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An Integrated Approach to the Relocation of Pavement Dwellers From Byculla to Milan Nagar and Beyond
Consultancy Report for SPARC, Mumbai, India
Authors: Emmanuella Almeras (USA) Maira Azhar (Pakistan) Rosalina Babourkova (Bulgaria) Roz Davies (UK) Peter Simai Dindongo (Papua New Guinea) Juan Carlos Garzon (Colombia) Michelle Pletsch (USA) Omar Saracho Aguilar (Mexico) Swati Shinde (India) Eleni Topouzi (Cyprus)
Development Planning Unit University College London
London, 1 June 2007
Table of contents
Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Abbreviations………………………………………………………………………………………........ 3 Executive Summary ……………………………………………………………………..................... 4 1.0 Introduction
1.1 Context and Background to the case ……………………………………………........... 1.2 Objective and Terms of Reference………………………………………………………. 1.3 Actors and institutional set up……………………………………………………….........
6 8 9
2.0 Conceptual Framework
2.1 Definition of Transformation……………………………………………………………… 2.1.1 Transformation in theory…………………………………………………….... 2.1.2 Transformation in practice…………………………………………………..... 2.1.3 The Client’s Definition of Transformation………………………………….... 2.2 Criteria……………………………………………………………………………………... 2.3 Indicators……………………………………………………………………………………
10 10 10 11 11 12
3.1 Information Gathering and Field Work…………………………………………………... 13 3.2 Diagnosis and Analysis……………………………………………………………………. 13 3.3 Constraints………………………………………………………………………………….. 14
4.1 Field Findings……………………………………………………………………………….. 4.1.1 Economic impacts……………………………………………………………….. 4.1.2 Social impacts…………………………………………………………………… 4.1.3 Political impacts………………………………………………………………….. 4.1.4 Environmental impacts………………………………………………………….. 4.1.5 Physical impacts………………………………………………………………… 4.2 Policy Findings……………………………………………………………………………..
16 16 16 17 17 17 18
5.0 Diagnosis and Analysis
5.1 Citizen and Policy Sphere…………………………………………………………………. 20 5.2 Organizational Sphere…………………………………………………………………… 21 5.3 Delivery and Knowledge Sphere……………………………………………………...... 21
6.0 An Integrated Approach to the Relocation of Pavement Dwellers………………….....
6.1 Milan Nagar Rehabilitation Committee………………………………………………..... 6.1.1 Market-Oriented Surveys…………………………………………………...... 6.1.2 Youth-Oriented Community Space………………………………………….. 6.1.3 Building Partnerships for integrated development……………………........ 6. 2 Multi-stakeholder Forum………………………………………………………………....
22 24 25 26 27 29 31 32 33
Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………………...... Bibliography……………………………………………………………………………………........... Appendices………………………………………………………………………………………….....
This consultancy exercise was made possible by the generosity of many people to whom credit must be given. Firstly we would like to thank SPARC, particularly Sundar Burra, Sheela Patel and Celine d’Cruz, without whom, none of this would have been possible. All of the members of SPARC gave generously of their time to coordinate the presentations and field visits. Additionally they provided invaluable guidance and information which greatly contributed to our understanding of the context of Mumbai.
We would like to thank Maria and Dipti or their tireless efforts in acting as our translators in the field. They not only acted as an extension of our research team, they also provided much needed insight in many of our endeavors.
Also crucial to our understanding of our case study were Jockin Arputham from the National Slum Dwellers Federation and the leaders of Mahila Milan from both Byculla and Milan Nagar. Their willingness to share their knowledge and accomplishments contributed a rich sense of the communities to which they belong.
Thanks must also be extended to the different representative from local government offices and private institutions who truly sought to engage and share their expertise.
We would like to thank the Development Planning Unit for making this consultancy possible. Thank you to all of the lecturers who gave of their time to enrich our general understanding of the Indian context at large and that of Mumbai’s in particular.
Lastly, we extend our deep appreciation to Eleni Kyrou for all the advice, help and support, and to Pascale Hoffman, Caren Levy and Chris Jasco for providing us with the opportunity to partake in such a unique experience. Their guidance provided indispensable support from the very early stages of the process up until the production of this report.
CLIFF CDP CBO CHS DFID DPR GOM HI JNNURM MHADA MCGM MM MUIP MUTP NGO NSDF PD SPARC SRA SIDA TDR
Community-Led Infrastructure Finance Facility City Development Plan Community Based Organisation Cooperative Housing Society Department for International Development Detailed Project Report Government of Maharashtra Homeless International Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai Mahila Milan Mumbai Urban Infrastructure Project Mumbai Urban Transport Project Non Government Organisation National Slum Dwellers Federation Pavement Dwellers Society for promotion of area resource centres Slum Rehabilitation Authority Swedish International Development Agency Transferable Development Rights
There has been a 20-year struggle on the streets of Mumbai to achieve security of tenure for pavement dwellers and for their recognition as citizens. This process has been driven by three organisations, SPARC, an NGO, the National Slum Dwellers Federation, a grassroots organisation, and Mahila Milan, a women’s credit and savings group, together referred to as the Alliance. In 2006, the first 76 families of pavement dwellers were housed in formal dwellings in Milan Nagar, in the Mankhurd area of Mumbai (Presentation by Patel 2007). This has set a precedent and raised attention of the needs of pavement dwellers.
In 2007 a group students from the Environment and Sustainable Development and Urban Development Planning courses of the Development Planning Unit, London, were asked to produce a consultancy report for SPARC as part of their postgraduate degree in Development and Planning. The objective of the consultancy was to develop a participatory diagnosis of the social, economic and environmental conditions before and after the relocation process, and to propose strategies to contribute to the transformation of living conditions of urban poor women and men.
The research group adopted a working definition of transformation, and created criteria and indicators by which the social, economic and environmental conditions were evaluated. The Web of Institutionalisation (Levy, 1998) was used as a tool for diagnosis. Field work was carried out in Mumbai, involving members of the Alliance, representatives of various state agencies and the private sector. Semi-structured household interviews and focus groups with representatives of the pavement dweller community were conducted in both Byculla and Milan Nagar.
The Alliance has achieved security of tenure and improved the physical conditions of the relocated pavement dwellers. However there have been social and economic trades offs. The precedent that the Alliance has set needs to be built upon to truly transform the position of pavement dwellers and achieve sustainable livelihoods. The strategies proposed in this report balance the need to achieve a transformation with what is practically possible in the current context. A more Integrated Approach is required to limit the negative impacts of the relocation process. This would entail a multi stakeholder
approach that incorporates housing, services, and economic development. The following strategies move towards achieving this approach:
Milan Nagar Rehabilitation Committee o Market Oriented Survey o Youth Friendly Community Space o Building Partnerships for an Integrated Approach
Multi-Stakeholder Forum at the City Level
1.1 Context and Case Background
People have been living on the pavements of Mumbai for over two decades. Largely due to the fact that they have been seen as being a transient population1, they remained invisible to the local government. However, in 1985, the long process towards their recognition began when a group of women pavement dwellers started to mobilize with the aid of the Society for Promotion of Area Resources Centre (SPARC) by conducting surveys of the community and by creating saving schemes (SPARC 2005:10). The process has been developed by three associations: Mahila Milan, SPARC and the National Slum Dwellers Federation (NSDF), which together form the Alliance.
In 1995, the Government of Maharashtra (GoM) recognized pavement dwellers as having the same rights to housing provision as slum dwellers (SPARC 2003). Soon after, in 2001, the Maharashtra Housing and Area Development Authority (MHADA) granted land to relocate 536 families of pavement dwellers from Byculla, near the city centre, to Mankhurd, an outer suburb (See Figure 1). On April 25th, 2006 the first of five planned buildings was completed and 76 households were relocated (Presentation by Patel 2007).
According to an interview with D.R. Hadadare, Chief Engineer of the Mumbai Housing and Area Redevelopment Authority
Figure 1: Map of Relocation
Objective and Terms of Reference
The objective of this report is to examine the trade-offs for the 76 families of pavement dwellers as a result of the relocation from Byculla to Mankhurd.
The terms of reference upon which this report is based are the following:
1) To explore the economic, social and environmental outcomes experienced by relocated pavement dwellers in their shift from vulnerable locations on the pavements of Byculla to more secure housing in Mankhurd; 2) To identify the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies pursued by the different actors involved; 3) To explore with the different actors involved proposals which will strengthen the relocation of pavement dwellers in the future in a manner which will contribute to their transformative intentions.
Actors and institutional set up
To understand the institutional context of the relocation, the stakeholders are presented in the following map of actors.
Private Developers (TDR)
Savings and Credit, Loans to MM SPARC,NSDF,MM
Figure 2: Actor Mapping As the pavement dwellers were under constant threat of eviction, the Alliance, working with the pavement dweller community, came to an agreement with MCGM to relocate and stop all evictions of the pavement st dwellers that were formally recognized before the 1 of January 1995 (Presentation by Patel 2007). The Alliance approached the SRA, under whom the relocation was largely made possible, as well as MHADA, who provided the land in Mankhurd. The construction of the proposed five buildings were funded by the following financial sources: (a) CLIFF, established by HI, who provided the bridging finance for the 2 construction of Milan Nagar, (b) savings from Mahila Milan and (c) the TDR scheme (Homeless International, 2006:11).
Once the construction is complete, the TDR will be received in full.
2.0 Conceptual Framework
In order to evaluate the relocation process, a conceptual framework was created based on the following definition of transformation. The purpose of this definition is to set theoretical and practical guidelines for this consultancy. Criteria and indicators, introduced below, were developed to assist in the assessment of the process.
2.1 Definition of Transformation
“The process by which a structure of existing power relations is challenged and redefined through strategic action leading to sustainable livelihoods.”
2.1.1 Transformation in theory
The process of transformation begins with an interpretation of the structure of existing power relations between the actors involved in the case study. Through strategic action3 relational structures are questioned and modified by setting precedents. This increases room for manoeuvre and fosters synergy between stakeholders, hence generating a multiplier effect (Levy, 2005). Ideally, this process would lead to a balanced coexistence of the five dimensions of sustainable livelihoods, which consist of economic, social, political, physical and environmental rights to the city.
2.1.2 Transformation in practice
The realisation of this definition of transformation inevitably faces barriers as it is put into practice. This report evaluates the extent to which transformation has occurred in the case of Milan Nagar. A set of criteria was developed to assess how the relocation process has contributed to the enhancement of sustainable livelihoods according to the dimensions introduced above. These criteria are defined in section 2.2.
See appendices for diagram outlining Strategic Action (Levy, 2005)
2.1.3 The Client’s Definition of Transformation
It should be noted SPARC’s understanding of transformation is “increased options for the poor”. This implies that security of tenure aims to promote positive changes in the lives of pavement dwellers by providing them with increased opportunities4.
The following are a list of criteria used to determine the extent to which transformation has been achieved.
1) Improved economic conditions 2) Greater political recognition 3) Increased social wellbeing 4) Improved environmental conditions 5) Enhanced living conditions (built environment) The fulfilment of these criteria, or the lack of, was evaluated through the use of indicators shown in the following chart:
Definition of Transformation, SPARC (2007)
Improved Economic Conditions Full access to income earning activities
Greater Political Recognition
Increased Social Well-Being
Improved Environmental Conditions
Enhanced Living Conditions Good quality of housing
Full participation in Full access to free Full access to basic community decision- education services (water and making sanitation)
Improved ability to save
Heightened awareness of political rights
Full access to healthcare
Adequate and effective solid waste disposal
Full access to public transport
Affordability of relocation in terms of costs of services, maintenance and transport
Improved Low exposure to perceptions of pollution safety and security
Full access to open / communal space
Strengthened social Low disaster vulnerability Good connections to networks work, schools, amenities
3.1 Information Gathering and Field Work
Pre-fieldtrip information was gathered through secondary data from academic documents, a series of lectures, and grey material.
While in Mumbai, information was collected through presentations and interviews with relevant stakeholders. A total of 28 interviews were conducted over the course of four days. Three days of fieldwork in Milan Nagar resulted in 17 household interviews (22% of the total 76 households relocated) and two focus groups; one with Mahila Milan leaders and one with children living in Milan Nagar. One day of fieldwork in Byculla resulted in 11 household interviews along with an observational walk with Mahila Milan leaders. Interviews were semi-structured and conducted predominantly by two or three students and one translator. For a sample interview, see appendix 2 and for a detailed schedule of presentations and interviews in Mumbai, see appendix 1.
3.2 Diagnosis and Analysis
In order to understand the extent to which relocation contributes to transformation, two main exercises were performed. In order to identify opportunities and constraints in the current phase of the process (See Section 5), the Web of Institutionalization was used to analyze causal relationships between various actors and policies. Subsequently, a set of criteria and indicators was developed to evaluate the relocation process vis-à-vis sustainable livelihoods (See Section 3).
3.3 Constraints Throughout the process, data accumulation and analysis were subject to the following limitations:
1) Time constraints (both in the field and for diagnosis) restricted the ability to understand the complexities of the Mumbai context and the possibility of building a participatory research process5. 2) Some information gaps were left unresolved, partly due to the inability to meet with representatives from MCGM and SRA. 3) Details from interviews with pavement dwellers were often lost in translation.
The research process did not include the involvement of the community in defining the concept of transformation
4.1 Field Findings
Through field interviews it was found that relocation has given people security of tenure which has made a positive change in their lives; however, there have been tradeoffs. In the following, economic, social, political, environmental and physical impacts of relocation on people’s livelihoods will be explored.
4.1.1 Economic impacts
The cost of living has significantly increased. People now pay more for utilities such as electricity and water6. Additionally, for most residents the cost of transport has added to their daily budget since the relocation area is further from thier work in the city centre7. This has also decreased opportunities for income earning activities especially for women who can no longer work near their place of residence while maintaining their domestic duties. Consequently, the ability of households to save has been reduced.
4.1.2 Social impacts In Milan Nagar, the distance8 of the nearest municipal school has created problems for residents in accessing education. Many parents are apprehensive about sending children alone because they must cross the railway tracks. Private education is expensive and for many it has become unaffordable due to increased cost of living. However, overall perceptions of safety have improved, since people now no longer fear traffic accidents, women are not scared to go outside at night and there is no longer a threat of demolitions.
Pavement dwellers interviewed used to get free water illegally from a municipal pipe, in Byculla. A monthly railway cart costs 110 rupees. 8 Between 30-45 minutes walking distance.
4.1.3 Political impacts
There is limited participation in decision making in Milan Nagar community matters and most residents are unaware of when community meetings take place. Additionally, links with local politicians were stronger in previous places of residence. Since the relocation, many dwellers have stopped voting due to the fact that they are still registered in their former jurisdictions. On a positive note, there has been a change in people’s perception of themselves; instead of pavement dwellers they now identify themselves as “people of the building.”
4.1.4 Environmental impacts
Access to water and sanitation has improved and the exposure to air pollution and disaster vulnerability has been greatly reduced. However, although waste disposal has improved, waste coming from surrounding slums is a problem yet to be solved. In addition health problems are resulting from the open canal located near the new building .
4.1.5 Physical impacts
There is inadequate community space. Nevertheless, housing quality has greatly improved and although the relocation site is situated further from the city center, there are transport links nearby such as the Harbour line9 and several bus routes.
The Harbour line is one of the train lines in Mumbai.
4.2 Policy Findings
The team had the opportunity to meet some prominent personnel from government agencies (See appendix 2) in Mumbai. These findings related to the policy arena are illustrated bellow.
The government has shown a positive approach towards rehabilitation of the slum dwellers and is attempting to shift its role from ‘provider’ to ‘facilitator’ by involving NGOs and the private sector in providing housing for the poor.
The Draft Housing Policy of GoM proposes different options for housing the poor such as formation of housing cooperatives, open competitive bidding and the potential for involvement of NGOs and CBOs. The government has learnt from different projects that relocation is more complicated than just shifting people from one place to another, thereby acknowledging the potential of involving the community.
There is a lack of coordination between different government agencies for the implementation of housing policies. MHADA10 mixed income housing schemes and SRA free housing of SRA schemes are conflicting rather than complementary. Policies such as mixed income housing or implementation of slum improvement projects under JNNURM11 cannot be undertaken due to political interest of providing free housing.
Limited resources could prove to be an obstacle in provision of housing for the poor in the future. Non availability of lands for housing projects and inadequate financial
MHADA has a policy of providing subsidized housing for the poor in the Mumbai Metropolitan Area. Under this policy MHADA undertakes housing projects which include the creation of Town Planning schemes, the sale of plots and/or the construction of tenements which are provided for sale in the market. These schemes are subsidized for the poor. This subsidy is compensated by creating other tenements for Middle Income and Higher Income groups thereby resulting in mixed housing neighbourhoods. Such types of housing solutions help to promote better livelihood options for the poor and have been successful in the past (Information gathered from field interview with MHADA representative). 11 Under the Jawaharlal National Urban Renewal Mission a City Development Plan (CDP) has been prepared for Mumbai and a grant for funding has been approved from the Central Government. Under the CDP a detailed Project Report (DPR) has been prepared for improving the condition of slums in Mumbai. A grant has been sanctioned for the implementation of this DPR. This grant can only be utilized under a subsidized housing policy where the poor must contribute some amount in order to receive future funding. However, since neither the poor nor the politicians want the people to pay, this fund has not been utilized for slum improvement in Mumbai and has been given to other cities.
resources could slow down and minimize scaling up initiatives. Present resettlement and relocation projects lack the potential of integrating the new housing development with the physical and social infrastructure of the city. Constant changes in the eligibility criteria and the cut off dates of different projects such as SRA, MUIP, MUTP has created double standards in the access to housing by the poor in the city.
5.0 Diagnosis and Analysis
The following section is a diagnosis of the case using the Web of Institutionalisation, which is primarily a visual tool. The strong and weak aspects of the relocation process are illustrated through the strength of the different elements and their links. For a full list of all opportunities and strenghts identified through the Web, see appendix 3. For a diagram depicting the links in the Web, see appendix 4. The following section narrates this diagnosis.
5.1 Citizen and Policy Sphere
There have been both positive and negative impacts in the “women’s, men’s, girls and boys experience and their reflexive interpretation of their reality”. There is now security of tenure for the relocated pavement dwellers. However, there are also higher costs of living as well as weakened networks amongst pavement dwellers and in relation to the Alliance.
The “pressure of political constituencies” has been very strong throughout the process and has also been the main impetus behind the intervention. However, the link between “women’s and men’s experiences” and “pressure of political constituencies” has been of medium strength because community participation has only been partial; information flows and active involvement in decision making-processes has been limited to the leaders of the Alliance. Nonetheless, the relationship between the “pressure of political
constituencies” and the “political commitment” is strong. This strength is illustrated by the commitment of MCGM to relocate all Mumbai pavement dwellers by 200912.
“Policy and planning” has not been shaped by any pressure or commitment from “representative political structures”. This could be one of the many reasons for the element’s medium strength and has resulted in a lack of democratic multi-stakeholder process13. Political parties are mostly invisible14; the Alliance’s strategy to remain apolitical
This information was provided informally by Shirish Patel at Khetwadi, Mumbai. Ideally, politicians representing the community should have played a large role in advocating for the legislation to take place. However, this thrust came from the Alliance which surpassed the conventional approach of appealing to the politicians and directly lobbied the bureaucrats into committing their resources and attention towards relocating pavement dwellers to Milan Nagar. 14 Political parties are acknowledged as an important stakeholder. However, in this case, their association with other actors and/or plans have not been focused upon.
could be one of the leading causes of this absence. “Resources”15 are presently available, but the lack of future commitment in their distribution for the relocation has weakened the potency of the policy sphere in the intervention process (as indicated by the weak links in the sphere and the medium strength of “political commitment” itself).
5.2 Organisational Sphere
“Resources”, “policy and planning”, and supportive “procedures” need to be strengthened in order to scale up the process. Presently, the extent to which the policy implications and resources will result in the “mainstreaming of responsibility for social justice” is unclear. The full repercussions of innovative procedures such as the recently implemented TDRs scheme are yet unknown16 and time constraints attached to the TDRs can pose new problems such as finding bridge finances17. “Staff development” is one of the weakest elements of the process because of the Alliance’s decision not to expand as an organization. Procedures required for the scaling up of the relocation process need to be supported by increasing staff capacity.
5.3 Delivery and Knowledge Sphere
The construction of the building of Milan Nagar and the finances allocated to each family, make the ‘delivery of programs and projects’ a potentially strong element. However the shortcomings of a solely housing-focused approach towards development indicates future strategies must focus on improving this element. There is a lack of feedback mechanisms in the relocation process making the link between the delivery and the citizen sphere weak. On the other hand, the “methodology” element18 has been identified as the strongest element and is mainly responsible for providing the impetus for the relocation of the families. The groundbreaking 1986 census ‘We the Invisible’ revealed the true status of pavement dwellers, which contrary to the state’s belief were not migrants. Many families had been living on the pavement for generations as a result of intra-city migrations. Though the community has played a large role in conducting its own research there has
Resources in terms of land, finances, labour and expertise. Especially in terms of the existing and potential loopholes within the scheme. 17 This information was gathered in a meeting with Ms Aseena Viccjee, SPARC Finance Manager on financial strategies.
‘Methodology’ entails opportunities such as capacity building and collective bargaining by the community.
been no initiative taken by the government to pursue further research. Consequently the element of ‘applied research’ and the associated links are underdeveloped. The following section will outline the overall rationale behind the strategies.
6.0 An Integrated Approach to the Relocation of Pavement Dwellers
The Alliance has set a precedent by achieving security of tenure through a bottom-up process which has improved the physical conditions of the pavement dwellers. However, some social, economic and political aspects have not been improved. The precedent set by the Alliance needs to be built upon to transform the lives of pavement dwellers.
The strategies proposed in this report support an Integrated Approach which brings together multiple stakeholders to provide the following elements in order to accomplish more sustainable livelihoods:
Housing development Provision of services e.g. healthcare, education, community centres Physical infrastructure Income-generating opportunities
This approach has two primary benefits. It supports the gradual transformation of the lives of pavement dwellers and it reduces the possibilities of ghettoisation at the relocation site. The approach will support the transformation by improving the living conditions of the relocated pavement dwellers, building their capacity, and increasing their options. It will set a new precedent.
The approach will help to reduce the negative consequences of the current relocation and possibilities of ghettoisation by providing more than housing. Development based solely on housing, previously adopted in many other countries, particularly in post-war Europe has caused major problems. Hall (1997:873) argues that it has led to multiple deprivation. By supporting an Integrated Approach, the Alliance will reduce the possibilities of this occurring at the relocation site.
The approach also supports UNHABITAT best practice for slum upgrading. UNHABITAT argues that ‘today’s best practices are strategic, inclusive and holistic’ (2003:165).
The transformation of pavement dwellers focuses on a structural change which requires far more than what is feasible at this time. In view of this the proposed strategies balance the need to achieve a transformation with what is achievable in the current context. The strategies focus on how the methodology of the Alliance can be improved to lead towards a more integrated approach and improve the delivery of the relocation process. The strategies can be classified into social, economic and institutional reflecting the multiple elements of an Integrated Approach.
Rehabilitation Committee; Market orientated survey; Youth-Oriented Community Space Partnerships for integrated approach; Multi-stakeholder forum
Figure 3 identifies the possibilities motivations different stakeholders would have for supporting this approach.
To reduce possibilities of ghettoisation of relocation site To increased options for the poor (based on Celine d’Cruz’s definition of transformation) To contribute to efforts of beautifying Mumbai and to attract investment, improving Mumbai’s economy To support GoM’s Draft Housing Policy To reduce possibilities of social instability To Improve conditions for foreign investment To enable sustainable livelihoods
Private sector Community
Figure 3 Motivation of actors to adopt integrated development
6. 1 Milan Nagar Rehabilitation Committee
The relocation of 76 pavement dweller’s families from Byculla to Mankhurd is an exceptional social accomplishment, especially in terms of achieving secure tenure. However, the introduction to an unfamiliar environment has had certain economic, social and psychological implications for the relocated families, as it was shown in sections 4.0 and 5.0.
Therefore, within the Integrated Approach, our first strategy proposes the creation of a Milan Nagar “Rehabilitation Committee” (MNRC), which will complement the already existing Finance, Municipality and Maintenance Committees within Mahila Milan at Milan Nagar. MNRC will be formed by women currently living in Milan Nagar who have experienced the difficulties of settling into a new environment. Initially, the objective will be to gather information about the way individual families have developed coping mechanisms which have helped them establish roots in Mankhurd. The information will range from access to cheaper or better resources in the area, to the detection of the most accessible facilities; such as mosques, schools, hospitals, skills training or employment in the area.
It is acknowledged that the practice of sharing information happens naturally; however, the creation of MNRC would hasten the process by allocating a specific space and appointing a group of women to take charge of collecting and disseminating information among dwellers of Milan Nagar. In addition to promoting a smoother transition for the relocation, MNRC would strengthen and create social networks and will potentially provide a great opportunity for Mahila Milan to institutionalize its initiatives, since this strategy does not rely on SPARC or NSDF for its implementation. The committee would need only an external facilitator to assist it during the initial stage; he or she could come from within the Alliance, other NGOs or University students with relevant experience.
In the short term MNRC will be in charge of helping the families already relocated in Milan Nagar and in the medium term it will assist new groups of relocated pavement dwellers with valuable information to provide a quicker and more integrated resettlement. The monitoring of this project could be conducted by the pre-existing committees within Milan Nagar or by leaders from Mahila Milan. Some of the qualitative and quantitative indicators 24
to evaluate the success of this strategy are: ability to save money, sense of belonging to the new context, social cohesion and access to local resources.
6.1.1 Market-Oriented Surveys
According to the findings, relocation has resulted in a decrease in income-earning opportunities in Milan Nagar, especially for women19. In order to increase such opportunities, this strategy will draw upon an existing example that has been successfully implemented in Hubli Dharwad20, located in the Indian State of Karnataka.
The market-oriented surveys will be conducted within Milan Nagar and surrounding areas to identify gaps and improve products and services that exist in the local market. Rather than bringing in external goods and services, identifying what is needed would ensure the success of what would be marketed. Part of the survey will also identify existing skills and services amongst the inhabitants of Milan Nagar. Once new products are identified and old ones are refined, samples could be made and distributed. Feedback from the community would be incorporated into the process and the products continually refined to ensure its success. This process would also remain flexible in order to test the financial feasibility of production.
As a sub-strategy of the Milan Nagar Rehabilitation Committee, the Committee would be the agent responsible for the following activities: organizing which women would initially take part in the training and conduction of the surveys, and networking with other civil society organizations and Universities to carry out the training for both the surveys and the production of goods.
Training for the surveys could be provided by civil society organizations and Universities on a voluntary basis or through basic salaries derived from Mahila Milan loans21. Such loans could also be used for the training of and investment in production-based activities.
Most of the women in Byculla were strategically employed near their place of residence to be able to continue with their domestic duties while earning a supplementary income. Additionally, women worked near their homes in case they had to return to their dwellings to gather their belongings during demolitions. 20 Allen and You (2002) 21 Under Mahila Milan loans, each household has access to Rs 5000. The first group of women to participate in the training for the surveys could collectively apply for a larger loan.
Further financing for the production process could be obtained through micro credit from financial institutions such as ICICI.
The time frame for this strategy would be divided in two stages1) Medium-term: The training and conduction of surveys would be implemented after the establishment of the Milan Nagar Rehabilitation Committee Training for the production of goods identified
2) Long-term: Production-based activity Scaling-up the production and distribution of goods
Monitoring and impact assessment would be done by the Milan Nagar Rehabilitation Committee as well as other organizations or institutions depending on who participates. The monitoring indicators would include the number of people receiving training versus the projected number, and projected earnings versus actual earnings. The indicator for impact assessment would be the increase in earnings and savings of women per household.
6.1.2 Youth-Oriented Community Space This proposed strategy was created to incorporate the experiences of youth into the planning process of the relocation and is supported by the United Nations Convention on Rights of the Child, an international agreement signed by India, which states that children have the right to be heard and to participate in the community (UNCRC, 2000:4). The strategy also seeks to strengthen the element in the Web concerned with Men's, Women's, Boys' and Girls' Experiences and it could increase the value of land acting as a long term investment.
Drawing on information gathered from a children's focus group at Milan Nagar it was found there was inadequate space to facilitate the needs of youth. The children had two main complaints- having to stay indoors due to lack of shade and feeling threatened by the open canal next to the small existing open space. All in the group adamantly expressed they would rather be back in Byculla, because a nearby school provided a large, shaded space for recreation; it is evident that a space to play is essential for the experiences of the relocated youth. 26
This strategy is necessary to set a precedent for future relocations. Using the management capacity of the MNRC, children could participate in the design of shaded spaces and in the demarcation for the canal. Additionally, they could be involved in the maintenance of the space, providing skill building and educational experience. Technical assistance could be provided from local organizations and university architecture students. The MNRC would be responsible for the overall coordination of the project.
The success of this strategy would be monitored by conducting quarterly surveys to determine the usage of the space. Designated residents would be responsible for observing the use of space and relaying the information back to the Committee. Impact assessment will be carried out on a short term and long term basis. The short term would measure the frequency in use of the space by the youth, revealing greater satisfaction in their new living environment. The long term impact would be an increase in land value.
6.1.3 Building Partnerships for integrated development The process of relocation to Milan Nagar has disrupted the existing social networks of the pavement dwellers. Interviews with the people at Milan Nagar revealed difficulties in accessing health, education and community facilities22. This strategy focuses on building on site social infrastructure through a multistakeholder approach. The rationale behind this strategy comes from the fact that the Alliance cannot deliver all the objectives of an Integrated Approach alone. Hence there is a need to involve other stakeholders who can complement the role of the Alliance in facilitating education, healthcare and other services at Milan Nagar.
The objective of this strategy is the delivery of an Integrated Approach by involving multiple stakeholders such as other NGOs, CBOs, experts etc. A survey, conducted by the MNRC, would be undertaken to assess the community’s needs and requirements. The households which are relocated in Mankhurd as well as those who are expected to be relocated in the near future from Byculla will be included in this survey. The Committee will then prioritize the needs by discussing with the community members and then identifying potential service providers who can work in the Mankhurd area. This would also
Refer to findings.
include approaching organisations which already existed in Byculla23 and requesting for them to extend their services in Manhkurd. In the beginning SPARC may be required to network with other organisations; however, later the MNRC will undertake this role.
Services would be charged by the service provider on a pay to use basis. The charge would be decided in consultation with MNRC. Certain services such as primary schools and clinics would be made available for residents outside Milan Nagar to make the operation of such a service feasible in the long term. For services such as the day care centre and primary health clinics the amenity spaces on the ground floor of rehabilitated apartments24 can be made available.
Monitoring would be undertaken through a participatory feedback process involving community, members of Mahila Milan, MNRC and Service Providers. Assessment can be done on the basis of access to and quality of services, extent of use, and ability to pay. The feedback from monitoring would be incorporated regularly into the process.
Impact assessment could be measured by the extent of improvement in health, education and other services and extent to which the alliance of Mahila Milan, Rehabilitation Committee and other organizations can work together. The Impact assessment would be carried out on yearly basis.
There exists a network of about 38 NGOs in Byculla which are working together with the community in various areas of childcare, education, running free dispensaries, medical care, vocational training, community health and HIV awareness etc. These NGOs can also be invited by SPARC to work with the members of Mahila Milan in the Rehabilitation committee and facilitate services which are useful for the people. 24 In the SRA scheme, some of the tenements are reserved where the members of the building decide how to use these spaces. They are mostly used for Society office, kindergardens , library and such activities. These tenements in the remaining buildings can be made available for the above purposes.
6. 2 Multi-stakeholder Forum This strategy will build on the successful implementation of the MNRC by working with other stakeholders. The MNRC should approach the Government of Maharashtra through SPARC to establish a multi-stakeholder forum at the city level. The rationale behind this strategy is the need to institutionalise an Integrated Approach as the strategy to the citywide relocation of pavement dwellers. GoM will potentially have an interest in taking up such an idea because of their recent change in policy, as addressed in the findings.
The forum will serve as a platform for different actors to exchange ideas, learn from one another and discuss solutions for future scaling-up of the relocation process. Figure 5 presents an ideal combination of actors converging at the forum. However, it can start out with actors whom SPARC has an active working relationship, such as GoM, ICICI Bank and the community. Gradually other actors would be approached to join. MCGM, for example, will have an interest because of its commitment to relocate all pavement dwellers.
SPARC / NSDF
Forum for Integrated Development of Pavement Dwellers
Private developers s
Figure 4: Forum actors
The forum aims to promote the provision of sustainable housing through the following activities:
1) exchanging ideas on issues surrounding Integrated Approach towards relocation 2) discussing housing policies, 3) encouraging competition between developers and 4) Encouraging public private partnerships.
The forum should convene at least once every six months, possibly at a venue provided by the initiator (GoM) who will also provide the resources for the establishment of a press centre.
Monitoring of forum activities will be done through the publication of press releases and forum papers. Progress reports by a designated officer should be submitted to GoM for internal evaluation of forum activities.
The impact of the forum could be measured by the amount of positive press coverage, increased public interest in the Integrated Approach, and increased cooperation of different actors in finding solutions for future relocation of pavement dwellers.
The relocation of the first 76 households of pavement dwellers from Bucylla to Milan Nagar was the result of a long struggle for the recognition of pavement dwellers as citizens of Mumbai. This report has explored the economic, social and environmental outcomes experienced by the pavement dwellers that have been housed in Milan Nagar. The web of Institutionalisation was used to identify the strengths and weaknesses of the strategies pursued by the different actors involved, as well as to find entry points for recommendations to improve the process of relocation.
The Alliance has successfully demonstrated that securing tenure for pavement dwellers is possible. However, relocated pavement dwellers have faced with a number of social and economic trade-offs in their livelihoods. The precedent set by the Alliance needs to be strengthened in order to achieve sustainable livelihoods. This report has proposed strategies to improve the relocation process through an Integrated Approach which aims to to contribute to transforming the lives of the urban poor.
The proposed strategies are a Rehabilitation Committee and a Multi-stakeholder forum. The Rehabilitation Committee will build on existing capacities within the community and the Alliance and will tackle the social and economic difficulties faced by the pavement dwellers. Market oriented surveys and the construction of shaded spaces are two potential projects the committee could implement. In the long term a multi-stakeholder forum at the city level could serve as a platform for the institutionalization of a more integrated approach to relocation by bringing together government agencies, public and private actors.
References Allen, A. & You, N. (2002) Sustainable Urbanisation, Bridging the Green and Brown Agendas, Development Planning Unit: University College London. GoM (2006) ‛Draft State Housing Policy’, Document, Mumbai: Housing Department. Hall, P. (1997) ‘Regeneration Policies for Peripheral Housing Estates: Inward and Outward Looking Policies’, Urban Studies, 34, 873-890. Homeless International (2006) ‘Community Led Infrastructure Finance Facility (CLIFF)’ Annual Review 2006, HI: Coventry. Levy, C. (2005) “Being ‘strategic’ in community-led urban policy and planning: Lessons from the Alliance, Mumbai”, forthcoming, cited in C. Levy (2007) UDP Urban Development Policy Lecture, DPU, University College London The term ‘precedent setting’ is used by the Alliance, Mumbai India, and by Shack Dwellers International (SDI) Levy, C. (1998), “Institutionalisation of Gender through Participatory Practice” in Guijt, I. and Shah, M. K. (eds.) The Myth of Community: Gender Issues in Participatory Development, Intermediate Technology Publications: London. SPARC (2005) SPARC Annual Report 2004-2005, SPARC, Mumbai. SPARC (2003) ‘Cities Alliance Project on Pro Poor Slum Upgrading Framework for Mumbai’, India, Revisited Report Submitted to Cities Alliance/ UN-HABITAT. SPARC (1985) ‘We the Invisible; a census of pavement dwellers’, SPARC, Mumbai. UNCRC (2000) ‘United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child’, Unicef. UNHABITAT (2003) The Challenge of Slums, Global Report on Human Settlements, UNHABITAT Earthscan: London.
Appendix - 1 - Detailed Interview and Stakeholders Presentation Schedul3 Date Time 05/05/2007 9.15am 12.30pm Activity – Briefing about and discussions with pavement dwellers at Byculla; visits to pavement dweller’s houses; accompanied by Sheela Patel and Celine d’Cruz. Entire group went to Dharavi for site visit and discussion with Jockin Arputham, President of Slum/Shack Dwellers International – Presentations by senior government officials and discussions at All Indian Institute of Local Self Government (AIILSG): 1) Swadheen Kshatriya, IAS Principle Secretary, Government of Maharashtra (GOM): Housing Policy of GOM 2) Mr. Milind Mhaiskar, IAS, Joint Metropolitan Commissioner, MMRDA, and Project Director, MUTP: Rehabilitation under MUTP and MUIP Field visit to Milan Nagar (transit camp then to the relocation site). 1) Focus group with Mahila Milan leaders 2) Semi-structured household interviews Presentation/discussion with Shirish Patel at Khetwadi: Housing Policy – Presentation/Discussion with V.K. Phatak: Metropolitan planning in Mumbai and Slum Policy Field visit to Milan Nagar 1) Semi-structured household interviews 2) Children focus group Presentation/Discussion with Mr S.K. Joshi at Khetwadi: Principles of slum rehabilitation and Transfer of Development Rights Presentation/Discussion with Mr. Abhisek Khanna, Chief Manager, ICICI Bank: Lending to the Poor Interview with Ms Aseena Viccjee (SPARC Finance manager) 1.30pm onwards Field visit to Byculla 1) Semi-structured household Interviews
1.30pm onwards 07/05/2007 9.30am 12.30pm
08/05/2007 9.45am – 11am
09/05/2007 9.45am – 11am
9.45am – 11am
Presentation/Discussion with Neera Adarkar at Khetwadi: Mill lands in Mumbai – past, present, future; exploring relations across actors over land redevelopment process Presentation/Discussion with Pankaj Joshi: Situation analysis of Eastern Sea-Front of Mumbai; exploring interplay of Central and State Government powers – Interview with Sundar Burra (Advisor-SPARC) Interview with MHADA at MHADA office – Field visit to Milan Nagar 1) Semi-structured household interviews Interview with Kalpana Sharma, Journalist, The Hindu
10.00am 12.00pm 10.00am 13.00pm 13.30 onwards
4.00pm – 6.00pm 11/05/2007 9.00am-12.30pm 1.30pm onwards
Diagnosis of field findings Presentation of findings report at Khetwadi. Note: Received limited feedback from the client.
2 - Sample interview Location: Milan Nagaar building Mankhurd. Name: Amina Age: Unknown Religion: Muslim Number of people in the household: 10 7 children. The couple. The mother in low. 1. Question: Do you have any friends and relatives living in the same building? Answer: I have only my mother in low living with me, she is very old and she has health problems. 2. Question: Did you left anyone closed to you back in Byculla? Answer: No, nobody. 3. Question: Do your children go to school? Answer: Yes 3 of them are going to school, 2 of the girls and one of the boys. 4. Question: Do you pay for the school? Answer: The boy is going to a private school so we have to pay fees but the girls go to a municipality school so it’s free. 5. Question: How far is the school? Answer: It’s in the next building. 6. Question: What is the highest level of education? Answer: I don’t know about the level of education, my husband deals with these mutters. 7. Question: Where is the nearest hospital service? Answer: there is one in Mankurd near Milan Nagaar and another one that is located a station away from Mankurd. 8. Question: Do you feel that there has been a change in your family’s health since relocation? Answer: My husband suffers from TB. He was diagnosed after coming to MN. Regarding the children’s health back in the pavements the children were healthy but since we moved they have been sick several times. 9. Question: Do you think that you can save money now? Answer: The expenses have doubled since we moved to Mankurd. 10. Question: Do you feel safe? Now? Before? Why? Why not? (Expand: Gender element) 35
Answer: I never get out of the house; I never did so I feel safe. 11. Question: Do you feel that your children are safe? Answer: My children learn to survive in the pavements so I am not afraid for them. 12. Question: What are the bills that you have to pay? Answer: Electricity, bills, water, cable TV. 13. Question: What was your husband job before relocation? What about now? Answer: My husband sells carpets he had the same job before relocation. 14. Question: How much does he pays for transportation? Answer: He pays Rs.110 per month. 15. Question: How long does it take him to go to work? Answer: 45 min to go and 45 to return. 16. Question: Do you think that you can save money now? Answer: My husband gives me Rs.100.I give Rs.40 to MM. 17. Question: Where do you go for the nearest toilet? Answer: There is a toilet block for each floor at the end of the corridor and we use one toilet every 3 households. We are responsible to clean it so we do that turn by turn. In case anything breaks down we all contribute to fix it. 18. Question: Where to you dispose your waste? Answer: There are big bins outside the building one for each floor 19. Question: What is the source of fuel? Answer: We use kerosene to cook food we pay Rs. 150 for 15lt a month 20. Question: How much to you pay for other utilities? Answer: We pay Rs .150-200 for electricity, Rs .200 for maintenance and Rs.500 for water. 21. Question: How involved were you with the designing of the new housing? Answer: I was involved with the designing process however my husband and father in low were. 22. Question: Do you like your new house and area? Answer: Yes I do, we have more privacy now and there are more open spaces for the children. However, there is no garden for them to play.
Appendix 3 – List of Opportunities and constraints identified in the Web A. CITIZEN SPHERE 1. Women, Men, Girls and Boys Experience Potentials Security of tenure Physical security /demolitions open space Water, sanitation and increase in access Empowerment through legal ownership Reduced vulnerability to disasters/pollution Self-respect perception “people of the building” increased social status
Constraint - lack of communication between MM and PD - lack of understanding whole process - incomes affecting social networks - not everyone want to move - less access to employment (especially for women) opportunities (shops) - increase in cost of living (utilities, taxes, etc.) - less access to health and education facilities - ability to save is reduced 2. Pressure of Political Constituencies Potentials - precedent setting - collective action – empowerment of members - working with bureaucrats and not with politicians cracking the system - PD Policy : to relocate PD within the next coming years (Governments commitment) Constraints - lack of communication between SPARC and PD - possible fracturing of grassroots cohesion due to scaling-up - hierarchy among the members of the Alliance (possible implication on decisionmaking and information sharing/dissemination) - MM still guided by Alliance (need for them to step out on their own) 3. Representative Political Structure Potentials - Nil Constraints - Lack of trust/belief in democracy (GOM) - Lack of trust in politicians - Politicians not in favour of relocation because of potential to loss of votes
B. POLICY SPHERE 4. Political Commitment Potentials - Congress led (GOM, National Government) better coordination of policy priorities - SRA recognition of PDs - MCGM survey and relocation of Ds Constraints - MCGM is Shiv Sena led party to coalition between GOM and National Government 5. Policy/Planning Potentials - government as facilitator – involving private sector (NGOs) housing provision more competition (flexibility) - embeddedness of Alliance in SRA - Generally positive change of attitude towards slum dwellers - Government agencies recognise responsibility to relocate PD - Progressive draft housing policy by GOM but not Land Ceiling Act : possibility of it being disputed and amended Constraints - still misconceptions about PDs - No means of redistribution of Land - Lack of coherence –“Gov does things on one way and in an opposite way”, Burra. - Lack of coordination between policies - Lack of city-wide plan - Problems with giving free-housing for the poor corruption, segregation, antipoor sentiments - Eligibility cut-off date – arbitrary with no solution for post-1995 PDs - No planning dept. within MCGM: CDP only means to get funding for investment - Urban Land Use and Redevelopment Plans are focused on private development – less emphasis on Affordable housing scheme (GOM) 6. Resources Potentials - Mankhurd Land - TDRs - Rs.20,000 corporations fund per household under the SRA scheme - Involvement of Banks/ICICI/Cliff - Semi-skills and labour skills from PDs can be utilised in construction - Sources of national government funding (JNNURM) potentially available Constraints - scarcity of land - land belonging to central government - lack of finance and other sources of finances
C. ORGAISATIONAL SPHERE 7. Mainstream Responsibility Potentials - Alliance link to SDI international support and attention - Building partnership between community organizations, private sector and government institutions for housing delivery for the poor Constraints - negative portrayal of slums in the media - lack of coverage of PD relocation in media - NGOs are not using the media they do not know how to produce “stories that sell” - NGOs and banks lack understanding of how to communicate with each other understanding essential for getting bank finance 8. Procedures Potentials - TDRs - Relocation - Saving Schemes - Enumeration - Housing exhibitions Constraints - feedback process: PD –MM- SPARC/NSDF is weak; - procedure for feedback not in place - TDRs (Bureaucracy) – time Constraint 9. Staff Development Potentials - MM is being approached by MBC - MM capacity building and community organization in many communities - MM in Milan Nagar empowering themselves to improve their lives through organisation Constraints - limited staff - funding and overall lack of interest to promote staff development in different areas of no interest to SPARC DELIVERY SPHERE 10. Methodology Potentials - “No more spoon feeding”, Celine - From individual right to collective right - Creating collective strategies - Capacity building (financially, etc.) - Power of critical mass/numbers
Constraints - piecemeal approach (lack of integrated approach) fragmentation - lack of preparation for relocation - lack of networking 11. Delivery of Programmes and Projects Potentials - Building/Land relocation - Money (Maintenance) - Utilities/Security - Construction planned to continue after 3 months (not everyone clear about that) Constraints - Corruption of developers - Relocation does not consider household size - Other 4 buildings yet to be built: cost increased, new slums - Limited room space 12. Theory Building Potentials - precedent setting - best practice extending beyond India - CLIFF – new approach to finance - Gender awareness in relocation - Govt: PD have the right – are entitled to be relocated near their jobs Constraints - limitations to scaling up - financial problems 13. Applied Research Potentials -P.D census revisited/self enumeration -Sparc building relationships with different research NGOs/Berlin Uni in Mumbai, DPU, Bamsay Uni. Constraints: -Lack of government-driven research.
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