Under the esteemed guidance of P.SAI KIRAN ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR


(Affiliated to J.N.T.U.,KAKINADA) MYLAVARAM-521 230(A.P.)


Mylavaram, Krishna Dist—521 230.

This is to certificate that project work entitled “ SOCIAL NETWORKING” that is being Submitted for the partial fulfillment of IV/I B.TECH in COMPUTER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING to JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada, is bonafide work done by M.SUMAPRIYA N.SRIKANTH T.NARENDRA 07761A0548 07761A0527 07761A0550

This was carried out under our supervision and guidance.





ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A successful task makes everyone happy. Success will often be crowned to people who made it reality but the people who are behind curtain with constant guidance and encouragement that made it possible will be crowned first on the eve of success. Words are inadequate to express my deep sense of gratitude towards all those people behind the screen who guided, inspired and helped me for the completion of our project work. The successful completion of the project on “SOCIAL

NETWORKING” which I have undertaken has a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of technology degree in Computer Science and Engineering.

It is with profound sense of gratitude that I acknowledge my project guide P.SAI KIRAN for providing me with live specification and his valuable suggestion which encouraged me to complete this project successfully. I thank our HOD Dr.S.SAI SATYANARAYANA REDDY for permitting us to do this project. At last but not the least I thank entire Computer Science department who rendered their full cooperation for successful completion of the project.


We plan to develop a Social Networking module based on the group We want to provide this portal only to the students of LBRCE only. We studied the working of Orkut in detail and tried to import some important features in our project. The basic idea behind this project is to provide the user with an enjoyable and good-to-look means of communication. Unlike the real Orkut our project will contain basic functions like maintaining Profile Information, Managing Friends, Scrap Book and Photo sharing. A User must Register first with this portal and create his profile to be part of this social network. Users are allowed to upload only one photo of their choice, which will be displayed on his homepage. The user can send a friend’s request to anyone who is a member of our module. And the other one can accept or reject the request based on his/her interest. The users can scrap other users depending on the privacy policies of users.




DHTML. They can wish their friends by sending E-Cards. 6 . INRODUCTION SOCIAL NETWORKING is a website which provides the up-to date information of all the students registered into it. Enterprise Edition (J2EE) technology for building applications for generating dynamic web content. The Java Server Pages technology enables the easy authoring of web pages that create dynamic content with maximum power and flexibility. JSP uses a component-based approach that allows web developers to easily combine static HTML for look-and-feel with Java components for dynamic features. such as HTML. Repository Search Engine For The Module uses Java Server Pages TM is the Java TM 2 Platform.1. It is effectively used for knowing the people of different groups. The user is also provided the facility of scraping to friends and to all the registered members from. We can update our personal details.

In the present system. It includes the study of additional human resource required and their technical expertise. No need for spending money on client for maintenance because the database used is web enabled database. In the present system. If the benefits are more or less the same as the older system. then it is not feasible to develop the product. It enables the developer to have an assessment of the product being developed It refers to the feasibility study of the product in terms of outcomes of the product. Here we don’t need any additional equipment except memory of required capacity. all the operations can be performed easily compared to existing system and supports for the backlog data. operational use and technical support required for implementing it. Feasibility study should be performed on the basis of various criteria and parameters. The various feasibility studies are: Economic Feasibility Operational Feasibility Technical Feasibility    Economic Feasibility: It refers to the benefits or outcomes we are deriving from the product compared to the total cost we are spending for developing the product. The errors can be greatly reduced and at the same time providing a great level of security. Operational Feasibility: It refers to the feasibility of the product to be operational. Hence there is need for additional 7 . the development of the new product greatly enhances the accuracy of the system and cuts short the delay in the processing of application.2. Some products may work very well at design and implementation but may fail in the real time environment.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY Feasibility study is an important phase in the software development process. SYSTEM ANALYSIS 2.

This is achieved through integration of web server and database server in the same environment. 8 . so the Developed system is operationally feasible. In this approach both the systems run in parallel for a specific period of time. It was found that the additional modules added are isolated modules as far as the operational is concerned. There are mainly 4 methods of upgrading the existing system to proposed     Parallel Run System Direct Cut-Over System Pilot System Phase-in Method Parallel Run System: It is the most secure method of converting from an existing to new system. It studies the pros and cons of using particular software for the development and its feasibility. When the system is deemed complete it is installed through out the organization either all at once (direct cut-over) or gradually (phase-in). It just needs a mouse click to do any sort of application. The software that is used for developing is server page fully is highly suitable for the present application since the users require fast access to the web pages and with a high degree of security. Direct Cut -Over Method: In this approach a working version of the system is implemented in one part of the organization such as single work area or department. the user interface is user friendly and does not require much expertise and training. IMPLEMENTATION PLAN The main plan for the system developed is to upgrading existing system to the proposed system.analysis. During that period if any serious problems were identified while using the new system. It also studies the additional training needed to be given to the people to make the application work. In the present system. the new system is dropped and the older system is taken at the start point again. Technical Feasibility: It refers to whether the software that is available in the market fully supports the present application.

2.Phase-in Method: In this method a part of the system is first implemented and over time other remaining parts are implemented. Design Phase 3. Development Phase 4. One of the software requirements have been analyzed and 9 . This cycle back or feedback may occur as a result of the failure with the system to meet a performance objective or as a result of changes in redefinition of system activities. The upgraded system is working well and is implemented on the client successfully. The concept includes not only forward motion but also have the possibility to return that is cycle back to an activity previously completed. which describe the system’s life cycle model for developing software project. We have to clearly know about the client’s requirements and the objectives of the project. the purpose of the evaluation for problem to be known. Requirement Analysis Phase: This phase includes the identification of the problem. Coding Phase 5. we have to know information about the problem. Implementation planed used: The workflow Management system is developed on the basis of “Parallel Run Method” because we upgraded the system. General Methodology in Developing Software Project The general methodology in developing a system in involved in different phases. Testing Phase 1. 1. Those are. which is already in use to fulfill the requirements of the client. The system already in use is treated as the old system and the new system is developed on the basis of the old system and maintained the standards processed by the older system. Design Phase: Software design is a process through which the requirements are translated into a representation of software. Like most systems that life cycle of the computer-based system also exhibits distinct phases. Requirement Analysis Phase 2. in order to identify the problem.

Coding Phase: The coding phase is for translating the design of the system-produced during the design phase into code in a given programming language. Testing Phase: Testing is done in various ways such as testing the algorithm. 10 . the software design involves three technical activities: design. programming code. The design phase is of main importance because in this activity. which can be executed by a computer and which performs the computation specified by the design. Some of such problems in existing system are mentioned below 2. It even leads to interfaces that reduce the complexity of the connections between modules and with the external environment. The various facilities and the sophistication in the selected software give a better development of the problem. 5. 4. The institute has their contact addresses and their information. Development Phase: The development phase includes choosing of suitable software to solve the particular problem given. The design of the system is in modular form i. decisions ultimately affect the success of software implementation and maintenance.specified. In general the communication between the students through any means of communication. sample data debugging is also one of following the above testing.2 EXISTING SYSTEM: • In the existing system the institute has an association for the passed out students. coding generation and testing.e. the software is logically partitioned into components that perform specific functions and sub functions. The design phase leads to modules that exhibit independent functional characteristics. Problems will be there with any system. 3.

The user is provided with my profiles page where he can view and update his details. 2. • Also most of the alumni due to their mechanical life could not attend the meetings. • The Module can check the events that are going to be held and also given a chance to add the events The method followed in the proposed system is Water fall method. This model suggests a systematic. Proposed System provides solutions. The proposed system also provides the service like adding friends. the proposed system provides a mean for the students who registered into the Module can communicate with their mates. design. Can invite their batch mates online.• The institute itself arranges some sort of programs like meetings and some gatherings. sequential approach to hardware that begins at the system level and progress through analysis. 11 . coding. • • • For the problem mentioned as first. view his friends. add new friends and thus can maintain contact with their friends. testing and maintenance. the updating may include some complications. The students are intimated through letters or postcards. • The problem with this system is that once the information regarding a student is filed up. • Draw Backs: The students attend to these meetings and interact or will interact by their personal.3 PROPOSED SYSTEM AND MERITS Existing System need a solution for the specified and unspecified problems.


Personal Profile 4. S/W REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION The Software Requirements Specification (SRS) begins the translation process that converts the software requirements into the language the developers will use.Homepage Screen for Login and Sign up 2. Scraps 5. REFERENCES : User Requirement Document. ambiguities. E-cards 6. and omissions before development progresses significantly under mistaken assumptions. Interface Requirements This section defines the parameters that the software product must follow while interacting with the outside world. The SRS draws on the usecases from the User Requirement Document (URD) and analyzes the situations from a number of perspectives to discover and eliminate inconsistencies. Friends List Hardware Interfaces: Server configuration: Minimum 1 GB Hard Disk P-IV processor RAM 256 MB Windows or Linux with Apache preloaded Client configuration: Java Mysql 13 . Events Screen 3. Services like Adding Friends.Student registration. User Interfaces: 1.3. PROBLEM FRAME : Machine Domain --.My buddies Problem Domain --. Scrapbook and Personal Profile.

LAN Functional Requirements This section analyzes various angles of the functionality to be developed. Updating the account details on the request of the users. 8.Windows XP Language Data Base Network Communication Interfaces: LAN protocols and TCP/IP --.MYSQL --. 2. Feature Analysis The Repository and search engine consists of the following modules: ADMIN: 1. According to the specifications required by the administrator. Select only those analyses that best allow you to complete your understanding of the requirements. 4. 6. Deleting an account/user from the system’s databases on request of the user. Notification to the end users regarding proposals.Software Interfaces: Operating System --. 14 . the user forms his own profile and submits it to the system. Payment of the system by the user. 3. Mails to the users regarding the approval as a registered user. 5. Creating a new account User is allowed to create his own profile.JSP --. 7. You do not need to use each type of analysis for the entire system. USER: 1. Authentication of the users after registration. Answering the user queries. Mentioning the security measures for the system’s safety. disapproval mentioning the appropriate reasons.

There must be a power backup for server system. Adding YouTube videos The user can add videos from you tube and share with people..g. The administrator updates the profile accordingly. The user is not allowed to keep any mandatory fields blank while updating. Last name. 4. Name. Uploading Photographs The user has a facility to upload and share his photographs. of users requested the desired service. For E. the administrator is informed and with the permission of the desired user account is deleted from the system’s database. Security Requirements: Sensitive data is protected from unwanted access by users appropriate technology and implementing strict user access criteria. occupation etc. Updating the account The user is allowed to update his/her account. reliable performance and integrity of data is ensured.2. 15 . Deleting the account The user. Nonfunctional Requirements Performance Requirements: System can withstand even though many no. it can withstand the load. 5. 3. Safety & Reliability Requirements: By incorporating a robust and proven RDBMS into the system. if he/she wishes to delete the account. As we are maintaining server for the entire colleges of JNTU and access is given to the only registered users who can use the services etc.

Purpose Scope : The purpose of the project is to reconnect the students with their (SQL-server tutorial) http://jakarta. It is very easy to use. The target users are the Students.Software Quality Attributes: Menu Driven programs with user friendly interface simply Hyperlinks. We are developing the system for students and this project is dedicated to enhance the students’ interactivity with their mates.0) 16 (for JSP tutorial) Tomcat 5. 3.apache. Backup mechanisms are considered for maintainability of software as well as data base.0-doc/index. As it is object oriented reusability exists. : Release 1 focuses on: Students References : http://www.html (Documentation on USER REQUIREMENTS: Overview: Customer : This application is developed for the LBRCE students.

If the exception is a rule violation that cannot be corrected. Constraints : The system will process exceptions in a consistent fashion.General Requirements System in Context : Repository and Search Engine is a web based application developed in Windows operating system. opens the services based on the role id. The system allows the user to correct the mistake without starting over. Rules The system will allow accessing the services on verifying the user id and password. System-Wide Requirements (Received) : The system will process exceptions in a consistent fashion. which is of importance to students. The system allows the user to correct the mistake without starting over. If the exception is a user error that can be corrected: The system displays an error message with an explanation of the mistake. If the exception is a user error that can be corrected. User Characteristics : Students will operate the system. 17 . If the exception is a rule violation that cannot be corrected: The system displays an informational message explaining the constraint to the user. The system displays an error message with an explanation of the mistake. The system displays an informational message explaining the constraint to the user. The Repository and Search Engine (RASE) is an Internet based application that can be accessed throughout the World.

These are explained in the following section. Detailed Design or Logical Design: In detailed design the interconnection of the modules or how the specifications of the modules can be satisfied is decided. testing and maintenance activities. System Design or Top Level Design: In the system design the focus is on deciding which modules are needed for the system. Some properties for a software system design are 18 . planning out and specifying the externally observable characteristics of the software product. The goal of design process is to provide a blue print for implementation. The following design diagrams (Data Flow Diagrams and E-R Diagrams) make it easy to understand and implement The design process for software system has two levels. 1. A data dictionary explicitly represents the relationships among data objects and constraints on the elements of the data structure. A data dictionary should be established and used to define both data and program design. The primary activity during data design is to select logical representations of data objects identified during requirement analysis and software analysis. Detailed Design or Logical Design. SYSTEM AND IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS DESIGN Design of software involves conceiving. architectural design and user interface design in the design process. We have data design. Design process is in between the analysis and implementation process. 2. System Design or Top Level Design. the specification of these modules and how these modules should be interconnected.4.

is more like Darwinian model of evolution of a living species. and so forth. Record retrieval was usually a set of subroutines embedded in the updating program.1 CLIENT SERVER MODEL When an architect designs a building. Since it was function had to be introduced database administration. Advantages of Client – Server Model: 19 . Client – server. Common functions gradually migrated from the application to the operating system. day-today events and gradual changes affect it over time in reaction to those events. Much of the time database functions in the application included retrieval. In the beginning. he has a vision of the finished product and produces a result based on that vision.• • • • • Verifiability. No one has a vision of the finished products. rather. and the output was paper. on the other hand. Simplicity/Understandability. Database processing was one of the first major functions to be removed from application control. 4. replacement and insertion. Consistency. This new function was separated from the application code and involved defining the structure of the database. Trace ability. reading input transaction in a ‘batch’. value ranges backup. rollback. application was fairly simple. Completeness. processing them against a data store.

an Active X object is used to present data  By having the client side it can do more work  The client software supplies the interface (Such as windowed program) and the knowledge of how to pass the request to the server and the format of the data for the user when it’s returned from the server. maintainability. application execution. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO THREE TIER ARCHITECTURE The three-tier software architecture emerged in the 1990s to overcome the limitations of the two-tier architecture the third tier (middle tier server) is between the user interface (client) and the data management (server) components. and database staging. the power can be spread across the client and the server.  On client side. scalability while hiding the complexity of distributed processing from the user. This middle tier provides process management where business logic and rules are executed and can accommodate hundreds of users (as compared to only 100 users with the two tier architecture) by providing functions such as queuing. The three tier architecture is used when an effective distributed client/server design is needed that provides (when compared to the two tier) increased performance. The hardware and software can be placed where it will do the most good. These characteristics have made three layer architectures a popular choice for Internet applications and net-centric information systems. flexibility. The server’s job is to manipulate the data according to the user’s request.  In Client – Server model PCs. 20 .

This application is also known as a thin client. • Tier 2: the middle tier is also known as the application server. • Tier 3: the data server provides the business data.• Tier 1: the client contains the presentation logic. which provides the business processes logic and the data access. First Tier: Responsibility for presentation and user interaction resides with the first-tier components. Web Sphere Application Server supports several client types. including simple control and user input validation. These client components enable the user to interact with the second-tier processes in a secure and intuitive manner. Clients do not access the third-tier services directly. Second Tier: 21 .

2 UML DIAGRAMS UML APPROACH: 22 . Interaction must occur through the second-tier processes. such as heterogeneous databases and processing rules. Three Tier Architecture Usage: Three tier architectures are used in commercial and military distributed client/server environments in which shared resources. The three-tier architecture will support hundreds of users.The second-tier processes are commonly referred to as the Application Logic Layer. Third Tier: The third-tier services are protected from direct access by the client components residing within a secure network. are required. The application logic layer is where most of the processing work occurs. and are permitted access to the third-tier services. making it more scalable than the two-tier architecture. Multiple client components can access the second-tier processes simultaneously. These processes manage the business logic of the application. so this application logic layer must manage its own transactions. 4.

The goal from this is to produce a model of the entities involved in the project which later need to be built.either human or technological.UML is a language for specifying. Software design is a process that gradually changes as various new. In this example its human (Stick man). better and more complete methods with a broader understanding of the of the whole problem in general come into existence. An actor represents an outside entity. The representation of the entities that are to be used in the product being developed need to be designed. There are various kinds of methods in software design. Notice the curved rectangle on the diagram this represents the system 23 . visualizing and documenting the system. This is the step while developing any product after analysis. The stick man represents what’s called an actor. They are as follows:  Use case Diagram  Sequence Diagram  Collaboration Diagram  State Chart Diagram  Object Diagram  Class Diagram  Component Diagram  Deployment Diagram Use case Diagrams: Use case diagrams model behavior within a system and helps the developers understand of what the user require.UML stands for Unified Modeling Language.

In other Words. and everything outside are actors (basically not part of system).boundary everything inside that is part of that system. the representation is generic and not logical Step by step. we call it mapping processes in terms of data transfers from the actor through corresponding objects. The purpose of collaboration diagram is to assist the Quality Engineers and 24 . It is the same As sequence diagram. Use case diagrams can be useful for getting an overall view of the system and clarifying who can do and more importantly what they can’t do. However.  To represent the system requirements from user’s perspective. Usecase Diagram consists of usecases and actors and shows the interaction between the usecase and actors. Collaboration Diagram: The diagrammatic representation of process is shown. To represent the logical flow of data It must be remembered that the the  with respect to a process.  The purpose is to show the interactions between use cases and actor.  It must be remembered that the use-cases are the functions that are to be performed in the module.  sequence diagram display Objects and not the classes. Sequence Diagram: The purpose is to show the functioning through a use case.  An actor could be the end-user of the system or an external system.

Architects look at class diagrams to see if any class has too many functions and see if they are required to be split.  Analyses use it to show the details of the system. One has the name.  its behavior. Class Diagram: of the distribution of  This is one of the most important of the diagrams in development. State Transition Diagrams: The purpose is to model various Most of the objects in a complex  states in which an object can exist.  Developers use the Class Diagram to develop the classes. depending upon which modifies 25 .  stop state. the second describes its attributes and the third its methods.  The relationships are drawn between the classes.System Architects to have a view Processing between objects. The private attributes are represented by a padlock to left of the name. Implementation takes start state and system maintain states.  The diagram break the class into three layers.

It is method for describing the system’s architecture in detail on various behaviors of the DIAGRAMS USECASE DIAGRAM For a new user for sign up: Login Page: 26 . component.

Home Page: Video Page: 27 .

se Package Diagram: Deployment Diagram: 28 .

29 .

completely funded by its members. TECHNOLOGY DESCRIPTION INTRODUCTION TO APACHE SERVER Apache was originally based on the code and ideas found in the most popular HTTP server of the time. efficiency and speed. as well As Several other operating systems is actively being developed encourages user feedback through new ideas . Since it began. not by commercial sales.1 complaint webserver implements the latest protocols .including HTTP/1.flexible. bug reports and patches implements many frequently requested features . It has since evolved into a far superior system which can rival (and probably surpass) almost any other UNIX based HTTP server in terms of functionality. as of January 1997. according to the Net craft Survey.x and above . Apache is.including: 30 . Apache has been show to be substantially faster than many other free servers. Netware 5. the most popular WWW server on the Internet.and most versions of Unix .OS/2 . Why Apache? To address the concerns of a group of WWW providers and part time http programmers that http didn’t as they wanted it to behave.1 (RFC2616)is highly configurable and extensible with third party modules can be customized by writing ‘modules’ using the Apache module API provides full source code and comes with an unrestrictive license runs on WINDOWS NT/9x .3 (early 1995).5. NCSA httpd1. Apache is an entirely volunteer effort.HTTP/1. The Apache http servers a powerful. it has been completely rewritten and includes many features.

or even CGI scripts. without bogging down the server. they are not ideal technology available to us to build presentation elements. This is because: 31 . Java Server Pages is a Java – based technology that simplifies the process of developing dynamic web sites. JSP files contain traditional HTML along with embedded code that allows the page designer to access data from Java code running on the Server. Sun introduced Java Server Pages (JSP).g. JSP provides the HTML designer with a way to access data and business logic stored inside Java objects without having to master the complexities of Java application development. Java Server Pages (JSP) To make creating dynamic content easier. set up a script to intercept 500 Server Errors and perform on-the-fly diagnostics for both users and yourself. JSP represents an attractive alternative of Microsoft’s ASP. web designers and developers can quickly incorporate dynamic elements into web pages using embedded Java. a person who is new to the java can learn some pretty neat tricks in JSP in a snap. which are returned by the server in response to errors and problems.DBM databases for authentication: Allows you to easily set up password-protected pages with enormous numbers of authorized users. While writing servlets developer require a pretty extensive knowledge of Java. Although servlets are powerful web components. With JSP. Customized responses to errors and problems: Allows you to set up files. e.

• Lots of HTML code within the servlet classes make them difficult to maintain Java Server Pages addresses these concerns. Include content from other web application resources.• • Amending the look and feel of the system involves recompiling the servlet classes. JSP pages are text files similar to HTML files but have extra tags that allow us to: • • • • Interact with dynamic content. To avoid this delay. Implementation class: The translation phase results in a delay when a JSP page is requested for the first time. which blurs the role of presentation and providing content. This phase occurs only once for each JSP page and must be executed before the JSP page is served. JSP scripting Elements: 32 . Request for the JSP page result in the execution of the JSP page implementation class. Translation phase: In this phase the JSP page is transformed into a Java servlet and then compiled. Forward the response to other web application resources. JSP pages can be precompiled before they are deployed using tools that perform the translation phase when the server starts up. The presence of HTML within the servlet tightly couples the presentation and the content. Execution phase: This phase (also known as the Request Processing Phase) is executed each time the JSP page is served by the web container. Perform custom processing on the server when the web container serves the page.

} int myVariable = 123. 33 . Declarations in the JSP pages are embedded between <%! and %> delimiters.out. They do not produce any output that is sent back to the client. <%! Public void jspDestroy(){ System. int z = x * y. In the given example two methods and the variable will be made available to the page implementation class and we can access these functions and variables within the JSP page. The contents of Scriptlets go within the _jspService () method.println(“JSP Destroyed”). Declarations are mainly used in conjunction with Scriptlets. } public void jspInit() { System.out. %> Scriptlets: Scriptlets are used to embed Java code within JSP pages. Scriptlets are embedded between <% and %> delimiters. int y = 20. for example: <% int x = 10. The lines of code embedded in JSP pages should compile with the syntactical and semantic constructs of Java.There are three kinds of scripting elements in JSP: • • • Declarations Scriptlets Expressions Declarations: Declarations are used to define methods and instance variables.println(“JSP Loaded”).

JDBC technology also provides a common base on which tools and alternate interfaces can be built. from relational databases to spreadsheets and flat files. JDBC The JDBCTM API provides universal data access from the JavaTm programming language. If the output of the expression is a Java primitive.sql package --. Standard Edition The javax. Enterprise Edition. Depending on various factors. The JDBC 2. you need a JDBC technology based driver to mediate between JDBC technology and the database.%> Expressions: Expressions in JSP pages are used to write dynamic content back to the browser and are embedded in <%= and %> delimiters. If the output is a Java object.0 API.sql package ---. you can access virtually any data source. the result of calling the toString () on the object is written back to the browser. JDBC Technology Drivers To use the JDBC API with a particular database management system. Using the JDBC 2.included in the Java 2 SDK.included in the Java 2 SDK. a driver might be written purely in the java programming language or in a mixture of the java programming language and JavaTM Native Inerface (JNI) native 34 . the value of the primitive is printed back to the browser.0 API is comprised of two packages: The java.

3. This approach suited for applets. 1.methods. to connect a number of databases simultaneously is very simple matter this approach is a recommended one since using ODBC Drivers: This type of JDBC driver is written completely in java and can access the database by making the use of native protocols of database. Writing this type is easier when compared to writing other drivers. ODBC complaint. 4. Native Protocol all . They are classified based on how they access the data from the database. This is useful in case of java application that can run only on some specific platforms. Please note that they are not substitute one another. Which in turn employees native calls to connect to the database. which is partly written in and most of it is implemented using native methods to access the database. JDBC – ODBC Bridge Driver: A bridge driver provided with JDBC can Convert the JDBC call into equivalent ODBC calls using the native methods.e. Native JDBC Driver: A JDBC driver. Since ODBC provides connection to any type of database i. There are four types of JDBC drivers each having it’s own functionality. 2. Where the request must go through the intermediate server. would make an application truly portable across databases. Each having their own suitability aspects. The JDBC web site maintains a list of vendors with drivers currently available or under development. which are industry standards as of now. All Java JDBC Net Drivers: A JDBC net driver when uses a common network Protocol to connect an intermediate server. This method of data access is suitable in case of 35 .

A JDBC programmer can categorize the SQL statements as • • Select Statements Non-Select Statements Select Statements: Select Statements are used for fetching the data from the Database.getConnection() it internally executes the code that is provided by the JDBC Driver vendor. This driver is generally provided by vendor of the database. Username. DriverManager. This code creates an object based on the class provided by the vendor that implements Connection interface. Procedure for Establishing a Connection with the Database: Step 1: Register the Driver Driver d= new (name of the Driver). Step2: Establishing a Connection with the Database Connection con=DriverManager. Statement stmt=con.getConnection (url. Step 2: Use the executeQuery(). Establishing a connection with a database is an expensive operation. 36 . Password).intranets where everything can run as an application instead of an applet.createStatement(). Once the connection is established we can perform various database operations using the SQL statements. Procedure for using the Select Statement: Step 1: Create a Statement object. When we execute DriverManager.registerDriver(d).

executeQuery(“ SQL Select Statement “). tables used in the Statement are available or not. The server breaks up the SQL Statement into multiple Tokens (Parts) and analysis whether the Statement is a valid SQL Statement or not. This phase is called as PARSING. Step 2: Use executeUpdate() to execute Non-Select Statement.Using the ResultSet we can fetch the data. When a Java Program executes stmt. Non-Select Statement: Non-Select Statements are used to perform the different operations on the database like insert. During this step the server also checks whether the columns. 37 .. Statement stmt=con. delete.This method returns the ResultSet object. The server carries out the following process. Procedure for using the Non-Select Statement: Step 1: Create a Statement object. ResultSet rs=stmt. update etc.executeUpdate() statement the JDBC driver send the statement to the server.executeUpdate(“ SQL Statement”). stmt.createStatement(). If parsing is successful then the server executes the Statement.

Software testing is a critical element of software quality assurance and represents the ultimate review of specification. Testing Objective • • Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an error. A good test case is one that has a high probability of 38 . software development is accomplished by a quality assurance activity. errors can be injected at any stage during development. design and coding. Because of human inability to perform and communicate with perfection. The development of software involves a series of production activities where opportunities for injection of human fallibility’s are enormous. The engineer creates a series of test cases that are intended to demolish the software engineer process that could be viewed as destructive rather than constructive. Testing presents an interesting anomaly for the software engineer.6. TESTING In a software development project.

and the emphasis being on the testing interfaces between the modules. System Testing: It is mainly used if the software meets its requirements. which are then tested. Testing Phases: Software testing phases include the following: Test activities are determined and test data selected. In this phase all the drivers are tested they are rightly connected or not. In the Generic code project. The goal is to see if the modules are properly integrated. it can only show that software errors are present. They move counter to the commonly held view that a successful test is one in which no errors are found. The reference document for this process is the requirement document. 39 . The above objectives imply a dramatic change in viewpoint. The generic code integration testing is done mainly on table creation module and insertion module. There are various types of testing: Unit Testing: Unit testing is essentially for the verification of the code produced during the coding phase and the goal is test the internal logic of the module/program. Acceptance Testing: It is performed with realistic data of the client to demonstrate that the software is working satisfactorily. • A successful test one that uncovers an as –yet undiscovered error. Integration Testing: All the tested modules are combined into subsystems. the unit testing is done during coding phase of data entry forms whether the functions are working properly or not. The test is conducted and test results are compared with the expected results.finding an as –yet undiscovered error. Testing cannot show the absence of detects.

We often believe that logical path not likely to executed when. may miss the kinds of errors above. Knowing the internal working of a product. White-box testing is far more likely to uncover them. 6. knowing the specified function that a product has been designed to perform tests can be conducted that demonstrate each function is fully operational at the save time searching for errors in each function. The first test approach is called Black box testing and the second approach is called White box testing. 3. 1. Black box testing. Typographical errors are random. 4.Test methods Any engineered can be tested in one of the two ways. that is components have that internal operation performs according to the specification and all internal been adequately exercised. 2. test can be conducted to ensure that “all gears mesh”. Structural Testing (White Box Testing) Introduction White box testing. it may be executed on regular basis. in fact. Guarantee that all independent paths with in a module have been exercised at least once. no matters how through. “bugs lurk in corners and congregate”. Logical errors and incorrect assumptions are inversely proportional to the probability that a program executed. path will be 40 . Using white box testing methods. Exercise all logical decisions on their true and false sides. the software engineer can derive test cases that: 1. Execute all loops at their boundaries and with in their validity. sometimes called Glass box testing design method that uses the control method of the procedural design to derive test cases. 5. 2. Each of these reasons provides an argument for conducting white box tests.

A rich variety of test case design methods have evolved for software. Functional Testing(Black Testing) Introduction Black box testing focuses on the functional requirements of the software. introduction or missing function 2. an equivalence is present. 1. transitive and reflexive. Initializing and termination errors. 1. Testing. Equivalence Partitioning Testing case testing for equivalence partitioning is based on a evaluation of equivalence class for an input condition if a set of objects can be linked by relationship that are symmetric. Any engineered product can be tested in one of two ways. 2. An 41 . These methods provide the developer with a systematic approach to testing.The design of test cases for software and other engineered products can be as challenging as initial design of the product itself.That is black-box testing enables the software engineer to drive set of input conditions that will fully exercise all functional requirements of a program. The first test approach is known as blackbox testing and the second is white box.Knowing the internal working of the project. Errors in data structures or external data access 4. Black-box testing attempts to find errors in the following categories. Interface errors. The tests that have the highest likelihood of finding the most errors with a minimum amount of time and effort should be designed. 3.Knowing the specified function that a product has been designed to perform.

A stub is a module shell called by upper level module and that when reached properly will return a message to the calling module indicating that proper interaction occurred. 42 . a range of values. or a condition. No attempt is made to verify the correctness of the lower level module. For each module in bottom up testing a short program executes the module and provides the needed data so that the module is asked to perform the way it will when embedded with in the larger system. since the detailed activities usually performed in the lower level routines are not provided stubs are written.equivalence class represents a set of valid or invalid states for input condition. a set of related values. TEST APPROACH: Testing can be done in two ways:   Bottom up approach Top down approach Bottom up approach: Testing can be performed starting from smallest and lowest level modules and proceeding one at a time. Typically an input condition is a specific numeric value. When bottom level modules are tested attention turns to those on the next level that use the lower level ones they are tested individually and then linked with the previously examined lower level modules. Top down approach: This type of testing starts from upper level modules.







VIDEOS: 49 .

security can be improved using emerging technologies. Because it is based on object-oriented design. User requirements keep changing as the system is being used. 50 . Based on the future security issues. FUTURE ENHANCEMENTS It is not possible to develop a system that makes all the requirements of the user.8. Some of the future enhancements that can be done to this system are: • • • As the technology emerges. it is possible to upgrade the system and can be adaptable to desired environment. any further changes can be easily adaptable.

In my opinion. CONCLUSION Online social networking offers people great convenience for social networking. reconnect with old friends or acquaintances.9. and even conduct business with the click of a few buttons. meet new people. 51 . You can find people with similar interests as you and get to know them better. It allows people to keep in touch with friends. even if they are in a different country without having to worry about an enormous phone bill or going over the restricted minutes on a phone card. I feel that socializing and having real friends in the real world is much better than living in a virtual world.

Kendall Scott Sites Referred: www.Ram 52 . BIBLOGRAPHY Text books Referred: JSP : Java Server Pages by Peckowsky The Complete Reference by Phil Hanna Java Server Pages by Barry Burd Professional JSP by Simon Brown JAVA : Java Complete Reference by Patrick Naughton Concurrent Programming in java: Design Principles and patterns by Doug Lea HTML : HTML Black Book by Steven Holzner HTML and Dynamic HTML by Teri Kieffer UML : Unified Modeling Language by Iyar Jacobson.roseindia.10.htm www. Grady Booch Applying Use Case Driven Object Modeling with UML by Doug 53 .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful