductance decr versa. But when it ages its resistance increases and th short-circuit. The R3 resistor and c C6 are to be added only if the operation of the device is unstable. The battery itself acts as a short-circuit for the AC currents. E. together with R3. bended to have a 4 mm internal diameter.43 is rather small.E. * The telescopic antenna taken from a disused device can be used. e. that supplies T1 and T2. new coil must be made.8.3. 20 testing off this device.4 and P. The R3 is counted from the formula where UBAT is battery voltage. that from Pic. making it better to use the cheap headphones in con audio amplifier.3. which is used to se and LF parts of the receiver. Since in these amplifiers voltage bigger than 3 V is used. and 0. During the setup of the bandwidth.2 been using. the in coil can be altered by changing the distance between the quirks. you obtain very g a piece of isolated copper wire.8 are set to minimum capacita capacitance between the FO and G legs should be adjustable between 7 and 27 pF.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 57 de 101 * The capacitance of the variable capacitor should be able to change from a couple of pF (Cmin) to app.g. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. very successfully).15. to accomplish it. Capacitors C5 and C6 comprise. using of R3 and C5 is obligatory.3. urging the use of very sensitive hea are much more expensive than the ordinary ones.5.3.45.E. T realization of this coil is explained in text connected with Pic. For loudspeaker reproduction any of the previously described amplifiers can be used.g. or one of the devices described in P. If this cannot give the desired results. t connected to the ground. 3. The Simplest FM Receiver with Audio Amplifier The radio-broadcast FM transmitters operate with output power that is much smaller than that of the AM tr is why the LF signal coming from the device on Pic. One such solution where TDA7050 IC is used is given on the Pic. about 60 cm long (the optimum length to be found experimentally). When all the trimmers from the circuit on the Pic.htm 17-08-2006 . a pass-filter for very low frequencies. If you can t find one. The legs marked as FO and G were used. * The coil L has 4 quirks of lacquer-isolated copper wire (CuL). if UB and the nearest existing resistor is used. There optimum values are to be found ex starting with those shown in the picture.

FM Receiver with one Transistor and Audio Amplifier We have made this receiver on the experimental plate.. the best thing is the round part of a 9 mm drill). is a reaction-type receiver.46. coil L and capacitors C. made of 5 quirks of CuL wire. and it was playing for days in our lab. too. since we needed the plate for one of the devices describe book. Its frequency is being adjusted by means of the variable capacitor C to be equal to the frequency that we wish to listen to.htm 17-08-2006 . The LF signal is being taken from the R1 resistor. * The coil L is self-supporting (doesn't have the body). This. pen etc.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 58 de 101 3. Its electronic on Pic. its diameter being fro It is spooled on some cylindrical object (pencil. and led into the audio amplifier.3. C* and C2 oscillator.15. in file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. where the BF256 transistor. Regretfully we had to disassemble it.3.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. it i cylinder and stretched a little. as shown in the left. That is. a 50 mm piece of wire can also be used. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. spooled on a round part of a 3 mm drill. usually being about a doz * HFC is the high-frequency choke. Together with C2. But. on its place. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster. approximately in the middle of the coil. and you cannot achieve the reception of the full FM bandwidth (88 t changing the value of the C*. a coil that has 16 quirk wire. If you are using som capacitor.4.15. * This receiver works well even without the external antenna. t it better to use the "regular" headphones and a simple amplifier. as one can see. framed part of the picture. as previously noticed. G goes to Gnd). The muffler is. which is to be connected to the left end of the C3 capacitor. so that the quirks do not touch each other.htm 17-08-2006 . The other end of this wire is soldered onto the PCB. is made by taking off couple of millime lacquer from the wire.8 (legs FO and G.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 59 de 101 quirks put tight to each other. be connected to it. This place is then tinned and a piece of thin w to it. of course. to be connected to the left end of C2 * For the variable capacitor C the one from the Pic. you can see the diagram of another very simple FM receiver. Its final length should be about 1 coil leg.46. mikroElektronika. in fact.45. FM Receiver with (just) one Transistor On the left side of the Pic. that has only o the active element. When the coil is finished. as shown on the right side of the Pic. Its capacitance is to be determined experimentally. they are pretty expensive. that has bigger capacitance. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . where the reproducti accomplished over the high-resistance headphones. 3. the HF part of the receiver from Pic. It can. as show Instead of antenna. it makes a filter that prevents the HF current to flow simultaneously allowing for DC and LF current to go through.3.

2. besides the station signal. Another voltage is a voltage from the local oscillator that has the frequency of f0. skill and patience. Superheterodyne AM Receivers On Pic. and it fm=455 kHz. that the information from the mixer is carried by the signal frequency fs.1.2. SW2 ) it is being constructed to have the same inter- for all of them. it is no build such device in the amateur environment. and the oscillator freque therefore yielding 1463 kHz-1008 kHz=455 kHz=fm. The Fully (not exactly 100%) superheterodyne AM Receiver No. All these signals are receiving new signal carriers in the mixing stage.1. E.1. Stereophonic Receiver As far as the professional manufacturers are concerned. The Fully (not exactly 100%) superheterodyne AM Receiver No. and also it requires much of the knowledge.1 4. that was patented in Armstrong. also signals of strong and are obtained. comparing to the TRF receiver that needs two buttons to be intermittently optimal reception. its main advantage was its substantially easier tuning to t requires only one button for this. the direct (TRF) receiver has "played out his tune" century struggle on the market. In that time. and is modulated by a sing in the rectangle above its label. On the output of this circuit. and an AM signal appears on its outp being fm=455kHz. it's an AM signal that has the carrier frequency fs. Miniature FM Receiver 4. from that exist in the antenna.2 4.1. SW1. and when the operating principles are known. This signal is called the inter-frequency (IF) signal. the listener will change the capac capacitors until the resonant frequency of the input circuit becomes fS=1008 kHz. In our example.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 60 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. The Simplest AM Superheterodyne Receiver (worldwide) 4..g. MW. with their frequencies devia as their carrying frequencies differ from fS. and a constant amplitude.Superheterodyne AM Receivers 4. also more complex than the TRF. and in the mixer it is being assumed by a new carrier. the phenomenon called the outbreak takes place in the mixer. the user changes the capacitance of the variable capacitor C by turnin setting up the resonance frequency of the input circuit to be equal to that station's one. This signal is being led into the stage called the mixer. When tuning to a station that operates on the frequency of fS=1008 kHz. the frequency o oscillator shall be fO=1139 kHz. Here's one numerical example. This capacitor is loc oscillator and that is how it gets the new oscillating frequency. if the input circuit is set on the station whose frequency is another two signals from the neighbouring channels can also emerge on its exit. so its capacitance changes simultaneously to that of C. that the average radio amateur does not possess.2. and setting of its stages during requires some special instruments. The interfrequency is being adopted by the constructor of the device. Superheterodyne FM Receivers 4. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex Chapter 4 Superheterodyne Radio Receivers having such value that the difference of the station frequencies is again equal to the inter-frequency value. Nevertheless.2. it has been replaced by the superheterodyne receiver. 4.1. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. FM Receivers with TDA7088T 4. Under the effect of signals. If the receiver has more wavebands (LW. the necessary be done "by hearing". FM Receiver with TDA7000 4.3.1 you can see the block diagram of a radio-broadcast superheterodyne receiver The input circuit (U signal of the tuned station from all the voltages created in the antenna (A) by various radio transmitters an disturbances. to extrapolate only the signal of the tuned station. commercially speaking. especially the signals from the neighbouring channels (their frequency being very close to the station). which the average buyer The superheterodyne receiver is. and its frequency fm the interfreque has the same envelope as the station signal entering the mixer. Another variable ca located on the same shaft as C.4.1. What do we gain with this change of the carrier frequency? So far we haven't mentioned one very importan that the input circuit can never be selective enough. however.2. When the receiver is set to the station that has the frequency of fm=684 kHz. That means. therefore making there difference be 1139 kHz-684 kHz=455 kHz=fm. that has t When transferring to another station.htm 17-08-2006 .

The upper part of the picture average voltage amplifications for each block. therefore urging fo separately stabilized (with special care). so it amplifies only the 455 kHz sign suppresses the others enough not to disturb the reception. Their question probably is: Can an amateur build such he can. The outbreak occurs. the led either on pin 1 or on pin 2 (or on both of them.4. so we made simpler devices that are simpl instruments necessary than your ears.htm 17-08-2006 . as seen in some projects in this chapter and in the Appendix. to the table given on Pic. sinusoidally-shaped tone. Total voltage amplification. which is not the case with the superheterodyne receiver. that our readers probably don't possess. These 3 signals are ent which gets the 1463 kHz voltage from the oscillator.4. the signal exiting the IF amplifier is led onto the detector (Det. especially those just entering the world of radio with this bo somewhat scared by the block diagram from Pic. vary between 4. The ordinary TRF receiver would in this case be totally i suppressing those signals.6 and 7. whose pin description.5 V to 8 V.4. which has seve stages with oscillatory circuits set to 455 kHz. and those who doubt it may contact him). Pin 8 receives a positiv voltage which can. more im help of Sasa Piosijan. with semiconductors (its radio a YT1FA. acc. t automatic amplification regulation. Above every block on the picture you can see the signal shape exiting that block.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 61 de 101 Their frequencies would be 999 kHz and 1017 kHz. when all had been done with the making the practical realization of a receiver much harder than it is today. Radivoje Karakasevic and Kiro Stojcevski. However. In the text that follows 3 simple superheterodyne receivers made with NE612 will be described. who knew all about the radios. both regarding the sensitivity and selectivity.2. i. using the club (more less trophy) instruments and. The author has a friend that succeeded in this some 40 years ago. which r practical experience and some special instruments. block main features are given on Pics.1.). The value of this voltage is it is extremely important for normal operation of the receiver that this voltage is stable. They are realized around the NE612 IC.1. that determines the frequency of the local oscillator and the positive feedback circuit are connected No. that NE612. The amplification in decibels (dB)=20logA=117. as seen on the oscilloscop modulation in the transmitter is done by the single. All 3 signals go to the IF amplifier (MFP).1. the minus pole of the DC supply voltage.5 4. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. of the voltage on the loudspeaker to the voltage in the antenna is A=750000. 464 kHz and 446 kHz. especially S The main problem in making a superheterodyne device is not the circuitry complexity but its setup. Pin 3 is connected to Gnd. The Simplest Superheterodyne AM Receiver The author presumes that most of the readers. But they are m the TRF receivers. The ARP signifies the circuit that turns back the DC component of the detected signal into the IF amplifier. This IC comprises the critical stages of an AM superheterodyne receiver.e. making it very selective. and 3 AM signals are exiting the frequencies being 455 kHz. for the mass-production devices. the LF voltage amplifier (NFP) and the out the circuits we spoke about in the previous projects. he was doing this in the premises of YU1EXY R attic of the Electrotechnical Faculty in Belgrade. the mixer and local oscillator. in case of symmetrical coupling with the next stage circuit. in case of symmetrical coupling with the previous stage signal is obtained on the pin 4 or 5 (or on both of them.2-a & b.

The device has got only one oscillatory circuit in the IF amplifier (being marked as MFT frequency does not need to be set to some specific value (meaning the receiver will work OK even if its freq or smaller than standard 455 kHz). whose frequency is equal to the resonance freq parallel oscillatory circuit made of CO.4.htm 17-08-2006 . The electronic diagram of the simplest superheterodyne AM receiver in the world. the mixer. with reproduction over th shown on Pic. and the reader should pick one of these. On the o mixer also receives the HF voltage from the local oscillator. if neglecting the parasite capacitances. Further simplification was done by omitting the input circuit. i.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 62 de 101 More will be discussed in the chapter dedicated to NE612 IC. and is also more disturbances. Even so. This frequency.2-c. therefore a problems with quite complex adjustments between the input circuit and the local oscillator. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. and LO.1. CtO. Signals of all the stations are being led directly from the antenna onto the pin no.e. it has better both the selectivity and sensitivity than the TRF. All these simplif their price: this device is less sensitive and selective than the complete superheterodyne. or m that suits him best by combining these diagrams with earlier described HF amplifiers and input circuits.

The IF transformer frequency could be fm=455 kHz. being connected inside Pic. looking from the outside. * Pics. in fact. It is a special type component that is hard to ordinary electronic shops. the MFT is.3-a.3-a.b. and it will be the only one to appear on the oscillatory circuit. only one of these signals will frequency that is equal to the resonance frequency of the MFT. modulated by the radio stations' programs. This part is coloured in order to distinguish the MFT's between themselves. As you can see it on 4.c & d. Both the coil and the ca placed in the square-shaped metal housing that measures 10x10x11 mm (Pic. a parallel osci a leg on its coil. Together with the bigger one it comprises the H that takes the signal from the oscillatory circuit into the next stage of the receiver. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. being mos The same body contains another coil. we will have Radio Nis's signal from it suppressed. since there's danger of melting the plastic stopper. fm2=f0-fS2=1166-855=311 kHz and fm3=f0-fS3=1166-1008=158 kHz.4. c & d almost fully apply for the oscillator coil as well (LO). having the frequencies of fS1=711 kHz (N (Bucharest) and fS3=1008 kHz (Belgrade 2). as shown on part of the core that can be moved with the screwdriver can be seen through the eye on the top side of the d. yellow and black (the coil of the local oscillator is also being placed in s is being painted in red. with less quirks in it. there are also two noses located on the bottom side.4. therefore the radio amateurs are usually obtaining them from disused factory-ma IF transformer is shown on Pics. All the tin from the pins and noses has to be re the aid of the iron and the vacuum pump (or a piece of wire stripped from the antenna coaxial cable). Japanese MFT's have the capacitor C placed in the cavity of the plastic stopper. If we wish to hear Bucharest. the oscillator frequency should be set to 1310 kHz. b.4.4. Here's a numerical example. he will just turn the knob of CO until desired station's broadcast. You c remove the MFT from its original PCB. mixer: fm1=f0-fS1=1166-711=455 kHz. The coil body has a ferrite core (symbolically shown with single upward straight dashed line moved (with screwdriver). Let us assume that we have (only) 3 MW signals in the antenna. Nevertheless. The colours are white.3-b). The IF signal is led from the pin 3 to the detector with AA121 diode. If we set our oscillator on fm=1166 kHz (with CO). Un-soldering the MFT isn't that simple and is to be performed very carefully.htm 17-08-2006 . From the bottom side you can see 5 pins emerging from the plastic stopper. until th the PCB. and for Belgr Of course that the listener doesn't need to know all these frequencies. since there are usually at lea AM receiver. The LF signal is taken from the R1 resi capacitor C4 it is led to the volume potentiometer P and the audio amplifier. Since the oscillatory circuit on the mixer exit (MFT) is set to 455 kHz. Besides them. * the MFT is also being called the inter-frequency transformer. LO and MFT can be distinguished only by the marking colour. but now they have new carrier frequencies. that are to be soldered and c device ground. The iron is not to be kept lean the pins. to distinguish it from the MFT).mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 63 de 101 On the mixer exit the signals from all the stations are obtained. which allows for the setting of the resonance frequency of the circuit.3-a.3-a. the difference of the oscillator frequency and their original one. that link the MFT to the PCB. The only difference is that LO doe capacitor C. the following signals.

* Fine tuning (if necessary) of the LO's and MFT's inductance values is done by adjusting the position of the screwdriver. C1=33 pF and simi affects the oscillator frequency. or somewhat less than 9. do have in mind that it can be done only if you connect also pin 2 t pin 3).28.4 mm CuL wire (a thicker one can als the 32 mm diam. do not permute.htm 17-08-2006 . Number of quirks on but other combinations should also be tried. 12 quirks. you will be surprised with much bigger selectiv from Pic. in the evening hours you'll be able to perform the receipt of huge number of stations on the ra professional and amateur wavebands.4. If you have already accomplished the rece stations with some of the previously described TRF devices. * In the previous numerical example we saw that tuning is done by setting up the frequency of the local os fm=455 kHz. Acc.4. the same one used for making coils on Pics. However. During the PCB design. to Pic. with G connected to Gnd.6 & 3. while MFT's (IFT s) are white.3.4. It is being made of 0. If that would happen. if you conclude during the design phase that it would be mor connect pin 4 to Gnd (instead of pin 1).7.4. * With CO and CtO. carton body. shows the capacitor we spoke about in the connection with Pic. say. The feedback coil has spooled along the oscillator coil (as shown on picture). black or yellow. All there is make a new oscillator coil.3. For the reception of SW stations smaller capacitances for C1 should also be tested. to Pic. say. * The receiver from Pic. Radio Nis will be heard when the oscillator frequency is fO=1166 kHz. the abovementioned capacitors are con circuitry over the legs O and G (Ca and Cta are not used). t happen if there is a station that operates on 1621 kHz? Mixing its signal with the voltage from the local osc file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. variable capacitor and the trimmer capacitor in the oscillator are labelled. acc.3-g & h.2. The story is not over.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 64 de 101 LO's have red colour. the feedback would be negative (in and the oscillator wouldn't function.2 can be utilized for the reception of AM stations in the SW waveband. or over it. absolute care that pins 1 & 4. as well as 2 & 3.

htm 17-08-2006 . the obstruction because of the symm occurred. and "our" coil from Pic. * The reception can be significantly improved if input circuit (UK) is added to the receiver.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 65 de 101 modified signal is made.3-i. They both have the same carrier frequency (455 kHz).7.4. * If the receiver from Pic.2 (mixing of stations or. In the radio-broadcast r being done over the input circuit. one of them is Radio Nis.6. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.3. that transmits on 500 kHz (e. the interference occurs. If this doesn't succeed.9. change a little frequency. more common. The receiver is first roughly tuned to the station using these two b the optimum reception is carefully searched. if you can't hear some station you're fond of. We now have two signals on the MFT.2 is power-supplied from the battery (or adaptor) whose voltage is over 6 V. and the other comprehends the program of the station transmitting on 1621 kHz. Both of them a the loudspeaker. It is "our" c Pic.3.2. and connect high-resistance headphones instead of R the simplest superheterodyne receiver in the world. as it was done with the receivers on 5. whist tone) try changing the MFT's oscillation frequency (by turning the ferrite coil). a v should be inserted in the plus (+) line of the power supply for NE612.4. Station tuning is now being buttons. mikroElektronika. which isn't "a job for everyone". by input circuitry and the HF amplifier. with all the capacitors connected in parallel.g. then re-tune the receiver.4. start reducing the CtO capacitance (turning the trimmer with screwdriver) until you hea similarly. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. not even with the capacitor CO k rightmost position. as on Pic. then try again. and in the professional devices. If experienced disturbances while using the receiver from Pic. * If you omit the amplifier with 386 IC on the Pic. the UK with special variable capacitor can be used. In order to avoid attuning the UK and the LO. tr LO inductance (by turning the core towards inside with screwdriver). its frequency being 1621 kHz-1166 kHz=455 kHz.4. Radio Budapest). A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . If you cannot receive the signal of some station transmitting on 1500 kHz. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. Speaking in expert language. That is a station whose frequency fSS iz greater than fm for the value of the oscillator frequency: fSS=fO+fm Suppressing the symmetrical station signal must be done before the mixing stage.

He played us for long time.4. until we didn't require the board to tes receivers from previous projects afterwards. so most of the things said about that receivers stands for t file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.5. resulting in better selectivity. * It is very important to obtain the necessary value of the DC voltage in pin 6 of the ZN415 for its proper o table on Pic. when we regretfully had to disassemble it.4. By adding ZN415 IC multiple enhancements are performed.3. short-circuit one of the diodes.4.1. the sound volume is made very low with potentiometer P. and its setting is done via the TP1 trimmer. It is easily being noticed that this is the receiver from Pic.htm 17-08-2006 . one should try changing the value of R5 resistor.3 V.2 with (IF) amplifier with ZN415E added. so we tested the receiver from Pic. Thanks to its huge input resistance. * The diagram is very similar to that on Pic. * The voltage stabilizer with 78L06 isn't needed if the receiver is supplied from the 6 V battery. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 4. If that doesn't work. * The receiver from Pic.3 V. The receiver is set to station. a ZN414 IC.3.2 needs input circuit to be 100% complete.4. and can the trimmer.4. We found. however.1 Its electrical diagram is given on Pic. The receiv great. and the slider of the TP1 is carefully mov reception is made.2.1. Fully (not exactly 100%) Superheterodyne AM Receiver No. The Fully (not exactly 100%) Superheterodyne AM Receiver No.5 with it. ZN415 "with us". as explained in the previous chapter.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 66 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on.4. That can be an independent input circ or input circuit and the HF amplifier that are described in the Appendix (Pic.36 it has to be about 1. this is to be done voltage being used is other than 12 V.4. In case of voltage on the pin being much bigger than 1. If the former circuit is us being accomplished with 2 knobs. from the amateur's point of view.2 All the receivers we made with NE612 IC were tested in our lab. making the usage of this device eas comfortable. the MFT's o not choked. The sensitivity of the device is extremely increased since this IC and the AAR (automatic amplification regulation) is also accomplished.10). 4. except the one from the previous project.

While making the reproduction very quiet as possible). of station whose frequency is fS. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. followed by the LF part of the receiver. which we spoke about in project. Its slider is put in mid position. where the information being mo transmitter is extrapolated from the signal. with appropriate coils in the oscillator. * The device operates nicely with the outside antenna made of a piece of wire measuring only half metres i * The reception would certainly become better if an input circuit would be added. With AFC the circuit that automatic frequency regulation of the local oscillator is labelled.htm 17-08-2006 . this signal is then amplified in the HF am the mixer.4 and 4. * The receivers from pics.).2. Superheterodyne FM Receivers The FM receivers being described in chapter 3. After that the trimmer is discon resistance measured and the ordinary resistor of similar value is put into circuit.4.15 are the amateur solutions.6. accomplishing with this the elimination of the parasite amplitude modulation. Station signals are taken from the dipole antenna and led through the appropriate cable into the input circu the signal selection is performed. the inter-frequency signal is obtained at the mixe carrier frequency is fm=10. 4. These are extremely simple de perform the noiseless tuning. the rec some weaker station close to the upper bound of the bandwidth. In this stage the signal whose amplitud level is being cut off. being expected from an UHF FM receiver.5 can. As in the case of earlier described AM receiver. The signal then goes to the FM signal detector.). the trimmer slider is moved until reaching optimum reception. The amplified in the IF amplifier and led on the amplitude limiter (Ogr. The true solution is the superheterodyne FM receive diagram is given on Pic. which improves the signal quality. 4. used in all radio-broadcast FM receivers).mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 67 de 101 * DC voltage setting on pin 1 of ZN414 is done with the trimmer TP.7 MHz (this is the standard value. various electrical devices etc. which is various noise sources during the transmission (atmospheric charges. accomplish the reception all the bandwidths from 70 kHz till 200 MHz. automatic oscillator frequency regulation and other features that ensure very reproduction.

while Pic. C13. the amplitude limiter. originates from building the coils. The IC contains all the sta superheterodine receiver: the mixer.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 68 de 101 4.htm 17-08-2006 . C12 and oscillatory circuit damped with R3 resistor. C and C5) is connected between pins 5 and 6. s coils (without the coil body). which has the reception bandwidth from 88 MHz till 108 MHz (it signals on the pin 13.4. mute circ amplifier. FM Receiver with TDA7000 The face that FM receivers operate on pretty high frequencies makes their practical realization somewhat d the problems. Pic. They both have 6 quirks of the CuL wire. Cs.2.19 is utilized (the components left from the potentio omitted). the amplifier made with LM386 from Pic. This capacitor serves us to tune the receiver to stations the receiver. especially if there aren't many of them in the device instruments are required for setting up their proper inductance value.8-a shows the PCB of the device from Pic.8 is used as the only variable capacitor h circuit is aperiodic. TDA7000. In order to be able to solder the coil onto the PCB. The IF amplifier then follows. are given in the following table. amplifying only on the one whose frequency is equal to the inter-frequency. where they are being given new carrier frequencies. The station signal is from the (telescopic) antenna led to the input circuit that consists of L2.7. 0. followed by the limiter.3. the IF amplifier. Electronic diagram of the HF part of the device (from antenna to the LF output) built with TDA7000 is show can see. The coils used in this FM receiver are there are only two of them. as in many other amateur builds. the coup file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. Inside the IC the signals ar mixer. They have few quirks and are made of relatively t they don t need a body of any kind.8-b contains the component layout (on the P device can be seen on Pic. it is a simple device.4. and weakens te signals outside the reception bandwidth).1.6 m being spooled on the flat part of the 3 mm drill.5. the legs marked with FO and G.3. the FM detector. which are easy to make. * L1 and L2 are the self-bearing coils (without the core). except the self-bearing. that is why they are called self-bearing . Their appearance is show the calculus for them is done acc. Cp. the oscillator.4. making the practical realization much easier. the FM detector a More about them will be told in the next project which contains the description for a receiver with TDA7088 improved version of TDA7000.8-c. The output from the last stage is on the pin 2 (R2 is the collector load of the last transistor in the The oscillatory circuit of the local oscillator (L1. The basic data about the famous Philips' IC used in this project. The variable capacitor from Pic. made with relatively small number of components.4. to the table from Pic.3.

It is being active when the S2 switch is receivers usually do not have S2 and R1 elements. For start. When changing the capacitance of C. * The part of the receiver that requires biggest care during build is the oscillatory circuit of the local oscillat connected between the pins 5 and 6. If that cannot be accomplished (not all the stations can be heard) some required with capacitances of Cp and Cs. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The inductance of the coil is set by its shrinking (the inductance increases inductance decreases).htm 17-08-2006 . * The TDA7000 also contains the mute circuit (for noiseless tuning). and they have to be tinned afterwards. you should omit the Cp. Stretching can be nicely done by inserting the screwdriver between the quirks and t the coil.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 69 de 101 isolation has to be removed from the wire ends with sharp knife. Th gap between the adjacent quirks. its resonance frequency must ch (C=Cmax) till 108 MHz (C=Cmin). If the problem persists.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. Further miniaturiza accomplished by using the SMD components. one variable capacitor.4.2. is performed by tuning the receiver to som station (about 98 MHz). 4.htm 17-08-2006 . capacitors. These are the resistors.).10.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 70 de 101 capacitance of Cs should be reduced (to 15 pF. so it can be put into some small box. You can also try stretching the L1 coil.2. transistors. IC s and oth whose dimensions are significantly smaller than these of classical components. and with C=Cmin the one that works on 108 MHz. Then. or it should be short-circuited. 88 MHz can be heard. two small coils and fairly sm components. the best possible reception is searched. by carefully placing the components. Its on Pic. etc. by changing capacitances C13 and C L2. FM Receiver with TDA7088T IC The receiver described in the last project has two IC s. TDA7088T is also an SMD component. They are mounted on th PCB. therefore it isn t necessary to drill the holes on the board. The input circuit setup (it is connected between pins 13 and 14). The setup of the oscillatory circuit is completed when with C=Cmax some station app. 10 pF etc.

the s other FM stations. 88 MHz. over the 5k6. which increases local oscillator (VCO). The 100 nF capacitor then starts chargingl and the voltage on the pin 16 increases. Therefore. On its output. 9 and 10). the charging of the capacitor is halted by the command tha SEARCH TUNING circuit by two detectors (diode-blocks) located in the MUTE circuit.htm 17-08-2006 . and it is modulated by the pro station that is found after the RUN button is pushed. over pin 11. the invertor (-1) and MUTE cir The detectors (diode-blocks) control the operation of the MUTE circuit. No variable ca for tuning. preventing the LF (AF) signal to reac until the tuning on the station that creates the signal in the antenna that is strong enough for quality recep file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. the oscillator frequency increases until it gets th fS=73 kHz is accomplished. As far as practical use is concerned. fm=73 kHz (selectivity is being accomplished by two active filters whose c capacitors connected to pins 6. to the anode of the BB910. the 73 kHz FM signal is obtained. i. IF amplifier and FM detec other circuits that extend the possibilities and improve the features of this IC. Let us get back to the mixer. the most significant novelty is the auto-tuning circuitry. i. the 100 nF capacitor is discharged. 8. causing its capacitance to decrease.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 71 de 101 This IC is the successor of the famous TDA7000. The LF (AF) signal is led from the demodulator. over the L adder (+) and resistor. 7. that allows to im monophonic and stereophonic FM receiver. This signal then passes the active filters. The basic features of TDA7088T are given in the following table The electronic diagram of the HF part of the monophonic FM receiver made with TDA7088T IC is given on P contains all the parts of the classic superheterodyne receiver: the local oscillator. This vo transferred. The mixer outputs the FM signals whose frequencies are equal to the differences of the o original station frequency. it is an improved model of TDA7000. to the VCO. the BB910 varicap diode is used instead. i. By connecting the demodulator exit. over the LOOP FILTER stage. gets amplifie (IF LIMITER) and passed onto the input of the demodulator. When the RESET button is pushed. re deviations of the signal being received from ą75 kHz to ą15 kHz.e.e. until the RUN button is pushed a can vary from 0 V til 1. Its capacitance is varying the DC voltage supplied to its anode over the 5k6 resistor.e. The AFC (Automatic Fr circuit now gets its role and prevents the voltage on pin 16 to be changed. as it was in all the previous projects. The only signal that can reach the demodulator (FM detector) is the one whose c equal to the inter-frequency. the so-called FFL (Frequency Feedback Loop) circuit is accomplished. the positive voltage impulse is released to the S(et) inp TUNING circuit. the voltage on pin 16 drops down to receiver is set to the low end of the reception bandwidth. The VCO voltage is led into the mixer (MIXER) which also receives. This is how the tuning is performed: Wh and releases the pushbutton marked with RUN .8 V during the tuning). When this happens.

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 72 de 101 Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. mikroElektronika. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.htm 17-08-2006 .

12. since the voltmeter that has the scale that is big enough takes too m this case better using a manual tuning instead of automatic. as described in the Appendix. altogether with two button-type batteries.2. The operating princi given in the previous chapter.4. as on Pic. The variable capacitor is like the one on Pic.4.3. The tuning is done via the variable capacitor C with numbers written on its button.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 73 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. Some experimenting capacitances of Cx and Cy.4. The only thing new is a very simple audio amplifier made with BC547 transis by cheap 16-Ohm headphones.1 simple to use numbers from 1 to 10.13. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 4. The telescopic antenna is used.1 Mini FM Receiver The electronic diagram of the monophonic FM receiver made with TDA7088T is shown on Pic.8. If built w components it can be placed in a matchbox. whose scale is graduated in MHz. Small mishap of this receiver is that it has no indication of station tuning.htm 17-08-2006 . Such solution is given on Pic. This problem can be solved by ad voltmeter in parallel to the BB909. from 88 till 108 MHz.4.8. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. This solu appropriate for the miniature receiver. similar to that on Pic. in order to cover the entire reception bandwidth.2.

therefore if using a 4.14.5 V battery the LM3 reduced output power. obtaining t position on scale does not walk over the scale.4.4. Maximum value of the DC supply voltage for the TDA7088T is 5V. the D2 diode and C15 capacitor should be omitted.12 with an audio receiver made with LM386 IC. and R4 should be short-circuited file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. Electronic diagram of such receiver made with on Pic. that is a receiver from Pic.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 74 de 101 The AFC (Automatic Frequency Control) of the local oscillator is accomplished with BA483 diode. As one can see.htm 17-08-2006 . The complete radio receiver should still have a loudspeaker.

The optimum value of R4 is found experimentally: in order to m consumption as low as possible it should have the resistance as big as possible. until the optim found).htm 17-08-2006 . comprised by the aforementioned components. the voltage stabilizer. has D2 is a Zener diode with 3 V Zener voltage. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. while simultaneously keepi Pin 4 about 3 V and the device working well within the entire reception bandwidth (One should start with. s and if the receiver operates well bigger resistance should be tried out.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 75 de 101 If higher voltage battery is used. and if not smaller one.

4.15-e). The solders are OK if they look ap * Pic. The firs legs to be sol diagonally opposite ones.9 is soldered. the iron is slightly removed from the leg but remains on the cop tip of the tinol wire is then approached to touch the iron. When enough tinol wire is removed first. * Instead of the antenna. them are heated.8. The IC is placed in its position. After app.15. and can be mounted on the outside.4. the tin surrounding the p with iron tip and the chip position is quickly and carefully adjusted. shows the PCB for the HF part of the receiver with TDA7088T. one of which is being used by this device.4. as on pic. a 20 cm piece of wire can also be utilized. If it needs to be corrected.1 and 9. with iron head simultaneously touching both th end. * Pic.15-a shows the board layout from the soldering (copper) side. two button switches. so it has to be constantly moved downwards. their pins are put through the holes and soldered through the h soldered on the copper side. pushbutton switches can also be used. in which case they are connec wires (pic. and gets soldered. e.15-b contains the PCB component side layout. In that case small modifications on the PCB lines would probably be board is mounted fairly close to the box edge.4. as one can see.g. type BO common housing contains.4. that is realized with ordinary compo the SMD s.4.4. The pushbuttons we used here are Siemens. First. in this case No. the one with LM386.4. Solder shown on Pic.htm 17-08-2006 . The panel-mount switches can also be used. * Any audio amplifier described so far can be used. so that the switch shafts are passing through the panel. with all the pins p No.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 76 de 101 Pic. The tin gets melted. the iron tip is simultaneously put on the top of the leg and the copper below it. The soldering procedure for SM A thin tin layer is applied on the copper contacts where IC legs are to be soldered to. All the components apart mounted on the opposite side of the board. directly onto the copper contacts. and then they too are soldered as it was just described.1 is pressed against the tin pillow with a top of a bodkin. in order not to overheat the pin. It is now time to check out the positioning of the chip. A small cushion-shaped amount of tin (not profuse) is ap contacts where these pins are to be soldered (pic. and the pin lies down on its place with the aid of the bodkin. the pin top and the copper contact at the same tim melted and adheres to the copper and the pin. and the pin No. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.17-b. Once again you have to check wheth properly placed. Pic. then the iron. That is why it is being drawn in dashed line where the board layout on the component side is given.16-a shows 3x enlarged picture of the IC and the surrounding lines. half a second.17-a).

The readers that wish to get acquainted in more details with the stereophonic can refer to the Radio Receivers textbook. It means that.2. but their signal is designed so that monophonic receivers can also performing the compatibility. i. as already described. for the IV grade of the Electrotechnical Highschool.htm 17-08-2006 . All radio operating in this range are stereophonic. ex detector the LF signal is obtained. up to the block called "The Decoder".e. this is not an ordinary LF signal.4 notice that they are identical. Stereophonic Receiver Built with TDA7088T Stereophonic radio broadcast is performed in the ultra short waveband.4.2.2. but the one.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 77 de 101 4. the information that was used to perform the frequency modulation i However.18. a operating principle of the stereophonic radio receiver shall be conside diagram shown on pic. Making an introduction to this part. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. from 88 MHz till 108 MHz. Comparing this diagram with the one of the monophonic receiver given on pic. called the "composed" (KS) or "multiplexed" (Mpx) full-scale LF signal used by the monophonic receiver.

the listener has a picture about the layout of t space. L4 and L5 are HF chokes that allow for the headphones cable to be used as a reception antenna. In the receiver. The coils represent big resistance to the station signals. whilst the right side is recorded with the other one (it s a R signal). This connecting one of the headphones contacts from the plug-in. the left part of performers is being rec microphone (the signal marked as L). They are being amplified over two identical audio amplifiers. E. both left (L) and right (R) signal.19. which significantly improves the total musical impression. to the point where the outside antenna is connected. Exiting the coder we have the multiple which contains. between the left and right one. Frequency modulation of the transm performed with the Mpx signal. Each coil has 3 quirks of the 0. This stage plays a role complementary to the one of the coder in the transmitter. if a direct broadcast of some band music is performed. the latter was discussed in PE5. Electronic circuit of a portable stereophonic radio receiver with headphones reproduction. therefore two sig the L and D signal. * L3. in an indirect manner. are being led in the FM transmitter in the stage called the coder . with decoder with dual audio amplifier with TDA7050T blocks added. Mpx signal is obtained on the output of the FM Detector and decoder. The listener can now hear the left half of the performers from the loudspeaker placed on its l half from the loudspeaker that is placed on its right.2 mm CuL file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The performers that are situated in the middle of the o equally reproduced from both loudspeakers.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 78 de 101 it also contains the so-called auxiliary signal which allows the separation of left (L) and right (R) channels in receiver. over the 10 pF capacitor. Based on all this.g. making an impression to the listener as if there s a third loud the middle. then reproduced over two loudspeakers. made with TDA70 pic. preventing them ground over the 47 mF capacitor or over the TDA7050T output.htm 17-08-2006 . It is a receiver whose practical realization was described in the previous project.4.

If telescopic antenna is to be u should be omitted.htm 17-08-2006 . F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. mikroElektronika.19. as shown on detail in the right corner of the pic.4. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 79 de 101 through ferrite pearls.

and pay attention not to touch the co fingers. All of the copper has to be clean and shiny.5. Take care to leave a small copper isle around every hole.6. After that rinse the plate. Universal PCB Plates 5. When this is done.3. You ca the store (it will be later afterwards) something on the glass. we make a PCB whose drawing is already done. First.htm 17-08-2006 .the marker is OK. As an example. b. a.5 mm (on picture it is shown in dashed line). Signal Suppressing of Local Radio Transmitter(s) 5.2. measuring 30 mm from the edge. Drawing the contacts and lines on the plate is done with the acid-resistant marker paintstick. d. plus two. With one hand the plate is pressed firmly to the table other. The Boxes 5.5. right under this draw example. it has to contain as much prods as there are contacts. Universal Audio Receiver 5.e.1. Input Circuits for the Receivers with NE612 5.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 80 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on.5. beneath the sheet that contains the PCB layout.5. wipe it with water.8.Detector 5. with copper facing downwards. Dip it then in the powder. Electronic Tuning 5.4. And . Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex Chapter V Appendix 5.2. taking care not to move the plate to be pressed firmly. Fine Tuning 5. the plate should loo b.3.e. since that will make it dirty again. to pic.7. an copper until it shines like the shiny sun . Put the plate. If the drawing contains many contac be easily dislocated. acc. Its depth should be about 0. It is better practice then to make a cop cut it out. extract the water well and muss it to be ball-shaped. measuring 2-3 mm in diameter. facing the copper up. Bimboard.5. since only in this case the etching and.4.1. Then.Aided Radio Receiver Control 5. a new groove. Additional Circuits 5. you re probably w must have spent some time in the shop.5. Tak cloth. wait for a couple o try to wipe it out with your fingertip. When this is finished. AM Receiver with Synchro . the piece that has to be refracted. soldering is per easy and well. Separation of Stages cracks just along the groove. we ll take a drawing of the board of the recei which measures 45 mm x 30 mm. From the plate you buy in some electronic components shop.2. Here. i. The PCB is being made of pertinax or vitroplast.1. in order to leave a thick layer o plate. Protoboard 5. a 45 m piece should be cut. Nevertheless.5 mm) made of isolation mater lean layer of copper put on one side. points A and B are marked on the n the plate.5. Making PCB s Design and manufacturing of the PCB s has been explained in detail in the second issue of P.3. a thin plate (about 1. Computer . A ruler is placed over them and a groove is made by pressing with a screwdrive along it. laundry detergent and even plain salt can well serve the purpose. in order to obtain good prods on the copper. Synchrodyne AM Receiver 5. piece of plastic and similar. Dual Tuning 5. this means refracting. If it seems to you that the copper you have just bought is clean enough. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. Receivers with NE612 IC 5.3. that would be the one on the pic.Preventing the Oscillation 5. In amateur conditions. With the pike of a bodkin the holes are made through the contacts. the p the edge of the table. but also the sodium bicarbonate.3. If the paint remains . On the refracted piece. and in the centers of two bigger holes that are placed sidewise. Making PCB s 5.1. this test isn t much better to buy the marker in the electronic components store (you have to accent to the salesman tha marker for drawing lines on PCB s). and is being sold in bookstores as a marker for writing on glass . c.E. and the procedure is repe we finally have our 45 mm x 30 mm plate.9.5. With the tip of the marker draw a circle around every prod (except tho for bigger holes).2-a. and the procedure is to be done all over again. It can be re characteristic alcohol smell . A Modern Oldtimer 5. is made. and attach it to the plate with two pieces of scotch tape. i. Move the marker slowly.5. later. The cleani efficiently done with some abrasive powder (VIM or similar) which is otherwise used for cleaning of the coo etc.1-b. and the copper surface is certainly more-less corroded.

2-a on the copper fo e. that is being sold as a household cleaning agent. Line thickness should be about 1 mm not obligatory. sharp screwdriver. Hydrogen peroxide is being sold in drug stores a stores. or even more diluted. i. draw all the lines. i. there be exercised when working with them.e. removing the copper that is not covered with marker paint. by looking at the pic. remove the paint surplus with a razor or a small. especially for the eyes and skin.5. not to make junctions that do not exist on the drawing. It is being sold as 30% solution.e.5. especially they don t have to be that chamfered . metal tool or clothing. carefully and slowly. It would be the best for you to work with them in the bathroom. If t anyhow. The drawing is finished when you have a pic. Pic. they can be somewhat thinner or a lot thicker (where applicable). file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. They do not need to have th on the picture.2-c shows the beginning several contacts and 3 lines are drawn.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 81 de 101 you should. For this purpose. The important thing is not nearby lines or contacts during the drawing.2-a. or s close to the running water supply.5. If some of these liquids spills on your skin. bu solution. Pure hydrochloric acid is not used. wash t water immediately.htm 17-08-2006 . Next step is etching. a hydrochloric acid (HCl). Hydrochloric acid and hydrogen peroxide are very aggressive media. 8-12%. hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and water (H2O).

htm 17-08-2006 .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 82 de 101 file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.

which can serve to connect radio receiver. and obser mixture is transparent. female connector. to the computer ground. While drilling. called Sub D-25.5. In this chapter we shall prese terms. light intensity.the etching has this process. that can then be switched on or off at certain time. powered by a 9 V battery.2-d). with a wet cloth dipped in some powder. The plate is connected with clamps via the cables A and B. the mixture is going to heat up and the marker paint can be destroyed.9 of the mail Sub D-25 connector over the R1 resistor emitter and minus pole of the battery are connected to the pin No. with adequate programme..5. Two connected devices are shown on the maximum number is 8. Pic.25. with copper facing upwards. From time to time. that will guide your drill. and if the copper starts changing the colour after a dozen seconds .5-c shows how a small transistor radio receiver. that are located on the legs marked with numbers 2 to 9.5. the transistor goes to the saturation r voltage between collector and emitter becomes very small (practically zero) and the transistor behaves as i emitter are short-circuited. so that it can turn on/off the heater. humidity etc.5. With appropriate programme. after etchin small cavity.htm 17-08-2006 . Be careful.6 V) and zeroes (0 V) can be sent to the outputs ma 2. When a logical one emerges on the DI-8. Electrical devices that are being control to these outputs over the interface circuit that is given on Pic. however. the one where the printer is also being plugged. 5. The amount of peroxide depends on its concentration. add some more peroxide. The low-pow BC547 can be used for the consumers that use the current from the battery that is not greater than 100 mA have bigger power consumers. is connected to the paralle interface from pic. being poured from th directly over the plate. y one end of a plate with a pointed wooden or plastic stick. and the soldering side in lo picture. since if you ha much bubbles.3. in the centre of the contact. and with the battery ov file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.2. not to exaggerate. right af The plate is put at the bottom of a plastic. fresh mixture to take its place. as well as on the concentratio put some peroxide. in order to remove the old liquid from its surface. glass or porcelain dish.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 83 de 101 The etching mixture is being made directly before the etching. raise a little left end of the dish. oak) should be put beneath the plate.8 mm in diameter. i. take a plate with a laundry clip and wash it thoroughly in a jet of running water.DI-8. light. Computer-Aided Radio Receiver Control In Book 7/8 of Practical ELECTRONICS methods for simple control of various electrical devices by computer Practical realization of various interface circuits and sensors was described. but such drills are harder to find. If you were careful enough to leave a uncovered isle of copper in the centre of every contact.4. and a lot easier to break). then the right one. Etching is finished when there is no more uncovered copper on the plate. The radio is connected with the computer via parallel port.5. TV set or some other electrical device at t moment. one of the projects from the aforementioned book. Do not p hard.5-b: The component side is in the upper part.5. a 1 mm holes sh is better if the holes are 0. The transistor bas is connected to the pin No. to allow a liquids to mix. Raise one plate end with the stick liquid to decant. f. since the tool will be plucking tiny pieces of plastic on the other side of the plate. that deals with simple computer-aided turning on receiver at the desired moment. fan. T fixing screws are usually about 3 mm in diameter. In that way almost the entire battery voltage is available on the receiver power The PCB layout is shown on Pic. based on data comprising temperature. some stronger transistor or two transistors in Darlington junction can be use BC547. as previously described. and is CERTAINLY being disposed of. and not a piece of polystyrene or something similar.e. a piece of thicker plywood or some flat ha (beech. Through these cavities. You can t paint by scrubbing. Pic.5. logical ones (voltage +3. in the amount somewhat more than in a glass of mine little bubbles are present. Hydrogen peroxide is then added.5-a. by which the computer is being the outside world.5-a shows the electronic diagram of an extremely simple interface circuit. the base voltage is zero and the transistor is locked and no current runs th also through the consumer. which is given on Pic. The copper contacts a emerge on the plate.. As long logical zero on the DI-8 output. the bubbles are formed in the mixture. and the acid quantity enough to fully cover the plate (pic..

htm 17-08-2006 .mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 84 de 101 file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.

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5.3. NE612

5.3.1. Synchrodyne AM Receiver

If the author remembers well an article that he read in a professional magazine many years ago, the synch
receiver is the ancestor of the superheterodyne receiver. Sometime at the beginning of the 20th century th
called the Heterodyne receiver, and it was first constructed by Levvy. Armstrong improved it and gave new
new device, by adding the prefix SUPER to the old name.
The electronic diagram of this device is given on Pic.5.7. This receiver, as well as that on pic.4.2 has got th
oscillator with oscillatory circuit connected between pins 6 and 7. However, frequency of this oscillator is no
the value of fm, but is in fact equal to the frequency of the station we wish to listen to: fm=fS. Because of t
important design difference compared to the diagram from pic.4.2 is that on pic.5.7 capacitors Co and Cto
but the capacitor C which is obtained by connecting the legs O and A, acc. to pic.3.7. Its capacitance can be
from 12 pF till 218 pF, so that the oscillator frequency, in case of MW reception, goes between 500 kHz to 1
The oscillator voltage is emanated in the mixer by the signals from all stations coming from the antenna. Th
emanation with signal of the station whose frequency is equal to the oscillator frequency is the LF signal (sp
music, Morse Code etc.) that serves for performing the modulation in the transmitter. This signal is obtaine
No.4, from which it is then led, over the 1 ěF capacitor, to the volume potentiometer and audio amplifier. P
mixing the oscillator voltage with other stations signals are also obtained on that pin.

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mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 87 de 101

They are being suppressed by the LF filter that comprises the R* resistor and C* capacitor. The device we w
did not, however, contain R*. It is to be installed if some disturbances occur (whistling or similar), and its o
value is to be found experimentally. If necessary, greater capacitance of C* is also to be tried out.

* As mentioned earlier, it is very important for the supply voltage of the NE612 to be stable. This values ev
the synchrodyne then the superheterodyne receiver. The voltage control is done by the stabilizer, made wit
It is being placed in the low-power transistor package, either metal (as for BC107) or plastic (as for BC547)
maximum current is about 100 mA (pic.5.7-b). A simpler stabilizer, made with the Zener diode, can be use
on pic.5.9.

* Instead of factory-made coil LO, the self-made one can also be used. The simplest solution is to use the o
pic.3.6, in which case the mid leg is not used. Over this coil, the feedback coil should be winded, acc. to pic
ends are marked with 4 and 1). When connecting with capacitor C and pins 1 and 7 of NE612, care should
join properly: coil ends 1 and 3 with ground, 2 with capacitors C and 560 pF, and 4 with 1 nF capacitor. It i
possible to use smaller coil, wound on a smaller body, with more quirks of thinner wire. Its inductance shou
350 mH, and the number of quirks required is to be found by testing. The feedback coil (4-1) has app. 3x f
than the oscillatory circuit coil (2-3).

* On the pin 5 of the NE612 the LF signal is also obtained. It is the same as the one on pin 4, but has a 180
shift compared to it (in simple words, while one signal increases, the other one decreases, and vice versa).
us the opportunity to use the dual audio amplifier in the LF part, that has two amplifiers, with inverting and
inverting inputs. As shown on pic.5.8, the counter-phase LF signals from NE612 are led onto the same inpu
output signal has 2x greater amplitude, therefore making the output power 4x greater than when only one
(as on pic.5.79).

5.3.2. AM Receiver with Synchro Detector

In previous project, the NE612 was in fact used as the AM signal detector. The LF signal exiting the mixer is
the simultaneous (synchronous) action of the station signal and voltage from the local oscillator upon it. Th
term Synchro Detector emerged. There s also a possibility to use a station carrier instead of local osci
voltage, so that the station signal gets beaten by itself, however strange this may sound. Electronic diagram
such device is given on pic.5.9.
The station signal, which the input circuit (C, L) is tuned at, is led to the regulating Gate of the BF960 MOS
the effect of this voltage, the AC current that creates voltage drops on resistors R2 and R3 runs through the
These two voltages, taken between the S and ground and D and ground, are mutually shifted in phase for 1
are being led over the coupling capacitors C2 and C3 to pins 1 and 2 of the NE612, i.e. on one input of the
the other mixer input the Drain signal is brought, over C4, and beating occurs in the mixer, the result of wh
signal on pin 4. This signal is, over C8, being led onto the volume regulation potentiometer and the audio a
* The unwanted (and parasite) products of mixing, that are manifested as whistling, squeaking etc. are bei
suppressed by the C7 capacitor. If the obstructions still exist, the capacitance of C7 is to be increased and/
resistor added.
* The voltage stabilization of the DC voltage on pin 8 is performed by the ZPD6.2V Zener diode and resisto
with smaller voltage is also possible to be used, say, 6.2 V and similar. If the supply voltage is less than 12
resistance of R5 should be decreased.

file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.htm 17-08-2006

mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 88 de 101 5.g. * The amplifier can be put in a box of any kind. the antenna taken from an old commercial radio is be 5. where the transistor amplifier with BC547 is used as the pre-amplifier.5. if the proper input circuitry is added to them.5. 3. otherwise . you have both the amplifier and adapter in the same box. In that case.24. especially considering suppressing the no the symmetrical station. but th recommendable. a problem occ simple terms. Fine Tuning During the tuning of the receiver to some station at the SW band with the variable capacitor. It can also be used if the amplifier is power supplied from the battery. Pic.).3.5.3. The Universal Audio Amplifier We already spoke about the universal amplifier in the text connected with pic.25. which is practically impossible.1. which can be use supply and check-out of various electronic devices. 3.29 etc. instead of that IC.22.3. It would certainly be usefu somehow stretch (a popular term for this) the part of the band near the frequency to which the receiver is the direct type (TRF) receivers that were described in the previous chapters.10 shows two examples of the receivers that use the ferrite antenna.12. On the third hub the DC voltage is outputted. Pic.the microphone cable). ac pic. another variable file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. which significantly shortens the battery life.htm 17-08-2006 . * The LED (and the appropriate resistor) are added if the amplifier is being supplied from the adapter conne household voltage installation. so the capacitor s shaft should be turned extremely small angle in order to change station. and not just radio receivers. * A very useful solution can be to place the adapter also in the box. one of the possible solutions shown on pic. The LF signal is being take detector in the HF part of the receiver to the hubs marked as In and Gnd (if the links aren t too long the o wires are used. In both cases.5.5.3. which is u HF circuits for their operation (such as e.4. since its power consumption is fairly big. Input Circuits for Receivers with the NE612 IC All the receivers with NE612 that are described here work better. It can be used for practical check of all the earlier mentioned radio receivers. this can be accomplished if. Additional Circuitry 5.11 contains the di another such device.5. with the ability to control its output vol few volts to 12 V.11-b. 5. the station frequencies are too close to each other. those on pics.

3. Also.2 MHz (it s a well-known 49-metre band). If the reso frequency of the input circuit isn t equal to the station frequency. with adjustment knob mounted on its shaft. The important thing for the oscillator is to h exact frequency.g. as shown on the right part of pic. at the middle of the band we are interested in.htm 17-08-2006 . E. then tuning by means some station in that area.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 89 de 101 capacitor (CR) is added in parallel to the variable capacitor at the input circuit. The reason for this supereterodynes. * As CR. meaning from a few pF til about 20 pF. and th with CR some of the stations located in that area. if the stations we want to receive are located in the part of the SW band from till 6. CR is attached between the pins 2 and 3 of the LO circuit. the station is chosen over the local oscillator. that is greater from the station frequency for the amount of the interfrequency. some air-type trimmer capacitor can be utilized.4. 6. approx. it won t significantly affect the receptio of all this.8 can be used. Previous page Table of contents Nex file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. It solved by adding the CR in parallel to the variable capacitor in the local oscillator circuit. sections of the variable capacitor from pic.5. by means of C. The tuning is accomplishe the receiver. Its capacitance should vary substantially smaller scale than that of C.15 MHz. * The problem of the station adjacency at the SW band also exists at the superheterodyne receivers. The same applies for the famous Magic Band (at about 50 The CR capacitor is mounted close to C in order for their knobs to be near each other at the front plate. first we tune ourselves with C to approx. in the receiver on pic.5.12.

mikroElektronika. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 90 de 101 Š Copyright 2003.htm 17-08-2006 . A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.

or for tuni similar. so that when the P1 slider gets to its rightmost position. for the MW band.2.5. a capacitive (varicap) dio It s a special HF diode which is polarized by exposing it to DC voltage in order to be non-permeable (+ to cathode). More prettie small movable-coil instrument (V). to pic. re components. that was used for fine tuning in the previous project.13 can be used as the variable capacitor (C is simply omitted). By changing the voltage diode s capacitance also changes.5. When you succeed in having the needle in the middle of the scale with P1 in topmost position. * The variable capacitors that were used for tuning in all the receivers described so far are solid. such as those used as battery indicators in industrial devices. and connected to the PCB with 3 ordinary wires. In series with the inst potentiometer is attached. In that case. the DC voltage between the cathode and anode (UAK) varies from U1 to U2. All the components are mounted on the PCB. as shown on pic. lasting. with its slider at lowest position (so that its resistance is m the P1 slider also at the lowest position. and obse instrument needle. they are quite robust (compared to other device co their mounting isn t simple because the shaft for the knob must go through the front plate of the device b varicap diodes are also replacing them. you ll need a smaller r trimmer. the numbers a pic.5. with P1 in topmost position.13-a. the needle goes somewhe middle of the full scale. If the needle. the P2 potentiometer is added for fine tuning. * In case of SW band. By means of trimmer TP the necessary Cmax is set. diode s from Cmax till Cmin. Of course.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 91 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. moves too little.13-c. Turn on the receiver. With the diode that has Cmax/Cmin ratio that is big enough. acc.htm 17-08-2006 .3. The connecting is done acc. sta file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. you may use a 1 MOhm linear trimmer.13-b. to the diagram on the left part of the pic. It is mounted on the front panel.5. Electronic Tuning Instead of the capacitor CR. The electronic diagram for the electronic fine tuning circuitry is given on pic. and numbers from 1 to 10 are written on the panel.7 can also be written. together with other parts of except the P1.5. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 5. with and knob with arrow is the simplest solution possible. which allows for it to be utilized as v If. and when this is do replaced by an ordinary resistor. if it soon goes to the end. you ll have to take a trimmer with greater resistance or to a resistor in series with it. Its resistance depends on the maximum instrument current. and can be found e For start. say. Diode capacitance is ch the slider of the P1 potentiometer. C the circuit form pic. some big arrow is mounted on the P1 handle.5 allows the listeners to see what station is the receiver tuned at. Start moving the P1slider upwards. Their mishap is they are hard to purchase. The optical indication of the tuning.

Suppressing the Signal of the Local Transmitter From all the signals in the reception antenna. The solution for this problem is the so-called seal circuit. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The instrument can have any shape. like the one on the picture. In case of simpler receivers its programme is hea in all the positions of the variable capacitor. The circuit is well adjusted if the needle goes from zero to f slider is moved from bottommost to topmost position.htm 17-08-2006 . 5.5.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 92 de 101 slider until the needle reaches the end of scale. the one that is created by the local transmitter is by far the s to the fact that it is hundreds. which weaken the signal of the local transmitter.3. sometimes even thousands times closer than other radio transmitters. so that it doesn t interfere (but is still strong enough for norma the receiver is tuned at it). That s strong that it can jam normal reception of other stations. but the most ap cheapest) is square.

The electronic diagram is shown on pic.5.15. legs No. A block capacitor C1 and a variable inductance coil ar seal circuit.2 and 3 are used.extremely better.14-a) isn t an economical solution. It is much better. to pic.5. and setup to be done with trimmer Ct 5. quirks is found experimentally about couple of hundreds of quirks made with as thin copper wire as possible capacitance for C1 is also found experimentally (couple of hundreds of pF). with ferrite core. The selectivity of simple receivers that were described in previous chapters can be significantly increased by aforementioned dual tuning. owns great collection of over 15 various old-timer radio receivers. done by tuning the receiver on the local station.5. the serial circuit acts as a resistor of very small impe file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.htm 17-08-2006 . as shown on pic means of C1 the resonance frequency of the circuit is set so that it corresponds to the carrier frequency of t On that frequency. As shown on the framed part of picture. at which the tuning is two knobs. a resistor should be added in parallel to C1. the others are hanging (they a C1 capacitance is also found experimentally. is inserted between the antenna connector and input circuit of the receiver (it can be a described AM receivers). For other signals it has very small resistance and practically has no effect on them. Using a variable capacitor in the seal circuit (pic.2-b) and decreases the current that is local transmitter signal. The dependance of the impedance ( resistance ) of the serial oscillatory circuit fro is shown on the diagram on pic. the resonance frequency o circuit is given by the Thompson pattern: The serial oscillatory circuit has very small impedance (compared to the parallel circuit whose impedance is resonance frequency).5. mad connected in series. With first one the receiver is set roughly to the desired station. co economy and space. as s pic.15-a.4.3-a. the coil is wound on the plastic body.3.14-b. As you can see.14-b. this circuit behaves as a huge resistor (see pic. There is one among them that is over 60 years old.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 93 de 101 The seal circuit is a parallel oscillatory circuit which comprises the coil L1 and capacitor C1. as great radio techniqe lover (amateur. With labelling acc. The earlier mentioned IF transfo used as a coil. the solution given on pic. Dual Tuning The author of this book.5. and the reception is weakened enough by turning the C1.4. Another oscillatory circuit. It is also possible to wind the coil on a piece of ferrite rod.5. As with the earlier mentioned parallel oscillatory circuit. which is usually barely heard at The second knob is then turned until the optimum reception is achieved. in French). which is significantly better than b case of weak stations . I strong.

C oscillatory circuit.g. and to position their axes mutually perpendicular. this feedback causes the oscillation of the stage.htm 17-08-2006 . the capacitor is refilled).Preventing the Oscillation On of the significant problems that occur at devices that comprise more cascade-linked amplifying stages is of the feedback over the conductors that connect those stages with the positive pole of the battery. Separation of Stages . Capacitances of C1 and C2 are from couple of tenths till c hundreds of nF.16. then with C1 (much better). it behaves as a huge resistor (impedance). file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. and when connect the adaptor to the receiver are not longer than about 15 cm. When its help isn t needed. Once again. on pic. C).15-b. C1).5. On of the ways to prevent this feedback is given on pic. squeaking and similar. All in all. when necessary. and therefore the biggest voltage on the input circuit is created by the tra both serial and parallel oscillatory circuits are set to. which in devices that have the loudspeaker on itself as strong whistling. This capacitor is no the receiver is supplied from the adaptor that already has an electrolytic capacitor on its output. C5 acts as a small accumulator that helps the worn-out battery to give enoug power amplifier. and strong tones have to be reproduc loudspeaker (in simple terms. The stage PCBs should be desig to make the contact where right end of the capacitor is soldered as close to the contact where the positive supply voltage is brought (e. the feedback is a phenomenon when part of the signal exiting an amplifier gets on its input. This is accomplished by mounting t far from each other as possible. For all other stations. 5. and of C3 from couple of hundreds of nF to about 100 mF. which has capacitance of couple of hundreds of serves to take the role of the battery when it gets emptied a little bit. In the devices supplied from the battery.5. and parallel resonance (in circuit L. or the p the way. * Greater experimenting opportunities with dual tuning provides the diagram on pic. therefore changing its selectivity and sensitivity.5. fi so).mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 94 de 101 station that it s tuned at. * Between the coils L1 and L a magnetic coupling should be prevented. The tuning is done as previously explained. from the antenna. where a block-diagram of a radio receiver tha amplifying stages with active components (transistors or IC s) that require the battery supply is shown. it resonance (in circuit L1.5.9. the biggest current. that are being used. The tuning is done as it has already been described. Se stages for the AC current (preventing the feedback) is accomplished by the LF filters with resistors and cap are from couple of hundreds of Ohms to 1 kOhm. but now possibility of changing the amount of magnetic coupling between the coils by moving them closer or farther the antenna s influence on the L. the C5 capacitor. The coils are plac in order to generate magnetic coupling between them. Unde conditions.5. the right contact for C6 should be as close as possible to the con of NE612 is soldered).

htm 17-08-2006 . F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 95 de 101 Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. mikroElektronika. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164.

the box where their device is to be put is the famous production weak lin boxes are either impossible to purchase. and the cutting is done with the carving saw.18 *vertical stripes over the loudspeaker opening are not shown. appropriate box cannot be bought. since it will fit nicely in the hole even if it isn t cut evenly. H. until the upper part is semicirc sides smooth and the edges correct. If the receiver is power supplied from the outside net. or similar.3.18 shows the parts for the first box from pic. an abraded once again.. flexible and long enough t the panel and put it at upright position. On the inner side of the rear panel two plywood lattices measuring about 2 cm x nailed.5. from the times of the charleston. and abraded again. for the side panels. and the nailing can then be done. or. it was written that ma serves well as an excuse for buying candies. measuring 13 cm x 9 cm. Connecting of the pieces is done with the wood glue and small nails. When it is cut it isn t necessary to treat it with emery. the finishing touch is of great importance for everything. than the reproduction quality. which will serve closure. and you can nail in a few thin lattices. which is probably meant for the readers that are on a diet for However. etc. drill a few holes for the nails in the front and rear panel with 1 mm drill. The part that is cut from the serve as a closure. T omitted. In the l on/off switch (S) is located on the regulation potentiometer. type of modulation and other techn And a nice. which dashed lines.6.17. The wires connecting the hubs with the PCB should be isolated.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 96 de 101 Index Development systems Radio Receivers on. and everything is left to dry well. or some packaging box or similar. or they can be bought but their dimensions or shape is inappropria expensive. as the power indi place for it is just above the variable capacitor s button. Pic. w ZN414 that is placed in the transparent plastic box of TIC TAC mints (In the abstract.11 idea can be also found in some catalogue of radio receivers manufacturers. the box shou drawing at the right end art of the pic. the right one is for the potentiometer for volu button on the left can be a rotary switch for turning on/off (S). that are covered with glue (the picture shows only one of these lattices). The majority of your friends will be a lovely box where the receiver is placed. Two yea famous electrotechnical magazine ETI TOP PROJECTS the article named TIC TAC RADIO was piece of 10 cm thick plywood. and the putty is applied again. The best way to cut these parts the carpenter on the special machine. They looked something like thos and can serve you as an inspiration for your personal design.htm 17-08-2006 . finished. The nails are partially hammered in edges are then covered with glue. with plate. Armstrong and Al Capone. he likes best the wooden boxes from the 20 s and 30 s of th century. or you can think of something far as the author of these lines is concerned. and type receivers it can be a button of the potentiometer that regulates the magnitude of the reaction. 15 cm x 9 cm bottom side . In cases like this one should be quick-witted enough to find some square-shaped box that i household. and bottom will have exactly the same width. which are put side by side on the upper edges rear panels. Four wood screws will be screwed in them later (the holes are shown as four dots). after about 10 hours.. since only then will they be of strictly rectangular shape. For the front and rear side two pieces of 5 cm thick measuring 22 cm x 15 cm are needed. when the box is finished. the lattices are tightened to the panels edges by two pieces of strong scotch tape. The Boxes For all lovers of the electronics. the circle a drawn with the aid of the sector. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. It can be something as on pic. which is very important during assembling. When drying is. It can also be a tone regulation button. After that. a green LED should also be added. Contact us line FREE! Previous page Table of contents Nex 5. it is up to you to make it. E. instead of the triangle-shaped marker. Before you start hammering. two pieces of 10 cm thick plywood. The mid button is for the variable capacitor for station tuning. The outside antenna and ground hubs are loca panel of the box. That is how it s done in the whole white world . When all this is finished. as shown on the last drawing on t semicircle part is made of 5 mm x 5 mm lattices.5. all the edges that protrude are well flattened with emery. When the last one is between them is filled with putty that is made by mixing the fine wooden chips with the wood glue. On the front side. All the remaining holes are filled with the fast-drying putty.

htm 17-08-2006 . that will suit bigger loudspeaker. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. by 11. and all the measur multiplied with the number attained. new dimensions multiplying the old ones by 1. * Perhaps some of the readers will seem that there s a lot of exaggeration in previous lines. if the diameter for the new.g. it is predicted for the loudspeaker that is about 12 cm wide. in centimetres. and even too There s a Latin proverb.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 97 de 101 * Before the loudspeaker is attached with screws. E. bigger hole is 15 cm. can be int should either make the box properly or not making it at all. which will protect it and contribute to better looking box. The dimensions calculation is do diameter of the bigger opening.Do the things you do. a piece of decorating cloth should be placed between the loudspeaker. that says: AGE QUOD AGIS . If you have bigge it will certainly play both louder and better. which. you should make a bigger box. * This box is relatively small.36. in our case.

6 mm copper wire.45. Protoboard . When small changes are discussed.5. most often the one that has minus pole all the devices described herein). All of them have in common that component without soldering. etc. if you are interested how does a ca affect the tone colour in the headphones. i. such as finding the optimum value that can be done on the previously made PCB. etc. Pic. a reliable mechanical and electrical junction is accomplished. which are with inter-leg distance that is equal to a hole number multiplied with 2. a almost impossible.2 and 4 are connected to the ground by means of 4 connecting wires the battery).15 is m seen.19 also shows an example of practical usage of one such board. pic. it is the best to use a special experimental board. etc.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 98 de 101 5. connected internally in 126 groups of 5 holes each.3. which allows for connecting the vast majority of electronic components. by simply inserting the legs into the small holes on the plate.5. .54 mm (1/10 inch). and another 100 hol topmost lines. which can be purchased under various t protoboard. The radio-receiver from pic. steckplatine. These pieces v and can be bent as the biggest piece in the lower left part of the pic. which stands for raster.7.1 of the IC in e.19. the coil ends are stuck into the holes whose coordinates are j. One of them. In case of bigger changes that of course is not convenient. The distance between is 2. but are more often self-made from plastic-isolated 0. and legs No.54. the ones that the potentiometer slider.37. The holes contain miniature metal hubs when a leg is popped in.54 mm multiplied by some whole number are said to have their legs in raster).5 mm or 0. steckboard etc. they are shown on picture in dashed lines. i. As an example.g.39.19 shows a full-scale experimental board that can be purchased in one of the Belgrad It has 630 vertically aligned holes. have possibly author referred to experimenting either with values of some components or with entire circuits.1 and 3 are connected. Bimboard. bimboard. matador. the diode in holes i pin No. although it is better and nicer to shaped as the cyrillic letter P. .htm 17-08-2006 . The connections between the holes are and cannot be seen. The readers that have carefully studied all the radio receiver projects that are described here. and all that practically find the optimal solution. and the components that have their legs horizon distanced to 2. also serves as the device Ground. For all kind of electrical diagrams check-outs as well as various experimenting with all e including radios.54 mm (in the producers and sellers 2.3. all you should do is remove it and insert a capacitor of greater or capacitance. j. The two topmost parts are used fo bring the and the battery or the adaptor is connected to them.47. E. connected in two horizontal groups by 50 holes each. The necessary electrical junctions between the hole groups are accomplished with connecting wires that can Conrad.54 mm distance is marked as R. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. With the connecting wires the legs No. It is now clear that experimenting is done in a very simple manner.

are connected over pieces of wire that are soldered to * It is useful for the connecting wires to be made with isolations of various colours.htm 17-08-2006 . potentiometers. the yellow ones for the signal etc.6 mm should be inserted. No wire than 0. the black ones with Gnd. file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. transformers and similar. so that conductors of various diameters can be easily inserted. so that red ones could b connecting with the + battery pole. The components whose legs are too thick as th capacitors. since the hubs will deform.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 99 de 101 * The hubs on the board are elastic.

27. coil and the hubs).htm 17-08-2006 . that from pic.21-c. There are more sorts of these PCB s. or those you will draw yourself. It can be placed into a box as on pic. pic.21-a that is made with the univ pic.12. One of the universal PCB s is shown on pic. can be done in ma discussed in PE No. Universal PCB Practical realization of simple radio receivers. which will be discussed in the Funniest Electronics . together with the instructio 5.27.3.). But this solution w as the dead cockroach technique . and all of them have in common that the holes on them are d distance of 1/10 inch (R=2.1. The real solut can be made from the drawings that are given.3.28 contains the photograph of the receiver from pic.5.. a more complex device could be made.54 mm).2.5.8.. IC s.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 100 de 101 5. As an example. wit middle. and then the comp connected by pieces of isolated copper wire. It is a universal PCB. in order for the loud file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. The components are being soldered first (resistors. That is construction of the detector receive where some of the components are mounted onto the box walls (the variable capacitor. diode and two block-capacitors) are placed between them. capacitors. It consists from a huge number of round copper isles. diodes. and by the aid of few smaller n inside of the front panel. One of those is shown also in this number. say. that can be bought in the electronic c stores.3. on the soldering side. There s another option for practical realization. except the box should be bigger. With some skills.5. as well as other simple electronic devices.

A Modern Oldtimer The receiver on pic. F o r a n y c o m m e n t s c o n t a c t webmaster.mikroElektronika : books : Radio receivers Página 101 de 101 5. Previous page Table of contents Nex Š Copyright 2003. whilst the third one contained the duo-diode (the rectifier). with electronic tubes. one of th pentode (utilized in the HF amplifier) and the diode (used in detector). file://C:\Documents and Settings\c\Configuración local\Temp\wc164. the other one had a triode (pre-amp pentode (power amplifier).9.htm 17-08-2006 . It had a total of 3 tubes.5.22 is designed for the readers that wish to make a semi-conductor model of a comple receiver that was being produced many years ago. A l l R i g h t s R e s e r v e d . mikroElektronika.